Topic outline

  • My goals

    By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

    ⦿ Explain the elements of art.

    ⦿ State the difference between dry and wet media.

    ⦿ Draw and paint objects in composition.

    ⦿ Paint a landscape.

    ⦿ Draw from a human figure.

    ⦿ Respect the opinions given by others about my own



    In Senior One, you were introduced to different materials used in

    drawing and painting. You also practiced with the elements of art such

    as shape, line, tone, colour and texture. You also observed and drew

    objects in composition as still life, as well as single objects picked from


    Remember, still life is the study of objects in composition, in relation to

    their immediate background. Yet nature is the analytic study of objects

    from the natural environment.

    Based on your past experience, do Activity 1.

    Activity 1

    1. Visit your surroundings and pick a twig with three


    2. Using a pencil and paper draw the twig.

    3. Exchange your drawing with your neighbour.

    4. Discuss each other’s drawing by pointing out the

    strengths and weaknesses that you are able to observe.

    (Assessment is done in terms of use of space, shapes,

    tones and texture).

    5. How can such weaknesses be improved for a better


    Observation of the drawings

    I hope you were able to observe that in some drawings from

    Activity 1, the object was too small for the paper. In some

    drawings still, the object could not fit on the paper. The two

    cases usually happen if you have not taken time to compare

    the size of the object with that of the paper. Space should be

    used comparatively, to make sure that the object drawn fits

    well on the paper.

    Observe the two pictures in Figure 1.1 and answer the

    questions in Activity 2.


    Figure 1.1: Studies of plants

    Activity 2

    1. Identify the different types of lines used in the two


    2. Mention the colours that were used in the two pictures.

    3. Describe the types of shapes in the pictures.

    4. Describe the kind of texture in the work.

    Elements for drawing and painting

    Remember, in order to draw and paint well, you need the

    building blocks to follow. These are the elements of art. They

    include space, line, shape, tone, form, structure, colour and


    (a) Space

    When you look around you, you can see different objects, and

    people including your neighbour. But at the same time there

    are areas you can see which are occupied by nothing. All

    these are part of space. Therefore space is simply emptiness.

    However, in drawing and painting, we have both negative and

    positive space. For example, look at how space was used in

    Figure 1.2


    Figure 1.2 : A still life composition of fruits

    The area occupied by objects in the composition is called the positive

    space. The area around the objects is what we call negative space.

    We always begin drawing and painting by identifying the space in

    which to create our compositions. After identifying space, we use

    other elements to form our drawings and paintings.

    Observe the compositions in Figures 1.3 and 1.4 and work out

    activity 3.


    Figure 1.3: A still life composition in colour


    Activity 3

    Space in a still life composition

    1. Identify the positive and negative spaces in the two

    pictures above.(ie Figure 1.3 and Figure 1.4)

    2. Comment on how space was created in the two


    3. Mention the objects and the colours used in the two

    different pictures.

    Take note:

    The paper you are given for drawing or painting provides you

    with the space in which to fit your drawing or painting.

     In drawing and painting, a good composition balances space.

    The picture you draw has to fit within the space provided.

    Never cut off parts of the object drawn or painted in a given


    Leave same space on the left and right side of the paper. The

    upper space should be bigger than the lower space left on

    the paper, thats how negative space is balanced in drawing

    and painting.

    Space is controlled in order to create a feeling of depth in the


    (b) Line and shape

    In Senior One, you identified the different materials used in

    drawing. After identifying what to draw in a given space and

    the suitable materials to use, we use lines to draw or paint.

    Lines play a vital role in drawing different shapes of objects.

    Remember, shapes can be either geometric or natural


    Geometric shapes are more regular, they include circles,

    squares, rectangles and triangles. Natural shapes are irregular

    such as a shape of a stone, tree or leaf.

    (c) Tone and form

    After drawing the required shapes of objects in the composition,

    then you can apply tones according to the light direction. It is

    the tones that bring out the forms of objects in the composition.

    As light fall on an object, it casts a shadow on the opposite


    Therefore tone refers to the variation from light to dark on the

    surface of an object as light falls on it. On the other hand form

    is the roundness of an object.

    For example, look at the effect of light on the drawing of a

    tomato in Figure 1.5.


    Activity 4

    Responding to light and shade

    1. Arrange three objects from your surroundings to form a


    2. Using a pencil and paper, draw the composition; first in

    lines and then shade the composition to create forms

    and shadows.

    3. Display your work and discuss it with your friends

    regarding the use of tones to create the forms in the


    (d) Textural patterns

    During the process of trying to draw the forms of objects

    in a given composition, there is need to show their surface

    quality (texture). Are the objects smooth, rough or coarse?

    This question is answered by using textural patterns that fit

    the objects being studied. Textural patterns depend on the

    shading technique used. For example, look at the textural

    patterns on the objects in Figure 1.6.

    Hence, textural patterns refer to the appearance of the surface

    of an object according to the shading technique used.


    Activity 5

    Dealing with textural patterns

    1. Pick three objects with different texture, from your

    surroundings and arrange them to form a composition.

    2. Draw the objects on a piece of paper and use different

    shading techniques to capture the different surface

    qualities of the objects.

    Take note:

    · Texture varies with the form of a given object.

    · Where the tone is light, the texture is light and vice versa

    Types of colour application

    In Senior One, you studied about colour and you looked at

    primary and secondary colours. Primary colours are basic and

    are only three ie. Red, Yellow and Blue. Besides, secondary

    colours are got after combining two primary colours. Secondary

    colours include orange, green and violet. When you combine

    a secondary colour with a primary colour, you get a tertiary

    colour. For example, study the colour combinations in Figure

    1.7 and Figure 1.8.



    Activity 6

    Colour mixing

    Mix the different colour combinations. Remember to always

    use equal amounts of the different colours in order to come

    up with the right mixture.

    Colours can be used to capture objects in a still life composition.

    Colour can be classified under different properties such as

    hue or purity, value and intensity. A hue refers to a colour in

    its purest state. The common hues include yellow, red, blue,

    green and purple as they appear on a colour wheel. Look at

    Figure 1.9.


    Figure 1.9: Colour Hues

    Value refers to the darknes or lightness of a colour; if a colour

    is dark, its value is low and if a colour is light, its value is light

    for example, look at Figure 1.10.


    Figure 1.10: Colour Value

    On the other hand intensity refers to the brightness or dullnerss

    of a colour, for example look at Figure 1.11 Intensity also

    refers to saturation.


    Colour can also be classified as being (colour temperature)

    hot, cool, complementary and supplementary/analogous. Hot

    colours strike the eye; these include red, yellow and orange.

    Cool colours do not strike the viewer’s eyes; they include;

    brown, green and blue. Supplementary colours appear next to

    each other on the 12 part colour wheel eg; yellow and orange

    or blue and purple. Complementary colours appear opposite

    each other on the colour wheel such as; green and red or

    yellow and purple.

    In painting, black is considered to be a shade, a colour

    darkens when it is added with black. On the other hand white

    is consider to be a tint. A colour becomes lighter when added

    with white.

    In order to paint a good picture, select colours according to the

    natural appearance of the objects being studied. For example

    look at Figure 1.12 and observe how colours were used to

    reflect the natural appearance of the objects


    Figure 1.12: A painting of flowers

    .Activity 7

    Observation exercise

    Observe the picture in Figure 1.12 and do the following:

    1. Identify the objects in the composition by their colours.

    2. Mention the primary colours, secondary colours and

    tertiary colours that you can see in the composition.

    The Principles of Art

    As you follow elements of art while drawing and painting, you

    need to follow guidelines. These guidelines or rules are referred

    to as the principles of art. They include balance, rhythm,

    pattern, perspective, unity/harmony and proportionality.

    1. Balance: This refers to a state of equilibrium when all

    elements in an artwork are well arranged. Balance can be

    symmetrical, asymmetrical or radial.

    ;(i) Symmetrical balance is also called

    formal balance. This is achieved when

    the opposite parts in an artwork are

    exactly or nearly the same in respect to

    a vertical / horizontal axis. For example,

    look at the symmetrical balance on the

    human face in Figure 1.13.

