Topic outline

  • General

  • unit 1:Still Life and Nature

    My goals

    By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

    ⦿ Explain the elements of art.

    ⦿ State the difference between dry and wet media.

    ⦿ Draw and paint objects in composition.

    ⦿ Paint a landscape.

    ⦿ Draw from a human figure.

    ⦿ Respect the opinions given by others about my own



    In Senior One, you were introduced to different materials used in

    drawing and painting. You also practiced with the elements of art such

    as shape, line, tone, colour and texture. You also observed and drew

    objects in composition as still life, as well as single objects picked from


    Remember, still life is the study of objects in composition, in relation to

    their immediate background. Yet nature is the analytic study of objects

    from the natural environment.

    Based on your past experience, do Activity 1.

    Activity 1

    1. Visit your surroundings and pick a twig with three


    2. Using a pencil and paper draw the twig.

    3. Exchange your drawing with your neighbour.

    4. Discuss each other’s drawing by pointing out the

    strengths and weaknesses that you are able to observe.

    (Assessment is done in terms of use of space, shapes,

    tones and texture).

    5. How can such weaknesses be improved for a better


    Observation of the drawings

    I hope you were able to observe that in some drawings from

    Activity 1, the object was too small for the paper. In some

    drawings still, the object could not fit on the paper. The two

    cases usually happen if you have not taken time to compare

    the size of the object with that of the paper. Space should be

    used comparatively, to make sure that the object drawn fits

    well on the paper.

    Observe the two pictures in Figure 1.1 and answer the

    questions in Activity 2.


    Figure 1.1: Studies of plants

    Activity 2

    1. Identify the different types of lines used in the two


    2. Mention the colours that were used in the two pictures.

    3. Describe the types of shapes in the pictures.

    4. Describe the kind of texture in the work.

    Elements for drawing and painting

    Remember, in order to draw and paint well, you need the

    building blocks to follow. These are the elements of art. They

    include space, line, shape, tone, form, structure, colour and


    (a) Space

    When you look around you, you can see different objects, and

    people including your neighbour. But at the same time there

    are areas you can see which are occupied by nothing. All

    these are part of space. Therefore space is simply emptiness.

    However, in drawing and painting, we have both negative and

    positive space. For example, look at how space was used in

    Figure 1.2


    Figure 1.2 : A still life composition of fruits

    The area occupied by objects in the composition is called the positive

    space. The area around the objects is what we call negative space.

    We always begin drawing and painting by identifying the space in

    which to create our compositions. After identifying space, we use

    other elements to form our drawings and paintings.

    Observe the compositions in Figures 1.3 and 1.4 and work out

    activity 3.


    Figure 1.3: A still life composition in colour


    Activity 3

    Space in a still life composition

    1. Identify the positive and negative spaces in the two

    pictures above.(ie Figure 1.3 and Figure 1.4)

    2. Comment on how space was created in the two


    3. Mention the objects and the colours used in the two

    different pictures.

    Take note:

    The paper you are given for drawing or painting provides you

    with the space in which to fit your drawing or painting.

     In drawing and painting, a good composition balances space.

    The picture you draw has to fit within the space provided.

    Never cut off parts of the object drawn or painted in a given


    Leave same space on the left and right side of the paper. The

    upper space should be bigger than the lower space left on

    the paper, thats how negative space is balanced in drawing

    and painting.

    Space is controlled in order to create a feeling of depth in the


    (b) Line and shape

    In Senior One, you identified the different materials used in

    drawing. After identifying what to draw in a given space and

    the suitable materials to use, we use lines to draw or paint.

    Lines play a vital role in drawing different shapes of objects.

    Remember, shapes can be either geometric or natural


    Geometric shapes are more regular, they include circles,

    squares, rectangles and triangles. Natural shapes are irregular

    such as a shape of a stone, tree or leaf.

    (c) Tone and form

    After drawing the required shapes of objects in the composition,

    then you can apply tones according to the light direction. It is

    the tones that bring out the forms of objects in the composition.

    As light fall on an object, it casts a shadow on the opposite


    Therefore tone refers to the variation from light to dark on the

    surface of an object as light falls on it. On the other hand form

    is the roundness of an object.

    For example, look at the effect of light on the drawing of a

    tomato in Figure 1.5.


    Activity 4

    Responding to light and shade

    1. Arrange three objects from your surroundings to form a


    2. Using a pencil and paper, draw the composition; first in

    lines and then shade the composition to create forms

    and shadows.

    3. Display your work and discuss it with your friends

    regarding the use of tones to create the forms in the


    (d) Textural patterns

    During the process of trying to draw the forms of objects

    in a given composition, there is need to show their surface

    quality (texture). Are the objects smooth, rough or coarse?

    This question is answered by using textural patterns that fit

    the objects being studied. Textural patterns depend on the

    shading technique used. For example, look at the textural

    patterns on the objects in Figure 1.6.

    Hence, textural patterns refer to the appearance of the surface

    of an object according to the shading technique used.


    Activity 5

    Dealing with textural patterns

    1. Pick three objects with different texture, from your

    surroundings and arrange them to form a composition.

    2. Draw the objects on a piece of paper and use different

    shading techniques to capture the different surface

    qualities of the objects.

    Take note:

    · Texture varies with the form of a given object.

    · Where the tone is light, the texture is light and vice versa

    Types of colour application

    In Senior One, you studied about colour and you looked at

    primary and secondary colours. Primary colours are basic and

    are only three ie. Red, Yellow and Blue. Besides, secondary

    colours are got after combining two primary colours. Secondary

    colours include orange, green and violet. When you combine

    a secondary colour with a primary colour, you get a tertiary

    colour. For example, study the colour combinations in Figure

    1.7 and Figure 1.8.



    Activity 6

    Colour mixing

    Mix the different colour combinations. Remember to always

    use equal amounts of the different colours in order to come

    up with the right mixture.

    Colours can be used to capture objects in a still life composition.

    Colour can be classified under different properties such as

    hue or purity, value and intensity. A hue refers to a colour in

    its purest state. The common hues include yellow, red, blue,

    green and purple as they appear on a colour wheel. Look at

    Figure 1.9.


    Figure 1.9: Colour Hues

    Value refers to the darknes or lightness of a colour; if a colour

    is dark, its value is low and if a colour is light, its value is light

    for example, look at Figure 1.10.


    Figure 1.10: Colour Value

    On the other hand intensity refers to the brightness or dullnerss

    of a colour, for example look at Figure 1.11 Intensity also

    refers to saturation.


    Colour can also be classified as being (colour temperature)

    hot, cool, complementary and supplementary/analogous. Hot

    colours strike the eye; these include red, yellow and orange.

    Cool colours do not strike the viewer’s eyes; they include;

    brown, green and blue. Supplementary colours appear next to

    each other on the 12 part colour wheel eg; yellow and orange

    or blue and purple. Complementary colours appear opposite

    each other on the colour wheel such as; green and red or

    yellow and purple.

    In painting, black is considered to be a shade, a colour

    darkens when it is added with black. On the other hand white

    is consider to be a tint. A colour becomes lighter when added

    with white.

    In order to paint a good picture, select colours according to the

    natural appearance of the objects being studied. For example

    look at Figure 1.12 and observe how colours were used to

    reflect the natural appearance of the objects


    Figure 1.12: A painting of flowers

    .Activity 7

    Observation exercise

    Observe the picture in Figure 1.12 and do the following:

    1. Identify the objects in the composition by their colours.

    2. Mention the primary colours, secondary colours and

    tertiary colours that you can see in the composition.

    The Principles of Art

    As you follow elements of art while drawing and painting, you

    need to follow guidelines. These guidelines or rules are referred

    to as the principles of art. They include balance, rhythm,

    pattern, perspective, unity/harmony and proportionality.

    1. Balance: This refers to a state of equilibrium when all

    elements in an artwork are well arranged. Balance can be

    symmetrical, asymmetrical or radial.

    ;(i) Symmetrical balance is also called

    formal balance. This is achieved when

    the opposite parts in an artwork are

    exactly or nearly the same in respect to

    a vertical / horizontal axis. For example,

    look at the symmetrical balance on the

    human face in Figure 1.13.

