Topic outline

  • Part 1 Social Studies



    A market in Kigali

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  • UNIT1: Socio-economic activities in our district

     Key unit competence: Compare socio-economic activities of his/her district with those of the neighbouring districts 

                                                      and recognise their importance in the development of the District.

                                                              Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

       • Locate his/her District on the provincial and Rwandan maps.

       • Identify social-economic activities of his/her district.


        • Describe the location of his/her district on the provincial and Rwandan maps.

        • Analyse different economic activities carried out in his/ her district in comparison with her/his neighbouring districts.

        • State how socio-economic activities contribute to the development of the district

        • Explain the importance of socio-economic activities in the development of the district.

    Attitudes and values

        • Acknowledge the importance of social-economic activities in his/her district.

        • Respect work as a source of income.



    Look at the picture and answer the questions below:

       1. What is happening in the picture?

       2. What do you think the people are doing?

       3. Where do you go to buy what you need?

       4. What do you buy?

       5. Where can you buy or sell items in your district?


    1.1 Identify my district

    A district is an area in which people live. A neighbourhood is the area close

    to you. Neighbours are the people who live next to you. Neighbouring districts are next to the district in which you live.

    A province is a region that is bigger than a district. Each district is part of a province. 

    In Rwanda we have five provinces and 30 districts.

    These are our five provinces:

    • Eastern Province
    • Kigali City
    • Northern Province
    • Western Province
    • Southern Province.

    Each of the five provinces is divided into districts. Table 1.1 gives the names of the different districts.

    Table 1.1 Provinces with their districts



    Look at the map on the next page.

         1. Find your province on the map.

         2. Look at the list of districts. Which is your district? 

        3. Find your district on the map. Point to where it is.

        4. What is the size of your district? 

        5. Which are the districts next to your district?

        6. On your own, draw a map of your district. Show your map to your group.

        7. Explain where your district is. Point out your neighbouring districts.

    1.2 District map


    The five provinces and 30 districts of Rwanda

    1.3 Socio-economic activities in our district

    • A social activity is where we contact or meet people. An economic activity is when we make, buy or sell goods. 
    • A socio-economic activity is a mix of a social and economic activities. The two activities go together.

    When we buy or sell goods, we talk to people. We meet and spend time with them. 

    When we work to earn money, we work with people. When we go to the market, we buy and sell goods. 

    We meet people and talk to them.

    1.4 Examples of socio-economic activities


    1.5 Social activities

    People talk to each other. They go out together. They play sport together, compete and against each other. 

    Some people go to church. Others go to mosque. People have families and friends. 

    People attend marriages, baptisms and funerals. 

    People get married and start families. Children visit their parents and grandparents. People visit their neighbours. 

    You visit your friends and family members. People attend cultural events. People sing and dance. 

    Many people like to share food with each other. They have feasts together.


    Traditional dance in Musanze

    1.6 Economic activities

    People grow vegetables on their farms. They take them to the market to sell.

    Other people come to the market to buy the vegetables.People catch fish.

    They sell the fish. With that money, they can buy food and clothes. Tourists or

    visitors from other countries come to Rwanda. They stay in hostels and hotels.

    They pay to stay there. They visit our beautiful areas. They pay for transport and tour guides.

    The picture below shows some of the agricultural products sold in Rwanda.


    A market in Kigali


    1. Make a list of all the socio-economic activities in your district.

    2. Talk about each activity.

         a) What do people do?

        b) Where does it happen?

       c) Which socio-economic activities have you joined in?


      3. Share your group’s discussion with the rest of the class.

    1.7 Socio-economic activities in neighbouring districts


    Collecting, selling and transporting 

    water is a socio-economic activity.


    Every district has its own socio-economic activities.


    In Kinihira there is a tea plantation. 

    Many people work here. 

    The tea is sold to other countries.

    1.8 Examples of socio-economic activities in neighbouring districts

    In districts where there are national parks, there are many socio-economic activities dealing with tourists.

    In areas where there is water, there are socio-economic activities such as fishing. 

    An example is the area around Lake Kivu. 

    In the city of Kigali, there are more shops and businesses than in rural areas. 

    There is more farming in some areas than others.

    1.9 Compare socio-economic activities

    You know the socio-economic activities in your district. 

    Learn more about the socio-economic activities in neighbouring districts. 

    Your neighbouring districts are those that are next to yours.

    A map of Rwanda showing socio-economic activities in the different districts



    1. Find out what the socio-economic activities are in your neighbouring districts.

    2. Compare the socio-economic activities in your district to those in neighbouring districts.

            a) What are the differences?

            b) How are the activities the same?

            c) Why are there differences?

            d) Why are there similarities?

    3. Present what you found to the class.

    1.10 The importance of socio-economic activities

    Socio-economic activities help each district to develop. To develop means to grow and prosper.

    1.10.1 Socio-economic activities add to the development of each district

    Socio-economic activities help a district to develop. Look at these examples. 

    Employment or work helps people to earn money. Then they have money to spend and buy things. 

    That means, other people will make and sell things and they will also earn more money. 

    Many people may wish to visit a district. They may want to buy or sell goods. 

    They may want to visit people or see a cultural place. Then roads will need to be built. 

    Roads make it easy for people to visit a district.

    Tourism in a district means that people will build hotels and hostels. They will open restaurants or other places to eat. 

    People who make crafts and pottery will open stall where they can sell these items. 

    Tourist guides will get work. They will show tourists our country.

     More money will come into the district.


    Tourists buy items to remember their                             Tourists visit our national parks. Examples are the: 

     visit to Rwanda.                                                                       Volcanoes, Nyungwe and Akagera National Parks.

    1.10.2 Socio-economic activities are important for each district

    Agriculture or farming helps people to be employed. It also feeds people. If we did not have farms, we would not eat.

    Trade helps us to earn money. Then our district can pay for buildings, schools


    Tourists like to visit our cultural places. This building is in Rukali, Nyanza, and is a replica of a palace.

    and hospitals. If we sell and buy, our economy gets strong. 

    When our economy is strong, people in other countries will invest in our districts. 

    To invest is to put money into a business or other socio-economic activities.


    There are many houses in Kigali. More schools are built so all the children can attend school.


                       Farms, such as this one in Karongi, are very important.


    Other countries may spend money in our district. 

    Shops, business and trade bring money to our districts.


    1. Discuss how socio-economic activities help to develop your district.

    2. Explain why socio-economic activities are important for the development of your district.


    Write three sentences to explain what you learnt during the debate about the Importance of socio-economic activities.



    Make sure that you are able to do the following on your own.

        1. Compare the socio-economic activities in your district to those in neighbouring districts.

       2. Explain why some are the same.

       3. Say why some are different.

    End unit assessment

    1. Draw a map of your district. 

    2. Look at this picture. Answer the questions.


    a) What socio-economic activities is taking place from the picture above.

    b) What are the socio-economic activities in your district? 

    c) Why are socio-economic activities important to each district?

  • UNIT2 : Basic human and children’s rights

    Key unit competence: recognise basic human and children’s rights and fight for them.

    Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    •  Identify basic human and children’s rights.
    • State forms of child abuse and ways of preventing them. 
    •  Give the meaning of equality and equity. 
    • State different forms of sexual abuse.


    •  Respect principles of human and children’s rights. 
    • Analyse how equity and equality is carried out in our district. 
    •  Identify ways of promoting equity and equality in our district. 
    •  Identify elements of gender-based violence.

    Attitudes and values

    •  Show self-respect, respect and tolerance of the other.
    • Report child abuse practices and cases to parents, guardians, teachers and police. 
    •  Appreciate the importance of basic human rights and children’s rights.
    •  Exhibit behaviours that promote equity and equality. 
    •  Show concern on gender-based violence and sexual abuse. 
    •  Communicate willingly in matters concerning sexual abuse.
    •  Describe elements of gender based violence and sexual abuse.
    •  Find out different ways of preventing gender based violence and sexual abuse.

    Introductory activity

    Look at the picture and answer the questions below.

        1. What are the children doing?

       2. Do you think they are happy? Why?

       3. Are they free? Why?

       4. What does it mean to be free?

       5. Do you think they are safe? Why?

       6. What does it mean to be safe?

       7. What can help you to be safe?


                                               These children are playing a game.

    2.1 Human rights

    Human rights help you. They give you power to live well. This is because they:

    • keep you safe as they help you to protect yourself
    •  make people treat you in a good and fair way
    • make you treat others in a good and fair way
    • are the same for all people.

    Basic human rights are rights that everybody should have. It does not matter:

    •  where you live
    •  who you are
    • if you are young or old
    •  if you are a boy or girl 


    You have the basic human right to follow your religion.


    •  if you are rich or poor.

    A human right gives you the freedom to live in a safe way. It also helps you to grow.

     You can become the person you want to be. It allows you to be happy.

    2.2 Children’s rights

    Children’s rights are part of human rights. You have rights because you are a

    child. You need to be protected.

    Look at these children’s rights.



       1. Name four human and children’s rights.

       2. Which human and children’s rights do you have?

          Give examples.

       3. Why is it important to have human and children’s rights?

       4. What has the Rwandan government done to protect your rights?

    2.3 Respect and tolerance

    To have human rights means you have respect. If you respect yourself, then you:



          2.3.1 Child abuse                     

    Child abuse means when children are hurt and harmed. 

    This happens when people do not respect human and children’s rights.

    There are different kinds of child abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect.

    2.3.2 Physical abuse

    When somebody hurts your body it is physical abuse. This is when somebody

    hits, kicks, beats or harms you in a bad way. Examples are if you are:



    Physical abuse is when somebody hurts your body.

    2.3.3 Sexual abuse

    This kind of abuse happens when a person touches you on your private parts

    or genitals. These are the parts of the body that other people may not touch

    without your permission.

    Sexual abuse happens when you are:

    •  touched in a way that makes you uncomfortable, shy and scared
    •  forced to touch another person’s private parts
    • forced to have sex
    • forced to get married.

    2.3.4 Emotional abuse

    Emotions are feelings. You can feel happy or sad. You can also feel safe or scared.

    Emotional abuse is when people use bad words to hurt you. What they say makes you feel sad or scared. 

    Examples of emotional abuse are when a person tells you:

    • that you are useless
    •  that you should never have been born
    •  that they hate you or do not like you.


    2.3.5 Neglect

    To be neglected means not to be cared for or looked after. Examples are:

    • Nobody gives you food.
    • You don’t get help when you are ill.
    •  You have no place to stay.
    • You have to look after yourself. You never see your parents or guardians.


    1. Use your own words to describe the different forms of child abuse.

    2. Describe what you feel about child abuse.

    Activity 2.2

    1. Draw the different kinds of child abuse.

    2. Explain to the class what your drawings mean.

    2.3.6 How to prevent child abuse

    There are things you can do to prevent child abuse. You can report it to:

    •  Let the child know his/her rights.
    •  Listen to them and believe what they say.
    •  Report the suspected abuse or neglect.

    AS  OK



    1. Find out how you can prevent child abuse.

    2. Present what you found out to the class. Be prepared to answer questions.

    2.4 Equality and equity

    Equality means we are all the same and should be treated in the same way. It means we are equal. 

    Equity means people get a fair share of what they need. It also means people are treated in a fair or just way. 

    Look at this example.

    The farmer has told both learners that they can each pick a mango. This is equality as both have permission. 

    The taller learner can easily get a mango. The shorter learner cannot reach a mango. This is not fair.

     This is not equity. To make sure there is equity, the shorter learner needs help. 

    The taller learner should help the shorter learner to reach the fruit. Then there is equity. 

    This means that to ensure we have equity, we sometimes have to give people an advantage.


    Equity sometimes means giving people an advantage.


    Answer these questions.

          1. Give the meaning of equality.

          2. Give the meaning of equity.

          3. Use your own words to give an example of each. Show the difference.

          4. Make a drawing to show the difference between equity and equality. 

           5. Explain if you would prefer to live in a place with equity and equality.




    2.4.3 Gender-based violence and sexual abuse

    Gender gives you a male or female role. It tells you how to behave. 

    This can be as a man or boy, or a woman or girl. Gender-based violence is when you are hurt 

    because you are a woman or girl, or a man or boy. Most gender-based violence is by males against females.

     This is not always so. Females sometimes also abuse males.

    Examples of gender-based violence:

    • A husband beats his wife.
    • An uncle beats his niece.
    •  A brother beats his sister.
    •  A boyfriend beats his girlfriend.
    •  A mother beats her son or her daughter.
    •  A girl is stolen or sold to be married.


    Gender-based violence can happen anywhere. 

    Gender-based violence can happen anywhere. It can happen:

    • at home, by people you know
    •  at work or at school.

    Gender-based violence can happen when:

    •  there is no equality
    • people do not respect human rights.


    Discuss the following:

         1. Examples of gender-based violence and sexual abuse.

          2. Why do you think sexual abuse and gender-based violence happen?

    2.4.4 The effects of gender-based violence and sexual abuse

    When gender-based violence and sexual abuse happen, it has bad effects.

    Look at the effects shown in the pictures.


    2.4.5 How to prevent gender-based violence and sexual abuse

    It is every person’s duty to try to stop bad things happening. You can do so if you:

    • report it (tell the police, a teacher or person you trust)
    • talk about it so that it is not a secret
    •  tell people about human rights
    •  show people you respect them
    • treat people in a fair way.


              1. Identify different ways to prevent gender-based violence and sexual abuse.

               2. Present your ideas to the class.


    Write five sentences to describe how you will prevent gender-based violence and sexual abuse.



    Make sure you are able to answer the following questions on your own.