    Figure 1.13: The human face

    (ii) Asymmetrical balance is also

    called informal balance. Itk

    refers to balance by visual

    weight. It can be achieved

    when a work of art is looked

    at in totality when all parts of

    the work seem to agree with

    each other even if they are not

    equal with each other. For example

    look at Figure 1.14

    Figure 1.14: A painting showing asymmetrical balance

    l(iii) Radial balance is a type

    where elements are

    equally distributed from

    the center. For example


    Figure 1.15: A painting showing radial balance.

    Activity 8

    Look at the works of art from your surroundings and

    identify those where symmetrical, asymmetrical and radial

    balance has been achieved.

    2. Rhythm is a principle of art which focuses on visual

    movement in a work of art. It is achieved when there is a

    feeling of movement from one part of the work to the other.

    For example, look at the design in Figure 1.16

    l3. Pattern refers to repetition of elements such

    as line, colour texture over and over to create

    an impression work of art. For example,

    the design in Figure 1.16 consists of curved


    Figure 1.16: A design showing rhythm and pattern

    Activity 9

    (i) Choose one geometric shape (eg circle, triangle and

    square) draw and repeat it several times on a piece of

    paper to form a pattern with rhythm. You are free to

    use any colours of your choice.

    (ii) Display your work and discuss it with your fellow

    students to judge which pattern is more rhythmic.

    l4. Perspective: In Senior One, you were

    introduced to linear perspective, where

    you focused on the use of lines to show

    perspective in landscapes. As a principle

    of art, perspective refers to the variation

    in size, tone and colour of objects with

    distance. Near objects look bigger/brighter

    compared to those seen at a distance. For

    example look at Figure 1.17.

    Figure 1.17: Animals seen at different points.

    l5. Unity/harmony: This

    principle is achieved

    when all, elements

    in given work of

    art (such as lines,

    colour and texture)

    agree with each

    other. For example,

    look at Figure 1.18.

    Figure 1.18: A painting showing unity/harmony

    6. Proportionality: This refers to the relationship of different

    parts of an object in terms of size. Naturally, there are sizes

    which are considered normal and when such sizes change

    compared to others, they are considered abnormal. For

    example the size of human hands is small compared to

    that of legs. Or a passion fruit is considered smaller than

    a pumpkin. Therefore when drawing or painting, always

    consider the right sizes of the objects or parts of the objects

    in order to achieve the right proportions.

    Take note:

    kIn drawing and painting some

    objects which are known to be

    small may appear bigger than

    those which are known to be

    big, due to perspective. For

    example look at the drawings

    in Figure 1.19.

    Figure 1.19: Passion fruit appearing bigger than a pawpaw

    Working with dry and wet media in drawing and painting

    What we use to draw and paint pictures (such as pencils,

    crayons, pastels and water colours) is often referred to as a

    medium. When there are many different materials, they are

    referred to as media. Media can either be dry or wet.

    Drawing with dry media

    Pencils are commonly used in drawing. These are part of the

    dry media. Dry media refer to materials which do not flow.

    Other dry media include crayons and coloured pencils. For

    example, look at the two drawings in Figure 1.20. One was

    drawn using crayons and the other one by use of coloured



    Activity 10

    Drawing with dry media

    1. Look at Figure 1.20 and identify the picture drawn with

    crayons and the one drawn with coloured pencils. What

    is the difference?

    2. Using either coloured pencils or crayons draw a

    composition of three objects picked from your


    Take note:

    Coloured pencils usually give a clear picture compared to

    crayons.Crayons differ from pencils as shown in Figure 1.21


    Drawing or painting with wet media

    Wet media refer to materials which can flow. Using such

    materials requires you to add a liquid in order to make it

    flow well. You may need a brush in order to paint a given


    These materials include inks, water colours and powder

    colours. Observe Figures 1.22 and 1.23, and work out the

    questions that follow.


    Activity 11

    1. What is the difference between the two drawings in

    Figure 1.22 and 1.23?

    2. Using a pen and ink draw a twig of a plant from your

    school compound.

    3. Display your work and discuss it with your friends,

    regarding how the materials have been used to create

    tones and form.

    Take note:

    When you are going to draw or paint with wet media, always

    begin with a sketch in pencil. This helps you to draw the right

    shapes and the proper arrangement of the objects in a given

    composition. Pencil work can easily be adjusted by rubbing

    out. Ink and water colours cannot easily be changed.

    Study of a landscape

    Our environment is a rich resource for the study of landscape.

    A landscape is the natural scenery. Such sceneries include

    plants, houses, etc. You will enjoy your studies by moving out

    of your classroom and observe the surroundings. Look at the

    landscapes in Figure 1.24 and try out Activity 12.


    Activity 12

    Study the landscapes in figure 1.24 and do the following:

    1. List the different objects in the four landscapes.

    2. Identify the materials that were used to draw or paint

    these landscapes.

    3. Discuss how space was used, how the shapes of different

    objects were painted/drawn and the sizes of objects were

    varied to achieve depth.

    Much as your environment is rich for your studies of a

    landscape, you do not have to include everything that you see.

    You need to select the best view. This can be done by using

    a view finder. A view finder is made by cutting a rectangular

    shape on a cardboard, as shown in Figure 1.25.


    Figure 1.25: A view finder

    How to use a view finder to study a landscape

    You hold your view finder in one hand and through its space,

    observe the landscape ahead of you. You then you sketch only

    those objects which appear within the view finder’s space.

    Look at the Figure 1.26.


    Take note:

    The closer the view finder is to your eyes the bigger the area

    of study and vice versa.

    Keep the distance between the view finder and your eyes

    uniform throughout your study of the landscape

    Activity 13

    Study of a landscape

    1. Using a cardboard and cutter, prepare your view finder.

    2. Go outside your classroom and use your view finder to

    select a suitable view from your surroundings.

    3. Draw or paint the landscape.

    4. Display your work and discuss it with your friends.

    Human figure drawing

    In Senior One, you were introduced to human figure drawing

    and you learnt that human figures can be drawn either from

    observation or imagination. You also learnt that getting the

    right posture (the way the human figure is sitting or standing)

    of the human figure is important. This demands for continuous

    practice with different studies of the human figure with

    different materials. Now study the images in Figure 1.27 and

    work out activity 14.


    Activity 14

    1. Study the seated figures in Figure 1.27 and discuss how

    lines, shape, colour, tones texture and space were used to

    bring out the posture.

    2. Draw one of these pictures on a piece of paper.

    3. Share your work with your neighbour and discuss it

    regarding the posture and use of space. How do the

    different parts of the body relate to each other in your

    drawing? (Proportions).

    How to get the right proportions

    In the examples above, you note that the artists tried to get the

    right proportions of the human figures. You can always check

    the proportions of your human figure drawing by comparing

    the size of the head to the rest of the body parts.

    Activity 15

    Stand up, look at each other and discuss the following:

    1. Compare the size of the arms to the rest of the body.

    2. Compare the size of the legs to the rest of the body.

    3. Lastly compare the size of the head to the rest of the body

    parts (i.e. the hands, legs and the torso).

    A fully grown human being is believed to have about eight

    head-lengths in height. Figures 1.28 and 1.29 show the

    relationship between the head-length and the rest of the body

    parts of the female and male human figures.



    You can observe that the elbow is at the same line with the

    navel for a standing posture. The lower leg matches with the

    upper leg and the torso in height. There are two head-lengths

    for the lower leg and the same applies to the upper leg and

    torso each. The height of the head matches with the length

    of the foot of the human figure. For example, observe the

    relationship of the body parts in Figure 1.30.


    Activity 16

    1. The following drawings were made by Senior Two

    students. Observe the human figures in Figure 1.31 and

    discuss the challenges with their proportions.


    2. Following the right proportions draw a human figure in a

    standing posture.

    3. Display your work and discuss it with friends, regarding

    proportions and posture.


    1. What is the difference between dry and wet media?

    2. Using materials of your choice, draw an insect or animal from

    your surroundings.

    3. Draw or paint a standing boy, dressed in a short sleeved shirt

    and a pair of shorts.


    Head-length: the size of the head from the chin to the end of the


    Imagination: using one’s mind to create ideas.

    Negative space: area around the objects in a drawing or painting.

    Observation: using eyes to look at something in details.

    Posture: the way a human figure appears to the viewer, either

    standing, sitting of sleeping.

