Topic outline

  • UNIT 1:Our province and its location in Rwanda

    Key Unit Competence: Describe the province

    Attitudes and Values
    : Develop a culture of using a map to locate places.

    In primary four, we learnt about our districts. Districts are grouped into 
    large administrative units called Provinces.

    1.1 Our provinces and their locations

    A province is a large administrative unit made up of many districts.
    In Kinyarwanda a province is called Intara and a district is called Akarere.

    Rwanda is made up of five provinces. These are as follows.

    • The Eastern Province • The Western Province
    • The Northern Province • The Southern Province
    • Kigali City/Central Province

    The map below shows the administrative provinces of Rwandav              Map of Rwanda showing its five provinces

    Activity 1.1
    Discuss the following questions:
    1. How many provinces are there in Rwanda?
    2. Name the biggest province in Rwanda.
    3. In which province is your school located?
    4. Draw a map of Rwanda in your exercise book and show the five provinces.
    5. What is the name of your province?

    6. Locate your district on the map given on page 5.

    Provinces are made up of different districts as shown in the table below:


    Activity 1.2
    Discuss the following questions:
    1. How many districts are there in the
    a) Northern Province
    b) Southern Province
    c) Eastern Province

    2. Which is the biggest district in the Eastern Province.

    1.2 A case study of Kigali City Province

    n              Map of Kigali City and its neighbouring provinces

    The map shown above is of Kigali City Province. It is also called Central
    Province because it is located in the centre of Rwanda.

    Location of provinces neighbouring Kigali City

    The Provinces have borders with other provinces. The provinces next to them are their neighbours.
    Look at the map of Kigali City and the provinces on its left, right, top and bottom. They are all neighbouring provinces of Kigali Province. The topmost part is the north, right side is the east, left side is the west and at the bottom is the south. Therefore, the Northern Province, the Eastern Province and Southern Province are the neighbouring provinces of Kigali City Province. The Northern Province lies in the north, the Eastern Province lies in the south and east directions and the Southern Province lies in the west of Kigali City.

    Children locating different provinces on the map of Rwanda


    Activity 1.3
    Using the map answer the following;
    1. Name the provinces that neighbour Kigali City.
    2. Which province of Rwanda is not a neighbour of Kigali City?
    3. Using the map of Rwanda, draw the map of your province.
    4. What are the neighbouring provinces of your province?
    Districts of Kigali City Province
    The Kigali City Province has three districts, namely, Gasabo, Kicukiro and Nyarugenge. Gasabo is the largest district and Nyarugenge is the smallest district.

    Activity 1.4

    1. How many districts does your province have?
    2. In which direction of Kigali City is the Eastern Province located?

    3. Which is the smallest district of Kigali Province?

    1.3 Elements of a map and its importance

    What is a map?

    A map is a diagrammatic representation of an area of land showing features like roads, cities, mountains, etc.

    Elements of a good map

    A good map should have the following elements or content:
    • Frame / Border
    • Title / Heading
    • Key/ Legend
    • Scale
    • Compass direction/Compass rose
    Look at the map given below. Do you find all the elements mentioned above in the map?

    Importance of the elements in a map

    Each of the elements on a map are important for map readers in
    the following ways:
    Frame: Encloses a map.
    Heading: Tells us what the map is about.
    Legend: Is used to interpret symbols on a map.
    Scale: Is used to show or calculate the actual distance between places on a map in relation to the ground.

    Compass direction

    A figure on a map displaying directions and their intermediate points.
    A compass is also an element of a map used to show direction of places on a map.

    A Compass rose has four major points called cardinal points:
    • North
    • South
    • East

    • West

    These four directions are also known as the cardinal directions.


    Compass: An instrument used to find directions. It has a needle that always points to the north. It is used by pilots, tourists, mountain climbers, soldiers, travellers and sailors.
    Long ago, people used to tell the direction of places with the help of the sun, road junctions and landmarks like mountains, hills, lakes and valleys.

    The major point on a compass is North and the compass needle 
    always points in a northerly direction when at rest. Once North is known, we can find out the remaining directions.
    The points between the cardinal points are called Secondary Points or
    Semi cardinal Points. These are:
    • North East (NE)
    • South East (SE)
    • South West (SW)

    • North West (NW)


                             Diagram showing the secondary compass points


    Activity 1.5
    Discuss the following questions
    1. How many pupils are discussing in the picture above?
    2. In which direction is the boy wearing a red shirt seated?
    4. Give another name for the ‘secondary points’ of a compass.
    5. Draw and label the four secondary points of a compass.
    6. Apart from sailors, name three other groups of people who need a compass to do their work.
    7. Which direction is opposite to North East (NE)?

    8. What is the use of compass directions on a map?

    Revision Exercise
    1. Define a province?
    2. A province in Kinyarwanda is called .....................
    3. Name three provinces that neighbour Kigali City.
    4. In which province of Rwanda do we find Lake Kivu?
    5. Name the smallest and the biggest province of Rwanda.
    6. Match the following provinces with their district.
    Province                      Main district
    a) East                        i) Karongi
    b) South                     ii) Kigali
    c) West                      iii) Rwamagana
    d) North                      iv) Nyanza
    e) Central                   v) Musanze
    7. Which one is bigger, a province or a district?
    8. Give the two provinces which share their borders with Burundi.
    9. How many provinces are there in Rwanda?
    10. What is a map?
    11. Identify three elements of a good map.
    12. How can a map reader interpret map symbols?
    13. Why is a scale needed on a map?
    14. Differenciate a compass from a compass direction?
    15. Apart from using a compass, how else can one tell the direction of a place?
    16. Draw a diagram showing the compass directions, indicate the cardinal points only.
    17. Draw a diagram only indicating the cardinal compass directions.
    18. In which direction does the;
    a) sun rise?..........................
    b) sun set?...........................
    19. If a girl is walking in the morning and her shadow is in front of her, which direction is she walking in?
    20. Rwanda is made up of ………… provinces,......... districts and ……………administrative sectors.
    21. Which of these provinces does not share boarders with Rwandans neighbours?
    a) Eastern province.
    b) Western province
    c) Kigali city

    d) Southern province

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  • UNIT 2:Complementarity and social cohesion in the society

    Key Unit Competence: Explain complementarity and social cohesion in the society,
    and their importance.

    Attitudes and Values:
    Acknowledge the importance of complementarity in the society,

    show respect for basic human rights and understand the importance of harmony.


    People in our province perform different kinds of work that helps to maintain
    peace and security in society. Everyone in the community has an important
    role to play by working together with others, in order to maintain peace.

    is the way in which people work together to achieve a

    common goal.

    Complementarity comes from the word complement, which means a part

    that combines to make something. People in our province have to work
    together in order to achieve development, peace and security in our province.

    2.1 The roles of different people in society

    Different people in our province such as leaders, farmers, children, parents,
    police officers and soldiers should work together to maintain peace.

    Role of a school in maintaining peace

    Teachers and other workers at school help to maintain peace in the 
    following ways:
    • Teaching good behaviour to children.
    • Promoting unity and sharing among children.
    • Teaching children how to keep peace.
    • The school helps to promote children’s rights.
    • The school encourages group work.
    • Teach children to learn how to forgive each other.

    • Setting school rules and regulations to be followed by all.

    n                                Children being tought how to share.

    Role of the security organs in maintaining peace
    Security organs include police officers, soldiers and private security
    companies. They help to maintain peace in our province by:
    • Keeping law and order.
    • Controlling traffic.
    • Arresting criminals.

    • Protecting important places.

    Activity 2.1

    1. Discuss the role of the school in maintaining peace.

    2. What does complement mean?

    n                             Police helping school children to cross the road

    Role of people in maintaining complementarity in the society
    People help in maintaining complementarity by:
    • Helping the needy, people like orphans, the poor, people
    • with disabilities and the elderly.
    • Respecting each other.
    • Working together in cooperation.
    • Reporting bad people to the police.
    • Through dialogue.

    • Sharing resources equally.

    b   (Internet photo) Community members in a dialogue to maintain peace

    Activity 2.2
    1. Discuss how people in your area maintain peace.
    2. Give three examples of people who need help in your area.
    3. Mention three things that may affect peace in our province.
    4. Why is it important for members of the community to promote complementarity?

    Role of leaders in maintaining peace in our province
    A leader addressing a public meeting
    Leaders work at different levels in our province such as in cells,

    sectors and districts, to help maintain peace by:

    • Encouraging people to cooperate
    • Providing social services to people
    • Solving conflicts and misunderstandings
    • Promoting gender equality
    • Educating people on how to maintain peace

    2.2 Indicators of complementarity in our province

    In order to attain good development, people in our province should work together and support each other.
    The following are some of the indicators of complementarity.
    • Distribution of responsibilities.
    • Reporting anti-social elements to the police.
    • Participating in community work.
    • Cooperation among members.
    • Protecting community assets.
    • Sharing among people.

    • Educating both girls and boys child.


     Different people working together to build at hous

    Importance of complementarity
    When people in our province work together as a group, it yields better results.
    Complementarity is important because it
    • brings about development.
    • promotes gender equality.
    • promotes harmony among people.
    • maintains peace and unity.
    • allows people to express their ideas freely.
    • promotes respect for one another.
    • reduces the crime rate.

    2.3 Social cohesion and conflict management in our 
    Social cohesion is the willingness of members of the society to cooperate with each other. It is an act of keeping together.
    Conflict management is the practice of being able to identify and handle conflicts sensibly, fairly and efficiently. When people work together, they develop their sense of cooperation. This cooperation develops unity and peace and motivates people to handle conflict in a united way.

    Social cohesion includes:

    • Doing community work (umuganda)
    • Building houses for the needy.
    • Building schools.
    • Maintaining peace by reporting criminals to the police.

    • Protecting public assets.


                     People doing Umuganda

    It is important to work together in the community in order to:
    • Develop the economy of the country.
    • Promote unity.
    • Resolve conflicts peacefully.
    • Maintain security.

    2.4 Human rights and their importance in our society

    Human rights are the moral principles that govern human behaviour. These are the rights, a person has, simply because are human. Human rights are universal and are held by all equally and forever. Nobody can take away these rights. These are freedoms that every person enjoys.
    These come in the form of justice, respect, fairness and dignity. People must enjoy these rights no matter what race or nationality they belong to.

    Examples of human rights

    All human beings are born free, and are equal in dignity and have the same rights.

    Therefore, they all deserve equal rights. Some important human rights are the:

    • Right to life.
    • Right to own property.
    • Right to a fair trial in a court of law.
    • Right to freedom of speech.
    • Right to freedom of press.
    • Right to form an association.
    • Right to freedom of worship.
    • Right to vote/elect leaders.

    The organisations that help to promote and protect people’s rights in Rwanda
    Every country has its own laws. Laws are made by the legislative body of the government, the National Assembly or the Parliament.
    There are different bodies that help to protect human rights in our community. They inform people of their rights and help those whose rights have been abused. Some of the organizations that protect human rights in Rwanda are as follows:

    • The Rwanda Human Rights Commission.

    • The Imbuto Foundation.
    • Amnesty International.
    • The Ombudsman’s Office.

    • The Rwanda Transparence.

    Rwanda has been a witness to horrible human rights abuses in the form of genocide. Other forms of human rights abuse in Rwanda include:
    • Corporal punishment.
    • Child labour.

    • Human trafficking.


    Activity 2.3
    1. Discuss other examples of human rights that are practised in your province.
    2. Mention the different ways in which human rights are abused in your province.
    3. State two organizations that protect human rights in Rwanda.

    Human rights abuse

    This is when people are not given the freedom to enjoy their rights. When
    people are denied the freedom they need to have in life, it means that their

    rights have been abused or not respected.

    Forms of human rights abuse
    Below are some of the ways in which human rights may be abused in our communities.
    • Denial of fair judgment in a court of law.
    • Mistreating a person in an unjust way.
    • Denial of freedom of movement.
    • Denial of freedom of speech.

    • Denial of freedom of worship.

    Importance of human rights
    Human rights abuses are a negative indicator of a country’s development.
    Abuses create conflict and tension and disturb peace and unity. We should always stand up against human rights abuses.
    It is important to respect human rights in order to:
    • Avoid harsh punishment.
    • Show respect for gender.
    • Promote peace and harmony.
    • Promote justice.

    • Give people freedom of speech and movement.

    Activity 2.4
    1. Discuss other reasons why it is important to respect human rights.
    2. Name any two forms of human rights abuse.

    2.5 Conflict management in the society
    Conflict arises when there is a misunderstanding between two or more people
    in an area. However, conflict management helps to solve misunderstandings

    among people.


    Conflict being resolved by people in the community

    Activity 2.5
    Discuss other ways of solving conflicts in our province and explain each of them.

    There are many ways in which we can solve conflicts in our province 
    These are:
    • Respecting human rights.
    • Treating people equally.
    • Respecting each other.
    • Through dialogue.
    • Equal distribution of resources

    2.6 Importance of peace in our society

    When we have peace in our province it helps us to:
    Promote unity. When people have peace, they always work together with the love of one another.

    Avoid conflict
    . When people have peace they always love and forgive one 
    another in case of mistakes.

    Promotes friendship. When people have peace they help one another in problems.

    Promotes trade
    . There is good environment for people to sell, buy and 
    transport their goods when there is peace in an area

    Ensures security
    . People can easily identify and report a wrong person in 
    the community when there is peace among them

    Provide adequate social service
    . When there is peace in the society, 
    people work together in building, maintaining social service centers like schools, water sources and hospitals.

    Develop an area
    . It makes it easy to bring development in an area because 
    of good understanding and togetherness among people in an area Role of family in maintaining peace and harmony Family plays a major role in maintaining peace and harmony in our province.
    Parents are responsible for teaching good behaviour to children such as:
    • Forgiveness.
    • Respecting elders and other people.
    • Sharing roles and responsibilities.
    • Showing good behaviour.
    • Helping others face their problems.
    • Sharing what they have with others.
    • Teaching good morals.