    1. Why are equality and equity in our district important?

    2. What are you doing to promote equity and equality?

    3. How can we prevent gender-based violence and sexual abuse?

    End unit assessment

    1. Choose the correct word in the box to complete each sentence.


    a) Human rights are yours because you are ________.

    b) Children have special rights because they need to be ________.

    c) You should report child abuse to the ________.

    d) It is very important to ________ equity and equality.

    2. Match the words in column A with the correct meaning in column B.


    3. Read the case study. Then answer the questions.


         a) Why was Keza sad?

        b) What do you call this kind of abuse?

        c) What did Keza do to stop Eric?

        d) Did Keza do the right thing? Give a reason for your answer.

        e) Tell Eric how he should rather act towards girls.

  • 3 Health and well-being


    Washing your hands properly is an important part of good hygiene and prevents disease.

  • UNIT 3: Hygiene

    Key unit competence: Demonstrate proper hygiene practices and environment cleanliness

                                            Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    • Identify basic hygiene practices and their importance to the environment.
    • Identify waterborne diseases.
    • Identify signs, symptoms and treatment of malaria.


    • Carry out activities that promote good hygiene of their surrounding environment.
    • Explain the importance of proper hygiene and problems caused by lack of proper hygiene to the environment.
    • Explain waterborne diseases, causes, effects and prevention.
    • Suggest different ways of preventing malaria.

    Attitudes and values

    • Appreciate and practise proper environmental hygiene.
    • Show respect towards keeping environment clean.
    • Show concern about waterborne diseases and malaria.
    • Contribute to prevention of waterborne diseases and malaria.


    Introductory activity

    Look at the picture. Then discuss the answers to these questions.

       1. What are the children doing?

       2. Why is it good to be in a clean area?

      3. What do you clean at home?

      4. Why do we need to be clean?

       5. Why should both girls and boys help to clean?


    Learners cleaning the school yard

    3.1 Hygiene

    Hygiene is keeping yourself and your environment clean and healthy. If you keep clean, you can prevent or stop diseases. 

    Your environment is everything around you. 

    This can be, for example, your:

    • classroom 
    •  school
    • home.

    To be clean helps to stop germs from spreading. Germs cause diseases. 

    They make you ill. When you are sick, you do not feel well.

    3.2 How to be clean

    Hygiene practices are what you do to keep yourself clean. They are also what

    you do to keep your environment clean. Look at these examples of hygiene practices.

    3.3 Wash your hands

    It is very important to keep your hands clean. Germs on your hands can

    make you and others sick. Wash your hands often. Use clean water and soap.

    Always wash your hands before you:

    •  peel fruit and vegetables
    • eat
    • cook
    •  go to sleep.

    Always wash your hands after you:

    • go to the toilet or pit latrine
    • touch an animal
    • garden or farm.

    Sing a song while you wash your hands. This will remind you to wash both your hands very well.


    Do this activity.

    1. Role play how you should wash your hands.

    2. Explain why you should wash your hands.

    3. Explain when you should wash your hands.


    It is important to wash your hands regularly.

    3.4 Keep your environment cleanHow to keep the area where you live clean. You can do this if you:

    •  clean your house, classroom and school area
    •  never litter and pick up waste
    •  sweep and wash the floor
    •  keep the area in and around the toilet and pit latrine clean
    •  do not go to the toilet in or near water source.


    1. Explain the meaning of hygiene.

    2. What is a germ?

    3. What is a disease?

    3.5 It is important to keep the environment clean

    Problems happen when there is no hygiene. If we do not clean ourselves, we get germs.

     We can also spread germs. When we spread germs, we pass them on to others. 

    Then they can get sick. If we do not clean the environment, we can cause diseases. 

    That is because we let germs breed and spread. These insects like dirty environments:

    • flies
    • fleas
    • mosquitoes
    • ticks
    • lice

    These insects spread serious diseases. They breed in dirt. 

    That is why it is very important to have hygiene in the environment.

    If we make the water dirty, we can get very sick. If we drink dirty water, we can get an upset stomach. 

    This is called diarrhoea.


    1. Discuss why we should keep the environment clean.

    2. Share your ideas with the class.


    1. Clean the area around your school.

    2. Make a record of the area you clean. Say what you have done.


    Write four sentences to explain why it is important to clean the school.



    3.8 MalariaMalaria is carried by mosquitoes. When a female anopheles mosquito bites you, you get malaria. Mosquitoes breed in water (especially dirty, still water). 

    Never leave empty containers outside. Old tyres that lie around collect rain water. Mosquitoes like to breed in still and dirty water. It is best to prevent malaria. You can do this if you:

    •  keep your environment clean 
    •  do not put containers outside that can fill up with rain water. This is where mosquitoes breed.
    • clean rivers and ponds• sleep under a mosquito net
    •  cover your arms and legs at sunrise and sunset
    • help other insects, birds, animals, fish and reptiles that eat mosquitoes, to live.

    Malaria can be treated by taking tablets prescribed by a doctor.




    1. Find out and discuss the causes and effects of malaria. Present your answers to the class. 

         Be prepared to ask and answer questions. 

    2. Do a clean-up to destroy mosquito-breeding places. Find these places in your area.


    Write four sentences to explain how to destroy mosquito breeding places.

    ok ok

    Some insects, fish, birds, reptiles and animals eat mosquitoes. Do not kill them. 

    They help to get rid of mosquitoes. That helps to prevent malaria.


    Peer assessment

    Do the following and swop with you partner to check each other’s work.

    1. Describe the problems caused by a lack of hygiene.

    2. Make a drawing to show how malaria can be spread by dirty water.

    End unit assessment

        1. What does hygiene mean?

        2. Name two waterborne diseases. 

        3. What are the effects of waterborne diseases? 

        4. Give three reasons why we should keep the environment clean. 

        5. Explain how you could destroy or clean up places where mosquitoes breed. 

        6. Look at the picture. Then answer the questions.


    a) What is the frog doing? 

    b) In what way is the frog helping to prevent malaria? 

    c) What else can you do to prevent malaria? Give two ideas.

  • 4 Wealth


        We use money to buy things we need and want. When we sell things, we get money.

  • UNIT 4: Economy

    Key unit competence: develop culture of making priorities and savings.

                                                       Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    •  Define needs and wants.
    • Identify needs and wants in society. 
    •  Identify different activities that generate income.
    •  Give examples of circumstances that affect people spending.


    • Explain how the environment helps to meet human needs.
    • Prioritise between needs and wants.
    • Make a list of things that people spend money on.
    • Explain importance of saving.

    Attitudes and values

    • Use environment properly to meet his /her needs. 
    •  Be devoted to work (hard working).
    •  Use available resources properly. 
    •  Develop a culture of saving.

    Introductory activity

    Look at the picture and answer the questions below:

         1. What are the people in the picture doing?

        2. Why is catching fish important?

        3. What do people do with fish?

        4. Can people get money from selling fish? Explain.


          People wait for a new fish catch on the Lake Kivu shore in Rubavu.

    4.1 Needs and wants

    A need is something you have to have. You need it to:

    • live
    •  be safe
    • grow
    • learn
    •  be healthy
    •  be clean

    For example, you need soap to wash your hands so you can be clean. 

    You need books so you can learn. You need food so you can eat. 

    You need a parent or guardian to care for you and keep you safe. 

    A want is something you wish you had. You may want something because:

    •  your friend has it
    • you think it will make you happy
    • it may make your life easier
    • it looks nice
    • it will be fun to own.

    ok     Wants and needs in society are the things that people try to get.

    You have to decide what is most important. Is it a need or a want? Think if you can live without a need. 

    Then think if you can live without a want.


        1. Make a list of your needs.

       2. Make a list of your wants.

       3. Make a list of the wants and needs of the people in your community.

       4. Present your lists to the class.

       5. Discuss what you notice about most needs and wants. Are they the same? Are they different?

    4.2 The environment helps people with their needs

    Remember that the environment is everything around us. The environment helps us to meet our needs and wants. 

    The environment gives us food. It gives us:

    • soil that we can use to plant seeds, so that we have food to eat
    •  water – we cannot live without water
    •  fruit and nuts – we eat these to stay healthy
    • some animals that we can eat• fish that we can eat
    •  bees that give us honey.

    Our environment also helps us. It gives us:

    • shade and protection from the sun
    •  materials to build houses
    • dead branches to make fires to cook food
    •  wood to use to make carvings to sell to tourists
    •  grass to make baskets and mats.

    We must always use the environment properly.

    This means we:

    • must not chop down trees without a good reason
    •  must plant another tree for every tree we chop down
    •  save and do not waste water
    • protect and do not kill our wild animals.


    Our environment gives

    us shade from trees. We

    have paths to walk on.


    1. Role play how the environment helps us to meet needs and wants. For example:

    •  Show how you use a tree to make a table.
    •  Show how you collect wood to make a fire.
    •  Add other ideas to your role play.

    2. Present your role play to the class.

    4.3 Money

     Money is what we use to buy things. For example, when we are sick, we use money to buy medicines. 

    They help us to get better. We use money to pay for our transport when we need to go to a different place. 

    Some people have to pay for water.

    To sell is to give something in exchange for money. People also spend money on:


    To earn an income means to get money. We can get money if we work hard. 

    These are things people do to make money. They:



    We make things for tourists and other countries to buy.


    4.4 What affects how we spend money?

    Everybody does not spend money in the same way. How you spend money depends on:

    •  what your needs and wants are
    • what your family’s needs and wants are
    • where you live• how large your family is
    • if your parents or guardians have an income
    •  how much things cost.


         1. Think of your needs and wants.

        2. Make a shopping list.

        3. Find out how much the things on your list will cost.

       4. Share your shopping list with the class.

       5. Decide if there is anything on your shopping list that you do not need.


         1. What do people spend money on?

        2. What affects how people spend money?

       3. Roleplay how to buy and sell. Make the classroom into a shop. Decide

              what you will buy and what you will sell.

    4.5 It is important to save money

    Everybody has to save money. Then you can buy the things you need. Youmay also need things in an emergency. 

    This is when something bad happens.

    Your grandmother may get ill and you will need money to take her to the hospital.

    Or your house might burn down and you will need money to build another.

    Money should be valued. It is not good to waste it. So plan before you spend money. 

    Always ask if you really need to spend it. Find out if there is something that costs less money.

    4.5.1 How to save money

    You can put money into a bank. A bank is a place where you keep money in a safe way. 

    You get interest on the money you keep there. This means you get more money.

    You can also put your money in a money box. Make a rule that you will not open your money box. 

    Keep your money box in a safe place. You can also give your money to trusted elders to keep safe for you.


    Discuss the following.

        1. What does it mean to save money?

        2. Why is it important to save?

        3. Where can you save money?

        4. Discuss the different ways of saving.

        5. Decide which are the best ways to save.

        6. Present your ideas to the class.


    Make a money box. Decorate your money box with words and pictures that say why it is important to save money.



    How well can you do all the things in the checklist of learning?

    End unit assessment

    1. What is a need?

    2. What is a want?

    3. List two needs in society.

    4. Explain how the environment helps to meet our needs.

    Give two examples.

    5. List two activities that can make money.

    6. List two things most people spend money on.

    7. Read the case study before you answer the questions.


    a) What should the family do?

    b) How can Mukesha earn money?

    c) How can Mukesha save money?

    d) Why is it important to save money?

    e) Why is money useful?

  • 5 Civic education()


    The members of the Rwandan parliament are elected by the citizens of Rwanda. They must govern Rwanda on behalf of its citizens.

  • UNIT 5: Civics and governance

    Key unit competence: Describe the Rwandan coat of arms, acceptable behaviour and District leadership.

                                                      Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    •  Identify different elements of Rwanda coat of arms.
    •  Define harmony and disharmony.
    • Define a leader and leadership.
    •  Name the main district leaders and their roles.


    •  Describe the Rwandan coat of arms.
    •  Draw the national coat of arms.
    •  Explain causes, consequences of disharmony and ways of promoting harmony.
    •  Describe qualities of a good leader.
    •  Draw a district organogram.

    Attitudes and values

    •  Acknowledge the importance Rwanda coat of arms.
    •  Show respect for national symbols.
    •  Acknowledge the importance of harmony among peers.
    •  Show concern about bad behaviour and report to elders.
    •  Practice acceptable behaviours.
    •  Imitate good behaviours from peers and adults.
    •  Acknowledge the importance of leaders in our district.
    •  Show respect and collaborate with leaders.


    Introductory activity

    Discuss these questions.

    1. Does every soccer/football team have a leader?

    2. Why does the team have a leader?

    3. Does your class have a leader?

    4. Does our country have leaders?

    5. Why do we need leaders?

    6. Would you like to be a leader? Why?


    Our national soccer/football team has a captain. The captain is the leader of the team.

    5.1National symbols

    A symbol is a mark or picture that represents or stands for something else. When we see the symbol it means something to us. For example, the members of a football team all have the same symbol on their shirts. People watching a football game can easily see which team the players belong to. All countries have symbols or emblems that tell the world something about them. One of these is the national coat of arms. Another is the national flag. A national coat of arms means something to the people living in a country. They are proud of their national coat of arms.

    5.2 The national coat of arms of Rwanda

    Each part of the Rwandan coat of arms has an important meaning. They stand for

    values or goals that Rwanda wants to achieve.



    Do the following:

    1. Draw a picture of the Rwandan national coat of arms. Put all your drawings on the

          walls around the class.

    2. Make a list of the meanings of the symbols on the coat of arms.

    3. Write down why these symbols are important in Rwanda.

    5.3 Coats of arms of neighbouring countries

    We must respect the national coats of arms of other countries. Here are the coats of arms of some of our neighbours:


    Coat of arms of some of the East African community.