    Figure 1.13: The human face

    (ii) Asymmetrical balance is also

    called informal balance. Itk

    refers to balance by visual

    weight. It can be achieved

    when a work of art is looked

    at in totality when all parts of

    the work seem to agree with

    each other even if they are not

    equal with each other. For example

    look at Figure 1.14

    Figure 1.14: A painting showing asymmetrical balance

    l(iii) Radial balance is a type

    where elements are

    equally distributed from

    the center. For example


    Figure 1.15: A painting showing radial balance.

    Activity 8

    Look at the works of art from your surroundings and

    identify those where symmetrical, asymmetrical and radial

    balance has been achieved.

    2. Rhythm is a principle of art which focuses on visual

    movement in a work of art. It is achieved when there is a

    feeling of movement from one part of the work to the other.

    For example, look at the design in Figure 1.16

    l3. Pattern refers to repetition of elements such

    as line, colour texture over and over to create

    an impression work of art. For example,

    the design in Figure 1.16 consists of curved


    Figure 1.16: A design showing rhythm and pattern

    Activity 9

    (i) Choose one geometric shape (eg circle, triangle and

    square) draw and repeat it several times on a piece of

    paper to form a pattern with rhythm. You are free to

    use any colours of your choice.

    (ii) Display your work and discuss it with your fellow

    students to judge which pattern is more rhythmic.

    l4. Perspective: In Senior One, you were

    introduced to linear perspective, where

    you focused on the use of lines to show

    perspective in landscapes. As a principle

    of art, perspective refers to the variation

    in size, tone and colour of objects with

    distance. Near objects look bigger/brighter

    compared to those seen at a distance. For

    example look at Figure 1.17.

    Figure 1.17: Animals seen at different points.

    l5. Unity/harmony: This

    principle is achieved

    when all, elements

    in given work of

    art (such as lines,

    colour and texture)

    agree with each

    other. For example,

    look at Figure 1.18.

    Figure 1.18: A painting showing unity/harmony

    6. Proportionality: This refers to the relationship of different

    parts of an object in terms of size. Naturally, there are sizes

    which are considered normal and when such sizes change

    compared to others, they are considered abnormal. For

    example the size of human hands is small compared to

    that of legs. Or a passion fruit is considered smaller than

    a pumpkin. Therefore when drawing or painting, always

    consider the right sizes of the objects or parts of the objects

    in order to achieve the right proportions.

    Take note:

    kIn drawing and painting some

    objects which are known to be

    small may appear bigger than

    those which are known to be

    big, due to perspective. For

    example look at the drawings

    in Figure 1.19.

    Figure 1.19: Passion fruit appearing bigger than a pawpaw

    Working with dry and wet media in drawing and painting

    What we use to draw and paint pictures (such as pencils,

    crayons, pastels and water colours) is often referred to as a

    medium. When there are many different materials, they are

    referred to as media. Media can either be dry or wet.

    Drawing with dry media

    Pencils are commonly used in drawing. These are part of the

    dry media. Dry media refer to materials which do not flow.

    Other dry media include crayons and coloured pencils. For

    example, look at the two drawings in Figure 1.20. One was

    drawn using crayons and the other one by use of coloured



    Activity 10

    Drawing with dry media

    1. Look at Figure 1.20 and identify the picture drawn with

    crayons and the one drawn with coloured pencils. What

    is the difference?

    2. Using either coloured pencils or crayons draw a

    composition of three objects picked from your


    Take note:

    Coloured pencils usually give a clear picture compared to

    crayons.Crayons differ from pencils as shown in Figure 1.21


    Drawing or painting with wet media

    Wet media refer to materials which can flow. Using such

    materials requires you to add a liquid in order to make it

    flow well. You may need a brush in order to paint a given


    These materials include inks, water colours and powder

    colours. Observe Figures 1.22 and 1.23, and work out the

    questions that follow.


    Activity 11

    1. What is the difference between the two drawings in

    Figure 1.22 and 1.23?

    2. Using a pen and ink draw a twig of a plant from your

    school compound.

    3. Display your work and discuss it with your friends,

    regarding how the materials have been used to create

    tones and form.

    Take note:

    When you are going to draw or paint with wet media, always

    begin with a sketch in pencil. This helps you to draw the right

    shapes and the proper arrangement of the objects in a given

    composition. Pencil work can easily be adjusted by rubbing

    out. Ink and water colours cannot easily be changed.

    Study of a landscape

    Our environment is a rich resource for the study of landscape.

    A landscape is the natural scenery. Such sceneries include

    plants, houses, etc. You will enjoy your studies by moving out

    of your classroom and observe the surroundings. Look at the

    landscapes in Figure 1.24 and try out Activity 12.


    Activity 12

    Study the landscapes in figure 1.24 and do the following:

    1. List the different objects in the four landscapes.

    2. Identify the materials that were used to draw or paint

    these landscapes.

    3. Discuss how space was used, how the shapes of different

    objects were painted/drawn and the sizes of objects were

    varied to achieve depth.

    Much as your environment is rich for your studies of a

    landscape, you do not have to include everything that you see.

    You need to select the best view. This can be done by using

    a view finder. A view finder is made by cutting a rectangular

    shape on a cardboard, as shown in Figure 1.25.


    Figure 1.25: A view finder

    How to use a view finder to study a landscape

    You hold your view finder in one hand and through its space,

    observe the landscape ahead of you. You then you sketch only

    those objects which appear within the view finder’s space.

    Look at the Figure 1.26.


    Take note:

    The closer the view finder is to your eyes the bigger the area

    of study and vice versa.

    Keep the distance between the view finder and your eyes

    uniform throughout your study of the landscape

    Activity 13

    Study of a landscape

    1. Using a cardboard and cutter, prepare your view finder.

    2. Go outside your classroom and use your view finder to

    select a suitable view from your surroundings.

    3. Draw or paint the landscape.

    4. Display your work and discuss it with your friends.

    Human figure drawing

    In Senior One, you were introduced to human figure drawing

    and you learnt that human figures can be drawn either from

    observation or imagination. You also learnt that getting the

    right posture (the way the human figure is sitting or standing)

    of the human figure is important. This demands for continuous

    practice with different studies of the human figure with

    different materials. Now study the images in Figure 1.27 and

    work out activity 14.


    Activity 14

    1. Study the seated figures in Figure 1.27 and discuss how

    lines, shape, colour, tones texture and space were used to

    bring out the posture.

    2. Draw one of these pictures on a piece of paper.

    3. Share your work with your neighbour and discuss it

    regarding the posture and use of space. How do the

    different parts of the body relate to each other in your

    drawing? (Proportions).

    How to get the right proportions

    In the examples above, you note that the artists tried to get the

    right proportions of the human figures. You can always check

    the proportions of your human figure drawing by comparing

    the size of the head to the rest of the body parts.

    Activity 15

    Stand up, look at each other and discuss the following:

    1. Compare the size of the arms to the rest of the body.

    2. Compare the size of the legs to the rest of the body.

    3. Lastly compare the size of the head to the rest of the body

    parts (i.e. the hands, legs and the torso).

    A fully grown human being is believed to have about eight

    head-lengths in height. Figures 1.28 and 1.29 show the

    relationship between the head-length and the rest of the body

    parts of the female and male human figures.



    You can observe that the elbow is at the same line with the

    navel for a standing posture. The lower leg matches with the

    upper leg and the torso in height. There are two head-lengths

    for the lower leg and the same applies to the upper leg and

    torso each. The height of the head matches with the length

    of the foot of the human figure. For example, observe the

    relationship of the body parts in Figure 1.30.


    Activity 16

    1. The following drawings were made by Senior Two

    students. Observe the human figures in Figure 1.31 and

    discuss the challenges with their proportions.


    2. Following the right proportions draw a human figure in a

    standing posture.

    3. Display your work and discuss it with friends, regarding

    proportions and posture.


    1. What is the difference between dry and wet media?

    2. Using materials of your choice, draw an insect or animal from

    your surroundings.

    3. Draw or paint a standing boy, dressed in a short sleeved shirt

    and a pair of shorts.


    Head-length: the size of the head from the chin to the end of the


    Imagination: using one’s mind to create ideas.

    Negative space: area around the objects in a drawing or painting.

    Observation: using eyes to look at something in details.

    Posture: the way a human figure appears to the viewer, either

    standing, sitting of sleeping.

    Positive space: the area occupied by objects in a drawing or painting.

    Proportions: relationship of different body parts of a given object.

    Resource: a set of things from which an idea is developed.

    Torso: the middle part of the human figure excluding the

    hands, legs and head.

    Landscape: a natural scenery which may include, plants houses,

    animals etc.

