Topic outline

  • Unit 1: Resources and their Usage



    Key unit competence

    To be able to manage resources properly.

    Knowledge to be acquired

    1. Meaning of resources.

    2.Types of resources.

    3 Importance of resources.

    4 Meaning of effective and sustainable utilization of resources.

    Application to daily life

     Analyse the different types of resources.

     Determine whether resources are effectively utilised.

     Develop strategies on how resources can be effectively utilised and sustained.

     Advocate for proper use of resources.

     Use resources properly and sustainably.

    Introductory Activity
    People need money, materials, knowledge and other assets to function effectively. If you want to start a business, there are various things you should have in place for your business to start and function properly.At home, there are things you need for the home to function properly.For your school to function properly, certain things must be present. This also applies to the community, and the country at large.From the above, all the things needed by man for the home, school, business, community and country to function properly are what we call resources.


    (a) If you were appointed as the headteacher of the school, what do you think are the resources your school will need to function properly?

    (b) Your father has been invited for a one year training in London, he wants you to head the family when he is away. Prepare a list of resources you will need for the home to function properly.

    (c) Rwanda is a beautiful country, it is full of many resources. List the resources Rwanda needs to function effectively.

    (d) Categorize the resources you have mentioned in a, b and c into their types.

    1.1: Meaning of Resources

    ACTIVITY 1.1
    In Senior 1 and 2, you looked at mobilizing, proper allocation and exploitation of resources as among the main roles of an entrepreneur in entrepreneurship.Using your knowledge on the roles of an entrepreneur, answer the following questions:

    1. Who is an entrepreneur?
    2. What do you understand by the term resources?
    3. What is meant by mobilising resources?
    4. Why do you think it is necessary to ensure proper allocation of resources?
    5. List any four resources entrepreneurs mobilise.

    ACTIVITY 1.2

    For your school to operate properly, various resources are needed. Using your school as an enterprise, complete the table on page 3.

    Resources and their usage

    From activity 1.1 and 1.2, you can define a resource as stock of money, materials, staff, knowledge and other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organization to function effectively.

    The basic resources are land, labor and capital. Other resources include: entrepreneurship, information,expertise, management,energy and time.

    All the resources mentioned above are required to carry out production

    Test skills acquired 1.1
    Fill in the table below by stating the resources required to set up each enterprise with their corresponding usage.

    1.2: Types of Resources

    ACTIVITY 1.3
    1. Referring to activity 1.2, classify the resources identified by filling in the table below according to the following types. You may add other resources not identified in activity 1.2.

    2. Briefly explain the types of resources identified in (1) above:
           (a) Financial                       (b) Raw materials
           (c) Human                           (d) Information
           (e) Time                               (f) Technology

    From activity 1.3, you have grouped resources according to their types which include: financial, human, time, technological, raw materials and information resources.

    These resources are explained in detail below:

    1. Human resource
    Human resources are people who use their skills to produce goods, provide services or run a business enterprise. For example, a teacher uses his/her professional skills to equip learners with knowledge and life skills required for survival in a school, community and country.

    Other examples of human resources include; doctors, engineers, managers, drivers, pilots, carpenters, chefs and waiters in restaurants and many others.

    Cross-cutting Issue: Gender Education Both the entrepreneur and employees should perform their responsibilities, respect one another and should never be biased against sex or gender roles.

    2. Financial resources
    Financial resources refer to the money available to an enterprise for its successful starting and running. Before going into business, an entrepreneur needs to secure sufficient financial resources in order to be able to operate efficiently and sufficiently well.

    Financial resources such as money are necessary to buy and acquire other resources such as land, labor, raw materials, machines, and so on.

    Businesses generate financial resources through many activities such as:

    • personal savings,   
    • sale of products and services,
    • issuance of shares,  loans from friends, relatives or financial institutions.

    Cross-cutting Issue: Financial Education

    Because financial resources are scarce, you need to properly manage them through developing a culture of planning, budgeting, saving and record keeping among others.

    3. Technological resources

    Technological resources are the systems, machines and tools required to effectively produce/ create products or provide services. These resources aid the production processes and service delivery in an enterprise. Examples of technology resources include: ATM machines, computers, tractors, generators, printers, scanners, and so on.

    4. Raw materials

    Raw materials are the basic materials from which goods and products are made. Usually, raw materials are natural resources such as minerals (gold, copper, and tin); wood, water, and so on used in the production of goods and products. Raw materials are very necessary in an enterprise for without them, goods and products cannot be produced.

    Cross-cutting Issue: Environment and sustainability

    All raw materials are got from the environment. Therefore it is all our responsibility to properly use these resources and protect the environment for its sustainability. For example cut one tree and plant four trees.

    5. Information

    Information resources are defined as the data and facts used by an entrepreneur to run an enterprise effectively. Information may include data on customers, suppliers, financial institutions, government regulatory bodies, workers and so on required by an entrepreneur for the successful running of an enterprise.