    • Helping to preserve our culture.


     Parents teaching children how to solve a conflict

    Activity 2.6
    Discuss other ways in which a family can maintain peace and harmony in their province.

    2.7 Harmony and disharmony in our province

    Disharmony is misunderstanding between two or more people.
    When there is disharmony in an area, there is no peace, as people always engage in bad behaviour such as:
    • Fighting.
    • Stealing.
    • Quarrelling.
    • Being physically abusive.
    • Disobeying.

    • Disrespect of others.


                              A man and a woman quarrelling

    Activity 2.7
    1. What is taking place in the picture above?
    2. In groups, discuss the causes of disharmony in our province.

    2.8 Causes of disharmony in the province

    Disharmony is a condition or situation in which there is disagreement
    among people.

    There are many causes of disharmony in our province such as:

    • Religious difference. Some people may not live peacefully with their neighbours because of their religions
    • Lack of respect of human rights. Some leaders use their powers wrongly on people without respecting their rights.

    • Political differences. Many political parties in an area may create 
    misunderstanding among the members because of different political wills and ideology.

    • Corruption. This leads to unequal distribution of resource by the 
    government officials to the beneficiaries.

    • Theft and misunderstanding among people. Some people still 
    the assets of their neighbours which makes them not to live in peace in the community.

    2.9 Consequences are bad results brought about by disharmony in an area.

    When there is disharmony, people are affected in many ways such as:

    Loss of life (death). When there is disharmony people can kill one 
    • Lack of peace. When people are not living in harmony they do bad acts like fighting, quarreling, stealing among others

    • No unity among people. Once there is disharmony, people never 
    love one another and they can’t work together to achieve their common goal.
    Human right abuses. People tend not to respect one  another leading to human right abuses like rape, corporal punishment , unfair judgment among others.

    Domestic violence. When there is disharmony, families also don’t 
    have peace because of misunderstanding among the family members. It can cause fighting, quarreling and can also lead to divorce

    Low development in an area. Disharmony makes people not to 
    work together in order to get good development. This brings about low or under development because people do not have a common understanding among themselves.

    Being bias. When people are bias there will be no fair prejudice or 
    justice in the community . people tend to judge unfairly against some one they don’t like.

    Activity 2.8
    1. Why is it important to work together as a team to maintain peace in our province?
    2. Define the term conflict.
    3. Mention three ways in which we can avoid conflict in our province.

    Revision Exercise

    1. What is complementarity?
    2. Discuss the roles of the school in maintaining peace.
    3. How do police help to keep peace in our province?
    4. Explain the roles of community in maintaining peace.
    5. List down four indicators of complementarity.
    6. List four examples of human right.
    7. Why is it important to respect human right?
    8. State the importance of having peace in our province
    9. Give three roles of a family in maintaining peace.
    10. Define
    a). Harmony
    b). Disharmony
    11. List effects of disharmony in our province
    12. Which of these is not a way of maintain peace
    a) Forgiving one another
    b) Respecting one another
    c) Fighting your friends
    d) Loving your friends
    13. Mention any 2 national or international organizations that advocate for human rights.

  • UNIT 3:Hygiene and sanitation

    Key Unit Competence: Recognize the importance of living in a healthy environment.

    Attitudes and Values: Appreciate the importance of keeping our province clean, show concern regarding the importance of proper hygiene, awareness of HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB.

    3.1 Sanitation
    Sanitation is the general cleanliness of our environment.
    People need to keep the environment clean to prevent diseases that are caused by poor sanitation.

    Activity 3.1


    1. Discuss what activities are taking place in the pictures given above.
    2. Explain other ways in which we can keep our environment clean.

    3. How can diseases caused by poor sanitation be prevented?


    Activities Being Carried Out

    Sanitation involves activities which help to keep the environment clean.

    These include:
    • Sweeping: Sweeping our compound helps to remove rubbish, which can cause diseases.
    Proper disposal of human waste: Human waste like faeces and urine, can be a source of germs or microbes which spread disease.
    Draining off stagnant water: This helps to destroy breeding areas of mosquitoes, preventing the spread of diseases like malaria.
    Slashing grass around our homes: This helps to keep  away dangerous animals like snakes and prevents the spread of mosquitoes.
    Cleaning the house: This involves sweeping, mopping and removing cobwebs etc which helps to prevent the spread of disease.
    Having a rubbish pit and dustbins: This helps in the disposal of household waste such as leftover food and other waste. A rubbish pit should be dug 30 metres away from the house.
    Things we use to keep our province clean
    We use different tools to ensure cleanliness in our homes, at school and other places in our province. Some of the tools are shown here.


    Activity 3.2
    Suggest four other things we use to keep our province clean.

    Importance of keeping our province clean

    It is good to keep our province and our homes clean because when we live in a clean environment it helps us to:
    • Prevent disease.
    • Avoid bad odours.
    • Keep dangerous animals away.
    • Stay healthy.
    • Avoid the spread of disease.
    • Promote development.

    • Maintain proper hygiene.


    Activity 3.3
    1. Discuss which diseases are spread by living in a dirty environment.
    2. How can we prevent the spread of diseases caused living in a dirty environment?
    Dangers of poor sanitation
    Living in a dirty environment can cause the following:
    • Easy spread of disease.n
    • Pollution.
    • Death.
    • Slow development.
    The most common diseases spread by poor sanitation are diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, typhoid and malaria.

    3.2 Hygiene
    Hygiene is cleanliness as a means of preventing diseases.
    Personal hygiene

    Personal hygiene is the way in which we keep our bodies clean.



    Activity 3.4
    1. Discuss which of the pictures are related to personal hygiene.
    2. Name other activities that we can do to promote personal hygiene.

    Ways of keeping good personal hygiene

    There are many activities we can undertake to keep our bodies clean. These
    activities help to promote personal hygiene:
    • Bathing every day
    • Cutting fingernails and toenails short
    • Brushing our teeth every day
    • Washing our hands after visiting the toilet or latrine
    • Washing our hands before eating
    • Washing our clothes regularly
    • Iorning clothes to kill germs

    • Having a regular haircut

    Importance of personal hygiene
    It is important to maintain personal hygiene because it:
    • Makes us look smarter.
    • Controls the spread of germs.
    • Prevents foul body odour.
    • Prevents skin diseases like scabies.
    • Prevents diseases related to our teeth.
    We can use things like a sponge, soap, clean water, comb, razor blade, nail cutters and toothbrush, to maintain good personal hygiene.
    Activity 3.5
    Discuss how you keep yourself clean.

    Dangers of poor personal hygiene

    When we do not maintain personal hygiene, it leads to:
    • Unpleasant body odour.
    • Tooth decay.
    • Spread of diseases like diarrhoea.
    • Accidental injuries from long fingernails to ourselves or others.
    Diseases spread by poor personal hygiene include: tooth decay, scabies, dysentery, typhoid, worm infections, diarrhoea, ringworm and trachoma.

    Hygiene of private parts

    Private parts are parts on the human body which are always kept covered by clothing in public. They are external body parts that are visible when a person is naked.
    They include: the buttocks, anus, penis, vagina and breasts of women.
    Keeping your private parts clean and well-maintained keep you fresh and avoid diseases which can spread through having poor hygiene.


    We can care for our private parts by:

    • Shaving the pubic hair using a pair of scissor.

    • Washing the private parts with clean water and soap.
    • Drying it with a clean towel.
    • Wearing clean pair of underwears daily.
    • Putting on dry and ironed underwears.
    • Change the underwear every day.
    • For girls and women if you have your periods, change your pads
    • regularly.

    Effects of poor hygiene of private parts

    Having poor hygiene of private parts can cause social and health problems such as:
    Bad body smell. The main cause of bad body smell is interaction of sweat and bacteria.
    • It causes diseases like trichomoniasis, candidiasis, genital warts and other urinary infections.
    • Itching of the private parts. It is caused by bacteria which develops on the skin because of dirtiness.
    • Body lice. Body lice refer to insects which grow and produce eggs in clothing and bedding because of dirtiness. These insects crawl on the skin and feed on your blood making you not comfortable.
    Activity 3.6
    1. Briefly explain personal hygiene.
    2. Name four items used in keeping good personal hygiene.
    3. Why is it important to keep good personal hygiene?
    4. State four ways of keeping personal hygiene.
    5. Name two diseases caused by poor personal hygiene.
    6. Why is it important to wash our hands after using the toilet?
    7. List three private parts of the body.

    8. Give two ways of caring with our private parts.

    3.3 Diseases
    Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
    Sexually transmitted infections are diseases which spread from one person to another through sex intercourse with an infected person.
    Some sexually transmitted infections are caused by poor hygiene when a person does not wash his or her body and clothes. Sexually transmitted infections can also be called sexually transmitted diseases.
    One example of a sexually transmitted disease is:

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

    The word acquired means to get. The word immune comes from the word immunity which means the ability of the body to fight diseases.
    Deficiency means lack of something and syndrome means signs and symptoms of disease.
    AIDS is caused by a virus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
    It spreads mainly through sex with an infected person.
    The AIDS virus can also spread from one person to another in different ways.


    Activity 3.7
    Discuss different ways in which AIDS can be spread from one person to

    How AIDS/HIV is Spread

    AIDS can be spread from one person to another in different ways:
    • Through sex with an infected person.
    • Through transfusion of infected blood.
    • From an infected mother to her child.
    • By sharing sharp instruments with an infected person.
    • Through accidents which involve contact of the blood with infected person.

    Signs and symptoms of AIDS

    The HIV virus destroys the body’s immunity by killing the white blood cells It leaves the body defenceless. This makes the body weak and unable to fight other diseases.
    The signs and symptoms of AIDS include:
    • Loss of body weight.
    • Itchy skin rash.
    • White coating in the mouth (oral thrush)
    • Prolonged fever.
    • Prolonged dry cough.

    • General body weakness.


    How to prevent and control the spread of AIDS
    We can prevent the spread of AIDS in the following ways:
    • Abstaining from sex until marriage.
    • Use condoms during sex.
    • Being faithful to your partner (fidelity)
    • Avoid sharing sharp instruments with an infected person.
    • Through health education.
    • Use screened blood for transfusion.

    • Having an AIDS test with one’s partner before marriage.


    Ways of caring for AIDS patients
    We should not mistreat HIV patients. They need our help. We should show sympathy towards them. We should take care of AIDS patients by:
    • Allowing them adequate rest and sleep.
    • Washing their clothes and bedding.
    • Spending spare time with patients, giving them hope.
    • Providing healthy diet.

    • Providing counselling


    Effects of AIDS
    • Causes death in many people.
    • Raises the number of orphans, widows and widowers.
    • Leads to massive poverty due to the death of productive people and reduction in the labour force.
    • Leads to imposition of travel restrictions to some countries.
    • Leads to misery and hatred among people due to loss of their loved ones.

    • Causes large scale famine due to lack of enough labour force.

    Other Sexually Transmitted Infections STIs and ways to prevent them

    Carefully study the chart below.



    Tuberculosis (TB)
    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that affects the respiratory system. It is caused by a bacteria called micro bacterium.

    How tuberculosis is spread

    It is spread by breathing in polluted air containing tuberculosis germs.

    It is also spread through saliva when sharing food with an infected person.


    Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis
    • Prolonged cough
    • Prolonged fever
    • Loss of body weight
    • General body weakness
    • Pain in bones, joints and backache
    • Sweating at night

    • Coughing and spitting mucus with blood


    Prevention and control of tuberculosis
    • Immunize children at birth with the BCG vaccine.
    • Isolate children from the infected person.
    • Early treatment of tuberculosis infection.
    The BCG vaccine (bacille calmette guerin) is given to children at birth because the child is not born with immunity that fights against tuberculosis.

    The BCG vaccine is injected on the right upper arm of a child at birth, which 
    protects the child throughout life. Some precautions still needs to be taken.

    Activity 3.8

    1. Name the bacteria causing TB.

    2. Give the full name of BCG.

    Revision Exercise
    1. Describe three activities involved in sanitation.
    2. Why is it important to keep our environment clean?
    3. List four things which are used to keep our surroundings clean.
    4. State any two dangers of poor sanitation in our province.
    5. Differentiate personal hygiene from sanitation ?
    6. Why is it important to keep our bodies clean?
    7. Give three things we can do, in order to keep our bodies clean.
    8. Write the full form of the following:
    a) AIDS
    b) HIV
    c) STIs
    d) PID
    10. What are sexually transmitted diseases?
    11. Name any three sexually transmitted diseases.
    12. Describe three ways in which AIDS can be spread.
    13. Suggest two ways of preventing the spread of HIV in our province.
    14. Which part of the body is affected by tuberculosis?
    15. How can tuberculosis be controlled?
    16. Discuss signs or symptoms of tuberculosis.
    17. Match the items use in A to its work in B
      A                                           B
    Water                   for sweeping the compound
    Towel                   for slashing the tall grasses
    Broom                  for drying our bodies after bathing
    Slasher                for bathing, washing and mopping house
    18. One of the following is not the way how AIDS is spread?
    a) Sexual intercourse with an infected person.
    b) From infected mother to the child.
    c) Sitting in the same class with an infected person.
    d) Transfusion of infected blood.
    19. Mention threes ways of caring for our private body parts.

    20. Explain two dangers of poor hygiene of private body parts.

  • UNIT 4:Civics and Governance

    Key Unit Competence:
    • Explain how to manage peer pressure.
    • Explain the meaning of national symbols and relate leadership to development.

    Attitudes and Values:

    • Appreciate acceptable behaviour and show concern about bad behaviour.

    • Appreciate and respect national symbols and develop a sense of patriotism.

    4.1 Civic education
    Civic education is a process of sensitising the electorate on voting.

    Importance of civic education

    Civic education helps voters to:
    • Elect wisely.
    • Minimise or reduce the number of invalid ballot papers.
    • Know the candidates in the race for election.
    • Know when and how elections take place.