    Element of art: building blocks followed while making and talking

    about a work of art.

    View finder: a card with a square or rectangular space used to

    select a particular area in a landscape for study.

    Dry media: materials which do not flow such as pencils and


    Wet media: materials which flow as they are used in drawing

    such as painting.

    Still life: a study of objects in composition in reflection to their

    immediate background.

    Nature: a study of objects picked from the natural


    Principles of Art: guide lines or rules followed while making or

    talking about a work of art.

    File: 1
  • UNIT 2:Motifs, Patterns and Design Process

    My goals

    By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

    ⦿ Identify patterns from the surroundings.

    ⦿ Develop a motif for printing.

    ⦿ Print patterns on surfaces using stamping and stenciling.

    ⦿ Share ideas with others about own work.


    In Unit one, we explored objects from the environment for

    drawing and painting. But the same objects can be used

    in a different way. Look at the different objects from your

    surroundings (such as shirts, dresses, skirts, carpets and

    curtains). What patterns can you see? Now look at the examples

    in Figure 2.1 and do activity 1.


    Figure 2.1: Objects with different patterns

    Activity 1

    Identifying patterns

    1. Look at the designs on the works in Figure 2.1. Identify

    the shapes that were used to develop the patterns.

    2. Find some other patterns including some which look

    really Rwandan, either traditional or modern.

    3. Identify the shapes that were used to develop the


    4. Which shapes are natural and which ones are


    5. Mention some natural objects from which these patterns

    might have been gotten from.

    Indeed such interesting patterns can be got from objects from

    our environment. These include both natural and artificial

    objects. You may pick interest in their shapes, texture and

    colour in order to create your own pattern. Now look at some

    of the possible sources of patterns from the environment in

    figure 2.2




    Figure 2.2: Objects with patterns

    How to make a motif

    The process of making a motif (pattern) is what we call a

    design process. In order to make your pattern, you go through

    several steps and changes. For example, study the following

    steps of creating a motif from a frog.

     kStep 1

    Identify an interesting

    object from your

    surroundings. This is

    often called a source

    of inspiration. Draw

    it on a piece of paper

    as shown in Figure


    Figure 2.3 A toad

    Step 2

    Simplify the shapes into outlines. You could join two of these

    shapes facing and touching each other, to create a pattern

    as shown in Figure 2. 4. This can be done with the help of a

    tracing paper


     kStep 3

    Shade these shapes into

    black patches to create

    positives as shown

    in Figure 2.5. The

    remaining white space

    is called negative.

    kStep 4

    This could be repeated

    and joined as a reflection

    on the same paper, as

    shown in Figure 2.6.

    Look at the pattern being


    Figure 2.6: Repeating the patterns to enrich the design

    Step 5

    The design can be repeated to create an interesting pattern

    for your motif. Look at Figure 2.7. The black patches form the

    positives and the white space forms the negatives.


    Activity 2

    1. Choose a different natural object, animal, flower or plant

    (not a toad).

    2. Follow the steps above and develop your own pattern for


    3. Display your work and discuss it with your friends

    regarding its attractiveness and movements.

    Take note:

    ·· When you are creating a pattern for printing, try to balance

    the positives with negatives.

    ·· There is no particular way of organising the shapes for your

    pattern. The arrangement largely depends on your creativity.

    ·· While creating a motif, it is very important to follow rhythm

    (Movement and balance).

    After developing a pattern on a piece of paper, it is your duty

    as a designer to transfer it on to another material where it

    can be used for other purposes. This can be done by printing.

    Printing is a process of reproducing a pattern or design on a

    given surface. Printing is done in several ways, but at this

    moment we are going to look at impression, stamping and


    Printing by impression

    Sometimes you can transfer a pattern from one source to

    another by impression. In order to use this method, you need

    a pattern from a hard surface, such as a stone, tree bark, a

    coin, shoe sole, etc. Then you use this pattern to create an

    interesting design in colours of your choice. For example, you

    can develop a pattern by following the steps below.

    k Step 1

    Get a surface from

    your surroundings,

    with an interesting

    pattern. For

    example, look at

    the surfaces in

    Figures 2.8 and


    Figure 2.8: Texture of a

    chair seat

    Figure 2.9: Texture of a

    wire mesh

    Step 2

    Put the piece of paper on top of the object with the pattern

    and rub the surface with a pencil so that the pattern is seen on

    the paper. For example, the pattern in Figure 2.10 was taken

    from a wire mesh.


    kStep 3

    Repeat this several

    times until you cover

    the whole space with

    the pattern. You could

    use different coloured

    pencils to enrich your

    pattern as shown in

    Figure 2.11.

    Activity 3

    Creating a pattern by impression

    1. Pick an object with a pattern from your environment and

    create a pattern using the impression printing technique.

    Use different colours of your choice.

    2. Display and discuss your work with your classmates.

    Focus on the choice of colours, neatness and

    attractiveness of the pattern.

    Take note:

    ·· Printing by impression is used to create designs on a small

    scale and it is better used on paper.

    ·· Using different colours makes the pattern look more attractive.

    Printing by stamping

    Probably you have seen stamps with letters and images, used

    in different places such as schools, post offices and hospitals.

    These are sometimes circular, square or rectangular. Such

    stamps are used to pass on the same message to many


    Observe the pictures in Figure 2.12,as well as Figure 2.13

    and answer the questions in activity 4.



    Activity 4

    Creating a pattern by stamping

    1. What is unique or special about the letters and images

    on these stamps?

    2. How do these stamps operate?

    You may have observed that these stamps have images which

    stick out but they are inverted, that is the reverse of the stamp

    you want. When a stamp is pressed on to an ink pad, it picks

    up ink and when it is pressed on a piece of paper, it releases the

    ink following the protruding or sticking out images.

    The same idea can be used to create patterns through a process

    called stamping. This was briefly introduced to you in Senior

    One. You can use soft materials such as irish potatoes, or

    sweet potatoes and a cutter. You need the following materials;

    materials for printing, photo cutter, printing ink as shown in

    Figure 2.14.


    Consider the following steps.

    Step 1

    Draw a simple pattern on paper as shown in Figure 2.15. This

    can be developed from objects from your surroundings.


    kStep 2

    Slice the sweet

    potato into two parts

    as shown in Figure

    2.16. (Make sure

    the sliced part is


    jkStep 3

    Sketch the pattern on

    the flat surface of the

    potato with a pencil.

    Look at figure 2.17.

     iStep 4

    Then use a cutter to

    cut away the negative

    space to retain the

    pattern on the surface.

    Your pattern should

    be left protruding as

    shown in Figure 2.18.

    Figure 2.18: Cutting the pattern on a potato

    kStep 5

    Dip the pattern in

    colour or ink as shown

    in Figure 2.19. Make

    sure that it is only the

    pattern which touches

    the colour and the rest

    of the potato remains


    kStep 5

    Print your pattern on another

    surface (such as cloth or

    paper). The printing is repeated

    to form a complete design on

    the surface as shown in Figure



    Figure 2.20: The printed pattern

    The final work appears as shown in figure below


    Figure 2.21: The printed pattern

    Activity 5

    1. Follow the steps above and create your own design.

    2. Display your work and discuss it with your classmate.

    Printing by stenciling

    Stenciling as a printing technique, comes from the use of

    a stencil to transfer a given design on a given surface. A

    stencil can be made from a hard material (Figure 2.18) such

    as manilla paper or transparences. You need the following

    materials in place, then follow the steps given to make your



    Step 1: The design process

    Making a print usually begins with the design process. At this

    stage you make sketches of an object which inspires you from

    your surroundings as studied in Unit 1. The process continues

    until you prepare your motif or design on a piece of paper

    such as the one in Figure 2.23. Remember always to develop

    a well-balanced motif.


    Step 2: Fixing the stencil on to the motif

    If your stencil is transparent, use a masking tape to fix it on

    top of your motif on paper, along a flat surface. This can be on

    top of a table or desk as shown in Figure 2.24. This is done

    so that you can observe the design from underneath. If you are

    using an opaque stencil such as a manilla paper, use a tracing

    paper to transfer your design on to the stencil.


    Figure 2.24 Fixing a stencil on the motif

    kStep 3: Cutting out the


    Use a cutter to cut out

    the pattern on the stencil

    as shown in Figure 2.25.