    6. Time

    Time is an important resource for entrepreneurs. It determines quantity of production and the volume of human, financial and other resources required.Proper coordination of all the resources over time helps an entrepreneur to create products and deliver services efficiently and effectively.

    Test skills acquired 1.2

    Your uncle wants to start a fruit processing business in your home area. He has come to you for some advice before starting the business. Using your knowledge of entrepreneurship, advise your uncle about:

    1. The kind of resources he will need for his business (starting and operating).

    2. Likely sources of those resources you have identified in (1) above.

    3. Importance of proper utilization of those resources.

    1.3: Resources and their Importance

    ACTIVITY 1.4

    Fill in and complete the table below.

    From activity 1.4, you must have derived the importance of resources which include:

    • Ensures the continuation and survival of the business and  its activities.
    • Allows for improvement of products and services the business currently provides.
    • Allows businesses to continue operating by generating new business ideas.
    • Financial resources allow the acquisition of other resources such as land, materials, labor and machines necessary for the successful operating of the business.
    • Raw materials make it possible for business to produce goods and products to satisfy the needs of their customers.
    • Human resources provide labor and management skills needed to organize other resources in the business.
    • Technological resources such as machines help in producing goods and providing services which lead to improved standards of living in the country.
    • Resources like land provide space for setting up enterprises and performing of all other activities in the enterprise.
    Cross-cutting Issue: Environment and Sustainability

    Resources are scarce. Most resources are not renewable. Without resources, businesses cannot exist, and so do people. Therefore, we should properly utilize our resources.

    • Source of employment: Resources are bases of employment to many people in Rwanda, for example, many people are employed in forests as forest rangers, tourist guides and lumber jacks; others are employed on lakes as fishermen and fishmongers; in quarries and mines as miners and so on.

    • Source of income: Resources are bases of income to the people involved in their exploitation, for example, women and men who work in stone quarries and mines earn income and this income helps in raising their standard of living.

    • Aid in infrastructure development: Resources are used in building infrastructures such as roads, schools, stadiums, and so on. For example, stones are mined from quarries and used as raw materials in road construction. This leads to development of infrastructure which improves the living conditions of people.

    • Source of government revenue: Resources aid in the running of businesses which in turn pay taxes to the government. The government earns this revenue which it uses in developing infrastructures such as hospitals, roads, schools which are enjoyed by the general public thereby improving their standards of living.

    • Source of foreign exchange: Resources can be exported to neighboring and far countries and Rwanda earns foreign currency. This foreign currency helps in strengthening the Rwandan currency against foreign currencies.

    1.4: Effective Utilization of Resources

    ACTIVITY 1.5

    Case study (At school)

    Read the case study below and answer questions that follow.
    AGACIRO S S is a community based school in Nyagatare district, Eastern Province. When the school started in 2013, it had all the necessary facilities for a conducive learning environment such as, enough desks in classrooms, tap water, good latrines, well-furnished dormitories for both girls and boys. The school was a model for other surrounding schools.

    Uwamahoro happened to do her school practice from AGACIRO S.S and this is what she told me one day. “Learners leave the furniture out. When it rains, the furniture in soaked in water. Most of the furniture is broken because of poor handling; the library is almost empty as most of the books got lost and others are all torn with no covers.

    Learners have to be forced to attend classes and night preps, and only get to revise their books when there is an exam something which greatly affects the academic standards of the school. When confronted about their behaviour, learners say that the school will buy new furniture and books; and that they also have a lot of time they will read in S.3 before the national examinations”.


    1. Identify the resources in the case study above.
    2. Are the resources being utilised properly? Support your answer.
    3. Suggest how best the learners can utilise the various resources at AGACIRO S.S.
    4. What advice would you give to fellow learners about effective ustilisation of resources in our community?

    From activity 1.5, you realise that effective utilisation of resources means knowing what resources (supply of money, equipment, materials, time, employees, materials, and other assets) are needed in an enterprise, where they are needed and using them appropriately.

    Effective utilisation of resources is about maximising the use of resources by an individual or an enterprise in order to function effectively, with minimum wastage. Therefore, effective utilisation of resources calls for use of the Earth’s limited resources in a sustainable manner while preserving the environment.

    Cross-cutting Issue: Environment and Sustainability

    To waste, to destroy our natural resources, to skin and exhaust the land instead of using it so as to increase its usefulness will result in the exploitation and extinction of natural resources which we would have passed onto our children more developed. (Theodore Roosevelt).

    Enterprises need to effectively manage their resources to ensure that an enterprise operates effectively as expected, customers are satisfied, and organisational targets are met.

    Below are ways entrepreneurs can effectively utilise resources:

    1. Sustainable use of resources: This refers to using resources in a way that they are not depleted or permanently damaged. It involves using resources indefinitely.