    Acceptable behaviour in our province

    In the community we live in, people have different behaviour patterns.

    Some are good and others are bad.


    Activity 4.1
    1. Which behaviour in pictures A & B is good, and which one is bad?
    2. In groups, discuss other examples of good and bad behaviour.

    Examples of acceptable behaviou

    Acceptable behaviour is a behaviour which brings peace, respect, unity, and cooperation among people. Good behaviour is supposed to be practised by both children and adults within society. Acceptable behaviour includes:
    • Cleaning our environment.
    • To say ‘Thank you’ or to appreciate.
    • Asking for forgiveness.
    • Respecting others.
    • Helping parents.
    • Listening to teachers, parents and elders.
    • Greeting people.
    • Being polite.

    • Being orderly and smart.

    Unacceptable behaviour
    There are some forms of behaviour which are unacceptable in the society.
    These lead to conflict, tension and fights. This kind of behaviour includes:
    • Drinking alcohol.
    • Smoking.
    • Abusing.
    • Fighting.
    • Stealing.
    • Throwing litter on the ground.
    • Disturbing others in class.
    • Making noise in class.

    Influence of peer pressure

    A person’s behaviour can be changed for good or bad by peer pressure.
    Peers are people of the same age.
    Peer pressure is what makes a person start doing what is good or bad in

    order to fit in with a group.

    Consequences of peer pressure
    Peer pressure can have both positive as well as negative consequences.
    Positive consequences
    A peer group may teach good things and encourage us to
    • Adopt good habits and give up bad ones.
    • Make the right decisions.
    • Shape our personality in a positive way.
    • Develop a constructive attitude towards life.
    • Improve our academic performance.
    • Develop our communication skills.

    Negative consequences

    We can fall into bad company. We may
    • adopt bad habits.
    • take wrong decisions.
    • lose our identity and individuality.
    • become selfish.
    • become alienated from our family.
    • fail to perform well in academics.

    We should be very careful in choosing our peer group.

    Ways of avoiding bad peer groups
    There are many life skills that can help avoid bad peer groups. These include:
    • Saying no to bad behaviour.
    • Listening to advice from elders.
    • Join a club, like a sports club.
    • Shun bad peer groups.

    • Join cooperative.



    Activity 4.2
    1. Which activity in the pictures above is:
    a) Good behaviour      b) Bad behaviour

    2. Discuss how to avoid bad behaviour.

    4.2 Rwanda as an independent nation
    A Nation
    A nation is a group of people with strong bonds of identity, living together within the same geographical and political boundaries, under one government.
    An independent country is a country free from colonial rule or any external influence.
    Each nation has its own symbols which identify it.
    These symbols are:
    • The national anthem.
    • The national flag.
    • The national coat of arms / the national emblem.
    • The national constitution.
    • The national motto.
    • The national currency.

    The National Anthem
    The National Anthem is a song which is sung show respect to and pride for the nation. It is sung in praise of the nation.
    The new National Anthem of Rwanda was composed by Faustin Murigo and set to the music by Captain Jean Bosco Hashakimana.

    The National Anthem has four stanzas or parts

    1) Rwanda nziza Gihugu cyacu
    Wuje imisozi, ibiyaga n’ibirunga
    Ngobyi iduhetse gahorane ishya
    Reka tukurate tukuvuge ibigwi
    Wowe utubumbiye hamwe twese
    Abanyarwanda uko watubyaye

    Berwa, sugira, singizwa iteka.

    2)Horana Imana, murage mwiza
    Ibyo tugukesha ntibishyikirwa;
    Umuco dusangiye uraturanga
    Ururimi rwacu rukaduhuza
    Ubwenge,umutima, amaboko yacu
    Nibigukungahaze bikwiye

    Nuko utere imbere ubutitsa.

    3)Abakurambere b’intwari
    Bitanze batizigama
    Baraguhanga uvamo ubukombe
    Utsinda ubukoroni na mpatsibihugu
    Byayogoje Afurika yose
    None uraganje mu bwigenge

    Tubukomeyeho uko turi twese

    4)Komeza imihigo Rwanda dukunda
    Duhagurukiye kukwitangira
    Ngo amahoro asabe mu bagutuye
    Wishyire wizane muri byose
    Urangwe n’ishyaka utere imbere
    Uhamye umubano n’amahanga yose

    Maze ijabo ryawe riguhe ijambo.

    The National Flag
    The National Flag is a symbol of identity which shows country’s independence. The National Flag of Rwanda was designed by Alphonse Cyirimobenecyo. The Rwandan National Flag has three colours: Blue,

    Yellow and Green.


    Activity 4.3
    1. Arrange the colours of the Rwandan National Flag:
    a) From top to bottom
    b) From bottom to top

    2. Which colour on the National Flag occupies the largest area?

    Meaning of colours of the national flag
    Blue: Shows peace and happiness for our country
    Yellow: Represents wealth for the people and the country
    Green: Shows prosperity for the country
    The flag also has the sun with twenty–four rays against a blue in the top right corner. This represents hope for the people and the

    The Rwandan Flag is raised at half-mast:

    • During national mourning days.
    • When a very important person has died and this has been officially declared by Parliament.

    The Rwanda National Flag is hoisted in places like:

    • Public offices.
    • At the Parliamentary building.
    • The National Bank of Rwanda.
    • The Police Station.
    • In schools.

    • At international airports.

    Activity 4.4
    1. Discuss other places where the National Flag is flown in your province.
    2. When is the National Flag flown at half mast?
    3. Give reasons why the Rwandan Flag is flown at half mast in some offices.

    National coat of arms

    The national coat of arms is the symbol of official authenticity of a country. It is also called the national emblem.
    It represents political, cultural, social and economic aspects of a country.
    The National Emblem should have the national motto and symbols with the political, cultural, social and economic ideas of a country.
    Features of the coat of arms of Rwanda
    The national coat of arms of Rwanda is made up of different features including the sun, basket, sorghum, coffee plant, cog and two shields.


    Activity 4.5
    1. Discuss the symbols found on the National Coat of Arms.

    2. Write the national motto of Rwanda in English and in Kinyarwanda.

    Meaning of the symbols on the national coat of arms
    The two shields: The shields represent defence, patriotism and unity.
    The sun: Shows hope and transparency.
    The basket: Represents culture and the gift of friendship.
    Coffee and Sorghum: Represent agriculture in the country.
    Green ring with a knot at the bottom: Represents unity.
    Blue cog: Represents moving forward for technology and

    industrial development in Rwanda.

    Importance of the national coat of arms
    • It is a symbol of independence.
    • It is a symbol of the nation.

    The national constitution

    The constitution of the Republic of Rwanda was adopted by referendum on 26 May, 2003 and came into force on 4th June 2003. However, it was later revised on 18 December 2015.

    A constitution
    is a body of basic principles or guidelines, according to 
    which a state or any organisation is to be governed.

    A referendum
    is a direct vote by the citizens of a country on a single 
    political issue.

    National motto

    Represents unity, work and love for the country.
    The national motto of Rwanda is “unity, work and patriotism”. In Kinyarwanda it means “ubumwe, umurimo, gukunda igihugu”. This motto is written below the National Coat of Arms.

    The national currency

    Rwanda Franc is the national currency of Rwanda.


    4.3 Leadership in our province
    Leadership is the act of guiding or managing others.
    Leadership is important in our province because it helps in directing and planning resources and meeting the needs of the people.
    A leader is a person who is given the responsibility of guiding and managing others.
    Main leaders in our province (Intara)
    There are many leaders in our province who provide services to the people.
    They include the following:
    • The Governor, who is the head of the province.
    • The Cabinet of the Governor.
    • The Executive Secretary.
    • The Coordination Committee.
    • The Directors of Department.
    • The Secretary Committee.
    • The Province Executive Secretary.

    Leadership style and democracy in our province

    Democracy is the government of the people, for the people and by the people.
    Democracy gives people freedom to exercise their rights by electing their leaders.
    When the people are given a chance to elect their own leaders, it shows a sign of democracy.


    People can become leaders in different such as:
    • Voting through secret ballot
    • Being appointed

    • Through inheritance

    Role of a leader in our province
    There are leaders in our province who perform different roles in providing services to the people.
    A leader is called Umuyobozi in Kinyarwanda. We should respect our leaders because they help us get services in the province. The role of a

    leader is as below:

    • To promote development
    • To solve conflicts among people
    • To coordinate between the people and the government
    • To guide people on how to use resources

    • To Provide social services to the people


    Qualities of a good leader
    A good leader should:
    • Be exemplary.
    • Be a good listener.
    • Make good decisions.
    • Be kind and honest.
    • Be God-fearing.

    • Be patient.

    Activity 4.6
    1. Discuss the other roles of the leaders in our province.

    2. What are the qualities of a good leader? Give any five such qualities.

    Factors that contribute to good governance in our province
    There are many things that should be in place provide good governance and development in our province. These include:
    Cooperation: When different people work together to make sure that there is good governance
    Democracy: When people we are a given a chance to participate in electing their leaders, democracy is ensured.
    Unity: Is the spirit of togetherness.
    Good media: Helps information to reach the people in a country.
    Harmony: When there is peace in an area it helps to promote good governance.
    Respect for leaders: This helps to promote a good relationship

    • between the government and the people.

    Activity 4.7
    1. In groups, discus indicators of democracy and good governance and make a presentation.
    2. Name the factors that contribute to good governance in our province.

    How good governance contributes to development

    Good governance can contribute to the development of an area. Through good governance people are able to benefit from the services such as:
    • Excellent security.
    • Good medical care.
    • Good transport.
    • Good communication networks.

    • Democracy.

    Activity 4.8
    1. What is a leader?

    2. Give any two characteristics of a good leader.

    1. helping parents ,respecting adults and listening to teachers are ....... behaviour
    2. Young children should not drink alcohol because ;...................
    3. Discuss bad behaviour shown by children both at home and at school.
    4. What is peer pressure?
    5. Describe three ways in which you can avoid bad peer groups.
    6. What is a nation?n
    7. Give any four symbols of a nation.
    8. Who designed the Rwanda National Flag?
    9. Name the colours marked A,B and C
    10. Explain the meaning of the colours found in the National Flag of Rwanda.
    11. Why is a flag sometimes raised at half mast
    12. Identify three places where the National flag is raised.
    13. State the National Motto of Rwanda.
    14. Mention four features found on the Rwand National Coat of Arms.
    15. What do the following symbols on the National Coat of Arms represent?
    a) coffee and sorghumn
    b) the sun
    c) two shields
    d) the basket
    16. Who is a leader?
    18. Which political title is given to the head of the province?
    19. Explain four qualities of a good leader.
    20. Find the following words from the puzzle below Coat ,leader,good, democracy, bad

  • UNIT 5:Economy

    Key Unit Competence: Make a simple family budget and develop a culture of resource
    Attitudes and Values: Use resources properly to meet needs. Understand the importance of making a simple family budget.
    5.1 What is economy?
    Economy is the financial saving to reduce expenditure. It is a careful management of available resources.

    Knowledge of economy helps us to plan well for the resources and income 
    we have, in order to meet our present needs and those of the future.

    Needs are the basic things we should have, in order to live a better life.
    There are two types of needs. These are:
    • Basic needs
    • Luxurious needs

    Basic needs

    These are things that we cannot live without, like food, water, clothing and medical care.

    When planning for our families, we should consider basic needs first.

    Luxurious needs
    Luxurious needs are things that people can live without. These are the things which make our life easier and more comfortable.

    Televisions, cars and telephones are luxuries.

    Look at the pictures given below.


    Activity 5.1
    1. Discuss examples of needs in your province.
    2. What are basic needs?
    3. Identify basic needs and luxuries in the pictures given above.

    5.2 What is a budget?

    A budget is an estimate of income and expenditure.

    Parts of a budget

    There are two main things that need to be considered while budgeting.
    These include:
    Income: This is the money we earn.
    Expenditure: This is the money we spend.

    The family budget

    The family budget is a plan of how the family income is expected to be spent. When making a family budget, we should consider basic needs first and others afterwards. All family members should be involved in making a family budget.
    The importance of a family budget
    The family budget is important as it
    • helps us to avoid overspending.
    • provides us with basic needs.
    • avoids debt.
    • helps us to save.

    Activity 5.2

    1. Discuss the needs of a family that should be considered while
    making a family budget.
    2. If you were the head of a family, what would you consider first while budgeting and why?
    Making a family budget Mugabo’s monthly salary is 120 000 FRW. Look at his family budget (expenditure) below.


    In order to find amount saved you have to add all of items under expenditure and then subtract the total from the total salary.
    Therefore Mugabo’s saving is (total salary minus expenditure) Saving = (Salary – Expenditure)
    = 120 000FRw – 89 000 FRw

    = 31 000 FRw

    Look at another family budget below
    Uwamahoro monthly salary is 100 000 frw look at her expenditure below
    Items                                   Price
    Rent                                  20 000 FRw
    Food                                 22 000 FRw
    Clothing                           15 000 FRw
    Medical care                      8 000 FRw
    Transport                           5 500 FRw
    Water bill                           2 000 FRw
    Electric bill                         2 500 FRw
    Fees                                45 000 FRw

    Total expenditure            120 000 FRw

    In groups discuss the problems which is faced by Uwamahoro’s family?
    What advice can you give to her so that she can reduce on her family expenses?


    Savings are the amount or money not used.

    Importance of savings

    We save to
    • Avoid waste.
    • Swap to immediate and future needs.
    • Improve our standard of living.

    • Use savings in future.

    5.3 Importance of financial institutions and local markets

    Financial institutions in our province

    Financial institutions are places which provide financial support, in terms of money. People get money from different financial institutions in order to carry out activities like trade, farming, paying school fees and

    building houses.