    Positive space: the area occupied by objects in a drawing or painting.

    Proportions: relationship of different body parts of a given object.

    Resource: a set of things from which an idea is developed.

    Torso: the middle part of the human figure excluding the

    hands, legs and head.

    Landscape: a natural scenery which may include, plants houses,

    animals etc.

    Element of art: building blocks followed while making and talking

    about a work of art.

    View finder: a card with a square or rectangular space used to

    select a particular area in a landscape for study.

    Dry media: materials which do not flow such as pencils and


    Wet media: materials which flow as they are used in drawing

    such as painting.

    Still life: a study of objects in composition in reflection to their

    immediate background.

    Nature: a study of objects picked from the natural


    Principles of Art: guide lines or rules followed while making or

    talking about a work of art.

    • My goals

      By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

      ⦿ Identify patterns from the surroundings.

      ⦿ Develop a motif for printing.

      ⦿ Print patterns on surfaces using stamping and stenciling.

      ⦿ Share ideas with others about own work.


      In Unit one, we explored objects from the environment for

      drawing and painting. But the same objects can be used

      in a different way. Look at the different objects from your

      surroundings (such as shirts, dresses, skirts, carpets and

      curtains). What patterns can you see? Now look at the examples

      in Figure 2.1 and do activity 1.


      Figure 2.1: Objects with different patterns

      Activity 1

      Identifying patterns

      1. Look at the designs on the works in Figure 2.1. Identify

      the shapes that were used to develop the patterns.

      2. Find some other patterns including some which look

      really Rwandan, either traditional or modern.

      3. Identify the shapes that were used to develop the


      4. Which shapes are natural and which ones are


      5. Mention some natural objects from which these patterns

      might have been gotten from.

      Indeed such interesting patterns can be got from objects from

      our environment. These include both natural and artificial

      objects. You may pick interest in their shapes, texture and

      colour in order to create your own pattern. Now look at some

      of the possible sources of patterns from the environment in

      figure 2.2




      Figure 2.2: Objects with patterns

      How to make a motif

      The process of making a motif (pattern) is what we call a

      design process. In order to make your pattern, you go through

      several steps and changes. For example, study the following

      steps of creating a motif from a frog.

       kStep 1

      Identify an interesting

      object from your

      surroundings. This is

      often called a source

      of inspiration. Draw

      it on a piece of paper

      as shown in Figure


      Figure 2.3 A toad

      Step 2

      Simplify the shapes into outlines. You could join two of these

      shapes facing and touching each other, to create a pattern

      as shown in Figure 2. 4. This can be done with the help of a

      tracing paper


       kStep 3

      Shade these shapes into

      black patches to create

      positives as shown

      in Figure 2.5. The

      remaining white space

      is called negative.

      kStep 4

      This could be repeated

      and joined as a reflection

      on the same paper, as

      shown in Figure 2.6.

      Look at the pattern being


      Figure 2.6: Repeating the patterns to enrich the design

      Step 5

      The design can be repeated to create an interesting pattern

      for your motif. Look at Figure 2.7. The black patches form the

      positives and the white space forms the negatives.


      Activity 2

      1. Choose a different natural object, animal, flower or plant

      (not a toad).

      2. Follow the steps above and develop your own pattern for


      3. Display your work and discuss it with your friends

      regarding its attractiveness and movements.

      Take note:

      ·· When you are creating a pattern for printing, try to balance

      the positives with negatives.

      ·· There is no particular way of organising the shapes for your

      pattern. The arrangement largely depends on your creativity.

      ·· While creating a motif, it is very important to follow rhythm

      (Movement and balance).

      After developing a pattern on a piece of paper, it is your duty

      as a designer to transfer it on to another material where it

      can be used for other purposes. This can be done by printing.

      Printing is a process of reproducing a pattern or design on a

      given surface. Printing is done in several ways, but at this

      moment we are going to look at impression, stamping and


      Printing by impression

      Sometimes you can transfer a pattern from one source to

      another by impression. In order to use this method, you need

      a pattern from a hard surface, such as a stone, tree bark, a

      coin, shoe sole, etc. Then you use this pattern to create an

      interesting design in colours of your choice. For example, you

      can develop a pattern by following the steps below.

      k Step 1

      Get a surface from

      your surroundings,

      with an interesting

      pattern. For

      example, look at

      the surfaces in

      Figures 2.8 and


      Figure 2.8: Texture of a

      chair seat

      Figure 2.9: Texture of a

      wire mesh

      Step 2

      Put the piece of paper on top of the object with the pattern

      and rub the surface with a pencil so that the pattern is seen on

      the paper. For example, the pattern in Figure 2.10 was taken

      from a wire mesh.


      kStep 3

      Repeat this several

      times until you cover

      the whole space with

      the pattern. You could

      use different coloured

      pencils to enrich your

      pattern as shown in

      Figure 2.11.

      Activity 3

      Creating a pattern by impression

      1. Pick an object with a pattern from your environment and

      create a pattern using the impression printing technique.

      Use different colours of your choice.

      2. Display and discuss your work with your classmates.

      Focus on the choice of colours, neatness and

      attractiveness of the pattern.

      Take note:

      ·· Printing by impression is used to create designs on a small

      scale and it is better used on paper.

      ·· Using different colours makes the pattern look more attractive.

      Printing by stamping

      Probably you have seen stamps with letters and images, used

      in different places such as schools, post offices and hospitals.

      These are sometimes circular, square or rectangular. Such

      stamps are used to pass on the same message to many


      Observe the pictures in Figure 2.12,as well as Figure 2.13

      and answer the questions in activity 4.



      Activity 4

      Creating a pattern by stamping

      1. What is unique or special about the letters and images

      on these stamps?

      2. How do these stamps operate?

      You may have observed that these stamps have images which

      stick out but they are inverted, that is the reverse of the stamp

      you want. When a stamp is pressed on to an ink pad, it picks

      up ink and when it is pressed on a piece of paper, it releases the

      ink following the protruding or sticking out images.

      The same idea can be used to create patterns through a process

      called stamping. This was briefly introduced to you in Senior

      One. You can use soft materials such as irish potatoes, or

      sweet potatoes and a cutter. You need the following materials;

      materials for printing, photo cutter, printing ink as shown in

      Figure 2.14.


      Consider the following steps.

      Step 1

      Draw a simple pattern on paper as shown in Figure 2.15. This

      can be developed from objects from your surroundings.


      kStep 2

      Slice the sweet

      potato into two parts

      as shown in Figure

      2.16. (Make sure

      the sliced part is


      jkStep 3

      Sketch the pattern on

      the flat surface of the

      potato with a pencil.

      Look at figure 2.17.

       iStep 4

      Then use a cutter to

      cut away the negative

      space to retain the

      pattern on the surface.

      Your pattern should

      be left protruding as

      shown in Figure 2.18.

      Figure 2.18: Cutting the pattern on a potato

      kStep 5

      Dip the pattern in

      colour or ink as shown

      in Figure 2.19. Make

      sure that it is only the

      pattern which touches

      the colour and the rest

      of the potato remains


      kStep 5

      Print your pattern on another

      surface (such as cloth or

      paper). The printing is repeated

      to form a complete design on

      the surface as shown in Figure



      Figure 2.20: The printed pattern

      The final work appears as shown in figure below


      Figure 2.21: The printed pattern

      Activity 5

      1. Follow the steps above and create your own design.

      2. Display your work and discuss it with your classmate.

      Printing by stenciling

      Stenciling as a printing technique, comes from the use of

      a stencil to transfer a given design on a given surface. A

      stencil can be made from a hard material (Figure 2.18) such

      as manilla paper or transparences. You need the following

      materials in place, then follow the steps given to make your



      Step 1: The design process

      Making a print usually begins with the design process. At this

      stage you make sketches of an object which inspires you from

      your surroundings as studied in Unit 1. The process continues

      until you prepare your motif or design on a piece of paper

      such as the one in Figure 2.23. Remember always to develop

      a well-balanced motif.


      Step 2: Fixing the stencil on to the motif

      If your stencil is transparent, use a masking tape to fix it on

      top of your motif on paper, along a flat surface. This can be on

      top of a table or desk as shown in Figure 2.24. This is done

      so that you can observe the design from underneath. If you are

      using an opaque stencil such as a manilla paper, use a tracing

      paper to transfer your design on to the stencil.