    2.Planning for resource utilisation: This involves assigning available resources to various uses. It is the scheduling of activities and the resources required by those activities while taking into consideration both resource availability and the time.

    Proper planning and preparation prevents poor performance. (Stephen Keague)

    3. Budgeting for activities: This involves outlining what you will spend your money (financial resources) on and how that money (financial resources) will be acquired.

    A budget is a plan to:ƒ

    • Control your financial resources.ƒ
    • Ensure you can continue to fund your current activities.ƒ
    • Enables you to make confident financial decisions and meet your objectives.
    • ƒEnsures you to have enough money for your future activities.

    A budget is telling your money where to go instead of wondering where it went. (Dove Ramsey)

    4. Saving (conservation of natural resources): This is the wise use of the earth’s resources by entrepreneurs. Conservation is the management, mainly for economic reasons, of such valuable natural resources as timber, fish, game, topsoil, pasture land, and minerals, and also to the preservation of forests, wildlife, and watershed areas.

    5. Proper human resource management: This involves all systems devised for the proper management of people within an organisation. It involves proper staffing, employee compensation and benefits, and defining/designing work. Proper human resource management means maximising the productivity of an organisation by optimising the effectiveness of its employees.

    Human resources coupled with an emphasis on technology and professionalism is the quality structure of organisation.

    6. Reduce: This involves entrepreneurs reducing on the amount of resources required to produce a given product. We must reduce waste production at the source. This means reducing the quantity of waste during production, distribution, purchasing, use and elimination (which, by the way, you can avoid!).

    First, before buying something, ask yourself if you really need it. If the answer is yes, and if possible, try to:

    • Replace your consumption of disposable objects and products by reusable ones. For example;
    1. Cloth napkins (washable) instead of paper napkins (disposable);
    2. Cloth or strainer coffee filters (washable) instead of paper filter (disposable);
    3. Eliminate throw-away razors, non-rechargeable batteries, etc.
    • Buy used products;ƒ
    • Buy recycled products;ƒ
    • Buy products that aren’t over-packaged;ƒ
    • Buy recyclable products (products that can be recycled);ƒ
    • Buy products that contain recycled materials.
    7. Reuse: This is about extending the life or giving a second life to something (resource) that was previously considered as “garbage”. Reuse involves using resources that were considered waste and useless.

    Reuse helps reduce not only the content of garbage cans but also that of the recycling bin. “It’s simple, economic and available to all of us! All you need is to extend the life of a product by using it more than once or to be creative by giving it a second life”.

    Reusing resources helps to:
    • reduce your consumption (and therefore avoid unnecessary spending);ƒ
    • reduce your production of waste and the disposal of packaging materials;ƒ
    • preserve the environment, its resources and raw materials.
    8. Recycling: Like reuse, recycling means recovering a resource and giving it a second life. While reusing a resource means using it without really modifying or altering it or favouring multi-purpose resources over single-use ones, recycling means bringing a resource back to a state of raw material.

    For example, waste paper goes back to pulp and turned into new products such as toilet papers and paper trays; plastics are melted and formed into new products and so on. What was once considered waste becomes a resource, thus breaking with the linear extraction-production-consumption-destruction logic.


    • ƒPreserves our precious natural resources by minimising extraction activities such as lumbering and mining.
    • ƒPreserves huge amounts of water.ƒ
    • Reduces energy demands during manufacturing.ƒ
    • By passes air, water and soil contamination during mining and disposal (dumps, incinerators).
    • ƒFavours the conservation and protection of the environment and ecosystems.ƒ
    • Reduces pollution (each 1,000 kg of recycled materials saves 2,800 kg greenhouse gases).
    9. Repair: This involves fixing things (resources) that may be torn, broken or old, but if given a little time and energy, can be made useful again.
    For example,
    • sew old clothing or resole a shoe.ƒ
    • repair a watch rather than buying a new one.

    Test skills acquired 1.3

    1. Using your home as an example, complete the table below by suggesting strategies of effective resource usage.

    2. Read and analyse the statement in column 1 and fill in the strategy that applies for effective resource usage in column 2.

    Unit Summary


    Resources are stock of money, materials, staff, knowledge and other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organisation to function effectively.

    • Financial resources: These resources refer to the money available to a business for the successful starting and running of a business enterprise by an entrepreneur.
    • Human resource: Are people who use their knowledge and skills to produce goods, provide services or run business enterprises.
    • Technological resources: Technological resources basically refer to systems, machines and tools required to effectively produce or create products or provide services.
    • Raw materials: These are the basic materials from which goods and products are made.
    • Information: These resources are defined as the data and information used by an entrepreneur in an enterprise.
    • Time: This is an important resource for entrepreneurs. It determines quantity of production and the volume of human, financial and other resources required.

