Topic outline



    TOPIC 1 Talking about Subjects

    We study several subjects in school. Some of these subjects are studied every
    day, while others are learnt at fixed times during the week. All the subjects that
    we study are arranged in a timetable of study. We follow the timetable to know

    which subjects we will be studying at school on a particular day.

    Activity 1.1.1

    What do you study at school? Discuss

    Activity 1.1.2
    Is your favorite subject hidden in this puzzle?
    Find nine subject words hidden in the grid below. The words can be upwards,

    downwards, across, or diagonal.


    Answer the Riddle

    How many letters are there in ‘the English Alphabet’?

    Activity 1.1.3 (READING)
    Read the conversation below, aloud.
    Ishimwe : Pendo, what do we study in science?
    Pendo : In science, we study about living and non-living things. Without
    science, we would not know anything about nature. When we study
    science, we can understand why certain things are the way they
    are. But I also wonder, what do you do in Kinyarwanda?
    Ishimwe : We study, the Rwandan culture, the dos and don’ts, the wonderful
    dance and the right ways of speaking Kinyarwanda.
    Raissa : I do understand Kinyarwanda and science but what about Social
    Yuhi : In Social studies, we study the world and the places and the way

    things work politically, socially and economically.

    Activity 1.1.4
    Answer the following questions.
    1. Act out the above conversation in groups.
    2. What do you study in Social studies?
    3. How does science help you?

    4. What do you do in Kinyarwanda?

    Activity 1.1.5 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    1. In groups, think of what you do in other subjects which are not
    mentioned in the conversation and explain them.
    2. Discuss how each subject can help you in future. Present your

    work to the class.

    TOPIC 2 Personal Preferences
    Activity 1.2.1 (READING)

    Read about the following pupils and their favorite subjects


    Activity 1.2.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Use the words from the box below to fill the gaps about pictures demonstrating
    the likes talked about in activity 1.2.1. Give the name(s) to the pictures

    according to those who like them in activity 1.2.1


    Activity 1.2.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Form groups and talk about your favorite subject. Why do you like a particular
    For example:
    Partner A: What’s your favorite subject?

    Partner B: I like science.

    Activity 1.2.4

    Make as many sentences as you can, from the table below.


    Answer the Riddle

    What is a snake’s favourite subject? (Clue — Remember its sound!)

    Activity 1.2.5 (WRITING)

    Write a paragraph describing your favourite subject. Tell which subject you like

    the most and why? Remember to use the present tense.


    TOPIC 3 Describing Future Hopes
    Activity 1.3.1

    Look at the pictures. Who are they?


    Activity 1.3.2 (LISTENING)
    Listen carefully to the sentences read by the teacher and guess which
    professions these people belong to.

    (a) What is Miss Kayitesi’s profession? Miss Kayitesi is a ……………….
    (b) What is Mr. Habimana’s profession?
    (c) What is Mrs. Tumwesigye’s profession?
    (d) What is Mr. Muhwezi’s profession?
    (e) What is Mr. Kabahizi’s profession?
    (f) What is Mr. Mbabazi’s profession?
    (g) What is Mrs. Twizere’s profession?

    heart What is Mr. Ngenzi’s profession?

    Activity 1.3.3
    Complete the following sentences with what you would like to be in future.
    (a) I would like to be a doctor.  (b) I would like to …
    (c) I would like to …                  (d) I would like to …

    (e) I want to become a …        (f) I want to become a …

    Activity 1.3.4 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Ask your friends what they would like to do, or to be, in future. Ask at least six
    For example:
    1. What would you like to be in future?
    I would like to be a pilot.
    2. What would you like to do in future?

    I would like to go to a university.