      Figure 2.24 Fixing a stencil on the motif

      kStep 3: Cutting out the


      Use a cutter to cut out

      the pattern on the stencil

      as shown in Figure 2.25.

      When cutting the stencil,

      you should only cut out

      the positives and leave out

      the negatives. Take care to

      avoid hurting yourself

      Figure 2.25 Cutting the pattern on a stencil

      Step 4: Stretching out the


      kStretch the cloth on top of the

      table. You can use tacks to fix

      it in the same position. Look

      at Figure 2.26. Remember

      before printing the cloth has to

      be washed, dried and ironed

      in order for your printing paste

      to register well.

      Figure 2.26 A cloth stretched on a table ready for printing

      Step 5: Fixing the stencil on

      the cloth

      Place your stencil on thek

      surface of the material you

      are going to print on as shown

      in Figure 2.27. You could use

      pins to fix the motif in position.

      Figure 2.27: Fitting the motif on the cloth for printing

      Step 6: Printing with a spongel;

      Use a sponge to print your design

      as shown in Figure 2.28. Repeat

      the process until the whole cloth

      is covered with the design. Take

      care as you print; when you apply

      a lot of force, the printing ink can

      easily spread beyond the intended

      lines. On the other hand, if you

      print with too gently, the design

      becomes faint.

      Figure 2.28: Printing the pattern on a cloth with a sponge


      Activity 6

      1. Design your pattern on cloth by following the steps


      2. Display your work and discuss it with friends regarding

      balance, rhythm and neatness.


      1. Get a source of inspiration from your surrounding and

      develop a motif.

      2. Choose a method of your choice (either stamping or

      stencilling) and print your motif on a cloth of half a square


      3. What is the use of a stencil in the process of printing?

      4. What is the difference between stamping and stenciling in


      Take note: Your design should be balanced and flowing.


      Balance: a state of equilibrium where elements of art are seen

      to agree with each other in a work of art.

      Design process: steps taken to develop a design or motif. This usually

      involves sketching of the ideas as they are developed.

      Flow: movement of patterns in a design.

      Motif: a set of patterns in a design.

      Pattern: a repeated form or design mainly used to decorate


      Rhythm: repeated art elements to form an interesting movement.

      Source of inspiration: something from which an idea is got.

      Stencil: a thin material with a design cut into it for printing


      Design: the art of making arrangements or patterns to produce

      a decorative work of art.

      Stamping: a technique of creating patterns by pressing a motif

      with ink on a given surface.

      Stenciling: creating a design by use of a stencil.

      • My goals

        By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

        ⦿ Explain the basic elements of design.

        ⦿ Write using calligraphy.

        ⦿ Design a magazine cover.

        ⦿ Communicate through designing.

        ⦿ Share ideas about own work and that of others.


        In Senior One you studied about letter construction and made

        designs with letters. You also learnt that neatness is important

        for producing attractive designs. In this unit, we are going

        to look at other designs that can be made with letters. Look

        at the designs in Figure 3.1 and answer the questions that



        Figure 3.1: Different designs of cards

        Activity 1

        1. What messages do you read ifrom the four different


        2. Describe the colours that were used in the four different


        3. What type of letters were used in the designs?

        The major aspects of a design

        I hope you were able to note that letters play a very important

        role in bringing out the message for each card. Letters must

        be carefully designed to look neat and legible.

        Therefore, the key aspects which must be considered while

        designing cards, posters and book covers include the following:

        ·· The layout: this refers to a particular plan or outline acceptable

        for a given design. Each design has a particular layout. This

        has to be spread out for clarity.

        · Message: the design has to communicate to the observer.

        · Lettering: the choice and construction of letters in a design.

        Letters have to be legible so as to bring out a clear message

        to the observer.

        · Balance: space has to be wisely distributed throughout the


        · Neatness: a design has to be clean and attractive to the


        · Colour choice: the colours used must relate to the

        message being communicated. Dull colours tend to kill the

        attractiveness of the design. Contrast is often followed when

        applying colours in a design.

        Activity 2

        Discuss how the aspects discussed above were achieved

        in the works presented in Figure 3.1

        Different letter styles in design

        We have already seen that letters play an important role in

        conveying a message in many designs. In Senior One you

        practiced letter construction and you were introduced to

        different letter styles. By now you know the difference between

        upper case and lower case. The choice of letters depends on

        the nature of the design you want. There are two major types

        of letter fonts; i.e. formal letters and fancy letters.

        Formal letters are not so decorated. They are easy to read and

        are often used to pass on important messages to the viewer.

        Look at the fonts in Figure 3.2.



        Formal letters are good for designing posters and book covers

        which carry formal information. Look at the following examples

        in Figure 3.3


        On the other hand, there are fancy letters. These look

        complicated and more difficult to construct and read. They are

        often used to design works which are more decorative such

        as cards and fancy magazines. For example look at the letter

        fonts in Figure 3.4.


        Figure 3.4: Fancy letters

        You can use a grid while constructing different letters, for

        example look at Figure 3.5.


        Activity 3

        1. Practice with letter construction by following the guide

        lines you learnt in Senior One. These include; the base

        line, mid line and cape line for the upper case, and the

        ascender, mid line, base line and descender for the lower

        case in addition to a grid.

        2. Try it out with the formal and fancy letters.

        How to design a magazine cover

        For any design work, it is important to plan for it by going

        through the design process. You must know the proper lay out

        and the main features of the work you are going to design.

        Activity 4

        1. Look at the magazines in Figures 3.6, 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9,

        and discuss the features common to all the magazines.

        2. Write the title for each magazine.

        3. Mention the author for each magazine.



        You may have observed that the examples presented have

        many words and images. However, in designing you have to

        make your work simple and attractive. A magazine has the

        following important components;

        · A front cover; with a name of the magazine, the different titles

        of the articles found inside, and an illustration or illustrations.

        Titles can be arranged in any way that is interesting to the

        observer as long as balance is achieved.

        · A back cover which usually has an image of the author and


        Look at the layout in Figure 3.10.


        Take note:

        · Any design you make must fit within the particular

        measurements (dimensions).

        · The front and back cover of a magazine share the same

        dimensions (A × B) where “A” is the length and “B” the

        height .

        · The choice of colours should match with the message on the


        · The illustration should add to the meaning of the title of the

        magazine. This has to be simplified to avoid confusing the


        Activity 5

        1. Design a magazine cover with a title “The Beauty of

        wild ld Life” written by Peter Kayibanda. The magazine

        should have dimensions 15cm by 20cm. Use only three


        2. Display your work and discuss it with your classmate.


        Using letters of your preference, design an invitation card for

        Senior Two students. The card should invite students for a

        nature talk to be held at your school on a date of your choice.


        Author: an individual who writes a book.

        Balance: a state of equal distribution of elements in a

        given design.

        Design process: the stages of making sketches for a given design

        Fancy letters: the type of letters with decorations.

        Feature: character of a given work of art.

        Formal letters: the type of letters with no decorations. These are

        often easy to read and construct.

        Illustration: an image or a set of images which accompanies

        a design to add to its meaning.

        Layout: the spread out or general outline of a design

        presented on a flat surface.

        Lettering: the art of letter construction regarding type, size

        and neatness.

        Message: the ability of a design to communicate.

        Neatness: the appearance of a design with minimum


        Publisher: the organisation which organises, proofreads

        and prints out a particular book or magazine.

        • My goals

          By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

          ⦿ Describe the process of preparing clay.

          ⦿ Make a sculpture in clay.

          ⦿ Decorate the surface of a clay piece.

          ⦿ Make a mask and decorate it.

          ⦿ Share ideas with others about modelling.


          Modelling is a very old activity which has been done by

          different cultures. It includes both pottery and sculpture.

          There are many figures which have been formed using clay.

          For example look at the ceramic wares from Gatagara Pottery

          in Figure 4.1.


          Activity 1

          1. Look at Figure 4.1 and mention the different objects in

          the picture.