    Effective utilisation of resources

    • Efficiency- being efficient- is concerned with how much it costs an organisation to produce goods and services with the resources it uses.
    • Effectiveness-being effective - is concerned with the quality of the goods and services it produces with the resources it uses.
    • Sustainable use of resources: This refers to using resources in a way that it is not depleted or permanently damaged.
    • Planning for resource utilisation: This involves assigning available resources to various uses.
    • Budgeting for activities: This involves outlining what you will spend your money (financial resources) on and how that money (financial resources) will be acquired.
    • Proper human resource management: This involves all systems devised for the proper management of people within an organisation.
    • Saving (conservation of natural resources): This is the wise use of the earth’s resources by entrepreneurs.
    • Reduce: This involves entrepreneurs reducing on the amount of resources required to produce a given product.
    • Reuse: This is about extending the life or giving a second life to something (resource) that was previously considered as “garbage”.
    • Recycling: Like reuse,recycle means recovering a resource and giving it a second life after altering it.
    • Repair: This involves fixing things (resources) that may be broken, but if given a little time and energy, can be made useful again.

    Unit 1 Assessment

    1. What do you understand by the term resources?

    2. Identify various examples of resources used in your home, community and school.

    3. Suggest your own strategies that you can adapt to effectively utilise resources in your home, community and school.
    File: 1
  • Unit 2: Career Opportunities



    Key unit competence:

    To be able to make rational career choices.

    Knowledge to be acquired

     Meaning of career, opportunity and career opportunity.

     Fields of career opportunities.

     Sources of career opportunities.

     Importance of choosing a suitable career in life.

     Steps followed in making a career choice.

    Application to daily life

     Evaluate the fields of career opportunities.

     Search for career information from various sources.

     Describe the link between personal qualities, education, earnings, and careers.

     Use the steps in choosing a career.

     Appreciate the importance of choosing a suitable career in life.

     Choose careers rationally.

     Show respect for different careers.

    Introductory Activity
    Have you ever wondered how your school would be without teachers, bursars, accountants, headteachers, security guards or nurses?

    What of a hospital with out doctors, nurses, lab technicians, surgeons and dentists? What of courts with out judges, lawyers, juries and advocates?

    What of Rwanda without the president, ministers, police and the army?

    Rwanda is comprised of people with various careers and these also belong to different career fields. A career field comprises people of different careers but operating in the same line of work. Take an example of doctors, surgeons, dentists, and lab technicians, all these belong to the same career field (medical field). It is important for one to choose a career in life.

    Before one does this, he/she can obtain information regarding careers from various sources and also follow certain steps to choose a desired career.

    (a) Identify the career of some of your family members and describe the career field they belong to.
    (b) Show how their careers are useful to the community and Rwanda.

    2.1: Meaning of Career, Opportunity and Career Opportunity

    ACTIVITY 2.1
    In Senior one and two, you looked at personal values, skills and characteristics, and setting personal goals. Using your knowledge from activities 1.1 and 1.2, answer the following questions:

    1. What are personal values?
    2. What are personal goals?
    3. How can our personal values help one to set personal goals?

    ACTIVITY 2.2
    Referring to activity 2.1, visit the school library or internet and research on the meaning of the following terms:

    1. career,
    2. opportunity,
    3. career opportunity.

    A career is the type of work, job or profession that someone does for a long period of their life and in which they hope to gain advancement. It is often composed of the job held, titles earned and work accomplished over along period of time.

    A career often requires special training and comes with some expectations of progress throughout the course of the individual’s life.

    An opportunity is an occasion or situation that makes it possible to do something that you want to do or have to do. It is the possibility of doing something.

    A career opportunity is an occupation chosen as one’s work for life. One usually undertakes a course to qualify for a career opportunity desired.

    A career opportunity is sometimes known as a career option. Choosing a career opportunity should be done with a lot of care because the decisions you take will affect your life for many years. For an individual to make a choice of a career opportunity, it depends upon a number of factors such as family, academic preference and personal interests.

    Did you know?
    The career you choose is most likely the job you will do for the rest of your lift. You should therefore be careful when making a career choice.

    2.2: Importance of Choosing Careers in Life

    Referring to activity 2.1 and 2.2, you should chose a career in life due to the following reasons.

    • Develop professional goals: Choosing a career path can help you set professional goals and develop a strategy for getting where you want to be. Choosing a career involves making an honest self-evaluation of your talents, abilities and interests. While elements of your path may change over time due to choice or circumstance, having an overall professional objective with which to guide yourself will help you make critical decisions with greater clarity.
    • Utilises your strength: Choosing a career that uses your best skills prevents a situation where hard work only leads to frustration. What you’re required to do in a job is not always what you’re best at, even if you eventually succeed. Often, people know what they are good at but never utilise the opportunity to apply those skills. Selecting a job that you will enjoy doing ultimately lets you simply follow your interests in pursuing a career path.
    • Develops innovation: Enterprises benefit when their people have a genuine interest in the field they work. In addition to day-to-day motivation, employees are more likely to see their work from a variety of perspectives and bring fresh ideas to the table. This is how innovation occurs. You also benefit from this tendency toward innovation in a career that you enjoy.
    • Leads to high performance standards: Successful people are required to meet high performance standards. This pressure comes from employers, corporate culture and when you are an entrepreneur in the marketplace. The necessary time, energy and intellectual capital is easier to expend when you love the work you do. From the most basic gauge of job happiness, getting up in the morning to go to work because you love your job, to pushing yourself to go further in your career, remaining engaged is key to continued success.
    Cross-cutting Issue: Standardisation culture

    Individuals who choose a career according to their interest and talent usually perform to their best and offer high standard and good quality services to their clients. You are therefore advised to choose a career according to your interest and talent.