    When cutting the stencil,

    you should only cut out

    the positives and leave out

    the negatives. Take care to

    avoid hurting yourself

    Figure 2.25 Cutting the pattern on a stencil

    Step 4: Stretching out the


    kStretch the cloth on top of the

    table. You can use tacks to fix

    it in the same position. Look

    at Figure 2.26. Remember

    before printing the cloth has to

    be washed, dried and ironed

    in order for your printing paste

    to register well.

    Figure 2.26 A cloth stretched on a table ready for printing

    Step 5: Fixing the stencil on

    the cloth

    Place your stencil on thek

    surface of the material you

    are going to print on as shown

    in Figure 2.27. You could use

    pins to fix the motif in position.

    Figure 2.27: Fitting the motif on the cloth for printing

    Step 6: Printing with a spongel;

    Use a sponge to print your design

    as shown in Figure 2.28. Repeat

    the process until the whole cloth

    is covered with the design. Take

    care as you print; when you apply

    a lot of force, the printing ink can

    easily spread beyond the intended

    lines. On the other hand, if you

    print with too gently, the design

    becomes faint.

    Figure 2.28: Printing the pattern on a cloth with a sponge


    Activity 6

    1. Design your pattern on cloth by following the steps


    2. Display your work and discuss it with friends regarding

    balance, rhythm and neatness.


    1. Get a source of inspiration from your surrounding and

    develop a motif.

    2. Choose a method of your choice (either stamping or

    stencilling) and print your motif on a cloth of half a square


    3. What is the use of a stencil in the process of printing?

    4. What is the difference between stamping and stenciling in


    Take note: Your design should be balanced and flowing.


    Balance: a state of equilibrium where elements of art are seen

    to agree with each other in a work of art.

    Design process: steps taken to develop a design or motif. This usually

    involves sketching of the ideas as they are developed.

    Flow: movement of patterns in a design.

    Motif: a set of patterns in a design.

    Pattern: a repeated form or design mainly used to decorate


    Rhythm: repeated art elements to form an interesting movement.

    Source of inspiration: something from which an idea is got.

    Stencil: a thin material with a design cut into it for printing


    Design: the art of making arrangements or patterns to produce

    a decorative work of art.

    Stamping: a technique of creating patterns by pressing a motif

    with ink on a given surface.

    Stenciling: creating a design by use of a stencil.

  • UNIT3:Letter Styles, Illustration and Design Technology

    My goals

    By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

    ⦿ Explain the basic elements of design.

    ⦿ Write using calligraphy.

    ⦿ Design a magazine cover.

    ⦿ Communicate through designing.

    ⦿ Share ideas about own work and that of others.


    In Senior One you studied about letter construction and made

    designs with letters. You also learnt that neatness is important

    for producing attractive designs. In this unit, we are going

    to look at other designs that can be made with letters. Look

    at the designs in Figure 3.1 and answer the questions that



    Figure 3.1: Different designs of cards

    Activity 1

    1. What messages do you read ifrom the four different


    2. Describe the colours that were used in the four different


    3. What type of letters were used in the designs?

    The major aspects of a design

    I hope you were able to note that letters play a very important

    role in bringing out the message for each card. Letters must

    be carefully designed to look neat and legible.

    Therefore, the key aspects which must be considered while

    designing cards, posters and book covers include the following:

    ·· The layout: this refers to a particular plan or outline acceptable

    for a given design. Each design has a particular layout. This

    has to be spread out for clarity.

    · Message: the design has to communicate to the observer.

    · Lettering: the choice and construction of letters in a design.

    Letters have to be legible so as to bring out a clear message

    to the observer.

    · Balance: space has to be wisely distributed throughout the


    · Neatness: a design has to be clean and attractive to the


    · Colour choice: the colours used must relate to the

    message being communicated. Dull colours tend to kill the

    attractiveness of the design. Contrast is often followed when

    applying colours in a design.

    Activity 2

    Discuss how the aspects discussed above were achieved

    in the works presented in Figure 3.1

    Different letter styles in design

    We have already seen that letters play an important role in

    conveying a message in many designs. In Senior One you

    practiced letter construction and you were introduced to

    different letter styles. By now you know the difference between

    upper case and lower case. The choice of letters depends on

    the nature of the design you want. There are two major types

    of letter fonts; i.e. formal letters and fancy letters.

    Formal letters are not so decorated. They are easy to read and

    are often used to pass on important messages to the viewer.

    Look at the fonts in Figure 3.2.



    Formal letters are good for designing posters and book covers

    which carry formal information. Look at the following examples

    in Figure 3.3


    On the other hand, there are fancy letters. These look

    complicated and more difficult to construct and read. They are

    often used to design works which are more decorative such

    as cards and fancy magazines. For example look at the letter

    fonts in Figure 3.4.


    Figure 3.4: Fancy letters

    You can use a grid while constructing different letters, for

    example look at Figure 3.5.


    Activity 3

    1. Practice with letter construction by following the guide

    lines you learnt in Senior One. These include; the base

    line, mid line and cape line for the upper case, and the

    ascender, mid line, base line and descender for the lower

    case in addition to a grid.

    2. Try it out with the formal and fancy letters.

    How to design a magazine cover

    For any design work, it is important to plan for it by going

    through the design process. You must know the proper lay out

    and the main features of the work you are going to design.

    Activity 4

    1. Look at the magazines in Figures 3.6, 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9,

    and discuss the features common to all the magazines.

    2. Write the title for each magazine.

    3. Mention the author for each magazine.



    You may have observed that the examples presented have

    many words and images. However, in designing you have to

    make your work simple and attractive. A magazine has the

    following important components;

    · A front cover; with a name of the magazine, the different titles

    of the articles found inside, and an illustration or illustrations.

    Titles can be arranged in any way that is interesting to the

    observer as long as balance is achieved.

    · A back cover which usually has an image of the author and


    Look at the layout in Figure 3.10.


    Take note:

    · Any design you make must fit within the particular

    measurements (dimensions).

    · The front and back cover of a magazine share the same

    dimensions (A × B) where “A” is the length and “B” the

    height .

    · The choice of colours should match with the message on the


    · The illustration should add to the meaning of the title of the

    magazine. This has to be simplified to avoid confusing the


    Activity 5

    1. Design a magazine cover with a title “The Beauty of

    wild ld Life” written by Peter Kayibanda. The magazine

    should have dimensions 15cm by 20cm. Use only three


    2. Display your work and discuss it with your classmate.


    Using letters of your preference, design an invitation card for

    Senior Two students. The card should invite students for a

    nature talk to be held at your school on a date of your choice.


    Author: an individual who writes a book.

    Balance: a state of equal distribution of elements in a

    given design.

    Design process: the stages of making sketches for a given design

    Fancy letters: the type of letters with decorations.

    Feature: character of a given work of art.

    Formal letters: the type of letters with no decorations. These are

    often easy to read and construct.

    Illustration: an image or a set of images which accompanies

    a design to add to its meaning.

    Layout: the spread out or general outline of a design

    presented on a flat surface.

    Lettering: the art of letter construction regarding type, size

    and neatness.

    Message: the ability of a design to communicate.

    Neatness: the appearance of a design with minimum


    Publisher: the organisation which organises, proofreads

    and prints out a particular book or magazine.

  • UNIT 4:Methods of Modelling Clay Figures and Forms

    My goals

    By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

    ⦿ Describe the process of preparing clay.

    ⦿ Make a sculpture in clay.

    ⦿ Decorate the surface of a clay piece.

    ⦿ Make a mask and decorate it.

    ⦿ Share ideas with others about modelling.


    Modelling is a very old activity which has been done by

    different cultures. It includes both pottery and sculpture.

    There are many figures which have been formed using clay.

    For example look at the ceramic wares from Gatagara Pottery

    in Figure 4.1.


    Activity 1

    1. Look at Figure 4.1 and mention the different objects in

    the picture.

    2. Identify the patterns used to decorate these objects.

    3. Which materials were used to make these products?

    In Senior One you studied about modelling where you learnt

    about clay and its uses. You also studied about the different

    methods of making ceramics (such as pots, cups and bowls);

    these include pinch, coil and slabs. You studied about the

    different methods of decorating ceramic articles. You learnt

    that clay was used as the basic material for ceramics. Clay

    can further be used in other ways.

    In this unit, we are going to learn more about modelling in clay

    by exploring additive and subtractive methods. For example,

    look at the two sculptures in Figure 4.2.


    Figure 4.2: A male and female sculpture made out of clay

    Activity 2

    1. Observe the sculpture in Figure 4.2 and identify the

    activites represented.