    Activity 5.3
    1. Discuss other ways in which people use money in our province.
    2. Why is money in our daily lives?

    Some financial institutions belong to the government and others are

    Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Examples of NGOs that provide financial services in the province are:

    • IMF – International Monetary Fund

    • ILO - International Labour Organisation
    • UNICEF- United Nations Children’s Fund.
    • WHO- World Health Organisation
    Examples of financial institutions in our province are banks, cooperatives and markets.


    A bank
    A bank is an institution that keeps people’s money safe and provides other financial services.

    In our province there are banks like the:

    • Bank of Kigali
    • Ecobank
    • Crane Bank
    • National Bank of Rwanda (BNR)
    • AB Bank
    • Banque Populaire
    • I & M bank

    • GT Bank

    Importance of Banks in Our Province
    • keep money safe for people
    • give loans/ credit to people
    • help people to save money
    • give interest on money kept in the bank

    Activity 5.4

    1. Discuss the various types of banks in our province.
    2. State two functions of banks.


    A co-operative is a group of people who come together to achieve a common

    Types of co-operative

    There are many types of cooperative. Some of them are profit-making
    co-operatives and others are service providers. All co-operatives aim for
    provide financial support to improve the lives of their members.
    Below are some of the types of cooperative in our province.
    • Produce marketing society
    • Service co-operative society
    • Savings and credit co-operative society
    Examples of cooperatives are Umwalimu Sacco, Umurenge Sacco, Agaseke,

    Ocir Café, and Zigama CSS.


    Importance of co-operatives in our Province
    • They give loans to cooperative members
    • Provide tools, seeds and fertilisers to farmers
    • Help farmers to sell and market their produce
    • Promote unity among the people
    • Promote development among people
    • Give advice to their members on how to improve the quality of their products

    Activity 5.5

    1. Discuss other examples of co-operatives in our province.

    2. Why are cooperatives important in our province?

    Markets in our province
    The market is a place where people go to buy and sell their products.

    It is a social service centre as well as a financial institution in our province.


    Activity 5.6
    1. Name the items people sell and buy in the market.
    2. In groups, discuss the types of markets in your province.

    Importance of markets in our province

    • People buy and sell their products.
    • They promote development.
    • They are a source of government revenue.

    • They promote unity, co-operation and friendship among people.

    Revision exercise

    1. Explain what a budget is.
    2. Define is a family budget?
    3. State two reasons why it is important to make a family budget.
    4 Why should people save money?
    5. What are basic needs?
    6. List any three examples of a family’s basic needs.
    7. Write the following in full.
    i) NGOs
    ii) UNICEF
    iii) IMF
    8. Differentiate between a bank and banking.
    10. Give any four examples of banks in Rwanda.
    11. Which bank is responsible for printing new notes and coins?
    12. A co-operative is ...................................................................... .
    13. How are co-operatives important to people in our province?
    14. Outline any two roles of banks.
    15. Give two ways that markets are important in our province.
    16. In the table below, make your family budget using 90 000 FRw.
    Items to be bought include: food, clothing, medical care, rent, transport

    and electric bill.


  • UNIT 6:Social services and important places in our province

    Key Unit Competence: Explain the importance of social services and important places
    in our province and ways of preserving them.

    Attitudes and Values
    : Appreciate the importance of social services, facilities and important places in the province. Acknowledge the importance of money in the provision of social services.

    6.1 Social services and important places in our province

    Social services are support provided to the people to improve their well-being.
    Social services make life better for people as they help them to meet their needs.
    Examples of social services in our province include:
    • Educational services
    • Medical services
    • Security services
    • Transport services
    • Communication services
    • Banking services
    • Insurance services
    • Housing services
    • Water supply services
    • Electricity services

    Institutions that provide social services in our province

    These are places that provide social services to people.
    Institutions that provide social services are also called Social service centres.

    People who provide social services are called social workers.


    Activity 6.1
    1. Name the social service centres in A, B, C and D above.
    2. Apart from the social service centres given above, name other places
    that provide us with social services.

    Examples of social service centres in our province

    Social service centre and services provided
    • School — Education
    • Hospital — Health services like medicine, treatment, care of patients
    • Market — Selling and buying of goods
    • Police station — Safety, security, lodging complaints
    • Bank — Deposit and withdraw money, loans, safe
    • deposits
    • Petrol station — Fuels like petrol and diesel
    • Post office — Sending and receiving parcels, postage stamps

    • Water supply — Clean drinking water

    6.2 Education services
    Schools, colleges, universities, churches and community centres; provide education. People who provide educational services include teachers, lecturers, parents, religious leaders and professors.

    Types of education

    There are two types of education:
    Formal education: This is the type of education given in schools. It includes reading and writing.
    Informal education: This is the type of education given at home and in society. It does not involve reading and writing. Informal education mainly emphasizes practical skills and moral development like
    cooking, hunting, craft work, washing, cultivating, respecting elders

    and good behaviour.


    Activity 6.2
    1. Which type of education is being given in pictures A and B?

    2. Which group of people introduced formal education to Rwanda?

    Importance of education
    • We learn to read and write.
    • We acquire different skills which help us to get jobs.
    • Education promotes moral development.

    • It brings people together (friendship).

    6.3 Security services
    Security means having peace in an area.

    Security services help to maintain peace in our province.


    Activity 6.3
    1. Name the groups shown in the pictures given above.
    2. What is the role of the police in our province?

    People who provide security

    • The army
    • Police
    • Local defence (Irondo)
    • Private security guards
    • Prison officers

    Importance of the security services in our province

    The security services are important in our province in the following way.
    • To keep law and order
    • To protect people and their property
    • To arrest wrongdoers
    • To control traffic on the roads
    • To defend the country from rebels

    • The prison force keeps wrongdoers away from good people.

    6.4 Transport services
    Transport is the movement of people and their goods from one place to another.
    People move from one place to another in order to get where they want.
    They use different types of transport like land, air, water and railways to move from one place to another.


    Importance of transport
    Transport is extremely useful because:
    • It helps people to move from one place to another.
    • Transport promotes trade.
    • People are able to carry goods from one place to another.
    • It provides employment (jobs) for people like drivers, pilots and
    • captains.
    • It promotes tourism in an area.

    6.5 Medical services

    Medical services are an important social service in our province.
    We get medical services from hospitals, clinics, dispensaries, pharmacies and health centres.


    Activity 6.4
    1. What activities are taking place in the pictures given above?
    2. In groups, discuss other places in our province where we get medical
    3. Name two hospitals found in our province.
    The people who provide medical services include:
    • Doctors, like surgeons, dentists and opticians
    • Nurses
    • Midwives
    • Lab technicians/attendants

    Importance of hospitals

    Hospitals help to provide medical services to people in many different ways such as:
    • Treating sick people.
    • Immunising children against disease.
    • Teaching people how to control diseases.
    • Teaching people about good nutrition.

    6.6 Banking service

    A bank is a financial institution that provides keeps safe for customers.
    Banking is the act of keeping money in the bank. People who provide banking services include:
    • Bank managers

    • Bank accountants or cashiers


    Activity 6.5
    1. Discuss the examples of banks in your province.
    2. Why are banks important in our province?

    6.7 Market services

    Many people in our province buy and sell of products at the market.
    People who buy and sell goods at the market are called market vendors.


    Activity 6.6
    1. Name the items sold at the market in your province.
    2. In groups, discuss examples of markets found in our province.

    Importance of markets in our province

    Markets are important in our province because they:
    • promote trade.
    • are a source of government revenue.
    • help people fulfil their basic needs.
    • promote unity and cooperation.

    Caring for social service centres

    Social service centres need to be protected and well maintained for future use.
    It is the responsibility of each and every citizen to take care of service centres.

    Look at the pictures given below.


    Activity 6.7
    Discuss the activities taking place in the pictures above.
    We can maintain and care for the social service centres in the following ways:
    • Cleaning social service centres.
    • Proper handling of property in social service centres.
    • Respecting people who care for social service centres.
    • Educating people about the proper use of social service centres.
    • Planting grass to control soil erosion in and around social service centres.

    • Guarding by security personnel.

    6.8 Important places in our province
    There are many places in our province which are important to us. People use these places in order to meet their needs. Important places can also be called public places because they are used by all.


    Activity 6.8
    1. Discuss other important places in our province.
    2. State the use of each of these important places in our province.
    The following are some of the important places in our province.
    Churches: These are holy places of worship for Christians.
    Mosque: These are holy places of worship for Muslims.
    Markets: These are places where the buy and sell goods.
    Banks: These are financial institutions, which keep people’s money safely for future use .
    Stadiums: These are playgrounds where sports activities take place.
    Hospitals: These are places that provide medical services.
    Schools: These are places that provide education.
    Game Park They help to protect wild animals and attract tourist
    Forest. Protect some species of plants and tress help in the formation of rainfall and also controls soil erosion
    Water sources. These are places where we get water for domestic and industrial use.
    Police station. These are places which provide security. Police help to keep law and order.
    Hotels. These are places which provide accommodation, food and meeting venues in our province.
    Public toilets. These are also very important places because it help in proper disposal of human waste like urine and feaces
    Museums. These are places where traditional things of long ago are kept.

    Problems faced by important places

    The problems faced by the important places in our province include:
    • Poor service delivery.
    • Poor hygiene and sanitation.
    • Bad weather conditions.
    • Misuse of public funds by some workers.
    • Corruption.
    • Dense population.
    • Shortage of land.
    Solutions to these problems
    Solutions are steps taken in order to solve problems faced by important
    places in our province. Below are some of the ways to solve problems.
    • Increase funds for maintenance
    • Provide sufficient social services
    • Employ more workers
    • Arrest corrupt officials
    • Teach people to protect important places
    • Control population growth

    Activity 6.9

    Identify two groups of people who work in each of the social service centres below:
    (a) Schools
    (b) Hospitals

    Revision exercise

    1. What are social services?
    2. Give three examples of social services in our province.
    3. Name the two types of education.
    4. Differentiate informal education from formal education
    5. Explain the importance of education in our province.
    6. Name any two groups of people who provide security services in our
    7. Explain the role of security in our province.
    8. Match the group of people to the services they offer
    Doctors                                                       transport services
    Teachers                                                     banking service
    Accountants                                                medical service
    Drivers                                                         education service
    9. Give three types of transport found in our province.
    10. Which type of transport is not found in Rwanda?
    11. Suggest two reasons why transport is important in our province.
    12. Name any three places where people can get medical services in our province.
    13. Name any two groups of people who provide medical services in our province.
    14. Why are hospitals important to our province?
    15. What is the difference between a bank and banking.
    16. Mention any two ways in which banks are important in Rwanda.
    17. Why are markets important in our province?
    18. Suggest any two ways of caring for social service centres in our province.
    19. Give three examples of important places in our province.
    20. State two important places in our province.
    21. List any two problems faced by important places.

    22. Suggest any two solutions to problems affecting these important places.

  • UNIT 7:Environment and climate in our province

    Key Unit Competence: Recognize the environmental components and climate
    conditions in our province and their importance.

    Attitudes and Values
    : Appreciate the importance of the environment and show concern

    about human activities that pollute the environment. Appreciate the importance of
    climate and acknowledge man’s role in contributing to a good environment.

    7.1 What is environment?

    Environment means surroundings.
    The environment is made up of both living things and non-living things such as vegetation, soil, lakes and rivers, animals, air, mountains, roads and buildings. All of these are environment components.
    The environment is divided into two types:

    i) Natural environment: This is the type of environment found 
    in nature. It is made up of both living things and non-living things.
     Examples are plants, animals, lakes, mountains, swamps and 
    ii) Man-made environment: This is the type of environment made by people in order to meet their needs. Examples are buildings, roads, dams, vehicles and markets.

    7.2 Importance of the natural environment in our province 
    A lake is a large depression filled with water. The largest and most important lake in Rwanda is Lake Kivu. It lies between Rwanda and the Democratic
    Republic of Congo (DRC).
    Activity 7.1
    1. Discuss and list all the lakes on the map above.
    2. Identify the the districts and provinces where these lakes are found

    Importance of lakes

    Lakes are important to people in the following ways:
    • People catch fish in lakes.
    • People get water for domestic, industrial and irrigational use.
    • Lakes attract tourists.
    • Lakes help in the formation of convectional rainfall.
    • Lakes are used for water transport.
    • People get clay from lakes.
    • Some lakes are used to generate electricity.
    • They are recreational centres.

    • Lakes make the surroundings pleasant.

    Activity 7.1
    1. Discuss how lakes are useful to us.
    2. Which is the biggest lake in Rwanda?


    Swamps are waterlogged areas with dense vegetation. Some swamps are permanent while others are seasonal.


    Importance of swamps
    Swamps are important to us in the following ways:
    • Swamps control floods.
    • We get water for domestic use for swamps.
    • We get clay and papyrus reeds for craft.
    • We catch fish in swamps.
    • Swamps help in the formation of rainfall.

    Activity 7.2

    1. Which type of soil do we get from swamps?
    2. Apart from clay , name other things we can get from swamps.

    3. How are swamps important to people in our province?

    A forest is a large area covered with trees and undergrowth. There are two types of forests.
    Natural forests: These are the type of forests, where trees grow by themselves in large numbers.
    Artificial or planted forests: In these types of forests trees are planted by people.


    Importance of forests
    Forests are important to us in the following ways:
    • We get fuel (firewood and charcoal).
    • They control soil erosion
    • People get timber for construction purposes and for making furniture.
    • We get herbs for local medicines.
    • Forests help in the formation of relief rainfall.

    Natural forests in Rwanda

    The following are natural forests in Rwanda.
    • Nyungwe forest
    • Gishwati forest
    • Mukura forest
    • Cyamudongo forest
    • Virunga forest

    Activity 7.3

    1. How are forests important to our province?
    2. In groups, discuss the different types of forest we have in our province as well as in others.