    • Career choice will help you find meaning in the job you are doing and view the job as a ‘calling. This will help you enjoy your work and your life as well.
    • Acts as a motivation to remain committed. During the early phases of a career, you develop fundamental skills and complete tasks that may seem divergent to your ultimate professional objective. Few people, however, can dive right into the meat of the career they feel they were born to do. So an in-depth understanding of what the career entails and the knowledge that your life’s work will ultimately be fulfilling, adds to your motivation to remain committed, even when the rewards seem distant.
    • Career choice leads one to much greater heights in terms of happiness and success.
    • Career choice helps one enhance the skills he/she has and also learn more skills as one grows in the job.
    • Career choice provides one with a platform to make all the difference and also support the employer in developing the business.

    2.3: Fields of Career Opportunities

    ACTIVITY 2.3
    Give examples of careers one can take in each field by filling in the table below.

    Facts: “We all go to school because we want to have a bright future. When we were young, our parents might have forced us to go to school. However, at the moment, we have seen the need of going to school. The main reason most learners go to school is because they want to have a good career in life.

    There are very many careers in the world. The main fields include:

    1. Education field for example; headteachers, teachers, school administrators, bursars and university lecturers.

    2. Medical field for example; doctors, nurses, surgeons, pharmacists, gynaecologists, dermatologists, physicians and so on.

    3.Agricultural field for example; livestock farmers, dairy farmers, crop growers, etc.

    Cross-cutting Issue: Environment and Sustainability

    Individuals involved in agro-forestry activities greatly contribute in protection and sustainability of the environment and its surroundings and at the same time making money.

    4. Engineering field for example, electrical engineers,civil engineers, telecommunication engineers, mechanical engineers, land surveyors and so on.

    5. Political field for example; presidents, vice presidents, mayors, ministers, members of parliament (senators), community leaders and so on.

    6. Construction field for example; construction engineers and so on:

    7. Commercial and manufacturing field for example; wholesalers, retailers, vehicle manufacturing, textile production, bakeries and confectioneries.

    8. Transport field for example;freighters, cargo couriers, pilots, air hostesses, drivers, captains and so on.

    9. Legal field for example; lawyers, judges, juries and attorney generals.

    10. Finance field for example; bankers, accountants, Chief Administrative Officers (CAO), money changers, finance consultants and so on.

    Cross-cutting Issue: Financial education

    Financial activities are very important in the success and survival of the business.It plays a very important part in a business to operate for a going concern.

    11. Security field for example; police, military and army, secrete service/intelligence, etc.

    Cross-cutting Issue: Peace and values

    Security maintained in the country greatly leads to peaceful operations of the businesses in the country. This greatly leads to increased efficiency and productivity of such businesses leading to improved standards of living.

    12. Media field: This involves people working as news readers, news anchors, television and radio presenters, journalists and so on.

    Cross-cutting Issue: Gender education

    Men and women should consider choosing a career that best suits their interest. This will greatly increase their performance and positively affect their lives.

    13. Hotel and tourism field for example; barristers, waitresses, waiters, chefs, tourist guides, and so on.


    Test skills acquired 2.1

    1. Julienne is a lay person who needs to know the difference between a career and career opportunity. As a senior three learner who has just acquired knowledge about career opportunities, with clear examples, explain to Julienne the difference.

    2. Read the sentences in the table below and indicate true or false.

    3. For numbers 3 to 7, circle the wrong alternative. The following are importances of choosing a career in life except;

                  (a) Enhance skills
                  (b) Become a lawyer.
                  (c) Develop professional goals.
                  (d) Lead to high performance standard

    4. A career is sometimes known as;

              (a) A good choice
              (b) A profession
              (c) An occupation

    5. A career is composed of;

         (a) work accomplished
         (b) titles earned
         (c) Good luck
         (d) Job held

    6. The following are examples of careers except;

        (a) Teacher
        (b) Medical
        (c) Lawyer
        (d) Journalist

    7. The following are fields of career opportunities except;

         (a) Finance
         (b) Civil engineer
         (c) Security
         (d) Media

    2.4: Sources of Career Information

    ACTIVITY 2.4

    Discuss various ways you got information about your school. Present your findings to the class.