    Point out the correct coat of arms for Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Tanzania.

    5.4 Living in harmony

    In Rwanda, we have different cultures and religions. It is important that we live together in harmony. Harmony means getting along together. It means being nice to each other even if we do not agree with each other.In order to live together in harmony we must all behave in an acceptable manner. Acceptable behaviour is behaviour that people normally approve of. Acceptable behaviour means we:

    •  respect other people
    • are polite• are tolerant
    • help each other and are kind
    •  work hard
    • take responsibility if we make a mistake.

    Unacceptable behaviour is behaviour that people do not approve of. Unacceptable behaviour means we:

    • are rude
    •  lie, are dishonest or cheatCoat
    •  take drugs
    •  treat people badly (especially women and children)
    •  fight
    •  are lazy or do not help other people
    •  damage property.


    Read the case study and answer the questions that follow.

    Manzi is a Grade Four pupil at Good Harvest Primary School. He works hard in class. He encourages other

    pupils to tidy up the classroom even if the class teacher is not there.

    When other pupils are nasty to him, he forgives them but reports the incident to the class teacher.

    The teachers and other pupils like him because of his good behaviour.

    At home, he helps his parents by fetching water at the public tap. He also sweeps the compound,

    mops the house and washes utensils and clothes.



        1. Why do the teachers like Manzi?

       2. Mention any three activities that Manzi does at home.

       3. What does Manzi do when other learners disrespect him?

        4. Draw a picture to show Manzi fetching water

    Disharmony happens when people are not on good terms with one another in

    the community. When there is disharmony, there is misunderstanding between people.

    5.5 Disharmony among peers

    Peers are the people who are in the same age group or social group as us. If

    there is disharmony in our school classroom, we cannot learn properly.


    1. Make a list of things that can lead to disharmony.

    2. Talk about what causes disharmony in your classroom.

          a) Think about ways of how that could be avoided. 

          b) Present your findings to the rest of the class.

    5.6 Ways of promoting harmony

     We must all try to promote harmony in our communities. This means in our homes, at school and in our neighbourhood. 

    We need to be kind. We need to be peaceful.We need to listen to each other’s points of view and respect each other, even if we disagree.


     1. Think about and discuss ways that we can all help to promote harmony in our neighbourhood.

     Present your findings to the class.

    2. Role play the following situations and talk about how they help to promote harmony.

          a) My friend has lost his/her school lunch so I share mine.

          b) A new pupil is being bullied. I tell the bully to stop. I help the new pupil to make some friends and to feel welcome in class.

    5.7 Leadership in our district

    A leader is a person who guides or directs a group for a purpose. We need good leaders in order to organise and make things happen. Schools, communities, sports teams, religious groups and countries all need leaders.


    Talk about examples of good leadership.

    5.7.1 Qualities of a good leader

    Good leadership is very important. Without it countries

    do not thrive and businesses do not grow. A good leader:

    •  can direct people for a common purpose
    •  keeps people informed about what is happening
    •  has integrity and honesty
    •  can think creatively and solve problems
    •  respects the ideas of the people he/she is leading
    •  sets a good example for people to follow
    •  is positive
    •  a good leader should be able to motivate and encourage people.


    Make a list of the ways that can help the leaders in your community.

    5.7.2 The main leaders of our district

    There are 30 districts in Rwanda. Each district needs to have leaders to make sure that the district runs properly. 

    In each district a council is elected by the people living in the district. 

    The council is responsible for the smooth running of the district.

    This includes public service delivery, such as tax collection, as well as economic development. The council uses money


    collected from local taxes and fees such as business licences to do its job. 

    The council elects a Mayor to run it and also Deputy Mayors act as assistants.

    The table shows the leaders of our district with their positions and roles.




    1. Find out the names of the people who serve on your district council.

    2. Find out what their roles are.

    3. Draw an organigram showing your district council.



    Make sure that you are able to do the following on your own.

    1. State any three ways of promoting harmony in your district.

    2. Explain the meaning of leadership.

    3. Choose one leader of your district and explain his/her duties.

    4. Draw the national coat of arms of Rwanda and explain the meaning of at least four elements in it.

    End unit assessment

    1. What is the difference between harmony and disharmony? 

    2. Describe any three situations which can lead to disharmony in your district.

     3. Identify any one act of disharmony and explain its results to the people in your district.

     4. What is the title of the person who leads a district council? 

    5. Explain any two of the symbols on the Rwandan national coat of arms. 

    6. Describe any two qualities of a good leader. 

    7. Why do we need good leaders? 

    8. What do we mean by acceptable behaviour? Give an example. 

    9. Identify the picture:


    10. Match the description from the Rwandan coat of arms with the correct symbol.


  • 6 Geography


                      Volcanoes National Park in Kinigi is an important place.

  • UNIT 6: Important places and public assets in our district

    Key unit competence: Recognise the importance of public places and assets in the District and how to preserve them.

                                                                           Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    •  Identify important places in our district. 
    • Mention the problems facing important places in our district. 
    • Identify main public assets in our district.


    •  Describe important places in our district.
    •   Find out ways of preserving important places.
    •  Explain the importance of these places. 
    •  Differentiate public assets from private assets.
    •  Explain the importance of public assets. 
    •  Describe different ways of preserving public assets.

    Attitudes and values 

    •  Show concern on how important places must be preserved. 
    •  Acknowledge the importance of public assets.
    •  Show concern on preserving public assets.


    Introductory activity

    Look at the picture before you talk about the answers to the questions.

    1. What is a tourist?

    2. Have you ever seen a tourist? Where?

    3. Why is it good when tourists visit Rwanda?

    4. What places in Rwanda do tourists want to see?

    5. Where do you think this bus will take the tourists?

    6. Think about being a tourist in Rwanda. What places would you like to see?


    Tourists from all over the world come to Rwanda.

    6.1 Important places in our district

    If something is important, it has value. We need it. An important place is a place we should visit. We should care for and look after it. This means we preserve or protect it.


    Exercise 6.1

    Discuss these questions.

    1. What is an important place?

    2. Have you ever been to an important place? Describe it.

    3. Would you like to see an important place? Why?

    6.2 Important places

    Museums are important places. These are our museums:

    •  Ethnographic Museum in Huye
    • National Art Gallery in Nyanza-Rwesero
    •  King’s Palace Museum in Nyanza-Rukari
    •  Presidential Palace Museum in Kigali-Kanombe
    •  Natural History Museum (Kandt House) in Kigali-Nyarugenge
    •  Environmental Museum at Karongi
    •  National Liberation Park Museum known as  ‘Umurindi w’intwari’.

    National parks are important places. This is where our animals, birds, fish, trees

    and plants are protected. Our parks are:

    •  Akagera National Park
    •  Nyungwe National Park
    •  Volcanoes National Park


    Zebras in Akagera National Park            There are many primates in Nyungwe National Park.


    Huye Musium                                                                       The Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre  


    Some of the important places in the different districts in Rwanda.


     Look at the map.

       1. Which important places are in your district?

       2. Why are these places important?

       3. Discuss the important places in your district.

       4. What are the problems in some important places?

       5. How can we preserve our important places?

       6. Make a drawing of an important place in your district. 

       7. Present what you discussed to the class. 

         Show your drawing to the class. 

         Be prepared to ask and answer questions.

    6.3 Public assets

    A public asset is something that belongs to all Rwandans. The opposite of public is private. 

    Then it only belongs to a few people. If something is public, it means we can all go there. We can all use it.

    An asset is something valuable. An asset has worth/value. It is something we do not want to lose. It helps us.

    It is a useful facility that all of us can use.

    Examples of public assets include:

    • water sources

    • market places

    • courts

    • schools.

    Lake Kivu is both an important place and a public asset. This water body gives us fish

    and water. It is a place where we can go to enjoy ourselves. It is also a place that tourists



    Answer these questions.

    1. What is a public asset?

    2. What is the difference between a public and private asset?

    3. What are the main public assets in your district?

    4. Why are each of these assets important?

    5. Think about how your district would be if there were no public assets.

    Would you like to live in such a place? Give reasons for your answers.



    Lake Kivu is both an important place and a public asset. This water body gives us fish

    and water. It is a place where we can go to enjoy ourselves. It is also a place that tourists visit.


    Answer these questions.

       1. What is a public asset?

       2. What is the difference between a public and private asset?

       3. What are the main public assets in your district?

       4. Why are each of these assets important?

       5. Think about how your district would be if there were no public assets.

             Would you like to live in such a place? Give reasons for your answers.

    6.4 Preserve and protect public assets

    We all have to care for and look after our public assets. We must respect our public assets. We should look after them just like we look after our own homes. 

    We harm public assets if we waste water so that we do not have enough to use. We need to protect the surrounding of our police stations. If we do not, the police will not be able to do their work and protect us from criminals. We must care for our hospitals. If we do not, we will have nowhere to go for treatment when we are sick. We have to protect our market places. If we do not, we will have no place to sell and buy goods. Also the area will not look nice and people will not want to go there. We can preserve our public assets if we keep them clean and not litter; never break or harm things; don’t write on trees or walls and mend things if they are broken.


    1. Make a drawing to show how you would look after a public asset.

    2. Explain your drawing to the class.


             Learners cleaning up a market place

    Write four sentences to explain why it is important to preserve our public assets.

    6.5 Visits and outings

    You will go on two class visits. Carefully read what you need to do.

    Visit 1

    • Go to a nearby important place.
    •  See what you can learn from this place.
    •  Divide into small groups once you are there. Each group must clean a different area at the important place.
    •  Help to preserve the place by cleaning the area.

    When you are back in class:

       1. Explain why the place you visited is important.

       2. Make a list of things you learnt about the place.

       3. Explain what you did to clean the area.

       4. Say why we must preserve important places.

    Visit 2

    • Go on an outing to the public assets near your school.

    • Look carefully at what you see.


    This class is going on a visit to a public asset

    When you are back in class:

    1. Make a summary of what you saw.

    2. Then answer these questions: 

                  a) Were there any problems?

                 b) What were the problems?

                c) Why are these assets important?

                d) How can we look after the assets?



    Make sure that you are able to do the following.

    1. Make a list of the important places in your district.

    2. Make a list of the public assets in your district.

    3. Explain why you say these are important places. 

    4. Explain why you say these are public assets.

    5. Describe how you can preserve and protect our important places and public assets.

  • UNIT 7 : Weather, flora and fauna

    Key unit competence: Recognise the importance of weather, flora and fauna in the District and how to preserve them.

                                                                 Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    •  State main elements of weather.
    •  Suggest ways of preventing effects of bad weather.
    •  Define flora.
    •  Define fauna.
    •  Identify different ways of preserving fauna.


    •  Design simple weather instruments (rain gauge, thermometer).
    •  Differentiate between bad weather and good weather.
    •  Describe how weather affect human beings and vegetation.
    •  Explain the importance of flora.
    •  Discuss ways of preserving flora.
    •  Explain the importance of fauna.

    Attitudes and values

    •  Acknowledge the importance of weather.
    •  Recognise man’s role in contributing to good weather.
    •  Acknowledge the importance of flora.
    •  Show respect to flora.
    •  Contribute to community practices that protect vegetation.
    •  Acknowledge the importance of fauna.
    •  Show respect to fauna. Participate in community practices that protect fauna.

    Introductory activity

    Look at the picture. Then talk about the following:

     1. Why do farmers need the sun?

    2. Why do farmers need rain?

    3. What do you prefer: when it rains or when it is sunny? 

    4. What do you like best: to feel hot or to feel cold?

    5. Do you like it when the wind blows? Why or why not?


    These farmers are working hard. They are happy when the sun shines. They are also happy when it rains.

    7.1 Weather

    When we talk about the weather, we are talking about the state of the atmosphere. 

    It is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. We can measure weather at a given time in a place. 

    We do this to know more about the weather. We can measure weather at a given time in a place. 

    We do this to know more about the weather. Weather can change. It can be hot now. Later it can be cold. 

    The sun can shine now. Later it can be cloudy.









    1. On your own, follow the steps above to make a thermometer.

    2. Check the level of water in your thermometer, at different times of the day.

    3. Compare the weather over a few days. Then share your measurements with the rest of the class.

    4. Write a sentence to say what you have learnt about the weather.

    7.4 Effects of weather 

    The weather has an effect on what we do. It also has an effect on plants and animals. 

    If there is not enough rain, we have a drought. Then it is very dry. There is not enough water for plants to grow. 

    There is not enough water for animals to drink. There is not enough water for us to use. 

    The farmers suffer when there is not enough rain. Their crops die. There is no food to eat or sell. 

    We all get hungry and sick. Droughts cause us to starve. If it rains a lot in our rainy season, we have floods. 

    Then the water washes our houses and property away. We lose our crops. We lose our public assets.


    Answer the questions below.

       1. What is the difference between good and bad weather?

       2. How does weather affect humans?

       3. How does weather affect plants and animals?


    Read the case study before you answer the questions.

    There were floods in Musanze (Northern Province), and in Nyabihu and Rubavu (Western Province). 

    Heavy rain harmed the water sources. The water was dirty. People got sick. It also had a bad effect on schools, clinics

    and roads. Houses were under the water. Maize and banana crops were ruined by floods.


      1. What is a flood?

      2. Why do floods happen?

      3. How do floods cause harm?

      4. Make a drawing of what bad weather looks like.

    7.5 Problems caused by weather

    Bad weather causes many problems. This happens when:

    • The rainy season is too short. We don’t get enough rain.

    • The rain is very heavy. It rains too much in a short time.