    Terms related to forests
    Afforestation: Planting trees where there are no trees.
    Re-afforestation: Planting trees where have been cut down.
    Agro-forestry: Planting trees together with crops.
    Deforestation: Cutting down trees on a large scale.

    Mountains and hills

    Mountains are the highest features on earth, with peaks and slopes.
    The Peak is the highest point of a mountain.

    Examples of mountains in our province as well as in other provinces are:

    • Karisimbi Mountain lies on the border of Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). It is the highest peak, with at height of 4507 m in Rwanda.
    • Gahinga Mountain lies at the border of Rwanda and Uganda. It is
    • 3474 m high.
    • Bisoke Mountain lies at the border of Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is 3711 m high.
    • Muhabura Mountain lies between Rwanda and Uganda. It is 4127 m high.
    • Sabyinyo Mountain lies at the intersection of Rwanda, Uganda and DRC.It is 3645 m high.


    A hill is a raised piece of land highland. Rwanda is said to be the land of a Thousand Hills because it has many mountains and hills.


    Importance of mountains and hills
    Mountains and hills
    • Help in rain formation.
    • Provide fertile soil for agriculture.
    • Attract tourists who contribute to the economy.
    • Provide stones for construction.

    Caring for the natural environment

    There are many ways to care for the natural environment so that it does not become exhausted. Some of these are:–
    Proper disposal of waste: We should avoid putting domestic waste in water sources.
    Avoid cutting down trees: Trees help to prevent soil erosion and make the soil more fertile.
    Building industries far from towns to reduce air pollution.
    Protect animals in national parks from poachers.
    Control bush burning: This helps to control the destruction of vegetation and soil erosion.
    Avoid swamp reclamation: Swamps help to control water drainage.

    Floods can occur if swamps are destroyed

    7.3 Importance of man-made environments in our province



    Examples of physical man-made environments include the following.
    • Roads: Roads help people to move from one place to another.
    • Buildings: Buildings provide shelter and offices to people.
    • Bridges: Bridges help to connect roads across valley and rivers.
    • Markets: People buy and sell goods at the market.
    • Electricity installation: This provides power for running industries.

    Activity 7.4
    1. Discuss other examples of man-made environment.

    2. Why is the man-made environment important to us?

    7.4 Human activities that affect the environment
    There are many activities carried out by the people which can destroy the environment. These include:
    • Burning brush: Destroys the vegetation cover and leaves the land bare.
    • Deforestation: When trees are cut down the soil is exposed to agents, which erode it.
    • Vegetation cover: Is destroyed through overgrazing and  overcultivation.
    • Through the construction of roads land becomes unfit for cultivation.
    Building industries near water sources reduces the water level and quality.
    Killing animals and birds creates imbalance in nature.

    Throwing rubbish in waterbodies degrades water quality.


    Activity 7.5
    1. Discuss what is taking place in the pictures above.
    2. State other ways in which people can destroy the environment.

    7.5 Dangers of polluting the environment

    When the environment is polluted or become dirty, it leads to:
    • Easy spread of diseases
    • A decline in the quality of the environment
    • Soil erosion
    • Global warming

    Ways of preserving the environment

    We can preserve the environment by:
    • Planting trees and grass in the school compound and at home.
    • Making terraces.
    • Avoiding throwing rubbish in water sources.
    • Conserving wetlands.
    • Practising agro-forestry.
    • Educating people about the dangers of deforestation and swamp
    • Avoiding bush burning.

    • Building industries far from the town and water sources.


    Rwandan Environment Management Authority (REMA) is responsible for protecting the environment in Rwanda.

    7.6 The climate in our province

    To understand the climate of a place, it is very important to know what weather is.
    Weather is the conditions of a place (sunshine, rain, wind,,etc.) recorded for a short period of time. A weather station tells us about the type of weather in a particular area.
    Climate is the average weather conditions of a place recorded for a long period of time, for example 30-45 years.
    The climate of a place can change due to human activities like deforestation and bush burning.
    The climate of Rwanda is almost the same throughout the country.

    Elements of the climate

    The elements of the climate are conditions or factors which make up the weather.
    The climate of an area changes over a long period of time.

    The elements of climate include:

    • Rainfall: Rainfall is the water which falls from clouds.
    • Clouds: Clouds are tiny water droplets hanging in the atmosphere.
    • Sunshine: Is the amount of the sun’s rays which reach Earth.
    • Temperature: Tells us how hot or cold of a place is.
    • Wind: Is the moving air or air in motion.
    • Humidity: Humidity is the amount of water vapour present in the atmosphere.
    • Air pressure: Is the weight of the atmosphere which is exerted on the earth’s surface.

    Ways in which people protect themselves from bad weathern

    Weather changes from time to time and those changes affect people



    Activity 7.6
    1. Discuss the types of weather.
    2. How do people protect themselves from different types of weather?

    3. Define air pressure and wind.

    We can protect ourselves from bad weather in different ways.
    1. Sunny weather
    We can protect ourselves from too much of sunshine by:
    • using umbrellas.
    • using sunglasses.
    • using hats.
    • wearing light or white clothes.

    2. Rainy weather

    We can protect ourselves from rainy weather by using
    • umbrellas.
    • raincoats.
    • gumboots.

    3. Cold weather

    We can protect ourselves from cold weather by wearing thick woollen
    clothes like sweaters and jackets.
    Thick clothes prevent body heat from escaping, this keep us warm
    in cold weather.

    4. Windy weather

    We can protect ourselves from windy weather by planting trees in the
    compound. The trees in the compound block strong wind and save
    our houses and property from getting destroyed by strong winds.

    Activity 7.7

    1. How does the climate affect people’s way of dressing?
    2. Why do we wear light clothes when it is hot and thick clothes when
    it is cold?
    3. What is a weather station?

    7.7 Weather instruments

    These are instruments used to measure different elements of the weather.
    These weather instruments are kept at the weather station.
    A Weather station is a place where the weather is observed, measured
    and recorded.

    To record the various elements accurately, weather instruments are kept
    in Stevenson’s screen.

    A Stevenson’s screen

    A wooden box in which delicate weather instruments are kept at the weather

    station. This helps to protect them from damage and to obtain the accurate shade temperature.

    Delicate instruments kept in a Stevenson’s Screen are the:
    • Barometer
    • Six’s Thermometer and

    • Hygrometer


    Weather records are also kept in a Stevenson’s Screen.
    A Stevenson’s Screen is painted white in order to reflect the sun’s heat.
    The instruments used to measure the weather are:


    The Thermometer is an instrument used to measure temperature.
    Temperature is measured in degrees.
    The two liquids commonly used in thermometers are alcohol and mercury.

    Types of thermometer

    There are three types of thermometer. The uses of these thermometers are

    different. The thermometers are:

    1. Clinical Thermometers are used to measure the temperature of
    the human body. They have a kink but other types of thermometer

    have no kink or constriction.


    2. Wall Thermometers are used to measure room temperature or the

    temperature of the air.


    3. Six’s thermometer are used to measure the highest and lowest
    temperatures of the day.
    Six’s thermometer is also called a Minimum and Maximum
    The minimum thermometer measures the lowest temperature of
    the day while the maximum thermometer measures the highest

    temperature of the day.


    Activity 7.8
    What is the minimum and maximum temperature shown above


    Wind vane It is an instrument used to show the direction of the wind.
                                    sA wind vane should be placed in an open area to
                                    avoid obstructing wind movement.
    The pointer of a wind vane faces the direction the

    wind is blowing to.

    A windsock is also used to measure the directiond
    of the wind.
    The windsock points in the direction the wind is

    blowing to.


    It is an instrument used to measure the

    speed of the wind.
    The anemometer contains cups on a rotating pole. The
    rate at which the cups rotate will determine the speed
    of the wind.
    When the cups rotate slowly it means that the speed of

    the wind is low. When the cups rotate faster it means the speed of wind is high.

    A hygrometer is used to measure humidity. Humidity is the amount of water vapour present in the atmosphere.




    A barometer is an instrument used to measure air pressure.
    When the air pressure is low, the temperature runoff water from entering it. It contains a funnel and a measuring cylinder.increases and when the air pressure is high the temperature decreases.


    It measures the amount of rainfall received in an area.
    The rain gauge should be put in an open area in order
    to collect the right amount of rainfall. It should also be
    kept on a raised platform above the ground to prevent runoff water from entering it. It contains a funnel and a measuring cylinder.

    Rain gauge


    It directs rain water into the measuring cylinder.

    Measuring cylinder

    Measures the amount of rainfall received in an area.
    Rainfall is measured in millimeters (mm).

    Sunshine recorder

    Records the number of hours of sunshine in a day.
    It also measures the sunshine intensity of sunshine.


    Terms related to weather and climate
    Meteorology: Is the study of the weather.
    Meteorologist: Is a person who studies weather conditions.
    Climatology: Is the study of the climate.
    Climatologist: Is a person who studies the climate.

    Activity 7.9

    1. What is temperature?
    2. State the difference between heat and temperature.
    3. Name any one type of thermometer.
    4. Which liquids are used in a thermometer?
    5. Name the instruments, kept in a Stevenson Screen.
    6. If the wind is blowing in a western direction, in which direction should the wind vane face?
    7. Why is it advisable for a wind vane to be placed in an open flat area?
    8. Why is a Stevenson Screen painted white?

    7.8 Seasons in our province

    There are four seasons in our province. There are two wet seasons and two dry seasons.
    Short rainy season (Umuhindo)
    In this season, frequent and heavy rains are experienced. This season lasts from September to December.
    Short dry season (Urugaryi)
    This season starts from December until early February. Rain decreases and finally disappears.
    Long rainy season (Itumba)
    This season lasts from February to May. Rainfall is heavy and may
    continue for many hours. Floods are common in this season.
    Long dry season (Icyi)
    This season is from June to August. In most cases light cloud covers the sky. The climate of Rwanda is almost the same throughout the country.

    Factors which influence the climate of an area
    Altitude: Altitude is the height of a place above sea level.
    Nature and vegetation: The vegetation cover of an area can change its climate.
    Human activities: Many human activities, like cutting down trees,
    bush burning and industrialisation, can affect the climate of an area.
    Distance from waterbodies: Places near waterbodies receive  heavier rainfall compared with places far from the waterbodies.
    Prevailing winds: These winds help to move warm, moist air and form clouds.

    7.9 Effects of weather and climate on people’s activities

    The weather and climate do not always remain the same. They have a favourable as well as an unfavourable effect on human activities.

    Favourable effects

    • Appropriate weather and climate conditions favour farming.
    • Winds help boats to sail farout of to sea for fishing.
    • Pleasant weather and a favourable climate support tourism.
    • Lots of sunshine helps to dry clothes.
    • Weather and climate help to ripen crops for harvest.

    Negative effects

    a) Extreme weather and climatic conditions restrict people’s daily activities.
    b) Heavy rains cause floods. The ground becomes muddy and vehicles may get stuck.
    c) Too hot or too cold causes dehydration.
    d) Agriculture is not possible in heavy rains.
    e) Unfavourable weather and climate result in the spread of malaria and other diseases.

    7.10 Revision exercise
    1. Briefly explain the term climate.
    2. Mention the four elements of the climate.
    3. How is climate different from weather?
    4. What is a meteorologist?
    5. Match the items in A with those in B.
    A                                            B
    i) Wind sock a) To measure the temperature
    ii) Barometer b) To measure the amount of rainfall
    iii) Thermometer c) To measure humidity
    iv) Rain gauge d) To mreasure air pressure
    v) Hygrometer e) To measure the speed of wind
    6. How do people manage the following changes in their environment?
    a) Strong wind
    b) High temperatures
    c) Very low temperatures
    7. What is a forest?
    8. Give three ways in which forests are useful to people in our province.
    9. Give the meaning of the following terms:
    i) Afforestation
    ii) Deforestation
    iii) Agro-forestry
    iv) Re-afforestation
    v) Swamps
    vi) Lakes
    10. What is environment?
    11. Name any four examples of lakes found in Rwanda.
    12. Suggest three ways in which lakes are important to people in our province.
    13. How are swamps important to people in our province?
    14. Name the two types of forest.
    15. Give any two forests found in Rwanda.
    16. How are mountains important in the environment?
    17. Give four examples of man-made environments.
    18. Name any three human activities that affect the environment.
    19. Give three ways of conserving the environment.
    20. Write the full form of REMA.
    21. How do we protect ourselves from different types of weather?
  • UNIT 8:Population

    Key Unit Competence: Analyse consequences of overpopulation and ways to control population growth.
    Attitudes and Values: To appreciate the importance of controlling population growth and show concern about overpopulation and population growth.
    8.1 What is population?

    Population is the total number of people living in an area.


    Activity 8.1
    1. Discuss factors that may lead to overpopulation and sparse population.
    2. Identify and explain problems caused by overpopulation in an area?
    Terms used regarding population in an area
    Dense population: This is when there are many people living in an area.
    Sparse population: This is when there are few people living in an area.
    Population census: Is the counting of people living in an area.
    Population density: Is the total number of people living in an area per square kilometre.
    Population distribution: This is the way people are spread in an area.
    Population explosion: This is a sudden increase in the number of people in an area.
    Optimum population: When the number of people living in an area is equal to the available resources.

    8.2 Factors which influence population distribution

    There are many reasons for an area to have too many or too few people.

    Reasons for sparse population

    The following are some of the factors that lead to sparse population.
    • Lack of water.
    • Lack of employment.
    • Disease
    • Shortages of food
    • Unfavourable climate
    Some areas are mountainous and do not favour agriculture and settlement.

    Reasons for dense population

    The following are some of the factors that may lead to dense population in an area.


    Presence of fertile soil for agriculture: People prefer to live in areas where the soil is fertile because it is good for growing crops.
    Favourable climate: When the climate of an area has enough rain, many people settle there to farm.
    Availability of social services: People prefer to settle in areas with good roads , hospitals, schools and banks.
    Improved medical care: Many people like to live in towns because good medical facilities are available.
    Improved security: Many people like to live in areas with good security.
    Industrialization: When area is industrialised, it provides job  opportunities for a large number of people.
    Urbanization: Many people like to live in towns because of good social service, opportunities and lifestyle.