          2. Identify the patterns used to decorate these objects.

          3. Which materials were used to make these products?

          In Senior One you studied about modelling where you learnt

          about clay and its uses. You also studied about the different

          methods of making ceramics (such as pots, cups and bowls);

          these include pinch, coil and slabs. You studied about the

          different methods of decorating ceramic articles. You learnt

          that clay was used as the basic material for ceramics. Clay

          can further be used in other ways.

          In this unit, we are going to learn more about modelling in clay

          by exploring additive and subtractive methods. For example,

          look at the two sculptures in Figure 4.2.


          Figure 4.2: A male and female sculpture made out of clay

          Activity 2

          1. Observe the sculpture in Figure 4.2 and identify the

          activites represented.

          2. Discuss the sculptures in terms of form and use of clay.

          3. Look at the surface of these sculptures and discuss how

          their texture was made.

          Clay preparation

          In Senior One you learnt about clay preparation. You studied

          about four different methods of clay preparation namely;

          The plastic method: The method is often used in brick

          making. The available moisture in clay

          is used to prepare it.

          The wet method: Where clay is dissolved in water to

          form shap. Then it is wedged to loose

          moisture and prepare it for use. It is

          good for making pottery.

          The dry method: Clay is dried, pounded and crushed

          into powder form. It is often used in

          factories for making tiles.

          The semi dry method: Combines both dry and plastics


          Each method has got advantages depending on where it

          is being used. However, it is always important to get rid of

          unwanted materials such as stones, plant roots from clay

          during its preparation. Grog is always added in clay for

          sculpture in order to make it stronger and to ease the firing


          Remember, clay has to be kneaded and pressed during its

          preparation in order to get rid of air pockets. This is also done

          in order for the clay to become more plastic.

          Activity 3

          1. Discuss the four different methods of clay preparation.

          2. Which method is more suitable for preparing clay for


          3. Which method is more suitable for the preparation of

          clay for sculpture?

          4. Follow an appropriate method and prepare your clay.

          Keep it in a safe place.

          Take note:

          · The quality of clay determines the quality of the object

          formed. When clay is well prepared, it can be used to form

          fine objects.

          · Objects can easily break if they are made from poorly prepared


          · Ready clay should not crack when pressed, it should be even

          such as the one in Figure 4.3.


          Moulding different clay figures

          Your hand is the basic tool while moulding clay. This applies

          to both additive and subtractive methods of forming art works.

          Clay figures can be made by use of the following methods:

          · Using coils

          · Using slabs

          · Additive method

          · Subtractive method

          Activity 4

          Discuss the four methods above and write how each one of

          them can be applied for making clay work.

          make clay figures such as masks. As you may have observed,

          these methods are commonly used to make pottery and

          ceramic sculpture. You can make a sculpture using the additive

          method, by putting together small pieces of clay until you get

          the whole sculpture desired. For example, the sculptures in

          Figure 4.2 were made using the additive method.

          Substractive method is where you begin with a big piece of

          material which you keep reducing until the required sculpture

          is got. Subtractive method commonly applies to such materials

          as wood and stone. However, it could be used in clay. For such

          a method, you pile up a lump of clay, then you keep removing

          pieces until you get the required form.

          How to make a mask from a mold

          Remember, a mask is an object which is normally put on the

          face to disguise one’s identity. Since it is to be worn on the

          face, a mask is usually made of light materials such as wood,

          plastic and paper. For example, look at the masks in Figure



          Figure 4.4: Local masks

          You can make a mask of your own using a mold. A mold is a

          form which is used to give shape to another softer material. In

          this unit we shall use clay to make a mold.

          In order to make a mask using a mold, you begin by thinking

          about the purpose of your mask. From the purpose you can

          develop a title for your mask. For example, your mask could

          be used to entertain people on a festive occasion. You need

          the following materials in place.

          · Clay

          · Waste papers

          · Glue

          · Polythene material

          · Vaseline

          · Colours

          · Brushes

          · Small stones or seeds

          · Raffia and threads

          Then you follow the steps below:

          lStep 1

          Develop sketches for

          your mask as shown

          in Figure 4.5. Making

          a sketch helps you

          to develop and put

          ideas together and it

          acts as a guide while

          forming your work.

          Figure 4.5: Sketches for a mask showing the front and side view

          Step 2

          kUse clay to make your mask

          mold. Look at Figure 4.6.

          Avoid creating pockets on

          your mold. These are areas

          with depressions within

          the mold. Such pockets

          make it difficult to remove

          the mask off your mold.

          Figure 4.6: Forming a mold for the mask out of clay

          Step 4

          lUse a tool to create a smooth

          finishing on your mold as

          shown in Figure 4.7. This

          could be a table knife or a

          smooth stick. This would

          further help you to remove

          your mask so easily. Never

          allow your mold to get

          dry. Always cover it with a

          polythene material whenever

          you break off.

          Step 4

          lWhen you are done

          with the mold, smear

          its surface with

          Vaseline. (Figure

          4.8). This eases the

          removal of the mask

          after completion

          Figure 4.8: Smearing the clay mold with vaseline

          Step 5

          oTear small pieces of paper

          and carefully use glue to

          fit them on your mold

          as shown in Figure 4.9.

          When you are done with

          the first layer, apply glue

          and add another layer.

          Whenever you add three

          to four layers expose your

          work to get dry.

          Figure 4.9: Applying papers on the clay mold

          Step 6

          lWhen you are done and

          satisfied with the thickness

          of the mask, carefully get

          it off the mold. This can be

          done by scooping clay out

          and you remain with the

          image in papers. Then turn it

          around and work on its inner

          parts. Look at Figure 4.10.

          The inner part of your mask

          should be as smooth as the

          outer part

          Figure 4.10: Finishing the inner part of the mask after

          Step 7

          lThen cut out the

          provision for the eyes

          as shown in Figure

          4.11. Prepare colours

          and paint your mask

          according to your plan

          or sketch. Add a string

          for holding your mask in


          Figure 4.11: Cutting out the provision for the eyes

          Step 8

          kYour mask could be

          decorated further by

          adding more colours,

          raffia and a rough texture

          with small stones or

          seeds. For example look

          at Figure 4.12.

          Activity 4

          1. Follow the steps above and make your mask to be

          used on an occasion. Decorate it using the available


          2. Display your work and discuss it with classmates

          Decorating clay surfaces

          Clay naturally has its texture. But this can be changed by use

          of different tools to improve the appearance of the art work.

          Consider the following techniques of decorating clay


          · Smoothening: the article is made smooth with a tool, then it

          is fired.

          · Glazing: glaze is applied to the surface of the article at bisque

          level, the article is then fired for the second time. Glazing can

          be done in one uniform colour or with patterns.

          · Painting: a technique where colours are applied to an article

          after firing. Such colours are applied following particular


          · Incision: this is done by using a tool to cut patterns into the

          surface of an article.

          · Building: the surface of an article is decorated by adding small

          pieces on the surface while following a particular pattern.

          Activity 5

          Observe the clay pieces in Figure 4.13 and 4.14, and

          mention the technique which was used to decorate its

          surface. (Choose from these; building, incision, painting,

          glazing and smoothening).




          1. Use clay to prepare a mold of your choice. Don’t let your

          mold dry up.

          2. Using waste papers and glue, prepare a mask and decorate


          3. Display and discuss your skills regarding creativity and use

          of materials.

          4. Describe four techniques of decorating a pottery article.


          Grog: crashed fired clay which is usually added in

          clay to make it stronger and to ease its firing


          Additive method: a method of making clay works by putting

          together smack pieces of clay.

          Subtractive method: a method of making artworks by removing

          small bits off the original shape until the

          required form is got.

          Glaze: a coating of coloured, opaque, or transparent

          material applied to ceramics before firing.

          Mold: a hollow form or matrix for giving a particular

          shape to something in a molten or plastic


          Kneading: a processing of folding, pressing and stretching

          a soft substance such as clay, and making it a

          smooth uniform mass.

          Pressing: exerting force on a substance such as clay to

          flatten it.

          Pocket: depressions within a given surface.

          • My goals

            By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

            ⦿ Identify materials and tools used for weaving.

            ⦿ Describe the techniques of weaving with raffia.

            ⦿ Identify the decoration techniques for weaving.

            ⦿ Share ideas with others about own work.


            Weaving is practiced by many different cultures in the world. It

            refers to the process of interlacing strands of a given material.