    2. Discuss the sculptures in terms of form and use of clay.

    3. Look at the surface of these sculptures and discuss how

    their texture was made.

    Clay preparation

    In Senior One you learnt about clay preparation. You studied

    about four different methods of clay preparation namely;

    The plastic method: The method is often used in brick

    making. The available moisture in clay

    is used to prepare it.

    The wet method: Where clay is dissolved in water to

    form shap. Then it is wedged to loose

    moisture and prepare it for use. It is

    good for making pottery.

    The dry method: Clay is dried, pounded and crushed

    into powder form. It is often used in

    factories for making tiles.

    The semi dry method: Combines both dry and plastics


    Each method has got advantages depending on where it

    is being used. However, it is always important to get rid of

    unwanted materials such as stones, plant roots from clay

    during its preparation. Grog is always added in clay for

    sculpture in order to make it stronger and to ease the firing


    Remember, clay has to be kneaded and pressed during its

    preparation in order to get rid of air pockets. This is also done

    in order for the clay to become more plastic.

    Activity 3

    1. Discuss the four different methods of clay preparation.

    2. Which method is more suitable for preparing clay for


    3. Which method is more suitable for the preparation of

    clay for sculpture?

    4. Follow an appropriate method and prepare your clay.

    Keep it in a safe place.

    Take note:

    · The quality of clay determines the quality of the object

    formed. When clay is well prepared, it can be used to form

    fine objects.

    · Objects can easily break if they are made from poorly prepared


    · Ready clay should not crack when pressed, it should be even

    such as the one in Figure 4.3.


    Moulding different clay figures

    Your hand is the basic tool while moulding clay. This applies

    to both additive and subtractive methods of forming art works.

    Clay figures can be made by use of the following methods:

    · Using coils

    · Using slabs

    · Additive method

    · Subtractive method

    Activity 4

    Discuss the four methods above and write how each one of

    them can be applied for making clay work.

    make clay figures such as masks. As you may have observed,

    these methods are commonly used to make pottery and

    ceramic sculpture. You can make a sculpture using the additive

    method, by putting together small pieces of clay until you get

    the whole sculpture desired. For example, the sculptures in

    Figure 4.2 were made using the additive method.

    Substractive method is where you begin with a big piece of

    material which you keep reducing until the required sculpture

    is got. Subtractive method commonly applies to such materials

    as wood and stone. However, it could be used in clay. For such

    a method, you pile up a lump of clay, then you keep removing

    pieces until you get the required form.

    How to make a mask from a mold

    Remember, a mask is an object which is normally put on the

    face to disguise one’s identity. Since it is to be worn on the

    face, a mask is usually made of light materials such as wood,

    plastic and paper. For example, look at the masks in Figure



    Figure 4.4: Local masks

    You can make a mask of your own using a mold. A mold is a

    form which is used to give shape to another softer material. In

    this unit we shall use clay to make a mold.

    In order to make a mask using a mold, you begin by thinking

    about the purpose of your mask. From the purpose you can

    develop a title for your mask. For example, your mask could

    be used to entertain people on a festive occasion. You need

    the following materials in place.

    · Clay

    · Waste papers

    · Glue

    · Polythene material

    · Vaseline

    · Colours

    · Brushes

    · Small stones or seeds

    · Raffia and threads

    Then you follow the steps below:

    lStep 1

    Develop sketches for

    your mask as shown

    in Figure 4.5. Making

    a sketch helps you

    to develop and put

    ideas together and it

    acts as a guide while

    forming your work.

    Figure 4.5: Sketches for a mask showing the front and side view

    Step 2

    kUse clay to make your mask

    mold. Look at Figure 4.6.

    Avoid creating pockets on

    your mold. These are areas

    with depressions within

    the mold. Such pockets

    make it difficult to remove

    the mask off your mold.

    Figure 4.6: Forming a mold for the mask out of clay

    Step 4

    lUse a tool to create a smooth

    finishing on your mold as

    shown in Figure 4.7. This

    could be a table knife or a

    smooth stick. This would

    further help you to remove

    your mask so easily. Never

    allow your mold to get

    dry. Always cover it with a

    polythene material whenever

    you break off.

    Step 4

    lWhen you are done

    with the mold, smear

    its surface with

    Vaseline. (Figure

    4.8). This eases the

    removal of the mask

    after completion

    Figure 4.8: Smearing the clay mold with vaseline

    Step 5

    oTear small pieces of paper

    and carefully use glue to

    fit them on your mold

    as shown in Figure 4.9.

    When you are done with

    the first layer, apply glue

    and add another layer.

    Whenever you add three

    to four layers expose your

    work to get dry.

    Figure 4.9: Applying papers on the clay mold

    Step 6

    lWhen you are done and

    satisfied with the thickness

    of the mask, carefully get

    it off the mold. This can be

    done by scooping clay out

    and you remain with the

    image in papers. Then turn it

    around and work on its inner

    parts. Look at Figure 4.10.

    The inner part of your mask

    should be as smooth as the

    outer part

    Figure 4.10: Finishing the inner part of the mask after

    Step 7

    lThen cut out the

    provision for the eyes

    as shown in Figure

    4.11. Prepare colours

    and paint your mask

    according to your plan

    or sketch. Add a string

    for holding your mask in


    Figure 4.11: Cutting out the provision for the eyes

    Step 8

    kYour mask could be

    decorated further by

    adding more colours,

    raffia and a rough texture

    with small stones or

    seeds. For example look

    at Figure 4.12.

    Activity 4

    1. Follow the steps above and make your mask to be

    used on an occasion. Decorate it using the available


    2. Display your work and discuss it with classmates

    Decorating clay surfaces

    Clay naturally has its texture. But this can be changed by use

    of different tools to improve the appearance of the art work.

    Consider the following techniques of decorating clay


    · Smoothening: the article is made smooth with a tool, then it

    is fired.

    · Glazing: glaze is applied to the surface of the article at bisque

    level, the article is then fired for the second time. Glazing can

    be done in one uniform colour or with patterns.

    · Painting: a technique where colours are applied to an article

    after firing. Such colours are applied following particular


    · Incision: this is done by using a tool to cut patterns into the

    surface of an article.

    · Building: the surface of an article is decorated by adding small

    pieces on the surface while following a particular pattern.

    Activity 5

    Observe the clay pieces in Figure 4.13 and 4.14, and

    mention the technique which was used to decorate its

    surface. (Choose from these; building, incision, painting,

    glazing and smoothening).




    1. Use clay to prepare a mold of your choice. Don’t let your

    mold dry up.

    2. Using waste papers and glue, prepare a mask and decorate


    3. Display and discuss your skills regarding creativity and use

    of materials.

    4. Describe four techniques of decorating a pottery article.


    Grog: crashed fired clay which is usually added in

    clay to make it stronger and to ease its firing


    Additive method: a method of making clay works by putting

    together smack pieces of clay.

    Subtractive method: a method of making artworks by removing

    small bits off the original shape until the

    required form is got.

    Glaze: a coating of coloured, opaque, or transparent

    material applied to ceramics before firing.

    Mold: a hollow form or matrix for giving a particular

    shape to something in a molten or plastic


    Kneading: a processing of folding, pressing and stretching

    a soft substance such as clay, and making it a

    smooth uniform mass.

    Pressing: exerting force on a substance such as clay to

    flatten it.

    Pocket: depressions within a given surface.

  • UNIT 5:Weaving using Basic Local Materials

    My goals

    By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

    ⦿ Identify materials and tools used for weaving.

    ⦿ Describe the techniques of weaving with raffia.

    ⦿ Identify the decoration techniques for weaving.

    ⦿ Share ideas with others about own work.


    Weaving is practiced by many different cultures in the world. It

    refers to the process of interlacing strands of a given material.

    The practice usually involves the use of natural materials such

    as palm leaves, sisal, raffia, different plant stems and plant

    fibers. For example look at raffia in Figure 5.1. Raffia is a type

    of a natural yarn. Have you ever seen and touched it before?


    Figure 5.1: Raffia

    In Rwanda, there are many local products woven from Raffia.

    Raffia can be dipped in dyes to change its colour according to

    the products to be made, for example look at Figure 5.2.


    Activity 1

    1. List objects from your local area which are made from


    2. Which other materials are used together with raffia to

    make these objects?

    3. Visit your local area and get raffia (coloured and


    There are many products made by weaving raffia. For example

    look at the different products in Figure 5.3.