    • We get floods and landslides. A landslide is when the soil gets muddy

         and washes away. It can destroy houses and roads.

    • Sometimes the weather changes unexpectedly and we are not prepared.

        For example, the day was sunny when we left home so we did not take an

         umbrella and got caught in a storm.


    Destroyed crops due to a drought                                  Flooded houses due to heavy rain


     Discuss what problems weather causes.

    7.6 Measures to overcome weather

    There are things we can do to overcome or deal with bad weather. 

    •  We can grow different crops at the same time. Some of the crops must be plants that do not need a lot of water.
    •  We can protect the trees in the forest. It is easier to prevent mudslides and flooding if we have trees.
    •  We can plant crops in such a way that they prevent the soil from getting too dry.
    •  We should not build our houses next to rivers and lakes.• We should try to save water.


    1. Share ideas on how to overcome bad weather.

    2. Make a drawing of your ideas. Explain your drawing to the class.

    7.7 Flora

    Flora are all the plants that grow in an area. Trees,

    plants and flowers are called flora.

    7.7.1 Flora and its importance in our district

    Flora is necessary. We need flora to live. We depend on plants. Plants produce oxygen. This is in the air

    we breathe to stay alive.




    1. Explain why flora is important.

    2. Make a garden in the school grounds.

            a) Get the soil ready so you can plant seeds. Turn the soil over. Take the weeds out.

           b) Plant the seeds. Water the garden. Watch the plants grow. Later on, you can eat what you have planted!

    7.7.2 Ways of preserving flora

    To preserve flora is to look after and protect it. 

    We can do this if we:

    •  plant a tree for every tree we chop down
    •  only take what we need and preserve our local plants
    •  never let too many goats and cattle graze in one place
    •  avoid farming in all open spaces 
    •  preserve the forests and bushes
    •  create more national parks to preserve flora.



    Nyungwe Forest National Park has a lot of flora. There are more than 200 different types of trees. There are more than 100 different types of orchids. We must preserve our flora.

           1. Visit a nearby swamp, forest, mountain or lake. Look carefully at what you see. How many different plants do you see? What are their colours? What else can you see? Are there insects? Are there birds? Is there water?

         2. Make a summary of what you saw.

        3. Make a drawing of the most interesting thing you saw.

        4. Present your summary and drawing to the class.

        5. Discuss how to preserve our flora in the district. Explain what we should do.



    7.7.5 Ways of preserving fauna

    We need to preserve our fauna. We can do this when we:

    •  respect all fauna
    •  never kill, unless we need to eat it
    •  never take bird eggs out of their nests
    •  do not throw stones at animals
    •  keep enough land for fauna and do not use all the land for farming
    •  do not chop down too many trees
    •  never kill elephants for their tusks or rhino for their horns
    •  do not use animal parts to make crafts for tourists
    •  avoid overfishing and only take what we need
    •  never poach. To poach is to kill wild animals in a national park
    •  make sure domestic animals do not pass diseases to wild animals
    •  do not cause bush fires
    •  have more national parks where fauna can be preserved.


             Preserve our animals. Do not kill them.


    Go on a field tour to a nearby game park.

    1.   Write down what you see.

    2.   What did you like the most about your tour? 

    3.    How do you feel when you see animals?

    4.    How many different types of fauna did you see?

    5.    Make a drawing of one animal you liked.

    6.   Discuss how to preserve fauna. Then share your best ideas with the class.

    7.   Write a sentence to say how you will respect and preserve fauna.


    End Unit assessment

    1. Make a poster to show how you can preserve our fauna and flora. 


    • You can use the flat side of an old cardboard box for your poster.
    •  Make drawings and write important words in big letters on your poster.

    2. Show your poster to the class. Answer any questions the other learners ask.

  • UNIT 8 : Population census

    Key unit competence: Discuss the population census and its importance.

                                            Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    • Define population, population census.
    •  Identify effects of over population.


    •  Describe population census, its importance and how it is conducted. 
    •  Find out some measures of controlling population.

    Attitudes and values

    •  Acknowledge the importance of population census and cooperate in giving information. 
    •  Show concern about population.


    Introductory activity

    Discuss the following questions:

    1. What is happening in the picture below?

    2. Can you remember the population census of 2012?

    3. How old were you then?

    4. Did you see people visit your home to count your family?

    5. How many learners are there in your class?

    6. How can you find out how many learners are in your school?


    8.1 Population census

    A population is the number of people who live in a place. The population of Rwanda is

    the number of people who live in Rwanda.

    A population census is a survey or a poll. This is when the government gathers

    information about the people who live in the country. They do this at a specific time.

    They include all the people in the country.

    A population census gives us information on:

    • how many people live in Rwanda




    The census tells us how many people live in each district. Then the government can see

    if each district has what it needs for the people who live there.



    1. Role play how to carry out a population census.

    Take turns to be:

          a) enumerators

         b) people to be counted and asked questions.

    2. Draw up a list of questions you will ask as an enumerator.

    3. Write what you find out on the board.

    4. Explain how the school can use this information.

    8.1.2 Population control

    It is important to control the population. To control the population means to make sure the right number of people live in an area. It is a problem if too many or too few people live in an area.

    Under-population or low population means there are not enough people living in an area. Over-population or high population means there are too many people living in an area.

    Low population happens when people move out of an area. For example, people may move to a city away from a rural area. People do this because there may be more work in the city. High population happens when there are too many people in a small space or area. Then there are not enough resources or supplies for everybody.

    8.1.3 The effects of over-population and under-population

    Under-population means that there are too few people in an area. This will mean that many resources are wasted. 

    For example, schools might be half-empty. Houses might stand empty. 

    Old people might live alone with nobody to help them.

    If too many people move to cities there may not be enough people left to farm the rural areas. 

    So the country might go hungry.

    Over-population has very bad effects. When there are not enough resources, people might:

    •  starve because there is not enough food
    •  live in the streets because there are not enough houses
    •  stay away from school because there are not enough schools.

    When there is over-population, it also has a bad effect on the environment. Too many trees are chopped down for firewood. 

    We need trees so we can live. Too much land is used for farming. Then there is not enough land for nature parks. 

    Wildlife will die. Plants and trees will die. Some of these will become extinct. This means they will be gone forever.

    When there are too many people, there is not enough water for everybody.


    Many trees are chopped down to make space for people to live.

    This is bad for the environment.

    We cannot live without water.

    If there are too many people, they have to live close to each other in a small

    space. When somebody gets sick, the disease can spread easily.

    8.1.4 How to control the population

    If there are not enough people in the district, we can:

          • give people reasons to live in the district, such as employment, good schools and roads.

          If there are too many people in the district, we can:

         • educate people about the benefits of having only two children per family

         • ensure people know how to plan for pregnancy

        • ask people to move to a less populated district

         • tell people that the whole earth is already over-populated so it is every

         person’s duty to have fewer children.


       1. What are the effects of under-population and over-population?

       2. How can we control low or under population?

       3. How can we control high or over-population?


    Write four sentences to summarise how to control high population and low

    population in your district.


    End unit assessment

    1. Explain why a population census is important.

    2. Suggest how to control the population in your district.

    3. Imagine you are a census enumerator. 

         Explain what questions you will ask to get information.

  • UNIT 9:Infrastructure

    Key unit competence: Recognise the importance of types and means of transport

    and communication and how to preserve them.

                                                                   Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

         • Give different types and means of transport.

         • Give different types and means of communication.


          • Explain different forms of transport and their importance.

          • Find out dangers and difficulties of transport and measures to overcome them.

          • Explain different forms of communication and their importance.

          • Find out dangers and difficulties of communication and measures to overcome them.

    Attitudes and values

          • Acknowledge the importance of transport in our district.

          • Show concern about proper use of roads.

          • Acknowledge the importance of communication in our district.

          • Show concern about proper public communication.


    Introductory activity

     Look at the pictures before you answer the questions. 

        1 . How do people get from one place to another?

        2. Which types of transport have you used?

        3. What do you listen to on the radio?

         4. How does the radio help us to get news?


    9.1 Transport

    We use transport to get from one place to another. We also use transport to move goods from one place to another.

    9.1.1 Types and means of transport

    There are many different methods of transport we can use such as road, water, air, railway and animal. 

    The type of transport we use will depend on where we live and how quickly we want to travel.

    For example if we want to go from Kigali in Rwanda to Nairobi in Kenya it will be quickest and easiest to use an aeroplane. Rwanda has a national airline, Rwanda Air.

    If we want to transport vegetables from our farm in the mountain to sell in the nearest village, 

    we may decide to use a van or even a donkey.


    1. Look at the pictures below. For each picture, say what type of transport it is.

    2. Which of the types of transport carry passengers?

    3. Which of the types of transport carry goods?

    4. Draw different types of transport.

    9.1.2 Importance of transport

    We need transport to go to places. Some places are too far away for us to walk. 

    We use transport to bring and send goods to other districts in Rwanda and to other countries.

    Imagine if we had no transport! How would you get from Karongi to Muhanga?


    How would we get food, clothes and supplies from one district to the next? How would tourists visit us? 

    How would you visit the national parks? If you live in a big city like Kigali, how would you get from your home to the city centre?

    Without transport, we would not develop and grow as a country. We would be cut off from each other. 

    Our economy would suffer.

    9.1.3 Difficulties and dangers of transport 

    Transport can be difficult to use because:

        • it may be expensive; many people cannot afford air travel or cars

       • the roads may be damaged from rain or overuse: often a province does not have the money to repair roads

       • some mountainous areas are difficult to reach and no transport may be available

       • boats on lakes and rivers are often overloaded and can capsize

       • goods can get lost or stolen whilst being transported.

    Transport can be dangerous because crashes and accidents may happen. For example, a tyre can burst, a vehicle can overturn or two vehicles can collide. This means they crash into each other.

        • A minibus with too many passengers might crash.

       • Some vehicles go too fast. This is called over speeding. 

       • Some vehicles are not roadworthy. This means they are broken. If the brakes do not work, the driver cannot slow down.

        • Some passengers do not use safety belts.

       • Some car drivers do not respect bicycles and bump into them.

       • The drivers of big delivery trucks could be tired and fall asleep while driving. 

       • Some pedestrians and animals walk in the road. They cause crashes.

        • When the weather is bad, it is difficult to drive.

        • Sometimes robberies happen on the road.

       • Not respecting road post.

    9.1.4 Measures to overcome difficulties related to transport

    In Rwanda we can use the following measures to overcome the difficulties

    related to transport:

        • Construction of more airports and airfields

       • District leaders and the people in our province can work together to maintain roads in good conditions.

    We can avoid the dangers relating to transport by:

       • Not overloading vehicles and boats.

       • Wearing lifejackets on water transport

       • Learning how to drive properly before getting a car or van.

       • Not driving after taking alcohol

       • Keeping vehicles in good mechanical condition.

       • Respecting regulations of transport.


         1. Discuss the difficulties and dangers of transport.

         2. Explain how to overcome these difficulties.



    Identify acceptable behaviour on the road. Share your ideas with the class.

    9.2 Communication

    Communication is when we give and receive messages and information. 

    This happens when we listen and talk to each other. It means we share news and information.

    9.2.1Types and means of communication

    There are different types of communication. Look at these examples. 

        • We talk to each other face to face. 

       • We telephone each other. We use landline telephones or mobile phones. We can also SMS each other on mobile phones.

       • We use the media. The media includes radio, television (TV), newspapers and the internet.

       • We listen to the radio. This gives us news and information. It also entertains us. We listen to stories. 

       • We write letters to each other. We post the letters. 

       • We can also use the internet to send emails.


    Look at the pictures on page 95.

        1. Name the different types of communication.

         2. Make your own drawings of the different ways we can communicate. 

         Show your drawings to the class.


    9.2.2 Importance of communication

    We need communication so that we can talk to each other. We use communication to share messages and information. 

    We need it to do business and to learn. We need communication otherwise we will be isolated. 

    This means we will be cut off from everybody else.

    Imagine a world with no communication. What would happen if there was no warning about a storm coming? 

    How would people know?

    How would you talk to your family members in another village or town?

    How would you learn about what is happening in other places in your

    district and in the rest of Rwanda? How would you learn about other people

    in other countries? How would businesses advertise their goods?


       1. Why is communication important? Give reasons for your answers.

       2. What do you think a world with no communication would be like?

       3. Take turns to present short one-minute speeches on the importance of communication.

    9.2.3 Difficulties and dangers of communication

    It can be difficult to communicate:

       • Not everybody speaks the same language.

       • Communication can be expensive. For example, a computer and internet access cost money. 

       • Using a mobile phone also costs a lot of money. In some rural areas there are no telephone lines. 

    Some rural areas are not connected to landline phones, so people have to use mobile phones.

        • People can send bad messages. These can harm others. 

         • Thieves can steal your name and bank information. 

         • Lies or incorrect information can easily be spread by media. 

    This can lead to misunderstandings and even war.

    9.2.4 How to overcome communication difficulties 

    Think about how we can solve the problems of communication. Here are a few ideas.

        • Make mobile phone costs cheaper. Give everybody access to mobile phones or landlines.

        • Make the internet cheap and available to everybody.

        • Teach people to be responsible when they use the media. Never spread lies. 

              The media must tell the truth.


        1. Discuss the difficulties and dangers of communication.

        2. Suggest how to overcome the difficulties and dangers of communication. Present your ideas to the class.


    Imagine you are a social worker working with people who are living with disabilities. 

    A social worker is a person who supports and helps other people.

        1. How would you help people who cannot see to cross busy roads? 

       2. How would you help people who cannot hear to communicate? 

       3. How would you help people who cannot walk to get into a minibus taxi?



    Make sure that you are able to do the following.