            The practice usually involves the use of natural materials such

            as palm leaves, sisal, raffia, different plant stems and plant

            fibers. For example look at raffia in Figure 5.1. Raffia is a type

            of a natural yarn. Have you ever seen and touched it before?


            Figure 5.1: Raffia

            In Rwanda, there are many local products woven from Raffia.

            Raffia can be dipped in dyes to change its colour according to

            the products to be made, for example look at Figure 5.2.


            Activity 1

            1. List objects from your local area which are made from


            2. Which other materials are used together with raffia to

            make these objects?

            3. Visit your local area and get raffia (coloured and


            There are many products made by weaving raffia. For example

            look at the different products in Figure 5.3.


            Figure 5.3: Products made from raffia

            Activity 2

            1. Observe the objects in Figure 5.3 and discuss their


            2. Discuss how these products were made. What style was


            Weaving techniques

            The appearance and texture of a woven work depends on the

            weaving techniques used. There are many types of weaving

            techniques that can be used to make raffia products. These

            include; plain weave, twill weave, satin weave and Ghiord’s


            ;(a) The plain weave:

            This is the simplest

            weaving technique. The

            weft weave goes under

            one warp at a time.

            The process is repeated

            as one weaves. For

            example, look at Figure

            5.4. This type of weave

            is also known as a 1/1

            weaving style.

            (b) Twill weave:

            For this style, a weft

            goes over several warps

            before going down and

            then under two warps. The

            most common twill weave

            is shown in Figure 5.5.

            This is a 2/2 twill weave.

            Figure 5.5: Twill weave (2/2 pattern)

            Twill weaves often look

            heavier and stronger and

            therefore are used to make

            long lasting works.

            l(c) Satin weave:

            This is a more delicate and

            fancy weaving technique. For

            this style the weft goes over

            four or more warp before going

            down. Then it goes under only

            one warp as shown in Figure


            Figure 5.6: A 4/1 satin weave

            j(d) Ghiordes Knot:

            This is a type of knot

            where a yarn is passed

            over two warp yarns and

            is then pulled through

            between these two

            warps. Then the knot

            is cut to form a pile as

            shown in Figure 5.7.

            This type of knot is often

            used to finish edges of

            certain woven work such

            as carpets.

            Twinning weave

            This is the type of weave where two left strands are twisted

            or interlaced as they are made to pass over the left as shown

            in Figure 5.8. Twinning is often used in making baskets and



            Activity 3

            1. Study the weaving techniques above and try them on

            your own using raffia.

            2. Display weaves to your friends and discuss it with them.

            Design Patterns for weaving

            The weaving techniques discussed can be used to make such

            products as carpets, table and door mats. The patterns of

            the woven work largely depends on your creativity. In some

            patterns you may include words yet in others you simply deal

            with different colours of raffia. Observe Figures 5.8 and 5.9,

            and work out activity 3.

            Activity 4

            Observe Figures 5.8 and 5.9 and do the following;

            1. What weaving technique was used in the two works?

            2. Identify similar work from your surroundings.



            Coming up with such quality work may be difficult for you this time.

            However, simpler activities would make you improve on your skill with

            continuous practice. In the next activity, you need raffia in different

            colours (where possible) and a pair of scissors or a cutter.

            You can weave a square or rectangular table mat by following the

            steps below. You could join two or three pieces of raffia for one strand

            depending on the strength required.

            Step 1

            Get pieces of raffia and trim them to about 30cm. Look at

            Figure 5.11.


            lStep 2

            Using either a plain weave

            or a twill weave, make your

            table mat. Begin with two

            strands at right angles and

            then keep adding on the two

            adjacent sides. Leave raffia

            of about 5cm on either side

            of your table mat as shown

            in Figure 5.12. Follow an

            even number for both the

            warp and weft in order to

            ease the finishing.

            Figure 5.12: Trimmed pieces of raffia

            Step 3

            lAfter weaving the required

            size of the table mat, seal

            off the edges by tying the

            first strand with the third

            in the row. Look at Figure

            5.13. Remember, your

            table mat must be kept


            Figure 5.13: Sealing the edges

            Step 4

            kUsing either a cutter or a pair

            of scissors, cut off the excess

            raffia on all sides. This is what

            we call “finishing” the article.

            Look at the finished table mat

            in Figure 5.14.

            Figure 5.14: A finished table mat.

            Activity 5

            1. Use raffia to weave a table mat by following the steps


            2. Finish the table mat by cutting off excess raffia.

            3. Display your work and discuss it in terms of the weaving

            pattern used and the neatness of the woven work.


            1. Collect raffia and dye it in two different colours.

            2. Weave a small piece (15cm by 15cm) using a satin weave.

            the warp should be in a different colour from the weft?

            3. Finish your art piece by cutting off all unnecessary pieces of


            4. What is the difference between twill weave and plain



            Finishing: trimming off unnecessary yarn from a woven


            Ghiorde’s knot: a Turkish knot where a piece of yarn is tied and

            twisted along two warps to form a pile. It is

            usually used in making carpets.

            Pile: upright loops of strands in a weave.

            Plain weave: a type of weave where the weft goes over and

            under one warp during the weaving process.

            Satin weave: a weaving technique where a weft goes over four

            wefts and one weft under.

            Strand: fibers or yarn combined to form one piece for


            Twill weave: a weaving technique where the weft goes

            over and under two warps during the weaving


            Warp: vertical strands in the weaving process.

            Weave: interlacing threads/yarn to form an article.

            Weaver: a person who weaves.

            Weft: horizontal strands which go over and under

            warp in the weaving process.

            Strand: a single thin length of something such as fibre

            especially twisted together with others.

            • My goals

              By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

              ⦿ Describe the materials and tools used for designing


              ⦿ Create motifs using different tools for textile decoration.

              ⦿ Make patterns using batik technique.

              ⦿ Create a pattern using tie and dye.


              In Unit two you made patterns using different printing

              techniques. The techniques you used are referred to as surface

              resist. There are other methods of resisting a liquid (colour or

              dyes) from entering a cloth or another surface. In this unit we

              are going to study about batik and tie and dye methods of

              textile decoration. These are called bound resist techniques.

              For example look at the patterns in Figures 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and



              Activity 1

              Identifying patterns

              1. Look at Figures 6.1 to 6.4 and differentiate batik

              designs from tie and dye designs.

              2. What makes the two patterns different?

              3. Identify the colours used.

              4. Look for similar patterns from your local area and

              discuss them with your classmates.

              You may observe that patterns made using batik technique

              are bolder than those made using tie and dye. However, one

              has to plan the patterns in advance before using either batik

              or tie and dye

              Making motifs and patterns for batik

              In batik, we use wax to resist dyes from occupying certain

              areas in your pattern. Whenever you are applying dyes, begin

              with light colours, then add dark colours as you complete the

              work. These colours mix with each other to create interesting


              In order to make a batik article, you need the following


              · Pencil and paper

              · Cloth (A cotton cloth works better). Remember, you should

              wash and iron the cloth before using it in any design work.

              · Wax (this can be either bee wax or paraffin wax)

              · Brushes of different sizes

              · Dyes of different colours

              · Containers for mixing dyes

              · A heating source

              · A source pan

              · Rough papers, such as news papers

              · Iron box or flat iron

              Then follow these steps to make your batik article.

              Step 1

              ;Using a pencil, sketch your pattern

              on paper. Your pattern should be

              simple as the one shown shown in

              Figure 6.5. A complicated pattern

              will give you a hard time to work

              on. Mix the dyes in water, following

              the instructions for mixing which

              appear on these dyes.

              Figure 6.5: Sketches for a batik work

              [Step 2

              Spread your cloth on a table. Then

              transfer the sketch on to the cloth

              as you follow the proportions of your

              sketch. Look at Figure 6.6.

              This can be done by re-drawing it with

              a pencil or you may use a stencil if the

              sketch does not need enlargement.

              Figure 6.6: Transferring the sketch on to the cloth

              kStep 3

              Put wax in a source pan and heat it

              until it melts into liquid as shown in

              Figure 6.7. Use little heat when the

              wax melts, to keep it in liquid form.

              Figure 6.7: melting wax

               lStep 4

              Dip the brush bristles in the molten

              wax and block the sketched lines on the

              cloth as in figure 6.8. Never leave the

              brush in hot wax for long, it could easily

              get burnt.