    Figure 5.3: Products made from raffia

    Activity 2

    1. Observe the objects in Figure 5.3 and discuss their


    2. Discuss how these products were made. What style was


    Weaving techniques

    The appearance and texture of a woven work depends on the

    weaving techniques used. There are many types of weaving

    techniques that can be used to make raffia products. These

    include; plain weave, twill weave, satin weave and Ghiord’s


    ;(a) The plain weave:

    This is the simplest

    weaving technique. The

    weft weave goes under

    one warp at a time.

    The process is repeated

    as one weaves. For

    example, look at Figure

    5.4. This type of weave

    is also known as a 1/1

    weaving style.

    (b) Twill weave:

    For this style, a weft

    goes over several warps

    before going down and

    then under two warps. The

    most common twill weave

    is shown in Figure 5.5.

    This is a 2/2 twill weave.

    Figure 5.5: Twill weave (2/2 pattern)

    Twill weaves often look

    heavier and stronger and

    therefore are used to make

    long lasting works.

    l(c) Satin weave:

    This is a more delicate and

    fancy weaving technique. For

    this style the weft goes over

    four or more warp before going

    down. Then it goes under only

    one warp as shown in Figure


    Figure 5.6: A 4/1 satin weave

    j(d) Ghiordes Knot:

    This is a type of knot

    where a yarn is passed

    over two warp yarns and

    is then pulled through

    between these two

    warps. Then the knot

    is cut to form a pile as

    shown in Figure 5.7.

    This type of knot is often

    used to finish edges of

    certain woven work such

    as carpets.

    Twinning weave

    This is the type of weave where two left strands are twisted

    or interlaced as they are made to pass over the left as shown

    in Figure 5.8. Twinning is often used in making baskets and



    Activity 3

    1. Study the weaving techniques above and try them on

    your own using raffia.

    2. Display weaves to your friends and discuss it with them.

    Design Patterns for weaving

    The weaving techniques discussed can be used to make such

    products as carpets, table and door mats. The patterns of

    the woven work largely depends on your creativity. In some

    patterns you may include words yet in others you simply deal

    with different colours of raffia. Observe Figures 5.8 and 5.9,

    and work out activity 3.

    Activity 4

    Observe Figures 5.8 and 5.9 and do the following;

    1. What weaving technique was used in the two works?

    2. Identify similar work from your surroundings.



    Coming up with such quality work may be difficult for you this time.

    However, simpler activities would make you improve on your skill with

    continuous practice. In the next activity, you need raffia in different

    colours (where possible) and a pair of scissors or a cutter.

    You can weave a square or rectangular table mat by following the

    steps below. You could join two or three pieces of raffia for one strand

    depending on the strength required.

    Step 1

    Get pieces of raffia and trim them to about 30cm. Look at

    Figure 5.11.


    lStep 2

    Using either a plain weave

    or a twill weave, make your

    table mat. Begin with two

    strands at right angles and

    then keep adding on the two

    adjacent sides. Leave raffia

    of about 5cm on either side

    of your table mat as shown

    in Figure 5.12. Follow an

    even number for both the

    warp and weft in order to

    ease the finishing.

    Figure 5.12: Trimmed pieces of raffia

    Step 3

    lAfter weaving the required

    size of the table mat, seal

    off the edges by tying the

    first strand with the third

    in the row. Look at Figure

    5.13. Remember, your

    table mat must be kept


    Figure 5.13: Sealing the edges

    Step 4

    kUsing either a cutter or a pair

    of scissors, cut off the excess

    raffia on all sides. This is what

    we call “finishing” the article.

    Look at the finished table mat

    in Figure 5.14.

    Figure 5.14: A finished table mat.

    Activity 5

    1. Use raffia to weave a table mat by following the steps


    2. Finish the table mat by cutting off excess raffia.

    3. Display your work and discuss it in terms of the weaving

    pattern used and the neatness of the woven work.


    1. Collect raffia and dye it in two different colours.

    2. Weave a small piece (15cm by 15cm) using a satin weave.

    the warp should be in a different colour from the weft?

    3. Finish your art piece by cutting off all unnecessary pieces of


    4. What is the difference between twill weave and plain



    Finishing: trimming off unnecessary yarn from a woven


    Ghiorde’s knot: a Turkish knot where a piece of yarn is tied and

    twisted along two warps to form a pile. It is

    usually used in making carpets.

    Pile: upright loops of strands in a weave.

    Plain weave: a type of weave where the weft goes over and

    under one warp during the weaving process.

    Satin weave: a weaving technique where a weft goes over four

    wefts and one weft under.

    Strand: fibers or yarn combined to form one piece for


    Twill weave: a weaving technique where the weft goes

    over and under two warps during the weaving


    Warp: vertical strands in the weaving process.

    Weave: interlacing threads/yarn to form an article.

    Weaver: a person who weaves.

    Weft: horizontal strands which go over and under

    warp in the weaving process.

    Strand: a single thin length of something such as fibre

    especially twisted together with others.

  • UNIT 6:Motifs, pattern in embroidery, batik, tie and dye and design technology

    My goals

    By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

    ⦿ Describe the materials and tools used for designing


    ⦿ Create motifs using different tools for textile decoration.

    ⦿ Make patterns using batik technique.

    ⦿ Create a pattern using tie and dye.


    In Unit two you made patterns using different printing

    techniques. The techniques you used are referred to as surface

    resist. There are other methods of resisting a liquid (colour or

    dyes) from entering a cloth or another surface. In this unit we

    are going to study about batik and tie and dye methods of

    textile decoration. These are called bound resist techniques.

    For example look at the patterns in Figures 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and



    Activity 1

    Identifying patterns

    1. Look at Figures 6.1 to 6.4 and differentiate batik

    designs from tie and dye designs.

    2. What makes the two patterns different?

    3. Identify the colours used.

    4. Look for similar patterns from your local area and

    discuss them with your classmates.

    You may observe that patterns made using batik technique

    are bolder than those made using tie and dye. However, one

    has to plan the patterns in advance before using either batik

    or tie and dye

    Making motifs and patterns for batik

    In batik, we use wax to resist dyes from occupying certain

    areas in your pattern. Whenever you are applying dyes, begin

    with light colours, then add dark colours as you complete the

    work. These colours mix with each other to create interesting


    In order to make a batik article, you need the following


    · Pencil and paper

    · Cloth (A cotton cloth works better). Remember, you should

    wash and iron the cloth before using it in any design work.

    · Wax (this can be either bee wax or paraffin wax)

    · Brushes of different sizes

    · Dyes of different colours

    · Containers for mixing dyes

    · A heating source

    · A source pan

    · Rough papers, such as news papers

    · Iron box or flat iron

    Then follow these steps to make your batik article.

    Step 1

    ;Using a pencil, sketch your pattern

    on paper. Your pattern should be

    simple as the one shown shown in

    Figure 6.5. A complicated pattern

    will give you a hard time to work

    on. Mix the dyes in water, following

    the instructions for mixing which

    appear on these dyes.

    Figure 6.5: Sketches for a batik work

    [Step 2

    Spread your cloth on a table. Then

    transfer the sketch on to the cloth

    as you follow the proportions of your

    sketch. Look at Figure 6.6.

    This can be done by re-drawing it with

    a pencil or you may use a stencil if the

    sketch does not need enlargement.

    Figure 6.6: Transferring the sketch on to the cloth

    kStep 3

    Put wax in a source pan and heat it

    until it melts into liquid as shown in

    Figure 6.7. Use little heat when the

    wax melts, to keep it in liquid form.

    Figure 6.7: melting wax

     lStep 4

    Dip the brush bristles in the molten

    wax and block the sketched lines on the

    cloth as in figure 6.8. Never leave the

    brush in hot wax for long, it could easily

    get burnt.

    You should put a paper or papers below

    the cloth in order to stop it from getting

    stuck on the table.

    Figure 6.8: Applying wax on the clot

    iStep 5

    Using a relatively big brush, paint

    your cloth with a light colour. Then

    let the cloth dry. Never dry the cloth

    under hot sun because it melts the

    wax put on earlier. See figure 6.9.

    Figure 6.9: Painting the cloth with dyes

    ;Step 6

    Apply wax to places where you want

    to maintain the first colour. Then

    paint the cloth with another colour

    (darker than the first).