       1. Explain how to use transport and communication in a responsible way.

       2. Say how using transport and communication in a responsible way will prevent danger and difficulties.

    End unit assessment

    1. Identify two important places in our district.

     2. Describe two of our public assets. 

    3. List two problems our important places in the district have. 

    4. Suggest two ways in which we can preserve our important places. 

    5. List four elements of weather.

     6. List two instruments you can use to measure weather. 

    7. Describe two problems caused by weather. 

    8. Give one example of flora. 9. Give one example of fauna. 

    10. Explain how we can preserve our fauna. 

    11. Define population. 

    12. Define population census.

    13. Describe how a population census is conducted. 

    14. List four different types of transport. 

    15. Describe two acceptable behaviours on the road.

  • 10 History


    Music was, and still is, an important part of traditional Rwandan culture.

  • UNIT 10:Traditional Rwanda

    Key unit competence: Explain political, economic and social organisation in pre-colonial Rwanda

                                                  Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

        • Describe political, social and economic organisation of pre-colonial Rwanda.


         • Explain how Rwanda was politically governed in the pre-colonial era. 

        • State the importance political, social and economic activities in the pre-colonial Rwanda.

    Attitudes and values

        • Acknowledge the importance of political, social and economic organisation in pre-colonial Rwanda.


    Introductory activity

      1. What is the woman making in this picture?

      2. Do people in your community still work as crafters?

      3. Do you know how to weave a basket? Explain how it is done today.



       • The land chiefs were responsible for all the land issues.

       • The cattle chiefs were responsible for the well-being of animals. Cattle are still valued in present-day Rwanda. 

       • The military chiefs were responsible for the defence of the kingdom. 

    They had to make sure the army was strong enough to fight enemies and expand their land.


    Draw a diagram to show the political organisation of Rwanda in pre-colonial times.


        1. Ask your family about the political organisation and administrative structure in pre-colonial Rwanda. 

        2. Make a summary of what you are told.

       3. Present your findings to the class in the next lesson.

    10.1.2 Social organisation in the pre-colonial period 

    Social organisation means the way that people relate to one another in society. 

    This includes culture, beliefs, customs, norms and values.


    Pre-colonial Rwandans lived in clans. A clan is a group of people with a common ancestor. 

    Each clan had a totem to identify it. When crimes were committed or


    Cattle were a sign of wealth in pre-colonial Rwanda.

    disputes arose, a council of elders would meet to settle the dispute.

    Song and dance were very important. There were many social events, such as wedding parties and naming of children, that brought people together.

    Traditional games were organised. These games helped people to make friends.

    Young people would dance during big festivals, especially at the royal court.

    People mostly ate millet, sorghum, beans, cassava, sweet potatoes and bananas.

    Rwandans rarely ate meat.


    A traditional home


    Draw a picture of a social event in your community.


    Pre-colonial Rwandans believed in one God – “Imana” the creator of all things.

    They also worshipped their dead ancestors who had the power to intervene in the

    lives of the living, and made rituals and offerings to the ancestors to bring them



    In pre-colonial Rwanda most positions of authority were reserved for men.

    Women did, however have some political and economic power. The queen mother was very powerful.

    Most of the men had more than one wife. Children were very important.

    Having a lot of children was a sign of wealth.


    Although land was believed to belong to the king, Rwandans controlled their own land. They passed it down as an inheritance to their male children. People without land could work for landowners on their farms. The landowners would give them food and shelter. This prevented poverty.


    People respected their leaders. They paid taxes (produce) and gave leaders gifts. At times of trouble, 

    a drum would be beaten to sound the alarm.


       1. Draw pictures of drums.

       2. Make a list of events when drums would have been used.


        1. How was pre-colonial Rwanda ruled?

        2. What did clans use to identify themselves?

        3. What foods were eaten?

    10.2 Economic and commercial activities in pre-colonial Rwanda

    Our ancestors kept animals and grew some crops. Cattle and land were signs of wealth. 

    Iron smelters in Rwanda changed iron ore into tools and objects that could be used or bartered. 

    Hunting provided meat. Crafted goods were made and some were traded.


    Use the following headings to make a table listing all the crafts that can be made by different methods.


    10.2.1 The differences between traditional and modern trade

    Traditional trade was very different from trade today. In pre-colonial times:

       • Goods were exchanged or bartered. This is called barter trade

       • The main goods traded were weapons, animals and their products, fish, 

               honey and agricultural products

          • People often carried goods on their heads

          • there was no advertising.

    In modern times:

        • goods are paid for with money

        • the main goods traded are animals and animal products, agricultural

    products, finished products from factories, products from lakes and rivers

        • goods are carried by trucks, bicycles and wheelbarrows, as well as on heads

        • goods are advertised through newspapers, billboards, internet, radio and TV.


        1. Make a list of all the economic activities that take place in your community. Decide which are traditional activities.

        2. Role play bartering goods that you have in exchange for ones that you need.



    Make sure that you are able to do the following.

    1. Draw a table to compare traditional and modern Rwandan trade.

    2. Explain how Rwanda was ruled.

    3. What did a typical Rwandan family eat?

    End unit assessment

    1. What do we mean by the word ‘pre-colonial’? 

    2. Name the three kinds of chiefs who helped the king in ruling the kingdom. 

    3. Explain the meaning of the following:a) Traditional cultureb) Traditional belief 

    4. Describe any one traditional belief in your district. 

    5. Mention the main four economic and commercial activities of pre-colonial Rwanda. 

    6. Describe the life of a typical family in pre-colonial Rwanda. 

    7. Name two items that could be traded in traditional Rwanda. 

    8. Explain three different methods of creating crafts in traditional Rwanda.

  • Part 2 Religious Studies

                                   Christian Religious Studies


  • UNIT 1 Respect for God’s creatures

    Key unit competence: A learner will be able to differentiate and protect God’s

    creatures and environment.

                                                                Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

        • Identify different names of God and those of creatures.

       • Outline their importance in daily life.

       • State positive measures taken for protection of environment and creature.


         • Illustrate different creatures

        • Explain how God created creatures.

    Attitudes and values

       • Appreciate the importance of each God’s creatures.

       • Respect and protect Creatures and environment.

       • Take a positive attitude of helping others and caring for domestic animals found in

    his/her home environment.


    Introductory activity

    Look at the picture and answer the questions.

       1. Do you know the difference between a wild animal and a domesticated animal?

       2. What are the names of some domesticated animals?

      3. How do the domesticated animals benefit us? 

      4. What happens if we do not take care of our animals and farms?

    1.1 The names and attributes of God



    Elohim to refer to God. Other religions have different names, for example,

    Islam uses the name Allah.


    Make a list of all the names you use to refer to God.

    The attributes of God

    The word attributes means qualities or characteristics.

    The attributes of God help us to understand who He really is. In the Bible we

    are told that the attributes of God are

    love, being almighty, omnipotent, omnipresent, transcendent and omniscient.

    God is love

    God loves us so much that He gave us His only son Jesus. If we believe in

    Him we can have eternal life.

    God is Almighty

    When we say God is almighty, it means he can do anything. He has power

    and authority over all the creation.

    God is omnipresent

    Omnipresence means that God is everywhere at the same time.

    God is omnipotent

    Omnipotent means all-powerful. God is omnipotent because He is allpowerful

    in the universe.

    God is omniscient

    Omniscient means all knowing.

    God is all-knowing

    We cannot hide anything from Him.

    God is transcendent

    Transcendent means going beyond our human experience.

    God is greater than all of creation.


    Activity 1.2

     Match the Bible references in the left-hand column of the table with the correct 

    description in the right-hand column.



       1. List two names that are used by Christians for God.

       2. What is the name given to God in Islam?

       3. Describe six attributes of God.

       4. What is the difference between being omnipotent and omniscient?


    Draw a picture showing how you imagine God and write a short description about each of the six attributes of God.

    1.2 God created and named every creature for a pur-pose


      God created the universe and everything in it.

    All the plants, animals, birds and fish, as well as human beings, were created by  God. 

    The Bible tells us that God created the universe in six days and on the seventh day He rested. 

    First He created Earth, which was covered with water. Then He separated day from night and the oceans from the land.

     After this He created the plants, then the birds and fish. Next came the animals and, finally, human beings. 

    At the same time, God blessed all the creatures and plants and told them to reproduce and fill the earth.


    Do this activity.

    1. Read the story of creation in Genesis 1: 1–31.

    2. Draw a picture showing a timeline of how God created the world in six days. 

         Draw what happend on each day.

    1.2.1 All creatures are important

    Everything was created for a purpose and all living things, no matter how big or small, depend on each other. 

    This is why it is important that we respect and take care of all living things.


    eat. Some wild animals hunt and eat other animals for food. Some wild animals eat plants. 

    Everything has a purpose and a use. Did you know that cattle benefit from birds called cattle-egrets

     to pick the ticks off them? Everything has a purpose.




    1.3 God expects us to take care of His creation

    In Genesis 1:28 God said: “I am putting you in charge of the fish, the birds and all the wild animals.” 

    This means that we are expected to take care of the Earth and everything that lives on it.

    God wants us to care for His creation and look after it. This also means that we must not spoil or damage the environment.

    If we pollute the land, it cannot be used for farming and animals have nowhere to live. 

    If we chop down all the trees for firewood, then the soil can be swept away because there is nothing to hold it down.

    Water is the home of many animals such as fish, hippopotamus and crocodiles. 

    When we pollute the seas and rivers, we poison aquatic animals.

    Mammals, such as dolphins, can choke on plastic that they swallow, or they can get caught up in old fishing lines and drown.


                      You can help to take care of the environment.

    If we pollute the atmosphere with smoke from factories and cars, then it is no longer healthy to breathe in.

    Did you know that in some cities the pollution from cars and factories is so 

     bad that people wear masks when they are outside?

    Did you know that in some cities the pollution from cars and factories is so bad that 

    people wear masks when they are outside?


    We can all help to take care of the environment

    Every small thing that we do to protect our environment is important. We can:

    •  plant more trees
    •  pick up rubbish and broken glass
    •  try to save water.


    Protecting your school is a very important part of caring for the environment. 

    Make a plan of how you can help maintain your school. For example, you can collect waste paper,

     clean up rubbish or make a vegetable garden. Share your ideas with the rest of the class


                                We can all help by picking up rubbish.

    Checklist of learning

    In this unit, I have learnt that:


    End unit assessment

    Make sure you are able to do the following on your own.

    1. Explain how you can show love to your peers in class.

    2. Look at the following words and pick out the ones that describe the attributes of God:

    •  love
    •  dominating
    •  unreachable
    •  almighty
    •  omnipotent
    •  impatient
    •  omnipresent
    •  uncaring
    •  transcendent
    •  weak
    •  omniscient.

    3. Draw a picture of a house and garden that has been looked after and cared for.

  • UNIT 2: Vocation of the Israelite people

    Key unit competence: A learner will be able to describe different God’s calls of the people of Israel 

    in regard to annunciation of the coming saviour.

                                                          Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    • State the names of the Patriarchs.
    • Understand the call of each of them. 
    •  Identify the God’s plan to save his nation.


    •   Describe the different calls of the patriarchs.
    •   Explain the role of each patriarch in the salvation history.

    Attitudes and values

    • Appreciate the God’s plan to save his nation.
    •  Detecting and appraising different calls from God. 
    •  Respect call of other persons and participate in Christian activities


    Introductory activity

    Look at the picture below and answer the questions.

        1. Do you know the name of the man with the knife?

        2. What is happening?

       3. Who told him to do this?

       4. Why was he told to do this?

       5. Do you think this was part of God’s plan?


    Abraham was asked by God to sacrifice his only son.

    2.1 God’s plan for His people

    God has always had a plan for humanity, to bring us back to Him. He used the patriarchs of Israel to fulfil His plan.

    Patriarch means the father and ruler of a family or tribe. The patriarchs of the Israelites were important because 

    they were the original forefathers of the tribes that grew to become the nation of Israel [God’s chosen people in the

    Bible]. Each of the patriarchs had a different calling, or task, that God gave him.


    Make a list of the names of the patriarchs (male leaders) in your community.

    42.2 The call of Noah

    Noah lived at a time when the Earth was filled with violence and corruption. Noah stood out as one who walked with God

    God called Noah to build an ark and to save his family and the animals of the world.

     He told Noah that there would be a flood because He was about to destroy the sinful people on Earth.

    Noah had to believe in what God was telling him to do before he saw what God had planned.


    God told Noah to build an ark. Building an ark was a very difficult task 

    but Noah trusted God and obeyed Him.

    2.2 The calling of Abraham

    Abraham was called by God to leave his home and his tribe and move to a place that God would show him.

    It took great courage to move away from everything and everyone that he knew.

    God’s covenant with Abraham 

    A covenant is a promise or agreement made between two people.

     God promised to bless Abraham’s descendants and make them His own special people. 

    In return, Abraham was to remain faithful to God and be a channel through which God’s blessings

     could flow to the rest of the world.

    God tested Abraham

    Abraham had only one son called Isaac. He got him at a very old age. 

    God told Abraham to sacrifice Isaac on the top of Mount Moriah. 

    Abraham took Isaac to the top of the mountain to sacrifice him.

     At the very last moment, God stopped Abraham from sacrificing Isaac and gave him a lamb instead. 

    Abraham had been tested and had shown that he was obedient to the will of God.



    Being told to sacrifice his only son must have been very hard for Abraham.

    Make a list of the excuses Abraham could have given God before sacrificing Isaac.