    From activity 2.4, the sources of information about your school relates to sources of career information. You can get career information from the following sources:

    1. Parents, friends and relatives: Families and friends can be extremely helpful in providing career information. While they may not always have the information needed, they may know other knowledgeable people and be able to put you in touch with them. These contacts can lead to an “information interview; which usually means talking to someone who can provide information about a career. This person should have the experience to describe how he or she trained for the job, received promotions, and the likes or dislikes of the job. Not only can the person advise what to do, he or she can advise what not to do.

    2. Professional societies, trade groups, and labour unions: These groups have information on careers with which they are associated or which they actively represent. This information may cover training requirements, earnings, and listings of local employers. These groups may train members or potential members themselves, or may be able to put you in contact with organisations or individuals who have been in that career for a long time.

    3. Personal skills, talent and passion: The first places to start when looking for business ideas or opportunities is to look within you. Most people miss this greatest source of career information because of ignorance, laziness and self-doubts. If you are talented or having a proven track record in a specific field, then it is time to analyse that skill or talent. You can discover what you are good at what career to take by asking yourself the questions such as; what skills or talents do you possess?, what are your hobbies?, what are you passionate about?, do you possess a skill that people are willing to pay for?

    4. Mass media: This is a wonderful source of information, ideas and opportunities. Magazines, TV stations, Cable networks, radios, newspapers and internet sites are all examples of mass media. A careful look at the commercial advertisements in newspapers or magazines, you will discover information on careers, as well as the skills and education level required to join the desired career.

    5. Guidance and career counsellors: Counsellors can help you make choices about which careers might suit you best. Counsellors can help you determine what occupations suit your skills by testing your aptitude for various types of work, and determining your strengths and interests. Counsellors can help you evaluate your options and search for a job in your field or help you select a new field altogether.

    They can also help you determine which educational or training institutions best fit your goals, and find ways to finance them. Some counsellors offer other services such as interview coaching, resume building, and help in filling out various forms.

    Counsellors in secondary schools and post secondary institutions may arrange guest speakers of different career fields, field trips, or job fairs to equip you with detailed information about careers.

    6. Local libraries: These can be an invaluable source of information since most areas have libraries they can be a convenient place to look for career information. Also, for those who do not otherwise have access to the Internet or e-mail, many libraries provide this access. Libraries may have information on careers locally and internationally; potential contacts within occupations or industries. Libraries frequently have subscriptions to various trade magazines that can provide information on occupations and industries. These sources often have references to organisations which can provide additional information about training and employment opportunities.

    7. Tertiary institutions such as colleges, universities frequently have career centres with libraries of information on different careers, listings of related jobs, and alumni contacts in various professions. Career centres frequently employ career counsellors who generally provide their services only to their learners and alumni. Career centres can help you choose a career, build your resume, find internships and co-operations which can lead to full-time positions, and tailor your course selection or program to make you a more attractive job applicant.

    8. Exhibitions, expos and trade shows: Another means to get career information is to attend exhibitions and trade fairs. These are usually advertised on the radio or in newspapers. By visiting such events regularly, you will not only find out new products and services, but you will as well meet sales representatives, wholesalers, distributors, manufacturers and franchisers. These are always excellent sources of career information.

    9. Listening to customer complaints: Complaints and frustrations on the part of customers have led to prospective career opportunities. Whenever consumers complain badly or bitterly concerning a product or service then, you have the potential for a career opportunity. This will prompt you to acquire more skills at a career opportunity and also to provide better and competitive services or goods.

    10. Surveys: You can carry out a survey online or offline. One can visit different people of different career fields and find out the advantages and disadvantages of each career field. This helps you to compare and make an informed decision on which career to undertake.

    2.5: Steps Taken in Choosing a Career

    ACTIVITY 2.5
    There are various training opportunities of different learning areas in London. Write down the steps you will take to choose the best training opportunity for you.Use that information to come up with steps taken in choosing a career. Present your answers to the class.

    From activity 2.5, the following are steps taken in choosing a career.

    1. Asses yourself: This involves looking at your skills, values, interests, personality and analysing where your strengths and weaknesses lie. This is important both in choosing the right career and also for success in applications and interviews where you will find many questions which test whether you have been through this process. Begin by thinking about where you are now, where you want to be and how you’re going to get there.

    2. Make a list of potential occupations: You should have an idea of your career preferences and research the specific skills and qualifications required for the career. This requires a lot of research on the various careers for better decision making on the occupation of your interest.

    3. Explore the options that interest you and ask yourself, how your skills and interests match up with the desired career. Here you ask yourself questions like, where are the gaps? What options do I have to gain these skills or qualify for the desired career? What skills do I need? Where is the work or how is the job market?

    4. Narrow down your list: This is where you think about what suits you best at this point in time. You look at different aspects such as, your best work or training options, how they match with your skills, interests and values, do they fit with the current labour market, do they fit with your current situation and responsibilities, the advantages and disadvantages of each options, what will help and what will hinder you and finally what can you do about it?