    8.3 Problems caused by high population growth

    When the number of people living in an area are higher than the available

    resources it leads to many problems. Some of these are listed below:


    • High crime rate.
    • Poor sanitation and hygiene.
    • Destruction of the environment.
    • Shortage of land.
    • Shortage of food.
    • Disease spreads easily.

    • High unemployment.

    8.4 Population census

    This is the official counting of people living in a country.s

    Population census is carried out every ten years.
    The most recent population census was carried out in 2012 and the
    population of Rwanda has reached 12 millions.
    Population census is carried out after a gap of ten years because it is
    • expensive.s
    • a government policy.

    Information needed during a population census

    During a population census the following information is required.
    • Level of education
    • Age
    • Sex
    • Number of children
    • Number of animals

    Reasons why the government carries out census

    The government carries out a population census to
    • plan for the citizens
    • know the birth and death rate
    • know the number of people in our country
    • demarcate electoral areas
    • determine the level of poverty
    • determine the level of unemployment
    • determine the level of literacy

    A person who carries out a population census is known as an Enumerator.

    The Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning is responsible for organizing
    the population census.

    Activity 8.2

    1. Who is the minister for finance and economic planning?
    2. What is population census?
    3. identify information required during population census?
    4. Discuss the reasons why the government carries out
    population census.

    8.5 Population growth

    Population growth is an increase in the number of people living in an area at a given time.


    Ways in which the government can control population growth

    The government helps to control population growth by:

    • Encouraging family planning.
    • Educating people about the dangers of population growth.
    • Discouraging early marriage.
    • Discouraging polygamy.
    • Providing incentives to families which have accepted family planning

    Importance of controlling population

    The government tries to control population growth by:
    • Promote development.
    • Ensure easy family planning for citizen.
    • provide good social services.
    • reduce crime rate.
    • reduce unemployment.
    • control the spread of diseases.

    Population density

    Population density is the average number of people living in an area, per square kilometre. The Gasabo district of Kigali province is the most populous district, and the Nyarugenge district of Kigali is the least populated district.
    We can find out the population density of an area if we know the area and number of people are given.
    1. An area has a population of 5 000 people. Find its population density if the area is 10km2.
    Population Density = No. of People/Area
    = 5 000/10

    = 500 People per square km.

    2. An area of 20km2 has a population of 20 000 people. Find the population density.
    Population Density = 20 000/20

    = 1 000 People per square km

    8.6 Revision exercise
    1. Explain the meaning of the following terms.
    a) Population
    b) Population density
    c) Population census
    d) Population growth
    e) Population distribution
    f) Sparse population
    g) Optimum population
    h) Overpopulation
    2. Discuss four factors that influence population distribution.
    3. Identify the most densely populated province in Rwanda?
    5. Why should the government carry out a population census? Give four reasons.
    6. Which ministry is responsible for carrying out population censuses in Rwanda?
    7. What should the Government of Rwanda do to reduce the population?
    8. Give any three questions asked during the population census.
    9. explain why it is good to control he population growth in our province?
    10 ........................ is the counting of people in acountry
    11 An area of 3 000 km has a popuplation of 44 000 women and 28 000 men. Calculate the population density of the area.
    12 Choose from the list below problems affecting highly populated areas
    a) shortage og food
    b) poor housing
    c) shortage of labour

    d) poor hygiene and sanitation.

  • UNIT 9:Infrastructures

    Key Unit Competence: Explain the importance of transport and communication in our province.
    Attitudes and Values:
    • To appreciate the importance of transport and communication.
    • To show concern about proper use of roads and show awareness of dangers relating to communication.
    9.1 What is Infrastructure?
    Infrastructure refers to the fundamental facilities of a country, city, or an area.
    Infrastructure includes services and facilities necessary for the economy to function well.
    The main infrastructure systems of a country include:
    • Transportation
    • Communication
    • Sewage and water systems

    • Electricity

    bbInfrastructure is important to a country’s economic development and prosperity. Infrastructure projects may be funded by the government or carried out privately.

    9.2 Transport Services in Our Province
    Transport is the movement of people and goods from one place to another.

    People move from one place to another using different types of transport.



    Activity 9.1
    1. How many types of transport can you see in the pictures?
    2. Which types of transport is common in our province?
    3. Name the types of transport which is not found in our province.
    There are four major types of transport. They are:
    Road transport: This type of transport uses roads.
    Air transport: This type of transport is used to travel by air.
    Water transport: This is the type of transport used to travel on water.
    Rail transport: This is a type of transport which travels on rails.
    • Rails are the tracks over which a train pass.
    • Rail transport is not yet in Rwanda but the plan to construct the line is arleady in pla

    Means of Transport in Our Province

    Means of transport means the various modes of transport used, carry goods from one place to another.

    Means of Road Transport

    The means used in road transport include cars, buses, lorries, pickups, bicycles and motorcycles. Road transport is the most popular transport in our province.

    Look at the pictures below.


    nMeans of Water Transport

    Water transport is mainly used on lakes, rivers, oceans and seas. It can
    also be used to transport heavy loads. This transport is the slowest and
    cheapest means of transport.

    We use boats, ferries, canoes, ships/vessels and dhows to travel on water.



    Activity 9.2
    1. Why isn’t water transport commonly used in our community?
    2. Name any four means of water transport.
    3. Draw and name any two means of water transport.

    Means of Air Transport

    Air transport is the quickest and the most expensive means of transport, therefore, it is suitable for travel over long distances. Perishable goods are also easily transported by this means.
    The place from which an aeroplane departs and arrives is called an airport.
    There are two main airports in Rwanda Kigali international airport and
    Kamembe airport in Rusizi but other are airfields like Huye airfield, Musanze airfield, Rubavu airfield, Gabiro airfield in Gatsibo District, Gako airfield Nemba air field and others


    Activity 9.3
    1. Name any three means of air transport.
    2. Why is air transport not used by many people?
    3. Give two the International Airports of Rwanda.

    Means of Rail Transport

    This type of transport is suitable for transporting bulky or heavy goods.
    Rail transport is not found in Rwanda. However, there is construction plan is on. The means used in railway transport is a train.


    9.3 Special Places Where Different Means of Transport
    are Found
    Means of transport have special places where they are found. Look at the table.


    Activity 9.4
    Match the different people to the means of transport they are associated with.
    People Means of transport
    i) Captain                                                             a) Buses, cars, lorries, taxis
    ii) Driver                                                               b) Trains, ships
    iii) Cyclist                                                             c) Jets, aeroplanes, rockets, helicopters

    iv) Pilot                                                                d) Motorcycles, bicycles

    9.4 Importance of Having Good Roads in Our Province
    • Easy movement of people from one place to another,
    • To transport agricultural produce to market,
    • Promotes trade,
    • Promotes tourism,
    • Easy transportation of fragile and perishable goods.
    Fragile goods are those that break easily, like glass.
    Perishable goods are those which get spoil easily, like flowers, fruit, and fish.
    Difficulties and Dangers Related to Transport in Our province.
    Transport in our province is affected by many factors these makes transportation of goods and people difficult.


    Some of the transport problems faced by our province are as under:
    Poor roads: This affects the movement of people and their goods from one place to another.
    Bad weather: Heavy rains can spoil roads in our province.
    Landscape: The land may make it impossible or expensive to construct roads or build railway lines in some areas.
    Strong winds: These can make boat capsize.
    Accidents: These are caused by poor roads, overloading, bad weather conditions and speeding. To be speeding is to be above the speed limit.
    Narrow roads: Roads are narrow in some areas, leading to traffic jams causing delays people from moving quickly.
    Few means transport: This makes it difficult for some people to get to work on time.
    Some means of transport are very expensive and difficult to build and maintain, such as airports and railway stations.

    Causes of Road Accidents

    Road accidents are caused by:
    • Bad roads with potholes
    • Rash driving
    • Drunken driving
    • Speeding
    • Jumping Red lights
    • Use of mobile phones while driving
    • Not using safety gear like seat belts and helmets
    • Wrong overtaking and lane driving
    • Overloading of vehicles

    Ways of overcoming the difficulties and dangers associated with transport in our Province

    The problems facing transport in our province can be solved in the following ways.


    • Tarmacking and building wider roads
    • Repairing roads
    • Respecting road signs
    • Avoiding speeding and overloading
    • Providing greater means of public transport in the province
    • Enforcing strict laws against drunken drivers
    • Following traffic rules and regulations
    • Converting all unmetalled roads to metalled roads

    Activity 9.5

    1. In groups, discuss the problems facing transport services in our province.
    2. How can problems affecting transport services be solved?
    3. State any four causes of road accidents.

    9.5 Communication

    Communication is the sending and receiving of messages.

    For communication there must be a sender and a receiver.


    Forms of Communication
    There are two types of communication.

    1. Traditional communication

    This type of communication was used long ago. Before the introduction of modern means of communication, people used drums and horns to convey messages within a long distance.
    2. Modern communication
    This is the type of communication which people use in modern times.
    It involves the use of phones, internet, telex, telegrams, newspapers and post offices.


    Activity 9.6
    In groups, discuss the means of communication which were used long ago
    and the ones people use today.

    Means of Communication

    Means of communication are the means used to send messages from one place to another.


    Activity 9.7
    1. Which of the means of communication above are commonly used in our province?
    2. In groups, discuss the other means of communication in our province.
    3. Identify the fastest means of communication in our province.
    4. Differentiate means of communication given above

    Modern Means of Communication

    Modern means of communication are faster than traditional means, used long ago.
    Modern means have wider coverage compared to traditional ones.
    Modern means of communication include:
    • Radio
    • Television
    • Newspaper
    • Magazine
    • Telephone

    • Letter

    Examples of Radio Stations in Rwanda
    Radio Rwanda, Kiss FM, Isango Star, Radio10, Magic FM, Radio Flash FM, Contact FM and others

    Activity 9.8

    1. In groups, discuss other examples of radio stations found in Rwanda.
    2. State the major advantage of modern means of communication over traditional ones.

    Telecommunication Networks in Our Province

    There are network companies which provide a networks to allow easy communication, by using the telephone in our province.
    The telecommunication companies in our province include MTN (Mobile Telecom Network), Airtel and Tigo.


    Importance of Communication in Our Province
    Good communication networks are important as they promotes:
    • Peace and harmony
    • Trade
    • Friendship
    • Development
    • tourism

    Problems Facing Communication Services in Our Province

    • It is expensive
    • Poor network
    • Lack of skilled workers
    • Poor service delivery by some telecommunication network companies.
    • Poor distribution of newspapers; due to poor transport system
    • Heavy rains make telecom poles fall down during the rainy season
    • Limited market

    Measures to Overcome the Problems Affecting communication

    • Providing good road networks
    • Providing local leaders with telephones, for easy communication
    • Setting strict laws to control telecommunication networks
    • Training skilled workers to improve customer care services

    • Educating people about the importance of communication

    Revision Exercise
    1. The movement of people and their goods from one place to another  is called. a) trade ,transport, business , communication
    2. Differentiate transport from communication

    3. Which means of transport is shown in the picture below?


    4. the common type of transport in our province
    5. The quickest mode of transport is .............................................
    6. Few people in Rwanda use air transport in because ..................
    8. Which is the most commonly used means of communication in our
    9. List five means used of road transport used in our province.
    10. Identify any four problems facing transport in our province.
    11. How can we avoid the problems facing transport in our province?
    12. Name the type of transport used on Lake Kivu.
    13. Mention any four forms of communication used in our province.
    14. The three telecommunication companies in Rwanda are;
    15. Discuss how communication is important in our province?
    16. Give three problems facing communication in our province.

    17. Explain how the problems facing communication can be solved?

  • UNIT 10:Colonial Rwanda

    Key Unit Competence: Analyse important events of colonial Rwanda.

    Attitudes and Values
    • To appreciate the role of political movements in Rwanda’s independence and develop the spirit of patriotism.
    • To acknowledge the contributions of foreigners and reforms brought about by King Rudahigwa.
    10.1 Colonialism
    Colonialism is when a country is under the total control of a stronger foreign country.

    Rwanda was first colonised by Germany and later by Belgium. Germans’ great 
    contribution to the colonization of Rwanda was culture of the Rwandese in and categorized everything according to its physical characteristics.
    Colonization in Africa took place towards the 19 century. The European countries which colonised Africa included Britain, Spain, BelgiumGermany, France and Portugal.

    Countries that colonized East Africa

    Country colonisor               Colony
    • Germany / Belgium --------- Rwanda
    • Germany / Belgium ----------Burundi
    • Britain ---------------------------Uganda
    • Britain ---------------------------Kenya
    • Germany ------------------------Tanzania

    African countries which were not colonized

    Ethiopia and Liberia were not colonised. Liberia was set aside for freed
    slaves from America. Ethiopia had strong leaders and a strong army. It had mountains which made transport difficult for the Italian invaders.
    Before the coming of Europeans, Rwanda had powerful kings called Umwami. However in the 19 century, Rwanda lost its independence to Europeans. They took over Rwanda and colonized it.


    Activity 10.1
    1. Discuss the reasons why Africa was colonized.
    2. Name the two European countries that colonized Rwanda.
    3. Which two African countries were not colonized and why?

    10.2 Causes of colonization of Rwanda

    European countries had different reasons for colonising Rwanda and other African countries.
    These reasons can be divided into different categories:
    economical, social and political.

    1. Economic reasons

    • The colonizers wanted minerals such as wolfram, gold and coltan from Rwanda.
    • They were attracted by the favorable climate and fertile soil which supported crops for the European market.
    • They were looking for a market for their goods.
    • They wanted new areas carry out trade.
    • The Industrial Revolution.