    2.3 The call of Moses

    Although Moses was an Israelite, he was raised in Egypt at a time when the Israelites were slaves of the Egyptians.

     One day while Moses was herding sheep and goats, he came across a bush with burning flames in the desert.

    This was strange because the bush was not burning up from the fire. God called Moses from the middle 

    of the bush and told him to lead the Israelites out of Egypt to a new land that God promised to Moses


    2.4 The call of Jacob

    Jacob and his twin brother Esau grew up together, living a nomadic life. 

    They were the sons of Isaac, the son of Abraham. 

    Jacob was always jealous of Esau.

    He tried to deceive Isaac into blessing him as the first born. Jacob then had to leave home.

     After he left home, God appeared to Jacob in a dream that showed a ladder from heaven to Earth. 

    Jacob had a difficult life and did some bad things. But God remained faithful to Jacob.

      God chose him to be the leader of Israel. He told Jacob to change his name to Israel. 

    Jacob had 12 sons and a daughter. His sons were the founders of the 12 tribes of Israel.



    1. Describe the lives, call and convenants of Noah, Moses and Jacob.

     2. Explain what part each of the patriarchs played in God’s plan. 


        1. What is another name for a patriarch?

       2. Give the names of four patriarchs from the Old Testament.

       3 . What did God want the patriarchs to do?

       4. Explain what is meant by the word covenant.

    2.5 Other calls in life

    When we have a call we are listening to the voice of God telling us what He would like us to do with our lives. 

    A call will always tell us to help others or do something good. It will never tell us to hurt another person.

     Another name for a call is a vocation. 

    The Israelites had a vocation to serve God and to prepare for Jesus the Messiah.


    Look at the pictures below. Say what you think the people have been called to do.


    God does not only call rich or famous people. All of us can be called to serve

    God in our own special way. We each have special talents that we can use to help others.


    1. Make a list of your special talents.

    2. Explain three ways in which you can use your talents to help other people.

    2.6 God’s plan to save the world

    God’s plan to save the world did not end with the patriarchs. When the time

    was right, He sent Jesus, His only son, to Earth. God speaks to us through

    Jesus. God’s plan is that we will be led back to Him by believing in Jesus.

    (John 8:12, 10:9, 14:6.)

    The patriarchs were part of a bigger plan. God wanted the tribe of Israel to be in the right place at the right time.

     Only then did He allow his Archangel

    Gabriel to tell Mary that she would give birth to Jesus.


    1 . Prepare a role-play about the patriarchs and include their calls and covenants.

    2. Explain their significance in the Annunciation.


    End unit assessment

    Make sure you are able to answer the following questions on your own.

    1. A _________ is another name for a calling.

    2. Name three of the Old Testament patriarchs.

    3. Why were the Israelites so important to God?

    Revision exercise of unit 1 and 2

    1. List any four of the main attributes of God.

    2. Choose one among the attributes of God and describe what it means.

    3. Explain what the verses at John 3:16–17 tells us.

    4. What do we learn from 1 Corinthian 13?

    5. Describe in a short paragraph the purpose for which God created man.

    6. List any four ways you can protect and care for God’s creation.

    7. Why did Noah build an ark?

    8. How many tribes were descended from Jacob?

    9. Explain what a call means.

    10. Why did God send Jesus to us?

    11. Match each word with its correct meaning.


  • UNIT 3:God’s commandements

    Key unit competence: A learner will be able to differentiate the commandments of God

                                                      Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    • Recall the Ten Commandments.
    • Identify the greatest commandment.
    • Outline the consequences of breaking God’s commandments


    • Explain the God’s commandment.
    • Classify the God’s commandment.
    • Discuss the consequences of breaking Commandments as well as the importance of Commandments in daily life

    Attitudes and values

    • Appreciate the importance of the greatest commandment in the daily life.
    • Positive attitude of participating in humanitarian actions and voluntary services
    • Perform works of charity.


    Introductory activity

    Look at the picture below and answer the following questions.

    1. Where are these people?

    2. What are they doing?

    3. On what day of the week is this usually done?

    4. What book is read in this place?


    3.1 The Ten Commandments

    Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt on God’s instructions. 

    They travelled through the desert and eventually camped in front of Mount Sinai. 

    God spoke to Moses and told him that He had chosen the Israelites to be made into a holy nation led by priests. 

    One day God called Moses to the top of Mount Sinai. He gave Moses a new system of laws for His people to live by. 

    God wrote these commandments into stone using His finger. They are known as the Ten Commandments.


    God gave Moses the Ten 

    Commandments at the top of Mount Sinai.

    God’s commandments

    1. Do not worship any other god than Me.

    2. Do not make idols or images in the form of God.

    3. Do not misuse the name of God.

    4. Remember the Sabbath Day by keeping it holy.

    5. Treat your mother and father with respect and obedience.

    6. Do not murder.

    7. Do not commit adultery.

    8. Do not steal.

    9. Do not lie.

    10. Do not desire things that do not belong to you.


    Read Exodus 20:1–17 and write down the Ten Commandments of God in the correct order.

    3.2 Why did God give Israelites the commandments?

    God gave the Ten Commandments to tell the people of Israel how to live their lives. 

    He wrote them on stone so that no one could argue about them. God

    made a simple list of very important commands that could be obeyed.

    God gave His laws for our own good and they are still important laws for all people today. 

    They are based on love and help us know how to show love to God and our fellow man.


    1. Read 1 John 5:3.

    2. Discuss why God gave commandments to His people.

    3. Make a list of ways in which you can show love to God.

    3.3 Categories of commandments


    God’s Ten Commandments can be divided into two categories: moral or religious laws, and civil laws.

    Moral laws

    The first four commandments are religious or moral laws. They tell us how God expects us to treat Him.

    Do not worship any other God than me

    If we spend our time thinking about money, television, gossip, our work or our clothes, 

    then these things can become gods to us. Some people worship other beings or hurians.

    Do not make idols or images in the form of God

    If we start worshipping statues or thinking more about the church buildings than God, then we are worshipping idols.

    Do not misuse the name of God

    This means that we do not use the name of God in a rude or casual way or as a swear word.

    Remember the Sabbath Day by keeping it holy

    This means that on Sabbath we do worthwhile things, such as attending

    church, visiting the sick or lonely, walking in nature, writing letters to people

    in need and reading.



    Work out the following:

    1. Draw a picture of all the things you want to have.

    2. Work out how much time you spend thinking about them.

    3. Now work out how much time you spend thinking about God.

    Civil laws

    The last six of the commandments are civil laws. They tell us how God expects us to treat each other.

    Treat your mother and father with respect and obedience

    We must respect and obey our parents because they gave us life, and they care for and look after us.

    Do not murder

    Do not kill anyone. This also means not destroying other people’s feelings,

    confidence and sense of self-worth or dreams.

    Do not commit adultery

    We should only have sex within marriage and should stay chaste until we are married.

    Do not steal

    This means all forms of taking something that does not belong to us. If we waste time at work, 

    we are stealing from our employer.

    Do not lie

    This includes not only lying about someone, but any form of gossip.

    Do not desire anything or anyone that does not belong to you 

    We must not envy our friends when they have something that we do not have

    3.1 Exercise 

    1. Explain the difference between a moral and a civil law.

    2. How does it hurt other people when we gossip?

    3. List three things you could do on a Sabbath.


    Practise saying the Ten Commandments and learn them off by heart.

    3.4 The greatest commandment


                      Some of the important words in the greatest Commandments

    One day, when the disciples were gathered together, Matthew asked Jesus:

    “Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the Law?”

    Jesus replied: “Love the Lord, your God with all your heart and with all your

    soul and with all your mind. This is the first and greatest commandment. And

    the second is like it: Love your neighbour as yourself.”

    If we obey the great commandments everything else will fall into place.


    1. Read Matthew 22:36–40.

    2. Draw a picture showing one of the ways that you can show your love for God.



    Write a short story in which you talk about something good that you have shared with your neighbour or friend. 

    It can be a birthday party or a book that you have read.

    3.5 The consequences of breaking the Commandments

    When we break the Ten Commandments, we are disobeying God’s laws and there are consequences. 

    The results of not following the commandments are spiritual, moral and social death. 

    We are no longer close to God and we do not receive His blessings. 

    Our hearts become hardened and we no longer have peace and happiness in the communities we live in.


    1. Read these scriptures to understand more about the consequences of sin: Job 11:20, 

         Isaiah 44:17–18, Romans 8:13 and Psalms 31:10.

    2. Make a group presentation about the effects of breaking the commandments.

    Lessons we learn from the results of breaking God’s commandments

    •  We try to do the right things so as to escape the wages of sin.
    • We get to know that God can be angry with us if we refuse to follow His commandments.


    Carry out roleplays about a mother punishing her son for not doing his jobs at home.

     Make sure you explain why the son should respect his mother and do his chores.

    Lessons we learn from the Ten Commandments

    •  We learn to care for and respect others’ property. 
    •  We learn to do the right things that our parents, pastors and teachers tell us to do.
    •  We learn about proper behaviour in a community. 
    •  We learn to love and believe in God.


    End unit assessment

    Make sure you are able to answer the following questions on your own.

    1. Write the Ten Commandments in their correct order.

    2. Jesus Christ summarised the Ten Commandments into two. Name them.

    3. Give two examples of false idols.

    4. Why should you respect your parents?

    Revision Exercise on unit 3


    1. Look at the picture above. How can money be a false idol? 

    2. Why did God make commandments?

    3. Identify any three benefits from following God’s commandments. 

    4. What does God expect from us on the Sabbath?

     5. Why is Mount Sinai important to Christianity? 

    6. List the commandments that teach us how to obey and love God in the way that He expects us to do. 

    7. List the commandments that teach us how to treat each other the way that God expects us to do. 

    8. Write down the greatest commandment, as told by Jesus.

  • UNIT1:Islamic faith: Two first pillars

    Key unit competence: Be able to live with faith according to two of the six pillars of Islamic faith. 

    To perform works of submissiveness to Allah among people.

                                                                          Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    •  Explain the 1st Pillar of Islamic Faith (Belief in the Oneness of Allah).
    •  Classify Shirk (polytheism) as the opposite of Tawheed (monotheism) into two main categories: 

                  major Shirk and minor Shirk.

    • Explain the 2nd Pillar of Islamic Faith (Belief in Angels).
    • List some names of Angels. 
    •  Classify the Angels according to their responsibilities.


    •  Explain the oneness of God, his Beautiful names and his attributes.
    •  Explain reasons why Angels were created.
    •  Explain some duties of Angels.

    Attitudes and values

    •  Avoid any worshiping of other deities (Shir’ki) as greater sin in Islam. 
    • Obey message from God as conveyed by his Angels to the disciples.


    Introductory activity

    Look at the pictures below and answer the questions:

    1. What faith do the pictures represent?

    2. Why are the men kneeling in picture B?

    3. What is shown in picture A?

    4. What is the name of the building in picture D?


        All these pictures show faith in Islam.

    1 The six pillars of Iman


    The six pillars of Iman are the six most important beliefs in Islam. Iman means faith. These beliefs are:

    • Belief in Allah alone
    •  Belief in His angels
    •  Belief in His books
    •  Belief in His messengers 
    •  Belief in the Last Day
    •  Belief in the pre-ordainment of all things (Al-Qadr).

    In this unit we will study the first two pillars.

    • Belief in Allah 
    • Belief in His angels.


    Draw the six pillars of Iman and label them correctly.

    1.1 Belief in one God

    Believing in Allah and Allah alone is the most important pillar of faith. 

    This also means believing in the way He is described through the Qur’an and the Sayings of Prophet Mohammad 

    (peace be upon him). 

    There are three important aspects of belief in Allah:

    • The oneness of the lordship of Allah 
    •  The oneness of the Worship 
    •  The oneness of the names and the qualities of Allah.

    The most beautiful names of Allah

    Allah has described Himself in the Qur’an through His names and attributes. 

    There are 99 names for Allah. Each of the names of Allah describes a different attribute.

    For example, Al-Ghaffar means ‘The Ever Forgiving’. If you were asking for forgiveness for a sin you have committed, 

    you would use this name to call on Allah.Here are the first ten most beautiful names of Allah and their meanings.




    Draw a table like the one on below. Choose three of the names of Allah and write them down. 

    Next to each name explain what this name means to you.


    The name of Allah in Arabic.


    The meaning of Shirk

    Shirk means worshipping something other than Allah. If we behave or think in a way that is not in keeping 

    with believing only in Allah, then we are committing shirk, or sin. Islam is a monotheistic religion. 

    Monotheistic means a belief in only one God. In Islam this is known as Tawheed or oneness. 

    Some religions believe that there are many gods. These religions are known as polytheistic religions. 

    Polytheism is known as shirk, the worship of other gods and of having a rival to Allah.

    There are two main categories of shirk:

    • Major shirk 
    •  Minor shirk

    Major shirk occurs when we worship other gods. This includes praying to things such as pictures,

     prophets, religious people or praying to the dead. Idol worship is major shirk. 

    Major shirk cannot be forgiven if you die without first asking Allah for forgiveness.

    Minor shirk includes boasting or showing off, because you are making yourself more important than you really are. 

    Shirk can also be hidden. This happens when our intentions are not pure. 

    For example, when we help other people just so that we will look good in the eyes of other people. 

    Minor shirk can be forgiven by Allah.


    1. Look at the following pictures and talk about what forms of shirk are being shown.

    2. Discuss how these forms of shirk are committed in Rwanda. 

    3. Using examples, show the existence of other types of shirk in Rwanda and explain their consequences.




      1. Explain the three aspects of the first pillar of Iman: belief in Allah.

      2. What is the meaning of the oneness of worship?

      3. List the first four names of Allah and their meanings.

      4. Explain why shirk is not acceptable to Allah.


    Obedience to parents is obedience to Allah. Allah’s command to serve Him is immediately followed by

     His command to treat parents with gentleness and humility.