    Look at figure 6.10

    Figure 6.10: Painting the cloth with wax

    Step 7

    When you are done with the colours you wanted, apply wax

    on the entire cloth. Let it dry up and then crackle it (create

    cracks through the wax).

    ;Step 8

    Paint the cloth with

    the darkest colour as

    shown in Figure 6.11.

    Let it dry up.

    Figure 6.11: Painting the cloth with the darkest colour

    lStep 9

    Crease the cloth to remove

    the wax as shown in Figure


    When you are done, remove

    the excess wax by putting

    the cloth between papers

    and ironing it as shown in

    Figure 6.13.

    Figure 6.12: Creasing the cloth to remove wax



    Activity 2

    1. Follow the steps given to make your own batik article.

    2. Display and discuss your work with your classmate.

    Take note

    Melting wax and making batik work requires a well ventilated


    Be careful as you work with hot molten wax. It can easily burn


    Making patterns for Tie and dye

    The process of making patterns for tie and dye begin with

    tightly tying the cloth, and dipping it in boiling dyes before

    bringing it out to dry. Therefore the name comes from the

    process of making the patterns, “first tie the cloth and then

    dye it in dyes”.

    To make tie and dye patterns, you need the following


    · Cloth

    · Raffia or nylon threads

    · Dyes

    · Water

    · Heat source

    · Cutters

    · Wax

    ·· Salt (this is usually added in the dyes as they are boiled)

    Patterns for tie and dye largely depend on how the cloth is

    treated before dyeing it. The cloth is tied in order to resist

    dyes from going to unwanted areas. After tying the cloth, it is

    dipped in dyes and boiled for about 30 minutes (or according

    to the instructions on the tin for a given dye).

    It is then removed from the dye and made to dry under shade.

    The tying should be tight in order to limit dye from going to

    places they are not supposed to.

    You can use different colours to dye your cloth. But before

    dyeing the cloth in another colour, the first colour should be

    dry. Then more tying is done to preserve the first colour. The

    threads are not removed until the cloth is totally dry.

    Activity 3

    1. Look for tie and dye patterns from your local area.

    2. What shapes can you see in these patterns?

    There are several ways of treating the cloth, these include:

    1. Folding and gathering

    2. Stitchery

    1. Folding and gathering

    There are several ways of folding and gathering the cloth

    these include pleats, strips, circles and spirals. These are

    demonstrated in Figure 6.14. In all the styles shown, the cloth

    is twisted first, then it is tied to form a given pattern.


    Figure 6.15: Ways of making patterns for tie and dye

    After folding and gathering the cloth, its is then tied and

    emersed in dyes as shown in figure 6.16. The cloth is boiled

    for some time as indicated on the dyes, look at Figure 6.17.

    After dyeing the cloth it is left to dry under a shade if you are

    to use several colours, the process is repeated. You add more

    ties after drying the cloth and dip it into the second colour.

    Then when you are done with all colours, the cloth is unfolded

    and ironed and the patterns of final work appear as shown in

    figure 6.18


    Activity 4

    1. Observe the patterns in Figure 6.14 and try them out on

    a piece of cloth.

    2. Dye the cloth to see the outcome.

    Now take a look at how the patterns look like on the final work

    in Figure 6.18, after dyeing the cloth.


    2. Stitchery

    For this technique, you need a needle and threads (preferably

    nylon threads or raffia). For example the pattern in Figure 6.15

    was a result of stitchery. You begin by sketching the patterns

    on the cloth, then you sew them with a running stitch. But

    you leave threads of a reasonable length hanging. These are

    the threads used to tie the cloth when it comes to dyeing it.

    Figure 6.19 A pattern made using stichery techniques. You

    can now look at the pattern made by use of threads on a cloth

    in figure 6.20.



    While using the stitchery technique, threads are pulled and

    tied at intervals depending on the planned design and colours.

    Then the cloth is dipped in dyes following the same process as

    the one you used in folding together on page 83. Your pattern

    may come out as shown in the figure 6.21.


    Take note:

    · Just like the case of batik works, the process of dyeing the

    cloth should always begin with light colours.

    · You need to know the colour combinations before doing tie

    and dye. These were studied in Unit one.

    Activity 5

    1. Draw a pattern for stitchery on a piece of paper.

    2. Sew the stitch on a piece of cloth.

    3. Dye the pattern and observe the outcome


    Create a pattern on a cloth (1/2 square meter) using one of the

    techniques discussed in this unit.

    1. Get a piece of cloth (1/2 square meter) and create patterns

    by folding it into either circles or pleats

    2. Tie the cloth into different values and dip it into a light dye

    3. Repeat the processes in ‘2’ atwith different parts in the

    second dye.

    4. Unfold the cloth and let it dry. Then iron your cloth and

    display it.


    Bound resist: a technique of decorating cloth in which dyes

    are stopped from going to certain areas on a

    cloth by either tying, or using wax.

    Surface resist: a technique of decorating a cloth in which

    printing ink is limited to particular areas by using

    a stencil, or graphic film or photo emulsion.

    Crackling: a technique used to create rugged lines on a

    batik work when it is completed.

    Stitchery: a tie and dye method in which threads are used

    to create patterns on a cloth.

    Dye: a material which is used to change the colour

    of another materials either directly or by use of


    Crease: a process of squeezing a cloth in order to remove

    excess wax.

    Pleats: folds created in a pieces of cloth as a process of

    creating patterns on it before dipping it in dyes.

  • UNIT 7:The Development of Art Through different eras in the World

    My goals

    By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

    Identify the characteristics of art in some African and

    European regions.

    ⦿ Describe the characteristics of works by renowned artists.

    ⦿ Appreciate the value of culture in the society.

    ⦿ Discuss the major art sites in the world.

    ⦿ Appreciate modern and abstract art.


    Art reflects people’s way of life. This is majorly because people

    create art according to their social, economic and political

    background. Therefore, by studying the history of art from

    different regions and periods, we can understand the nature

    of different societies in the world. This helps us learn about

    the works they produced, their methods and techniques, and

    the materials they used, in order to boost our creative abilities

    as we produce our own art.

    For example, look at the change in style of the art works in

    Figures 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4 and 7.5.





    Activity 1

    Observe the art works in Figures 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4 and

    7.5, and do the following:

    1. Discuss their differences regarding the following aspects;

    (a) use of space

    (b) subject matter

    (c) the light effect in the composition

    2. Identify the colours used in these compositions.

    3. Mention any paintings from your local area with some of

    these characteristics.

    The paintings in Figures 7.1 to 7.4 and the sculpture in

    Figure 7.5 show the trend of art from the pre-historic, the

    renaissance, to the modern and abstract art. Indeed art has

    greatly changed and a number of materials discovered to date

    in painting, sculpture, pottery, the graphic arts, textile designs

    and architecture. But in this unit, we are going to look at

    Modern and Abstract Art.

    What is Modern Art?

    The word modern has been used to refer to the most recent

    things as opposed to the past. Sometimes the past is related

    to what is traditional. For example in your community, what

    do you consider to be the past and what is modern?

    Modern art can be traced from the period of industrial

    revolution (18th and 19th century). This was a period with

    many changes in manufacturing, technology and transport.

    These changes greatly affected the cultural, social and

    economic conditions of the western world.

    Before the 18th century, the church was the major consumer

    of art and therefore artists painted compositions from biblical

    stories. But as the industrial revolution progressed, people of

    the high class begun demanding for art works. Besides, as

    people’s way of life changed, artists became more interested

    in painting about the people and places which interested

    them. Therefore the subject matter changed. For example look

    at the painting in Figure 7.6.


    Activity 2

    Observe the painting in Figure 7.6 and discuss the following


    1. How many people are in the composition?

    2. From which direction is light coming from in the


    3. What is the story presented in the composition?

    4. From which setting is the action taking place?

    5. Draw this composition on a paper and paint it while

    trying to copy the colours as they appear in this


    6. Display and discuss your paintings with other groups

    Well, some scholars believe that modern art is likely to have

    begun with the work of the French painter, Jacques Louis David,

    the founder of the style called Neoclassism. He was born in

    1748 and died in 1825. He painted various compositions

    from stories around French politics and Figure 7.6 is one of


    The painting presents a dramatic composition in which three

    brothers are saluting toward three swords held up by their

    father. At the extreme corner, there are women in grief behind

    the father, an indication that they were not in support of their

    sons’ joining the army.

    A number of art schools had been started and they trained

    artists following ideas that were developed in the Renaissance.