    • They wanted labour from Rwanda.

    Activity 10.2
    1. Discuss other economic reasons why Europeans colonized Rwanda.
    2. Identify the two cash crops which were introduced by Germany.
    2. Social reasons

    • The colonizers wanted to spread Christianity.
    • The missionaries wanted to introduce formal education.
    • They wanted to improve medical care in Rwanda by building hospitals.
    • They wanted to introduce their culture to Rwanda.
    • They wanted to stop the slave trade and introduce legitimate trade.

    3. Political reasons

    • Germany and Belgium wanted to increase their colonies in Africa.
    • The Europeans wanted to settle in Africa
    • They wanted to establish civilization in Africa
    • They wanted to protect missionaries and traders who were in Africa.
    • They wanted to discover more about the interior of Africa
    • Some European countries were invited by African leaders

    Forms of colonization

    A protectorate is a weaker country controlled by a stronger country without any interest.
    A colony is the control of weaker country by a stronger country with the aim of economic or political interest.

    10.3 Reaction of Rwandans to colonial rule

    African societies responded in different ways to European occupation. Some
    of the African societies and leaders decided to fight the Europeans from
    the beginning. They include Kabalega of Bunyoro, Samori Toura of the
    Mandinka, Nandi of Kenya, Menelik II of Ethiopia, Abel Kader of Algeria
    among others

    Those who welcome the Europeans also decided to fight after realising that the European had taken their independence and wealth. They include Buganda under Mwanga and the Ndebele under Lobengula.
    Some communities did not mind whether they were colonized or not. They worked together with Europeans. They were known as collaborates. They include Ankole, Buganda, Masai among others. The collaborators supported the Europeans in exchange of material gains.

    10.4 Why some africans collaborated

    Africans collaborated with the colonialist because of different reasons as under
    • They thought that they would protect their independence.
    • Some Africans collaborated because of military weakness. They realized that Europeans had better weapons and methods of fighting.
    • Some Africans collaborated because they had seen how their neigbours were defeated by superior military power of Europeans.
    • Their leaders were illiterate and did not know the conditions of treaties they signed with the Europeans.
    • They wanted to get weapons and military support to fight against their enemies.
    • In senegal African societies collaborated with the French because  of the threat of Smouri Toure of the Mandika Empire.
    • Others collaborated in order to protect their social, political and economic organization.
    • Natural calamities also forced some Africans to collaborate. For example the Masai had been weakened by chicken pox, rinder
    pest (cattle disease) and internal conflict.
    • The Banyankole also collaborated because they were affected by Epidermic of jiggers and rinderpest. They also expected more attacks from Rwanda and Bunyoro .
    • Some Africans collaborated because they wanted to get wealth.
    Africans liked Europeans goods like clothes, beads, guns, mirrors, and wine because they thought that they were better.
    • Some Africans also collaborated because of missionary influence.
    Missionaries invited their countries to take over areas where they
    worked. They also convinced Africans to sign treaties of protection.
    For example Coillard wrote a letter on behalf of king Lewanika of
    the lozi in Zambia resquesting for British protection.

    Some reasons for King V Musinga’s resistance to colonial rule

    Given below are some of the reasons King Yuhi V Musinga’s resistance to
    the colonial rule.
    • The king was not happy with the belgium system of direct rule.
    • The king’s power was weakened.
    • The king was not allowed to appoint the chiefs.
    • The administrators divided the people of Rwanda.
    • The king did not support the spread of western civilization, especially
    • The king was not respected by the missionaries.
    The Belgians divided the people of Rwanda according to their tribes. This was done by introducing identity cards.


    Impact of Rwanda’s resistance to colonial rule
    The Belgians, along with the catholic church, never liked King Musinga.

    He was sent away (exiled) from his kingdom on November 31, 1931.

    He was first sent to Kamembe and later taken to Moba in Belgian Congo,
    now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
    King Musinga died in 1944 and was replaced by his son, King Mutara III Rudahigwa Charles.

    10.5 The influence of foreigners in Rwanda

    Foreigners are people who come to Rwanda from other countries.
    They started coming to Rwanda in the 19 century. That is when they developed contact with Rwanda and other African countries.
    Activity 10.3
    1. In which year did King Yuhi Musinga die?
    2. Why did the people of Rwanda resist King Musinga’s rule?
    3. Why did the Belgians exile King Musinga from his kingdom?

    4. Which king succeeded King Musinga?

    Reasons for the coming of foreigners to Africa (Rwanda)
    The foreigners wanted to
    • find the source of the River Nile.
    • learn more about the physical features of Africa.
    • spread Christianity.
    • teach people how to read and write.
    • promote legitimate trade.
    • invest their surplus capital.
    • find a market for their goods.
    • get raw materials for their home markets.
    There were four groups of foreigners who came to Rwanda at different times and for different reasons. They included: explorers, missionaries, European traders and administrators/colonialists.

    1. Explorers

    An explorer is a person who leaves his or her country to go and discover other areas.
    The explorers who came to Rwanda were John Speke, Richard Kandt,

    Henry Matron Stanley, Oscar Bauman and Adolf von Gotzen.


    Problems faced by the explorers
    Explorers were faced with a number of problems in African countries such as:
    • Wild animals which could attack them.
    • Poor transport due to thick forests and waterfalls.
    • Danger from hostile tribes like the Masai and Nandi in Kenya.
    • Tropical diseases like malaria and sleeping sickness.
    • Shortage of food and medicine.
    • Language barriers since they could not communicate in local languages.

    2. Missionaries

    A missionary is a person who moves to a foreign land to spread the word of God. There were different groups of missionaries who came to Rwanda.
    The Roman Catholics were the first group of missionaries to come to Rwanda. They were headed by the White Fathers missionaries who made their first visit to Rwanda and settle down in few miles north of the town of Butare, and in the west of the Gisagara District of Southern Province, Rwanda.

    The Roman Catholics came to Rwanda in 1899 under the leadership 
    of Bishop John Joseph Hirth from France. He tried to develop a relationship with King Yuhi Musinga in order to allow him to build the Catholic missions.

    The first Catholic mission was built at Save, Gisagara district 
    southern province in 1900 with a thatched structure but it was later replaced by a brick building.

    Later in 1901, Zaza catholic mission was built in Ngoma District of 
    the Eastern and Nyundo catholic mission in Rubavu District of the western province were among others.
    The Church Missionary Society (CMS) were the second group of missionaries to come to Rwanda.
    They were the protestant missionaries from England under the leadership of Bishop Johnson and Bishop Alloys.
    In 1930s, a Revival began in Gahini the first Anglican mission which became one of the most important movements of spiritual renewal throughout East African Protestantism.

    Reasons for missionaries to come to Rwanda


    Missionaries came to Rwanda as they wanted to:
    • Spread Christianity.
    • Teach people how to read and write.
    • Spread western civilization.
    • Stop the slave trade.

    Achievements of the missionaries

    The coming of missionaries to African countries like Rwanda had both a positive and negative impact.

    Positive effects
    : These were good things done that contributed to the

    development of African countries. Among others, they:
    • Spread Christianity.
    • Stopped the slave trade.
    • Built schools.
    • Introduced formal education.
    • Built hospitals.
    • Built churches.
    • Introduced the first news paper called Ikinyamateka

    • introduced new style of building in Rwanda


    Negative effects: Some negative results were:
    • They undermined African culture.
    • Their activities led to religious wars in East Africa.
    • They paved the way colonialism and loss of independence.

    Activity 10.4

    Discuss the positive and negative achievements of missionaries in

    Problems faced by missionaries

    The missionaries were faced with many problems and difficulties while spreading Christianity. Many of them lost their lives in the course of doing so. These problems included:
    • Tropical diseases like malaria
    • They were attacked by wild animals like lions
    • Lack of easy means of transport
    • They lacked enough funds to run their activities
    • Harsh climate

    • Language barrier

    3. Traders
    European trading companies were the third category to come to Rwanda. They were called traders and they came to Rwanda for the following reasons:
    • To carry out legitimate trade.
    • To invest surplus capital.
    In order to perform their work effectively, they had to form trading companies.
    Traders brought big changes during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 19th century.
    The Industrial Revolution also helped to change methods of making goods from hand-made to machine-made.
    It led to high industrialization in Britain and other European countries.
    By 1870, there was an increase in demand for raw materials and a market for manufactured goods.
    In 1897, Carl Peters established a trading company in Rwanda called the German East Africa Company (GEACo).

    Items of trade included minerals, animals and animal skins.


    4. Colonialists
    A colonialist is a person who helps their country to take over control of another country.
    A colonial power is a country which rules another country.
    Adlof von Gotzen was the first European administrator in Rwanda, received by King Kigeli IV Rwabugiri on 4 May 1894.
    Adolf von Gotzen was the Governor of German East Africa which included Tanganyika, Burundi and Rwanda. Rwanda was a German territory from 1897 to 1916.

    10.6 Rwanda’s road to independence

    A country is independent if it is not under the control of another country.
    Rwanda was given to Germany the Berlin Conference of 1884 -1885.
    It was called Berlin Conference because it was held in Berline the Capital City of Germany. The Berline conference was aim at allowing all European Countries to claim land in Africa . It was shared by the Germany chancellor Otto Von Bismark.


    The European countries which attended the conference were Germany Portugal ,Belgium, France, Spain and Britain.

    Resolution made in Berline conference

    • All European countries were allowed to claim land Africa.
    • Once a country was colonise, it was not allowed to be claimed by another country.
    • Incase of extention , all other European had to be informed.
    • The colonial master had to stop slave trade in their colony.

    Rwanda as a German territory (1897-1916)

    Germany ruled Rwanda through the King (Umwami). This was called indirect rule. Local chiefs had to take orders from the European colonial administrators.
    The signing of agreements between local chiefs and Karl Peters allowed the Germans and missionaries to enter Rwanda from Tanganyika from 1897 to 1898.
    In 1914, World War I started between European nations. The African countries which had been colonized had to fight on the side of their colonizer’s country.

    King Rudahigwa’s reforms

    Mutara III Charles Rudahigwa became the king of Rwanda in 1931. During his rule, he made man changes to the country.


    King Mutara Rudahigwa Charles
    He stopped the Ubuhake and Uburetwa systems.
    Ubuhake and Uburetwa are the names given to the social and economic systems among the Tutsi, and Hutu. Ubuhake meant someone working for a wealthy cow ownerin exchange for being given a cow, and Uburetwa meant forced labour. This did not make the Belgians happy. They introduced the
    system of elected councils in 1952.
    The Belgians divided Rwandans into Hutu, Twa and Tutsi citizens. Mutara knew this would increase divisions among the people of Rwanda.
    In 1954, Mutara demanded independence from the Belgians. He wanted Rwanda to remain a monarchy.
    He requested the Belgians to remove some one’s tribe from identity cards so that Rwandans will be treated equally.
    King Mutara III Rudahigwa died in July 1959 in Bujumbura, the capital of Burundi under highly suspicious circumstances. King Mutara III Rudahigwa is considered a Rwandan hero after his selfless activity struggle
    to promote unity among Rwandans.
    His half-brother, Kigeli V Jean Baptiste Ndahindurwa became the new king after his sudden death.

    Activity 10.5

    1. Discuss the systems of Ubuhake and Uburetwa.
    2. In which year did King Mutara III Rudahigwa Charles die?
    3. Which king replaced Mutara III Rudahigwa Charles?
    4. Find out and discuss whether the Uburetwa and Ubuhake systems
    are still present in Rwanda.

    The role of the political parties in the struggle for independence

    In the early fifties, political parties emerged in Rwanda with the aim of helping to acquire independence for the country.The political parties were:

    1. Movement Social Muhutu (MSM)

    The Hutu Social Movement was formed in 1957 by Grégoire Kayibanda.
    Kayibanda wrote the Hutu manifesto which focused on social economic development but was highly divisive and encouraged hatred among Rwandans.

    2. Association Pour la Promotion Sociale de la Masse 

    The party was formed by Joseph Gitera Habyarimana in 1957. The Association for the Social Promotion of the Masses (APROSOMA) was also divisive in nature. It focused on challenging the privileges initially reserved for certain Tutsi leaders, while at the same time claimed to seek independence for Rwanda.

    3. Union Nationale Rwandaise (UNAR)

    The Rwandese National Union Party was formed in 1959 by supporters, the mainly the Tutsi UNAR, and was known to be a strong supporter of the monarchy. It was led by François Rukeba. He wanted immediate independence for Rwanda.

    4. Rassemblement Democratique Rwandais (RADER)

    The Rwandese Democratic Union Party formed by the Chief Prosper Bwanakweri, in 1959. It was largely supported by the Tutsis. It was called the Tutsi Party, although it had many Hutu supporters.

    5. Mouvement Démocratique Républicain (MDR-PARMEHUTU)

    This party was based on tribal views, aimed at inciting the Hutu population against the Tutsi. The Rwanda Democratic Movement was formed by members of the MSM in 1959 and was led by its founding
    member Gregory Kayibanda. It was equally divisive in nature and led to thousands of Rwandans to fleeing the country.

    Reasons for the formation of political parties

    Political parties were formed to:
    • Open ways for independence.
    • Contribute resources during the struggle for independence.
    • Sponsor candidates during the struggle for independence.
    • Provide leadership during the struggle for independence.
    By November 1959, the political to struggle turned into political chaos among parties resulting in exile of the Tutsis to neighbouring countries.

    10.7 Independence of Rwanda

    An independent country is a country free from colonial rule. Rwanda gained Independence on 1 July 1962.
    There were many internal and external factors which made Rwandans demand their independence:
    Rwanda wanted her independence because:
    • People were being mistreated and exploited by the Belgians.
    • The Belgians were forcing them to grow cash crops for their home industries.
    • Rwandans had developed patriotism.
    • Educated Rwandan were able to rule their own country
    • Rwandans had heard enough over exploitation by foreigners
    • Rwandan who fought in the world wars no longer feared the colonolist
    • African countries like Ghana had already got their independence and
    this encouraged Rwandans to demand theirs.
    Rwanda gained independence on 1 July 1962 and Greogoire Kayibanda became the first President of the independent Republic of Rwanda.