    Make a list of all the ways that you can show obedience to your parents.

    1.2 Belief in the angels

    Allah created the angels to worship Him and carry out His commands. 

    They were created out of light before humans were created from earth. Angels are genderless and do not require sleep, 

    food or drink. The angels never get bored or tired of worshipping Allah.


    Angels can take on many forms.

         • “They celebrate His praises night and day, nor do they ever slacken.” (Quran 21:20)

         • The angels possess great powers given to them by Allah and can take on different forms. T

             he Qur’an describes how at the moment of Jesus’ conception, Allah sent Gabriel to Mary in the form of a man:

         • “…Then We sent to her Our Angel, and he appeared before her as a man in all respects.” (Qur’an 19:17)

    The duties and responsibilities of angels

    Angels are obedient to the will of Allah, worshipping Him and obeying His commands. 

    Angels have no free choice, so they cannot disobey. Angels have different jobs, including:

    • taking care of human beings
    •  executing Allah’s commands around the universe
    •  serving Allah in the hereafter.

    The three greatest angels are Mikail, Israfeel and Jibreel. These angels are also mentioned in the Bible.

     Mikail (Michael) is responsible for rain, directing it wherever Allah wishes.

     Israfeel (Raphael) is responsible for blowing the Horn, which will be blown at the onset of the Day of Judgment.

     Jibreel (Gabriel) is Allah’s heavenly messenger to mankind. He conveys the revelation from

    Allah to His human messengers.

    The Keepers of Paradise

    When we die our souls will either go to Jannah (Paradise) or to Jahannam (Hell-fire), depending on 

    how we have lived our life whilst on Earth.

    The angels Munkar and Nakeer will question souls in the grave about their faith and deeds. Malak Al-Maut is 

    the Angel of Death. He is in charge of taking possession of souls after death.

    The keepers of paradise are angels that guard the doors of Jannah and serve the people inside. 

    Angel Ridwan is the guardian of Jannah.

    There are also nineteen ‘guards’ of Hell whose leader is named Malik. The Keepers of Hell oversee the punishment of disbelievers.


    Make a poster showing the responsibilities of angels. You can decorate this and

    put it on your classroom wall.


    1. What is common to Christian and Islamic beliefs about life after death?

    2. Name two angels that appear in both Islamic and Christian literature.


    Describe how angels can help you in your everyday life.


    End unit assessment

    Make sure you are able to answer the following questions on your own.

    1. How many names are there for Allah?

    2. Match the name of the angel with the correct description.

    3. The correct name for sin in Islam is _______.

    4. What are the first and second pillars of Islam?

    5. From what substance are angels created?

  • UNIT 2:Islamic faith and the Qur’an


    Key unit competence: Be able to only pray to Allah, to respect other beliefs, to trust in Allah in all situations and to

      keep him/her away from heavy punishments from Allah to the disobedient persons.

                                                                        Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    •     Read and recite correctly the Surat about trusting in Allah, about punishments and awards from God at the end of age.
    •     List the actions that will be heavily punished by Allah.
    •     List the attitudes that help to be prevented from heavy punishment that God will deliver to the disobedient persons.


    • Analyse the Surat Al-Kaafiroona
    •  Interpret the Surat Al-Quraysh.
    •  Explain Surat Al-Humazat.
    •  Distinguish wrong from right actions in his/her life.

    Attitudes and values

    •  Respect the diversity but keep the own faith.
    •  Appreciating the importance of security in Islam.
    •  Always trust in God especially in trials.
    •  Have fear of God. (Observe the commandments of Allah).

    Introductory activity

    Look at the picture below and answer the questions.

        1. What is the book in the picture below?

        2. Why is this book important?

        3. Who uses this book?

        4. Do you know if it was written before or after the Bible?


    2.1 The Qur’an

    The Qur’an is the holy book of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur’an was revealed by Allah to the 

    Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) through the Angel Gabriel over a period of approximately 23 years, 

    starting on 22 December 609 CE, when the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was 40, and finishing in 632, 

    the year of his death. The Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) to correct any errors in


    previous holy books such as the Old and New Testaments.

    The Qur’an was written in Arabic. It contains 30 chapters and 114 suras and each sura consists of a number of ayat or verses. 

    The lines of each ayat are numbered. In this unit we will learn about five of the suras.

    All the chapters except one begin with the sentence Bismillahir rahmanir raheem.

    This means ‘In the name of Allah the most merciful and the most kind’. 

    This is the thought with which Muslims should start every action.

    Children often go to Madrassah, which is a kind of school attached to a mosque. At Madrassah they are

    taught about the Qur’an.


    Children learn to read

    the Qur’an at an early age.


    Examine a copy of the Qur’an. Point out the suras and the ayat.

    2.2 Surat Al-Kafirun

    Surat Al-Kafirun is the 109th chapter of the Holy Qur’an and is also known as Al Kafirun.

     The word Kafirun is an Arabic word meaning disbelievers.




    Human rights

    Freedom to practise one’s own religion is a basic human right. 

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was signed by the United Nations in 1948 to promote world peace and tolerance. 

    In Rwanda the Constitution and other laws and policies protect religious freedom.

    2.3 Surat Al-Quraish

    The tribe of Quraish worshipped Allah and He protected them on their trading journeys. 

    Quraish was the name of the Prophet Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) tribe. 

    This sura describes the favour with which Allah blessed the Quraish. 

    For a people to flourish and thrive, two things are necessary: 

    a stable society, and trade and commerce. For this to happen, there must be enough food and there must be peace.


    Allah protected the Quraish on their trading journeys.
       1. What has God done for the Quraish?
       2. What does this sura say about trusting in Allah?
       3. What does this sura tell us about national security and its importance in Rwanda?
    2.4 Surat Al-Humazah
    The Surat Al-Humazah condemns those who slander others, whether by speech or ction.
    It also warns those who think that being wealthy will keep them immune from death,
    and it describes the punishments of Hell that await them.


    Recite the following lines of the Surat Al-Humazah.

    Woe to him who mocks other people by his actions or by his words

    Who has gathered wealth and counted it

    He thinks that his wealth will make him last forever.

    Nay! Verily, he will be thrown into Al-Hutama

    And how could you know what Al-Hutama is?

    The Fire of Allah that is kindled.

    Which penetrates up to the hearts

    It is locked encompassing them in it.

    In pillars stretched forth

    Do a role-play about the consequences of mocking other people.


        1. What will happen to people who mock other people?

        2. What does this sura tell us about people who think their wealth will last forever?

        3. What punishments will these people receive?

    2.5 Surat Al-Fil

    The Surat Al-Fil reminds us that we have no power to stand in the way of the power of Allah. 

    The sura tells of how Allah destroyed a great army of elephants using tiny birds who pelted them with 

    small stones of petrified clay.


    Recite the following five lines of the Surat Al-Fil.

    Have you not seen how your Lord dealt with the people who had the Elephant?

    Did He not make their plot go astray?

    And He sent against them birds, in flocks.

    Striking them with stones of backed clay.

    And He made them like eaten straw.


    2.6 Surat Al-Ma‘un




    End unit assessment

    Do the following:

    1. Match the sura with the correct description.


    2. Complete the sentences.

          a) The Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon

                  him) over _____ years.

          b) The Qur’an is made up of ______ and _______ .

    3. What is the thought with which every Muslim should commence their actions?

  • UNIT 3: Islamic worship: Fasting Ramadan

    Key unit competence: To be able to approach firmly Allah, take care of persons in need and live in humility at Ramadan.

                                                                                        Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    • Comment on the month Ramadan, how the period is decided.
    •  Judge the role of fasting in Ramadan in changing Muslim attitudes. 
    •  Understand the rules of Fasting in Ramadan. 
    •  Understand the night of decree and its meaning during Ramadan.


    • Illustrate the virtues of Ramadan month.
    •  Analyse the lunar calendar and how it is used to calculate the period of Ramadan. 
    •  Research the night of decree and its meaning during Ramadan.

    Attitudes and values

    •  Respect the period of fasting.
    •  Appreciate Ramadan and its importance to Muslims all over the world.
    •  Respect those who fast.
    •  Value the closeness to God during Ramadan. 
    •  Exploit the night of Decree.


    Introductory activity

    Look at the pictures below and answer the following questions:

       1. What is happening in the picture below?

       2. What are the three things that the signs tell us we may do during Ramadan?

       3. What are the five things that the signs tell us we cannot do during Ramadan?


    Ramadan is a very important period in the Islamic calendar.





    3.2 How the timing of Ramadan is decided

    The month of Ramadan begins after someone sees the ninth crescent moon of the year. 

    This can vary slightly from one country to another. This is because

    the Earth is turning, so sunrise and sunset occur at different times in different places.


    The first sighting of the ninth crescent moon

    marks the beginning of Ramadan.

    Ramadan lasts for 29 or 30 days depending on when the new moon is seen.

    Sometimes Muslims disagree about the exact timing of the beginning and end of Ramadan. 

    If you live in a cloudy or wet country, the sky might not be clear at the right time.

     At the end of the month, when the community sights the crescent moon again, Eid-al-Fitr or 

    the Festival of Fast-breaking begins.

    The end of Ramadan is one of two annual Islamic festivals.


       1. Write the order in which these countries will reach sunset each day: America, Australia, Rwanda, Nigeria, France

       2. Discuss the purpose of Ramadan.

       3. Can you name any fasting in other religions?


    Write a sentence explaining the importance of Ramadan.

    43.3 Why do Muslims fast?

    During Ramadan Muslims all over the world go without food and drink during the daylight hours. 

    Ramadan is a time to purify the soul, pay attention to Allah, and practise restraint. 

    Practising restraint is about more than just going without food and drink. It includes:

    •  restraining the tongue from gossiping
    •  restraining the eyes from looking at unlawful things
    •  not touching or taking anything that does not belong to you
    •  not listening to idle talk
    •  not going to sinful places.

    This means that every part of the body is committed to the fast.

    Breaking the fast (Iftar)

    When dusk has fallen, families and the community come together to break the fast. This is called Iftar. 

    The fast is usually broken with a date and a glass of water before sharing a meal. 

    This is a special time and care is taken to cook special foods and to include everyone in the community. 

    Old people are taken care of. At the mosque, food and drinks will also be provided, 

    especially for the poor in the community.


    Activity 3.3

        1. On your own, draw a picture of a person and add labels to show how each part of the body observes Ramadan.

       2. Discuss what would make a special Iftar meal. 

       3. Write a menu for an Iftar meal in Rwanda.

    3.4 Practices and prayers during Ramadan

    During Ramadan people do their best to reconnect with Allah. They try to improve their character and their morality. 

    They try to become a better person. By fasting, they are reminded to be thankful that they have food to

    eat when so many people do not. They are reminded to take care of the poor, the elderly and the sick.

    Ramadan is also a time of togetherness and sharing. Families try to spend


    time together.

    In addition to being a time of fasting, Ramadan is an opportunity for increased prayer and devotion. 

    During the last 10 nights of Ramadan, some Muslims retreat to a mosque for even more intensive study 

    and contemplation.

    One of these nights, usually the 27th of Ramadan, is the ‘Night of Decree’, the holiest day of the year.


    Set one day aside this week to try and be a better person. Keep a diary of how the

    day went and share this with your class.


    Answer the following questions.

       1. What is the importance of Ramadan?

       2. How are the exact dates for Ramadan decided?

       3. Describe a typical day of a Muslim during Ramadan.

    3.5 The Night of Decree

    The Night of Decree is a very special night in the month of Ramadan.

     Muslims believe that this was the night on which Allah first started to reveal the Qur’an to the 

    Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). The Night of Decree is also known as the Night of Power 

    because Allah blesses this night. 

    In Arabic this night is called Laylat Al-Qadr. Because it is such a special time, more angels descend during 

    this night and prayers have more power. It is a very important night for prayer, forgiveness of sins and asking for blessings.

     It is also the best night for mending broken relationships with family and friends. 

    Muslims spend this night in prayer and reading the Qur’an either at home or in the mosque.

    The Night of Decree happens during the last 10 days of Ramadan. It is calculated as one of the odd nights (21, 23, 25, 27 or 29).



     Make a list of blessings that might come to you and your family from praying during the Night of Decree.


    Explain why the Night of Decree is important.

    3.6 People who are exempted from fasting

    Certain groups of people are excused from fasting during Ramadan:

    •  children under the age of puberty
    •  the elderly
    •  the sick
    •  travellers and soldiers
    •  anyone who has a medical condition
    •  women during their menses and postnatal bleeding
    •  pregnant women and nursing mothers.


    1. Look at the following pictures and say why these people do not have to fast during Ramadan.


    3.7 Eid-al-Fitr

    The end of Ramadan is marked by the celebration of Eid-al-Fitr. This is a

    time when families and friends get together to feast after the long month of Ramadan.

    Many Muslims start by attending communal prayers, listening to a sermon and giving charity in the form of food. 

    Foods such as barley, dates, raisins or wheat flour (or money) are given to the poor.

     Many Muslims also wear new clothes, visit relatives and give presents or candy to children.

     Cards are also sent, often with the words ‘Eid Mubbarak’ (blessed Eid) on them.


                                           Eid Mubbarak means ‘blessed Eid’.


     Draw an Eid Mubbarak card to give to a friend.


    End unit assessment

    Do the following with your partner and check each other’s work.