    Modern art was started by artists who kept working against the

    norms learnt from these art schools. Therefore, other scholars

    consider modern art as the style of art which existed between

    1870 and 1970.

    What are the characteristics of modern art?

    1. New types of art were formed during this period, for

    example; collage art, animation, performance art and kinetic


    2. New materials were discovered and used in painting, such

    as fixing objects on canvas paintings. Also, found objects

    were used in sculpture in form of assemblages.

    3. Colour was extensively used for expressive purposes. In

    many compositions, colour was used to express the artist’s


    4. New movements of art were formed, especially in painting.

    Activity 3

    Discuss the following questions.

    1. What is meant by the term Modern Art?

    2. What are the common characteristics of Modern Art?

    3. Mention four artists’ paintings and four artists in Modern


    A number of art movements were formed as part of “Modern

    Art”. These include: impressionism, Fauvism, cubism, pop art,

    Dadaism, surrealism and abstract art. We shall discuss some of

    these styles as follows.

    1. Impressionism

    This is a style of painting which was developed in the 19th

    century by French artists, such as Edgar Degas, Claude Monet,

    Edouard Manet and Auguste Renoir. It is characterized by the

    use of short brush strokes, using bright colours with the effect

    of light. For example look at Figure 7.7.


    2. Fauvism

    This is a style of painting which was developed in the 20th

    century by a group of French artists who referred to themselves

    as “the wild beasts”. The style was based on colour effects and

    light with big parches of colour. For example look at Figure



    3. Cubism

    This is another modern art style which was developed in

    the 20th century. The style is focused on presenting figures

    whose natural forms are simplified into geometric shapes. A

    prominent artist who followed this style is Pablo Picasso, one

    of his paintings is presented in Figure 7.9.


    Activity 4

    1. Sketch a composition of an activity of your choice on a

    piece of paper.

    2. Paint this composition by following any of the styles

    discussed so far.

    3. Display your paintings and discuss them with the rest of

    your classmates.

    4. Surrealism

    This is a modern art style in which the artist portrays what

    seems to be a dream into reality. It was developed during the

    20th Century. There is a lot of rearrangement of ideas which

    from the natural point of view looks unreal. For example look

    at the painting in Figure 7.10.


    5. Pop art

    This is the type of modern art which is nonrepresentational. It

    was developed in the 1950s in Britain and the United States.

    It depicts objects and scenes from everyday life. For example,

    look at the painting in Figure 7.11.


    Figure 7.11: Pop Art

    Activity 5

    1. Sketch a composition in either surrealism or pop art.

    2. Using colours of your choice, paint this composition.

    3. Display the paintings and discuss them with friends.

    What is Abstract art?

    This is a type of modern art which focuses on using forms,

    shapes, colours and texture. It does not represent objects as

    they appear in nature but according to the artist’s expressive

    abilities. For example look at Figures 7.12 and 7.13.



    Figure 7.13: Abstract sculpture by B.J. Las v

    In Figure 7.12, the artist focused on the use of colour to

    create rhythm in the painting. Then in Figure 7.13, the artist

    uses geometric shapes to create harmony and unity in the


    Therefore, in abstract art, objects are deformed, simplified

    and rearranged to come up with a work of art.

    Activity 6

    Look at Figures 7.12 and 7.13 and discuss the following:

    1. Identify the colours that were used in the abstract


    2. What shapes were used in the sculpture? Relate these

    shapes to any natural object from your surroundings.

    3. How does abstract art differ from cubism? (refer to

    Figures 7.9 and 7.12).

    World renowned artists

    There are a number of artists who have made significant impact

    in the field of art. These include; Michelangelo, Leonardo da

    vinci, Pablo Picasso and O’Keeffe. Some of these and their

    work, you studied about in Senior One. Let us summarise their

    contribution in the following section.


    Michelangelo (1475-1564)

    An Italian Renaissance artist

    who was a painter, sculptor and

    architect. He is known for his

    mastery if the body structure. He

    painted great works in the Sistine

    charpel such as creation of Adam

    in Figure 7.16.


    Leonardo da vinci (1452-1519)

    An Italian Renaissance artist who

    was a painter and ceramicist. He

    is known for his style of making

    paintings with no strict outlines

    (chiaroscuro). One of his painting is

    the monalisa shown in figure 7.17.



    Pablo Picasso

    A Spanish painter, ceramicist,

    sculptor and poet. He is one

    of the renowned artists in

    the 20th century who is the

    founder of cubism. He made

    many compositions and

    portraits such as Figure 7.20.

    Georgia o’Keeffek

    An American modern artist who is

    known for her paintings depicting

    nature. She mainly painted

    plants with emphasis on flowers

    in brilliant colours for example,

    look at Figure 7.19.


    Activity 7

    1. Discuss the characteristics of art works of the renowned

    artists presented in the previous section.

    2. Identify some art works from your local area with

    characteristics similar to those of the famous artist


    Major art works in the world

    Many art works have been produced by different artists from different

    regions of the world. Such works have characteristics which have

    influenced the production of art in the world. Some of these art

    works include; the fertility goddess (Figure 7.22), The Monalisa

    (Figure 7.3), the Sistine charpel (Figure 7.24) and the kangaroo

    hunt (Figure 7.23).


    Figure 7.22: Fertility goddess


    Activity 8

    7.24 and discuss the questions that follow:

    1. Identify the objects and compositions presented in these


    2. List the different colours used.

    3. What materials were used in these works?

    Major art sites

    You studied about the major art sites in the world in Senior

    One and discussed some of the art works found in these

    places. These places include Altamira in Spain, Lascaux in

    France and Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.

    Activity 9

    Observe the paintings in Figure 7.25, 7.26 and discuss

    the general characteristics of the two paintings.

    1. What do you think are the materials used to make these


    2. Mention the colours that were used in the paintings.



    In your discussion, you may have come up with theses

    similarities in the paintings at Altamira and Lescaux:

    1. Both paintings were made during the Pre-historic period.

    2. The painting were done on rocks.

    3. The paintings were done in cave ceilings.

    4. Animals are the main subject matter of both paintings.

    5. Lines were used to draw the shapes of the animals and

    filled with colour.

    6. The colours used are similar, basically browns and yellow


    At Olduvai Gorge, it is believed that the oldest man on earth

    lived here and his major tools were made of stone. These

    tools were discussed in Senior One. Therefore, the similarity

    between Olduvai Gorge, Altamira and Lescaux is that the

    people who lived in these places used stone as the major tool.


    1. Discuss five styles that existed in the modern art period.

    2. Mention three world renowned artists and state one art

    work made by each of them.

    3. In which period does Leonardo da vinci belong.


    Rhythm: a strong, regular repeated pattern of movement

    observed from an artwork.

    Portrait: a likeness of a person, especially of the face, as

    a painting or drawing.

    Ceramicist: a person who makes ceramic pieces.

    Poet: a person who writes or makes poems.

    Architect: a person who designs and supervises the

    construction of buildings or other large structures.

    Chiaroscuro: an Italian artistic term used to describe the

    dramatic effect of contrasting areas of light and

    dark in an art work, particularly paintings.

    Neoclassism: this refers to a period where there was a revival

    of a classical style or treatment in art, literature,

    architecture and music.

    Renaisance: this a period which started in Italy and spread

    to the rest of Europe. It’s a period when artists

    revised the style of the classical period in ancient

    Rome and ancient Greece.


    Arnason H.H. (1986). A History of Modern Art. (Third Edition).

    Thames and Hudson

    Brommer, G.F. & Kinne, N.K. (1995). Exploring Painting. Davis

    Publication inc. Worcewster.

    Canaday, J. (1987). Mainstreams of Modern Art. (2nd Edition).

    Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.

    Getlein, M. (2008). Living with Art. (Eighth Edition). McGraw-Hill

    Companies inc.

    Gombrich, G. W. (1995). The Story of Art. Phaidon Press.

    Proctor, R.M. & Lew, J.F. (1995). Surface Design for Fabrics.

    (Revised Edition). University of Washington Press.

    Tansev, R., Kleiner, F. S., De La Croix, H., (2004). Gardner’s Art

    through the Ages. (14th Edition). Thames and


    Tebenkana, T. (2013). Insights into the History of Art. (Volume 3).

    Astro Book Binding Center, Kampala

    Tebenkana, T. (2013). Crafts and Studio Technology. (A revised

    Edition). Astro Book Binding Store. Kampala.