    Activity 10.6

    1. Who the first President of Rwanda after Independence.
    2. Which political parties led Rwanda to Independence?
    3. When did Rwanda get her Independence?

    10.8 The Government of Rwanda

    A government is a group of people given the executive power to rule a country.
    A good government is important for promoting peace, unity and development.
    Types of government in Rwanda
    There are two systems of government in Rwanda:
    Constitutional government
    This is the type of government which operates under an authoritative document known as constitution
    A constitution is a set of law which is used to govern a country. it helps to determine the nature, functions and limits of the government 
    Democratic government
    This is the type of government in which people are allowed to elect of their leaders, but which is usually exercised through a system of representation and delegation of authority periodically renewed.

    Organ of a government
    There are three main organs of government
    i) Executive.
    ii) Legislature/Parliament.
    iii) Judiciary.
    i) Executive
    This the branch or organ of the government which implements laws.
    It consists of the:
    • President
    • Prime Minister
    • Cabinet Ministers
    • Civil servants.
    The Executive is headed by the President of the Republic.

    The President
    • The president is the commander of chief of armed forces and also the
    chair person of the council of ministers / cabinet of a country.
    Functions of the Executive
    The Executive performs the following functions.
    • Implements laws.
    • Collects and spends revenue.
    • Protect people and their property.
    • implements government policies.
    • Maintains law and order.

    Activity 10.7

    1. What is a government?
    2. Name the three organs of the government.
    3. Who is the current president of the Republic of Rwanda?
    4. Which ministry is responsible for
    a) Education
    b) Security
    c) Infrastructure
    ii) The Legislature
    The Legislature is the branch of the government that makes laws.
    The Legislature is divided into two chambers:
    • The Upper Chamber is called the Senate and is made up of 26 members.
    • The Lower Chamber is called the Chamber of Deputies and is made up of 80 members.


    Functions of the Legislature
    The Legislature performs the following functions.
    • Makes laws
    • Approves the National budget
    • Checks the powers of the Executive
    • Amends laws
    • Keeps a check on how the government spends public money

    Activity 10.8

    Who is the Speaker of Parliament?

    iii) Judiciary

    The judiciary is the organ of government that interprets the law.
    It punishes lawbreakers. It is made up of lawyers, magistrates, prosecutors and judges. The highest court is the Supreme Court headed by the Chief Justice.

    Functions of the Judiciary

    The judiciary performs the following functions.
    • Interprets the law
    • Punish the lawbreakers
    • Settles disputes and conflicts in courts of law
    • Protects the rights of citizens

    Duties of the government

    The government is responsible for providing different services to its people.

    Look at the pictures below.


    The following are some of the responsibilities and duties of the government.
    • Ensure that the rule of law is respected.
    • Protect the rights of citizens.
    • Uphold the Constitution.
    • Protect citizens and their property.
    • Ensure peace and security.
    • Promote social services.
    • Pay civil servants.

    Activity 10.9

    1. Discuss other duties of the government.
    2. What can an individual be asked to contribute to the development of a country?
    10.9 Revision exercise
    1. Define colonialism.
    2. Name the two European countries that colonized Rwanda.
    3. Name the three groups of foreigners who came to Rwanda in the 19th century.
    4. Give three reasons why missionaries came to Rwanda.
    5. Give any two reasons why Rwandans resisted colonialism.
    6. When did Rwanda get her Independence?
    7. What is a government?
    8. Match the following organs of the government with their duties.
    Organ of the government                    Duty
    i) Executive                                     a) Interprets and enforces law
    ii) Judiciary                                      b) Makes laws
    iii) Legislature                                  c) Implement laws
    9. Name the three positive effects of missionaries in Rwanda.
    10. Give a reason why Rwanda, Tanzania and Burundi were taken away from Germany.
    11. Identify two countries in Africa that were not colonised.
    12. Who was the first European explorer to come to Rwanda?
    13. Which king of Rwanda died in Bujumbura Burundi in 1896?
    14. What do you understand by the following terms:
    a) Colony
    b) Protectorate.
    15. Why is king Mutara III Rudahigwa still remembered in the history of Rwanda.

    End of year assessments
    Sample test paper 1
    1. How many provinces are there in Rwanda?
    2. How many districts are there in Rwanda?
    3. How many sectors are there in Rwanda?
    4. Can you tell which provinces that boarder Kigali city province?
    5. Draw a compass and name compass directions on it.
    6. Which countries boarder Rwanda to the North, South, East and West?
    7. Give five examples of human rights.
    8. Name any three organisations that protect human rights in Rwanda.
    9. Give any four consequences of disharmony in your province.
    10. Write any four importance of keeping our province clean.
    11. Give four examples of how we can keep personal hygiene.
    12. Write any three symptoms of HIV/AIDS.
    13. Give any three examples of sexually transmitted diseases.
    14. Give any four symptoms of tuberculosis.
    15. Give any three examples of National Symbols.
    16. Give a reason why the Rwandan flag may be raised at half-mast.
    17. What is a constitution?
    18. What is a budget?
    19. Why should we save money?
    20. Write four examples of social services in your province

    Sample test paper 2

    1. Give four examples of important places in your province.
    2. What is environment?
    3. Write three ways in which we can protect our environment.
    4. What is climate?
    5. Give four examples of weither instruments.
    6. What are the causes of population inclease?
    7. What is population density?
    8. Give four examples of means of transport.
    9. Give four examples of means of communication.
    10. a) Who colonised Rwanda?
    b) When did Rwanda get indepandance.
    11. List five political parties that were in Rwanda before Independance.
    12. Explain what a constitutional government is?
    13. List three organs of the government of Rwanda
    14. a) Give two chambers of the Legislature.
    b) How many member compose each chamber?
    15. Give three examples of services that are given to the people by government.
    16. a) What is the name of the highest court in the Republic of Rwanda?

    b) What is the title of a person that heads the highest court in Rwanda?


    Administration: The management of any office , business or organization
    A forestation: The planting of trees where they never exist
    Agro forestry: The growing of trees together with crops
    Airfield: A small ground set aside for the plane to land and take off
    Airport: A place where plains land and take off
    Apologise: To ask for forgiveness
    Bank: A social service center that provide financial transaction and services to its customers.
    Basic needs: The most essential goods or services to make us live well.
    Barometer: A weather instrument used to measure air pressure.
    Border: A line separating two political or geographical areas, especially countries.
    Bridge: A structure carrying a road, across a river, road, railroad, or other obstacle.
    Climate: The weather condition of an area recorded over a long period of time.
    Colony: A country taken over and owned by another powerful country.
    Compass: An instrument used to show direction.
    Communication: The sending and receiving of messages.
    Community: A group of people leaving and working together.
    Complementarity: The act working together in the community.
    Conference: A big meeting which discuss important issues.
    Currency: Money which belong to a particular country.
    Deforestation: Cutting down of trees in a large number.
    Democracy: A system of government where people freedom to participate in affairs of the government.
    Destroy: put an end to the existence of something by damaging or attacking it
    Disharmony: A situation where two more people are not in good terms.
    Disobey: To not do what someone with authority tells you to do.
    Education: The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university.
    Element: A part of something especially one that is essential.
    Extreme: Reaching a high or the highest degree.
    Environment: The surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives.
    Election: The act or process of choosing someone for a public office by voting.
    Forest: A group of tress.
    Gender: The state of being male or female.
    Harmony: A situation where people in the community are in good terms.
    HIV: (Human Immunodeficiency virus ) this is the virus that causes AIDS.
    Honest: Act of being truthful and sincere.
    Humidity: The amount of water vapour in the atmosphere.
    Hygiene: The cleanness of the body organs or a place.
    Income: Total amount of money earn by a person or a family.
    Injustice: Anything unfair that is done against a person.
    Immunity: The ability of an organism to resist a particular infection by the action of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells.
    Inheritance: Things pass on from parents to children.
    Judiciary: The branch of government given the authority to interpret and apply the law, adjudicate legal disputes.
    Justice: Fairness in protection of rights and punishment of wrongs.
    Luxurious needs: Needs which are not very essential to life but help to improve the quality of living.
    Market: Is where buying and selling take place.
    Medical center: A place medical services is provided.
    Missionary: A person who move from the country to other areas to spread and convert people to the religion.
    Nation: A large group of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language living in a particular country or territory.
    Needs: Something required to make us live well and comfortable.
    North: The main cardinal point of a compass opposite to south .
    Organization: A group of people who work together in an organized way for a shared purpose.
    Over grazing: When animals feeds on all the vegetation cover leaving the soil uncovered.
    Over population: This is when the number of people living in an area is more than the available resources .Peace: Freedom from disturbance; quiet and tranquility.
    Pollution: Adding of harmful substance into the environment.
    Population: The number of people living in an area.
    Poor : Lacking sufficient money to live at a standard considered comfortable or normal in a society.
    Private: Something belonging to or for the use of one particular person or group of people only.
    Reforms: To make changes in something in order to improve it.
    Resource: Anything that can be used to satisfy our needs.
    Social services: Government services provided for the benefit of the community, such as education, medical care, and housing.
    Soil erosion: The carrying away of top soil by agents.
    South: The cardinal point of a compass opposite to north.
    Trade: The buying and selling of goods.
    Transport: The movement of people and their goods from one place to another.
    Unity: Togetherness of people, groups and countries
    Vaccinate: Treat with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease.
    Vaccine: Is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
    Weather: The state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain and cloud.

    Wind vane: An instrument used show the direction of wind.



    Unit 1


    Levels  of  Bloom’s Taxonomy

    1.     a) Name the provinces of Rwanda.

    b) How many districts make up Rwanda?


         2. Give the neighboring countries to Rwanda in:

    i) North.

               ii) South.

               iii) East.

               iv) West.


    3.     Identify the elements of a good map and give the use for each.


    4.     Differentiate a map from a picture.


    5.     What are the four cardinal points of a compass?


    6.     Draw a map of your province showing all its neighboring districts.


     Unit 2

    1.     a) What is peace?

    b) Identify indicators of peace in an area.


    2.     How do people complement each other to promote?


          3. a) What are human rights?

                b) Identify five basic human rights.

    Knowledge \ Comprehension

    4.     Explain the importance of respecting human rights in a society.


    5.     How can a family contribute in promoting peace and harmony in an area?


     Unit 3

    1.     a) What is hygiene?

    b) Identify different ways of keeping our environment clean.

    Knowledge \ Comprehension

          2. a) What is pollution?

              b) Suggest different types of pollution.

    Knowledge \ Comprehension

    3.     Why is it important to keep our environment clean?


          4. Suggest different ways of preventing diseases like:

               - Malaria

               - HIV/AIDS

               - Diarrhoearal diseases.

    Knowledge \ Comprehension

          5. Why do we wash our hands before and after eating and after visiting the toilet?


          6. Why do we need to observe hygiene of the private parts?



     Unit 4

    1.     a) Who is a leader?

    b) What are the qualities of a good leader?


         2. a) What are national symbols?

                b) Suggest national symbols that distinguish a nation from another.

    Knowledge \ Comprehension

          3. Explain the meaning of the following elements on the Rwandan national flag:

                 - Blue colour

                 - Yellow colour

                 - Green colour

                 - Sun and its rays at the top right corner.


          4. Explain the role of the main leaders in the province

    i) Governor

                ii) Executive secretary of the province.

               iii) Directors of departments in the province.

               iv) Councilors of the province.


           5.How does good governance contribute to the development of a country?



           6. Suggest the characteristics of a democratic government.



    Unit 5

    1.     a) Define the term “budget”.

    b) How can you help your parents to make a family budget?


    2.     2. Explain the importance of family budget.


          3. Suggest the importance of financial institutions and local markets in the development of a country.


          4. How can we protect and manage family resources?


         5. Why does the government of Rwanda encourage people to save?



         6. How does mismanagement of resources in the society affect the development of a country?



    Unit 6

    1.     a) What are social services?

    b) What do we benefit from the following:

         - Schools

         - Hospitals

         - Banks

         - Game parks.

    Knowledge /  analysis

          2. Identify various sources of income that support the provision of social services in your province.


          3. Suggest various problems affecting important places.


          4. How can leaders help in the protection of important places in your province?


          5. Describe indicators of good democracy in your province.


          6. How does good governance contribute development?


     Unit 7

    1.     a) What is environment?

    b) Identify various components of environment


          2. Differentiate between natural and human made components of the environment.


          3. Suggest human activities that affect environment in our province.


          4. Explain pollution and give various pollutants of the environment.


          5. How does weather and climate affect human activities?


         6. What is your role in conserving the environment?


     Unit 8

    1.     a) What is population?

    b) What is population density?



          2. Identify factors that determine population density.



          3. Explain factors that affect population distribution in our province.



          3. Explain factors that affect population distribution in our province.



          5. Suggest causes of high population growth in our province.



          6. What measures has the government of Rwanda put in place in controlling over population?



     Unit 9

    1.     What is transport?



    2.     Identify types and means of transport used in your province?



    3.     Suggest dangers associated to transport in your province.



    4.     How does transport and communication contribute to the development of your province?



    5.     How can the dangers associated to transport and communication be overcome in your province?



    6.     What are the advantages of using radio communication over news papers in Rwanda?



     Unit 10

    1.     What is colonization?



    2.     Explain why Africans/ Rwandans resisted colonial rule?



    3.     Identify problems faced by foreigners in Rwanda.



    4.     Why were Europeans interested in Africa?



    5.     Suggest the effects/contributions of missionaries in Rwanda.



    6.     a) What is democracy?

    b) How is democracy practiced in Rwanda?


    Know ledge& Evaluation