              You should put a paper or papers below

              the cloth in order to stop it from getting

              stuck on the table.

              Figure 6.8: Applying wax on the clot

              iStep 5

              Using a relatively big brush, paint

              your cloth with a light colour. Then

              let the cloth dry. Never dry the cloth

              under hot sun because it melts the

              wax put on earlier. See figure 6.9.

              Figure 6.9: Painting the cloth with dyes

              ;Step 6

              Apply wax to places where you want

              to maintain the first colour. Then

              paint the cloth with another colour

              (darker than the first).

              Look at figure 6.10

              Figure 6.10: Painting the cloth with wax

              Step 7

              When you are done with the colours you wanted, apply wax

              on the entire cloth. Let it dry up and then crackle it (create

              cracks through the wax).

              ;Step 8

              Paint the cloth with

              the darkest colour as

              shown in Figure 6.11.

              Let it dry up.

              Figure 6.11: Painting the cloth with the darkest colour

              lStep 9

              Crease the cloth to remove

              the wax as shown in Figure


              When you are done, remove

              the excess wax by putting

              the cloth between papers

              and ironing it as shown in

              Figure 6.13.

              Figure 6.12: Creasing the cloth to remove wax



              Activity 2

              1. Follow the steps given to make your own batik article.

              2. Display and discuss your work with your classmate.

              Take note

              Melting wax and making batik work requires a well ventilated


              Be careful as you work with hot molten wax. It can easily burn


              Making patterns for Tie and dye

              The process of making patterns for tie and dye begin with

              tightly tying the cloth, and dipping it in boiling dyes before

              bringing it out to dry. Therefore the name comes from the

              process of making the patterns, “first tie the cloth and then

              dye it in dyes”.

              To make tie and dye patterns, you need the following


              · Cloth

              · Raffia or nylon threads

              · Dyes

              · Water

              · Heat source

              · Cutters

              · Wax

              ·· Salt (this is usually added in the dyes as they are boiled)

              Patterns for tie and dye largely depend on how the cloth is

              treated before dyeing it. The cloth is tied in order to resist

              dyes from going to unwanted areas. After tying the cloth, it is

              dipped in dyes and boiled for about 30 minutes (or according

              to the instructions on the tin for a given dye).

              It is then removed from the dye and made to dry under shade.

              The tying should be tight in order to limit dye from going to

              places they are not supposed to.

              You can use different colours to dye your cloth. But before

              dyeing the cloth in another colour, the first colour should be

              dry. Then more tying is done to preserve the first colour. The

              threads are not removed until the cloth is totally dry.

              Activity 3

              1. Look for tie and dye patterns from your local area.

              2. What shapes can you see in these patterns?

              There are several ways of treating the cloth, these include:

              1. Folding and gathering

              2. Stitchery

              1. Folding and gathering

              There are several ways of folding and gathering the cloth

              these include pleats, strips, circles and spirals. These are

              demonstrated in Figure 6.14. In all the styles shown, the cloth

              is twisted first, then it is tied to form a given pattern.


              Figure 6.15: Ways of making patterns for tie and dye

              After folding and gathering the cloth, its is then tied and

              emersed in dyes as shown in figure 6.16. The cloth is boiled

              for some time as indicated on the dyes, look at Figure 6.17.

              After dyeing the cloth it is left to dry under a shade if you are

              to use several colours, the process is repeated. You add more

              ties after drying the cloth and dip it into the second colour.

              Then when you are done with all colours, the cloth is unfolded

              and ironed and the patterns of final work appear as shown in

              figure 6.18


              Activity 4

              1. Observe the patterns in Figure 6.14 and try them out on

              a piece of cloth.

              2. Dye the cloth to see the outcome.

              Now take a look at how the patterns look like on the final work

              in Figure 6.18, after dyeing the cloth.


              2. Stitchery

              For this technique, you need a needle and threads (preferably

              nylon threads or raffia). For example the pattern in Figure 6.15

              was a result of stitchery. You begin by sketching the patterns

              on the cloth, then you sew them with a running stitch. But

              you leave threads of a reasonable length hanging. These are

              the threads used to tie the cloth when it comes to dyeing it.

              Figure 6.19 A pattern made using stichery techniques. You

              can now look at the pattern made by use of threads on a cloth

              in figure 6.20.



              While using the stitchery technique, threads are pulled and

              tied at intervals depending on the planned design and colours.

              Then the cloth is dipped in dyes following the same process as

              the one you used in folding together on page 83. Your pattern

              may come out as shown in the figure 6.21.


              Take note:

              · Just like the case of batik works, the process of dyeing the

              cloth should always begin with light colours.

              · You need to know the colour combinations before doing tie

              and dye. These were studied in Unit one.

              Activity 5

              1. Draw a pattern for stitchery on a piece of paper.

              2. Sew the stitch on a piece of cloth.

              3. Dye the pattern and observe the outcome


              Create a pattern on a cloth (1/2 square meter) using one of the

              techniques discussed in this unit.

              1. Get a piece of cloth (1/2 square meter) and create patterns

              by folding it into either circles or pleats

              2. Tie the cloth into different values and dip it into a light dye

              3. Repeat the processes in ‘2’ atwith different parts in the

              second dye.

              4. Unfold the cloth and let it dry. Then iron your cloth and

              display it.


              Bound resist: a technique of decorating cloth in which dyes

              are stopped from going to certain areas on a

              cloth by either tying, or using wax.

              Surface resist: a technique of decorating a cloth in which

              printing ink is limited to particular areas by using

              a stencil, or graphic film or photo emulsion.

              Crackling: a technique used to create rugged lines on a

              batik work when it is completed.

              Stitchery: a tie and dye method in which threads are used

              to create patterns on a cloth.

              Dye: a material which is used to change the colour

              of another materials either directly or by use of


              Crease: a process of squeezing a cloth in order to remove

              excess wax.

              Pleats: folds created in a pieces of cloth as a process of

              creating patterns on it before dipping it in dyes.

              • My goals

                By the end of this Unit, I will be able to:

                Identify the characteristics of art in some African and

                European regions.

                ⦿ Describe the characteristics of works by renowned artists.

                ⦿ Appreciate the value of culture in the society.

                ⦿ Discuss the major art sites in the world.

                ⦿ Appreciate modern and abstract art.


                Art reflects people’s way of life. This is majorly because people

                create art according to their social, economic and political

                background. Therefore, by studying the history of art from

                different regions and periods, we can understand the nature

                of different societies in the world. This helps us learn about

                the works they produced, their methods and techniques, and

                the materials they used, in order to boost our creative abilities

                as we produce our own art.

                For example, look at the change in style of the art works in

                Figures 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4 and 7.5.





                Activity 1

                Observe the art works in Figures 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4 and

                7.5, and do the following:

                1. Discuss their differences regarding the following aspects;

                (a) use of space

                (b) subject matter

                (c) the light effect in the composition

                2. Identify the colours used in these compositions.

                3. Mention any paintings from your local area with some of

                these characteristics.

                The paintings in Figures 7.1 to 7.4 and the sculpture in

                Figure 7.5 show the trend of art from the pre-historic, the

                renaissance, to the modern and abstract art. Indeed art has

                greatly changed and a number of materials discovered to date

                in painting, sculpture, pottery, the graphic arts, textile designs

                and architecture. But in this unit, we are going to look at

                Modern and Abstract Art.

                What is Modern Art?

                The word modern has been used to refer to the most recent

                things as opposed to the past. Sometimes the past is related

                to what is traditional. For example in your community, what

                do you consider to be the past and what is modern?

                Modern art can be traced from the period of industrial

                revolution (18th and 19th century). This was a period with

                many changes in manufacturing, technology and transport.

                These changes greatly affected the cultural, social and

                economic conditions of the western world.

                Before the 18th century, the church was the major consumer

                of art and therefore artists painted compositions from biblical

                stories. But as the industrial revolution progressed, people of

                the high class begun demanding for art works. Besides, as

                people’s way of life changed, artists became more interested

                in painting about the people and places which interested

                them. Therefore the subject matter changed. For example look

                at the painting in Figure 7.6.