       1. Describe a typical day during Ramadan for a young Muslim boy or girl.

       2. Explain how the beginning and end of the period of Ramadan are decided.

       3. Write a paragraph explaining why Ramadan is important for Muslims.

  • UNIT 4 Hadith in Islamic faith

    Key unit competence: The learner will be able to respect the Qur’an and imitate Muhammad and his disciples’ virtues.

                                                                                                    Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    • Memorise 10 Hadiths from the Annawiy Book Entitled “The Forty Hadith”
    •  List some Hadiths that testify the source of Islamic Faith.
    • Identify the disciples of Muhammad who authentically transmitted Hadiths.
    • Outline some Hadiths and their precepts.


    •  Explain the importance of Hadiths in Islamic worship.
    •  Describe the role of Muhammad’s disciple in keeping the originality of Hadith.
    •  Distinguish hadith from the Qur’an.
    •  Apply 10 Hadiths that increase good relationship among people selected from the Annawiy Book Entitled “The Forty Hadith”

    Attitudes and values

    •  Refer to the Hadiths in order to discern and to take decision in worshiping.
    •  Be honest in the society and strive for being believable.


    Introductory activity

    Look at the pictures below and answer the following questions:

    1. What religious faith do you think this woman belongs to?

    2. What is she doing?

    3. Why do you think she is doing this?

    4. Have you helped anyone in your community recently?


    By studying the Hadiths we learn how to live our lives following the example of the 

    Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

    4.1 What is Hadiths

    The second most important source of authority for Muslims, after the Qur’an, is the Sunnah. 

    The Sunnah are the practices, customs and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) 

    that are considered to be a perfect example of how He lived. They are found in the Hadith and other texts.

    The Prophet Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) followers memorised his teachings while he was alive. 

    These were later written down and collections were made of them. These collections are known as Hadith.

     Different groups of Muslims accept different collections of Hadith as reliable sources of authority.

    When reading the Hadith, Muslims can learn more about the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) 

    and the way to interpret the words of Allah in the Qur’an.

    The Prophet’s (peace be upon him) sayings and stories were based on revelations from Allah.

    The Hadiths are important for the following reasons:

    •  They reveal Allah’s messages.
    •  They explain the meaning of Allah’s messages.
    •  They give laws to live by.
    •  They teach moral ideals.
    •  They preserve Islam.


        1. Discuss the reasons why studying the Hadiths might help you.

        2. Talk about the difference between a custom and a practice.

        3. Make a list of some customs in your community.


    4.2 The genuineness of the Hadiths

    The Prophet Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) sayings and stories were passed down from one person to another. 

    Each Hadith is made up of two parts: the story that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) told and the list of

    narrators who have repeated it. This is because it is important to be sure that they have been passed down accurately.

    Within the first two centuries after the prophet’s (peace be upon him) death, scholars studied the stories, 

    tracing the origins of each quotation and the chain of narrators through whom the quotation was passed.


    4Scholars tested the Hadith to be sure they were the genuine sayings of the

     Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

    This was done to make sure that they were accurate recordings of what the Prophet Muhammad

    (peace be upon him) had said. For the sayings to be accurate the chain needed to be unbroken. 

    When messages and stories are passed from one person to the next it is easy for them to be changed. 

    Tracing the chain of narrators proves the honesty of the Prophet Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) disciples.

    The Hadiths are divided into categories according to how clearly they can be traced to the Prophet Muhammad 

    (peace be upon him). Different branches of Islam study different collections of Hadiths.

    Scholars of Hadiths such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Bukhari and Muslim, made their collections very carefully. 

    Hadiths were only included in their collections if they had been reported by four or more reporters.



    Play the game of broken telephone. 

    1. Sit in a circle and choose a person to start the game. 

    2. That person thinks of a message and whispers it to the person next to him/her. 

    3. The message is passed all around the circle in a whisper until it gets back to the person who started it.

     Has the message changed? You can play this game several times.



    1. What is a Hadith?

    2. How are they tested for accuracy?

    3. What is the second most important piece of literature in Islam?

    4. Why do Muslims want to know about the actions and

    sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)?

    4.3 An-Nawawi’s Forty Hadiths

    Yahia bin Sharaful-Deen An-Nawawi was an Islamic scholar. He was born in the village of Nawa near Damascus in 1233.

     He grew up in Nawa and at the age of 19 went to study in Damascus, which was considered the centre of

    learning and scholarship.

    Iman An-Nawawi gathered 42 of the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) together into a small book. 

    This book is now known as ‘An-Nawawi’s Forty Hadiths’. The collection is important because it teaches

    the most important beliefs and ethics of Islam.

    Studying these Hadiths helps Muslims to:

    •  evaluate and judge their actions
    •  evaluate and judge their motives for their actions
    •  evaluate and judge their dealings with other people.

    Here are ten of forty Hadiths of An-Nawawi

    1. Actions are based on intention

    Actions are according to intentions, and everyone will get what was intended.

    2. The declaration of faith

    Islam has been built on five [pillars]: testifying that there is no god but

    Allah and that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the Messenger of Allah, performing the prayers,

     paying the Zakah, making the pilgrimage to Mecca, and fasting in Ramadan.

    3. Stay away from what is prohibited

    What I have forbidden for you, avoid. What I have ordered you [to do], do as much of it as you can.

    4. Love for your neighbour what you love for yourself

    None of you will believe until you love for your brother what you love for yourself.

    5. Do not be angry A man said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, “Give me advice.” 

    The Prophet, (peace be upon him), said, “Do not get angry.”

    6. Follow up a bad deed with a good deed. Be conscious of Allah wherever you are. 

       Follow the bad deed with a good one to erase it, and engage others with beautiful character.

    7.   Do not neglect religious obligations Verily Allah the Almighty has laid down religious obligations (fara’id), 

             so do not neglect them. 

    8.     Righteousness is about having a good character Righteousness is in good character, and wrongdoing is that

     which wavers in your soul, and which you dislike people finding out about.

    9.     Entering paradise A man questioned the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and said: 

            “Do you think that if I perform the obligatory prayers, fast in Ramadan, treat as lawful that which is halal, 

           and treat as forbidden that which is haram, and do not increase upon that [in voluntary good deeds], 

           then I shall enter Paradise?” He (peace be upon him) replied, “Yes.”

    10.  Be steadfast in your belief I said, “O Messenger of Allah, tell me something about Islam which I can ask of no one but you.” 

            He (peace be upon him) said, “Say ‘I believe in Allah’ — and then be steadfast.”


    1.    Make a poster showing the ten Hadiths of An-Nawawi listed here. 

            You need to use only the heading at the top of each one.

    2.     Discuss how the ten Hadiths of An-Nawawi help good relationships between people.


    Learn the ten Hadiths by heart.


    End unit Assessment

    1. Write down the meaning’s of ten of An-Nawawi’s forty Hadiths.

    2. Explain how scholars make sure that the Hadiths are truly

    sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

    3. Discuss how learning the Hadiths can help a Muslim to practise his/her faith.

    4. What is the most important book in Islam?

    5. What is the second most important book in Islam?

  • UNIT5: Virtues according to the Qur’an

    Key unit competence: The learners demonstrate kindness to others, 

    be humble in society and to perform good actions always.

                                                                                 Learning objectives

    At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    Knowledge and understanding

    •  Identify the importance of telling the truth for self and for society. 
    •  Recall the impacts of lying to society in general. 
    •  List basic works of charity to the persons in need. 
    •  Identify the rights of neighbours in Islam.


    •  Compare effects of lying with effects of telling the truth to society.
    •  Explain the characteristics of politeness and obedience between people.
    •  Plan and perform works of charity. 
    •  Describe the rights of neighbours.

    Attitudes and values

    •  Be truthful in the society.
    •  Avoid any kind of lying. 
    •  Engage for helping persons in needs.
    •  Serve parents especially in their old age and the relatives.
    •  Be kind to the neighbours and respect their rights.


    Introductory activity

    Look at the pictures below and answer the following questions:

    1. Do these pupils look happy or sad?

    2. If they are rude to their teacher, will he/she still want to teach them?

    3. Why is it important that we respect our teachers?

    4. How should we treat school property?


    Being respectful of other people and their property is part of behaving in accordance with religious laws.

    5.1 The importance of telling the truth

    All religions tell us that it is important to be truthful. Islam teaches that being truthful is about more than what we say. 

    In Islam, being truthful means that our actions must match our intentions and our words must match our beliefs.

    It is important to be honest and tell the truth. We know that lying is dishonest because you are saying something 

    that is not true. Being truthful means choosing not to lie, steal, cheat or deceive in any way.

    Being honest also means not doing things that are morally wrong. 

    If you do something that is breaking the law or you have to hide it because you will get into trouble,

     you are not being honest. Honesty means being truthful in everything you do.

    Being truthful includes not breaking rules to gain an advantage (cheating), and not taking something 

    that is not yours (stealing) and any other action that you would hide because it is against what you consider morally right. 

    Corruption and bribery are also dishonest.

    5.1.1 The importance of telling the truth for yourself

    Being truthful also means respecting yourself and being honest with yourself. 

    If you are not truthful you let both yourself and Allah down. If we are always truthful, 

    we build strength of character that allows us to be of great service to Allah and to others. 

    We have peace of mind and self-respect. When we are honest we can like ourselves.


                                  Our story should always be the truth.

    Here are some examples of truthfulness:

    •   Not saying things about people that are not true. 
    •  Owning up for your actions, even if you will get into trouble.
    •  Explaining how a situation really happened. 

    You are not being truthful if you say something happened one way when it really happened another way.

    5.1.2 The importance of telling the truth for society

    Ethics are very important in business. Lying lessens trust between human beings.

    If nobody told the truth, life would become very difficult. Nobody could be trusted and

    nothing anyone heard or read could be trusted. Society is hurt because:

    •  the level of truthfulness falls, so other people may be encouraged to lie
    •  lying may become a generally accepted practice
    •  it becomes harder for people to trust each other
    •  social unity is weakened
    •  nobody can believe anyone else and society collapses.


    1. Make a list of five ways in which you can be dishonest.

    2. Discuss the impact of lying for the person telling the lies and for society.

    3. Talk about how you feel when you know you have told a lie.


    1. Make a list of the ways in which lying can occur in society.

    2. What is corruption and how does it affect society?

    5.2 Politeness and obedience

    Being polite and helpful to one’s parents is the duty of every Muslim. 

    Parents work hard to look after their children when they are growing up. It is also the duty of children to

    look after their parents when they become too old to look after themselves.


    It is important to be polite and obedient to your parents

    The Qur’an commands us to show kindness to parents in the following words:

    Your Lord has decreed that you worship nothing but Him, and that you be kind to parents. 

    Whether one or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word for contempt, 

    nor repel them but address them in terms of honour. (Al-Isra’ 17:23-14)

    Children should also be polite to show respect for their teachers and other adults. 

    The characteristics of politeness and obedience between people are:

    •  showing respect
    •  listening to the views of others
    •  not using bad language
    •  not shouting
    •  doing as requested
    •  giving help when needed.


    Make up a conversation about borrowing a book. One of you should do the asking and the other should lend the book.

     Do this in a way that shows respect and politeness from both the borrower and the lender. Then swop roles.

    5.3 Helping persons in need

    It is important to help those in need. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) taught that one 

    must give a portion of one’s wealth to charity. 

    This is what the Hadith narrated by Abu Huraira says:“Allah said, ‘O son of Adam! Spend, and I shall spend on you.” 

    [Sahih Al-Bukhari] Volume 7, Book 64, Number 264.

    In Rwanda there are charities that work to help orphans and others who are socially disadvantaged. 

    The International Islamic Charity Organization is an example of an Islamic charity that works to help the needy in Rwanda.


        1. Carry out a role-play of an act of charity helping people in need.

        2. Discuss these questions.

                a) What does the Qur’an say about charity?

                b) How should we treat our parents when they get old?

                c) If our parents ask us to do something, how should we respond?


    Helping people access clean drinking water is important.


       1. Ask your parents and neighbours to help you make a list of all the charity

         organisations in your community.

       2. Write down one way in which you could help another person.

    5.4 Respecting rights of relatives and neighbours

    According to Islam you must treat your relatives and your neighbours properly.

    This includes:

    • protecting their interests when they are absent
    •  showing them respect
    •  helping them when they have a problem
    •  not looking for faults
    •  trying to persuade them to refrain from bad habits
    •  helping them if they are in trouble
    •  forgiving them if they have done any wrong
    •  practising the highest Islamic ethical code.

    Activity Discuss ways that you should treat your neighbour.


    We must treat our relatives and neighbours properly.


    End unit assessment

    Make sure that you are able to do the following.

    1.     List three forms of untruthfulness.

    2.     Fill in the blanks in the following sentence: 

             During Ramadan Muslims help the _______, feed the ________, 

              visit the sick in _______ and build ________ for the homeless.

    3.     List three duties towards your relatives and neighbours.

    Revision exercises for Islamic Religious Studies

    1. List three of Allah’s most beautiful names.

    2. Name three angels that are common to both Islam and Christianity.

    3. Complete the following sentence:

    Believing in many gods and worshipping statues are both forms of ___________.

    4. Chose the correct word from the brackets:

    The fast of Ramadan begins at (sunrise/sunset) and ends at (sunrise/sunset).

    5. Name three groups of people who are exempt from fasting during Ramadan.

    6. Describe one harmful effect of lying to the society.

    7. Angels are made of light (true or false)?

    8. Name the second-most important literature in Islam after the Qur’an.

    9. Who is Malak Al-Maut?

    10. Join the word in the left-hand column of the table to the correct description in the right-hand column.