    5. Set goals: A career goal can be a specific job you want to do such as doctor or teacher. It can also be a particular field you want to work in, such as medicine or education. A career goal provides the means and the direction to accomplish your career, act as action-steps necessary to actualise your dreams and may also help you discover career possibilities you would not have thought of otherwise. There are several job possibilities with any chosen career. For instance, if you choose a medical career, you may want to be a scientist, nurse, doctor, dentist, surgeon, pharmacist, etc.

    6. Create a career plan: This helps you to manage the direction you want your career to take, the job skills and knowledge you will need, and how you can get them. Here, you plan the steps you need to take to put your plan into action. It involves using all you have learnt about your skills, interests and values together with the information you have gathered about the career you have chosen. A career plan will increase the likelihood of success.

    7. Obtain training: This is the final stage of choosing a career. Individuals train so as to specialise in various areas under a specific field. Training in a specific career can be for a long term or a short term. Short-term training includes any class or program that lasts less than two years. All short-term training can help you get career information, find a job, get a promotion, or earn more money. Many programs lead to a certificate, which can give you a helpful edge in the job market and it enables one to be a professional.

    Unit Summary

    Meaning of a career, opportunity and career opportunity

    • A career is the type of work, job or profession that someone does for a long period of their life and in which they hope to gain advancement.

    • An opportunity is an occasion or situation that makes it possible to do something that you want to do or have to do. It is the possibility of doing something.
    • A career opportunity is an occupation chosen as one’s work for life. One usually undertakes a course to qualify for the desired career opportunity.
    Importance of choosing careers in life

    • Develops professional goals.
    • Utilises your strength.
    • Develops innovation.
    • Leads to high performance standards.
    • Acts as a motivation to remain committed.
    • Find meaning in the job.
    • Leads one to much greater heights in terms of happiness and success.
    • Helps one enhance the skills that you have and also help us in learning new skills as you grow in the job.
    • Career choice provides one with a platform to make all the difference and also support the employer in developing the business.
    Fields of career opportunities

    • Education field
    • Medical field
    • Agricultural field
    • Engineering field
    • Commercial and manufacturing Field
    • Finance field
    • Political field
    • Security field

    Sources of business ideas and opportunities

    • From personal skills, talent and passion.
    • From our parents, friends and relatives.
    • Mass media.
    • Professional societies, trade groups, and labour unions.
    • Guidance and career counsellors.
    • Local libraries.
    • Tertiary institutions such as colleges and universities.
    • Exhibitions, Expos and Trade shows.
    • Listening to customers complaints.
    • Surveys.

    Steps taken in choosing a career

    • Asses yourself
    • Make a list of potential occupations.
    • Explore the options.
    • Narrow down your list.
    • Set goals.
    • Create a career plan.
    • Obtain training

    Unit 2 Assessment

    1. (a) Define the term career.
        (b) Explain the factors you would put into consideration while choosing a career.

    2. (a) Discuss the sources of career information.
        (b) Briefly explain the steps you would take in choosing a career.

    3. What questions would you ask when choosing a certain career?

  • Unit 3: Communication Skills



    Key unit competence:

    To be able to communicate effectively in life and business.

    Knowledge to be acquired

     Meaning of communication.

     Types of communication.

     Methods of communication.

     Factors to consider when determining a form of communication.

     Customer care, levels and principles.

     Strategies to enhance oral skills.

     Effective speaking strategies.

     Business documents.

     Business communication.

    Application to daily life

     Use appropriate communication methods (verbal and non-verbal).

     Practice good customer service.

     Practice interpersonal skills used in providing good customer care.

     Write sample business documents.

     Value the importance of using appropriate means of communication with others.

     Communicate effectively with peers at school and business.

     Respect the norms of communicating with others to maintain good relationships.

    Introductory Activity
    Have you ever spent a day without talking to or making a signal to someone? You talk to friends, family, neighbours and classmates. In class, you talk to your friends and class teacher. Your teacher teaches you and you respond by participating in his or her class.

    At times, your teacher calls your parents to tell them about your progress in class. Sending and receiving messages is vital in a home, school, community and country at large. This is what we call communication. Every one is capable of communicating.

    Did you know that the deaf and dumb communicate? This is very true. They communicate using sign language, a form of non verbal communication.When the president of Rwanda wants to communicate to Rwanda, he uses the National TV, rallies, tweets/tweeter and radio stations to pass on his message. He sometimes delivers his message written in newspapers, magazines and any other written documents.

    Businesses send and receive messages to and from their customers. Before communicating, they consider certain factors to choose a mode of communication to suit the message to be communicated.


    If you have a message to pass on to Rwandans across the country, what are the various possible ways you can pass on the message?