                Activity 2

                Observe the painting in Figure 7.6 and discuss the following


                1. How many people are in the composition?

                2. From which direction is light coming from in the


                3. What is the story presented in the composition?

                4. From which setting is the action taking place?

                5. Draw this composition on a paper and paint it while

                trying to copy the colours as they appear in this


                6. Display and discuss your paintings with other groups

                Well, some scholars believe that modern art is likely to have

                begun with the work of the French painter, Jacques Louis David,

                the founder of the style called Neoclassism. He was born in

                1748 and died in 1825. He painted various compositions

                from stories around French politics and Figure 7.6 is one of


                The painting presents a dramatic composition in which three

                brothers are saluting toward three swords held up by their

                father. At the extreme corner, there are women in grief behind

                the father, an indication that they were not in support of their

                sons’ joining the army.

                A number of art schools had been started and they trained

                artists following ideas that were developed in the Renaissance.

                Modern art was started by artists who kept working against the

                norms learnt from these art schools. Therefore, other scholars

                consider modern art as the style of art which existed between

                1870 and 1970.

                What are the characteristics of modern art?

                1. New types of art were formed during this period, for

                example; collage art, animation, performance art and kinetic


                2. New materials were discovered and used in painting, such

                as fixing objects on canvas paintings. Also, found objects

                were used in sculpture in form of assemblages.

                3. Colour was extensively used for expressive purposes. In

                many compositions, colour was used to express the artist’s


                4. New movements of art were formed, especially in painting.

                Activity 3

                Discuss the following questions.

                1. What is meant by the term Modern Art?

                2. What are the common characteristics of Modern Art?

                3. Mention four artists’ paintings and four artists in Modern


                A number of art movements were formed as part of “Modern

                Art”. These include: impressionism, Fauvism, cubism, pop art,

                Dadaism, surrealism and abstract art. We shall discuss some of

                these styles as follows.

                1. Impressionism

                This is a style of painting which was developed in the 19th

                century by French artists, such as Edgar Degas, Claude Monet,

                Edouard Manet and Auguste Renoir. It is characterized by the

                use of short brush strokes, using bright colours with the effect

                of light. For example look at Figure 7.7.


                2. Fauvism

                This is a style of painting which was developed in the 20th

                century by a group of French artists who referred to themselves

                as “the wild beasts”. The style was based on colour effects and

                light with big parches of colour. For example look at Figure



                3. Cubism

                This is another modern art style which was developed in

                the 20th century. The style is focused on presenting figures

                whose natural forms are simplified into geometric shapes. A

                prominent artist who followed this style is Pablo Picasso, one

                of his paintings is presented in Figure 7.9.


                Activity 4

                1. Sketch a composition of an activity of your choice on a

                piece of paper.

                2. Paint this composition by following any of the styles

                discussed so far.

                3. Display your paintings and discuss them with the rest of

                your classmates.

                4. Surrealism

                This is a modern art style in which the artist portrays what

                seems to be a dream into reality. It was developed during the

                20th Century. There is a lot of rearrangement of ideas which

                from the natural point of view looks unreal. For example look

                at the painting in Figure 7.10.


                5. Pop art

                This is the type of modern art which is nonrepresentational. It

                was developed in the 1950s in Britain and the United States.

                It depicts objects and scenes from everyday life. For example,

                look at the painting in Figure 7.11.


                Figure 7.11: Pop Art

                Activity 5

                1. Sketch a composition in either surrealism or pop art.

                2. Using colours of your choice, paint this composition.

                3. Display the paintings and discuss them with friends.

                What is Abstract art?

                This is a type of modern art which focuses on using forms,

                shapes, colours and texture. It does not represent objects as

                they appear in nature but according to the artist’s expressive

                abilities. For example look at Figures 7.12 and 7.13.



                Figure 7.13: Abstract sculpture by B.J. Las v

                In Figure 7.12, the artist focused on the use of colour to

                create rhythm in the painting. Then in Figure 7.13, the artist

                uses geometric shapes to create harmony and unity in the


                Therefore, in abstract art, objects are deformed, simplified

                and rearranged to come up with a work of art.

                Activity 6

                Look at Figures 7.12 and 7.13 and discuss the following:

                1. Identify the colours that were used in the abstract


                2. What shapes were used in the sculpture? Relate these

                shapes to any natural object from your surroundings.

                3. How does abstract art differ from cubism? (refer to

                Figures 7.9 and 7.12).

                World renowned artists

                There are a number of artists who have made significant impact

                in the field of art. These include; Michelangelo, Leonardo da

                vinci, Pablo Picasso and O’Keeffe. Some of these and their

                work, you studied about in Senior One. Let us summarise their

                contribution in the following section.


                Michelangelo (1475-1564)

                An Italian Renaissance artist

                who was a painter, sculptor and

                architect. He is known for his

                mastery if the body structure. He

                painted great works in the Sistine

                charpel such as creation of Adam

                in Figure 7.16.


                Leonardo da vinci (1452-1519)

                An Italian Renaissance artist who

                was a painter and ceramicist. He

                is known for his style of making

                paintings with no strict outlines

                (chiaroscuro). One of his painting is

                the monalisa shown in figure 7.17.



                Pablo Picasso

                A Spanish painter, ceramicist,

                sculptor and poet. He is one

                of the renowned artists in

                the 20th century who is the

                founder of cubism. He made

                many compositions and

                portraits such as Figure 7.20.

                Georgia o’Keeffek

                An American modern artist who is

                known for her paintings depicting

                nature. She mainly painted

                plants with emphasis on flowers

                in brilliant colours for example,

                look at Figure 7.19.


                Activity 7

                1. Discuss the characteristics of art works of the renowned

                artists presented in the previous section.

                2. Identify some art works from your local area with

                characteristics similar to those of the famous artist


                Major art works in the world

                Many art works have been produced by different artists from different

                regions of the world. Such works have characteristics which have

                influenced the production of art in the world. Some of these art

                works include; the fertility goddess (Figure 7.22), The Monalisa

                (Figure 7.3), the Sistine charpel (Figure 7.24) and the kangaroo

                hunt (Figure 7.23).


                Figure 7.22: Fertility goddess


                Activity 8

                7.24 and discuss the questions that follow:

                1. Identify the objects and compositions presented in these


                2. List the different colours used.

                3. What materials were used in these works?

                Major art sites

                You studied about the major art sites in the world in Senior

                One and discussed some of the art works found in these

                places. These places include Altamira in Spain, Lascaux in

                France and Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.

                Activity 9

                Observe the paintings in Figure 7.25, 7.26 and discuss

                the general characteristics of the two paintings.

                1. What do you think are the materials used to make these


                2. Mention the colours that were used in the paintings.



                In your discussion, you may have come up with theses

                similarities in the paintings at Altamira and Lescaux:

                1. Both paintings were made during the Pre-historic period.

                2. The painting were done on rocks.

                3. The paintings were done in cave ceilings.

                4. Animals are the main subject matter of both paintings.

                5. Lines were used to draw the shapes of the animals and

                filled with colour.

                6. The colours used are similar, basically browns and yellow


                At Olduvai Gorge, it is believed that the oldest man on earth

                lived here and his major tools were made of stone. These

                tools were discussed in Senior One. Therefore, the similarity

                between Olduvai Gorge, Altamira and Lescaux is that the

                people who lived in these places used stone as the major tool.


                1. Discuss five styles that existed in the modern art period.

                2. Mention three world renowned artists and state one art

                work made by each of them.

                3. In which period does Leonardo da vinci belong.


                Rhythm: a strong, regular repeated pattern of movement

                observed from an artwork.

                Portrait: a likeness of a person, especially of the face, as

                a painting or drawing.

                Ceramicist: a person who makes ceramic pieces.

                Poet: a person who writes or makes poems.

                Architect: a person who designs and supervises the

                construction of buildings or other large structures.

                Chiaroscuro: an Italian artistic term used to describe the

                dramatic effect of contrasting areas of light and

                dark in an art work, particularly paintings.

                Neoclassism: this refers to a period where there was a revival

                of a classical style or treatment in art, literature,

                architecture and music.

                Renaisance: this a period which started in Italy and spread

                to the rest of Europe. It’s a period when artists

                revised the style of the classical period in ancient

                Rome and ancient Greece.


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