    3.1: Communication: Meaning of Communication

    ACTIVITY 3.1

    A. The following are extracts from the units you covered in Senior one and two.Carefully read each of them and answer briefly the questions against each.

    (i) Roles of an entrepreneur in entrepreneurship such as mobilising necessary resources.
       Qn. How does an entrepreneur get people to work with?

    (ii) Accessing business finance such as grants, loans from banks, trade credits, etc.
       Qn. What can an entrepreneur do to get business finances?

    (iii) Users of accounting information include internal users such as employees, shareholders, managers, etc.
        Qn. How does the entrepreneur inform owners about the business affairs?

    (iv) Relationship between demand and supply.
       Qn. How do buyers and sellers agree on the price of commodities in the market?

    (v) Rights and obligation of tax payers.
      Qn. How do tax payers get to know their rights and obligations and the amount to pay?

    (vi) Source documents
       Qn. How does an entrepreneur inform sellers about goods needed or how much to pay for goods? How does your school director inform you about the affairs of the school?

    B. From the above extracts, you realise that there is flow of information among different people or parties.

    (a) How is the flow or movement of information among different parties called?
    (b) How do you call the party that sends the information?
    (c) How do you call the party that receives the information?
    (d) What is the importance of communication to entrepreneurs

    It’s nearly impossible to go through a day without of communicating. In communication, there is sending and receiving of information between two or more people.

    The person sending the message is referred to as the sender, while the person receiving the information is called the receiver. The information conveyed can include facts, ideas, concepts, opinions, beliefs, attitudes, instructions, pictures and even emotions.

    Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through speech, signals, writing, or behaviour.

    In the communication process, a sender (encoder) encodes a message and then using a medium/channel sends it to the receiver (decoder) who decodes the message and after processing information, sends back appropriate feedback/reply using a medium/channel.

    Cross-cutting Issue: Peace and values One needs to be very cautious when exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and or emotions such that any form of communication promotes positive values in the community one belongs to.

    3.2: Types of Communication

    ACTIVITY 3.2

    Read the following statements on information flow and answer questions that follow.

    (a) There should be no smoking in the company.
    (b) The company accountant sends tax information to Rwanda Revenue Authority (RRA).
    (c) The manager writes a MEMO informing all workers in the company about new work changes.
    (d) The purchasing officer sends inquiry letters to potential suppliers.
    (e) The human resource manager puts an advert for vacant positions in the newspapers.
    (f) The finance manager sends an email to remind the production manager about the meeting to be held next week.
    (g) The head-teacher calls a staff meeting to discuss the learners’ performance.
    heart The head-teacher calls a parents’ meeting to discuss the learners’ performance

    1. Using a table, categorise the above statements on information according to where the information is moving, either within the company or out of the company.

    2. Which type of communication involves flow of information within the company?
    3. Which type of communication involves flow of information out of the company?
    4. What are some of the channels through which information/communication can be done;
     (a) within the organisation?
     (b) out of the organisation

    From activity 3.2, you realise that there are two types of communication, internal and external. Internal and external communication are considered to be very important resources of business communication.


    3.2.1: Internal Communication

    Internal communication is the exchange of information and ideas within the organisation itself. It occurs when messages are sent between people working within the same enterprise (internal parties). For example, when the manager of the enterprise talks to the staff he or she is in charge of, or a report sent by a departmental manager to the managing director.

    Messages can be exchanged via personal contacts, telephones, e-mails, intranet (the website accessible only by employees), staff meetings, and online tools for information exchange (Google Calendar, and Google Drive) and so on.

    Internal communication as a way of information exchange within the organisation can be vertical (junior to senior staff or senior to junior staff), horizontal (same level) and diagonal.

    Internal communication helps employees in performing their work, developing a clear sense of organisation mission, identifying and promptly dealing with potential problems.

    3. 2.2: External Communication

    External communication is the exchange of information and ideas from the organisation to outside the organisation and vice versa. Under this type of communication, information flows between the organisation and external parties.

    External parties of an organisation include: suppliers, debtors, government, competitors, creditors, financiers, shareholders and so on.

    Examples of external messages include:

    • Documents received from or sent to other organisations and individuals such as orders for goods, letters, invoices and financial statements.
    • Advertising of goods or services provided by the organisation.
    • Letters, circulars and other documents sent or received from the government.
    While in internal communication information flow goes upwards, downwards, horizontally and diagonally within the organisational structure, in external communication, the information exchange goes both within the organisation and outside of it. Organisations communicate with the outside world on a daily basis. External communication can be formal or informal.

    Special attention should be paid to formal communication in organisations regardless of how it is established - via a letter, e-mail, web, telephone or some other way. The efficient external communication is the first step in creating the appropriate image. Carefully created letters, reports, presentations or web pages, send the outside world an important message about the work and quality of the organisation.

    3.3: Methods of Communication

    ACTIVITY 3.3

    (a) Analyse the following pictures and do the activity by filling in the table.