    TOPIC 4 Our Timetable
    Activity 1.4.1 (READING)

    Read the following passage carefully.
    My name is Keza. I am going to tell you about our class timetable of Monday.
    The first lesson is Mathematics at 8:00 am. The second lesson is English at
    8:45 am. The third lesson is Science at 9:30 am. Then we go out and have a
    break at 10:15 am.
    We have our fourth lesson after the break.
    The fourth lesson is Social studies at 10:45am. Then we study Kinyarwanda at 11:30
    am. The sixth lesson is English at 12:15.
    After that, we go out for lunch at 1:00 pm.
    We have our lunch in the dining room.
    We then have our seventh lesson at 2:00
    pm which is Social studies. And the last
    lesson is Music at 2:45 pm. I enjoy this lesson so much! There is a lot of singing
    and dancing.
    Our last activity of the day is extracurricular activities from 3:30 pm to 5:00 pm.
    Everyone loves this time because we get to participate in an activity we love
    doing apart from the classroom activities and subjects. Some extracurricular
    activities include: drama, traditional dance, reading and writing in a language
    of our choice, storytelling, creative dancing, football, basketball, volley ball and

    so many more fun things to do.

    Activity 1.4.2
    Answer the following questions.

    1. On what day do the learners have this timetable?
    2. Whose timetable is this?
    3. What subjects does she study?
    4. What lesson does Keza like the most?
    5. Where do they get their lunch from?
    6. How many lessons do they have on Monday?

    7. What time does the school close?

    Activity 1.4.3

    Now, study the timetable below and answer the questions that follow.


    Activity 1.4.4
    Answer the following questions.

    1. What is the first lesson on Monday?
    Ans. The first lesson on Monday is _______
    2. What is the first lesson on Tuesday?
    Ans. The first lesson on Tuesday is _______
    3. What is the third lesson on Wednesday?
    Ans. The third lesson on Wednesday is _______
    4. What is the last lesson on Friday?

    Ans. The last lesson on Friday is _______

    Activity 1.4.5 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Turn to your partner and ask him/her about the timetable. Take turns
    asking and answering.

    goodPartner A: What is the first lesson on Thursday?
    Partner B: The first lesson on Thursday is Social
    Partner B: What is the first lesson on Friday?
    Partner A: The first lesson on Friday is


    Partner A: …

    Partner B: …

    Determiners of Quantity
    A lot, most, a few, some, any, many, least
    Activity 1.4.6 (READING)

    Read the statements given below the tables.

    • Do you see any science lessons in the table?
    • No, I can’t see any science lessons in the table.

    • But I can see some Mathematics lessons in the table.


    • Are there any Social studies lessons in the table?
    • Yes, there are a few Social studies lessons in the table.

    • However, there are many math lessons in the table.


    • Do you see any Social studies lessons in the table?
    • Yes, most of the lessons in the table are Social Studies lessons.

    • There are not a lot of physical education lessons in the table.

    Activity 1.4.7
    Look again at the timetable on page 12 and answer the following questions.
    1. There are ________ subjects in the timetable.
    2. How many times does mathematics appear in the timetable?
    3. How many times does English appear in the timetable?
    4. Which subject appears the most times?
    5. Which subject appears the fewest times?
    6. There are a few ________ lessons in the timetable.

    7. The ________ lesson appears the most times on Monday.

    Explore the Internet:
    Visit the site below for more practice.
    h t t p : / / w w w . e s l p r i n t a b l e s . c o m / g r a m m a r _ w o r k s h e e t s /
    expressions/expressing_ quantities/QUANTIFIERS_AND_


    Activity 1.4.8 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Form groups and plan your own favorite timetable for a day. Answer the
    following questions about your timetable.
    1. What subjects do you study on that day?
    2. What is your first lesson?
    3. What is the fourth lesson of the day?
    Talk about the school timetable.

    Activity 1.4.9 (WRITING)
    Write five sentences about your school timetable using determiners of quantity.
    For example:
    • There are many mathematics lessons in our timetable.

    TOPIC 5 Describing the Size of the School

    Activity 1.5.1 (READING)
    Read the text.
    My name is Nziza. My school is ‘Kagabo Modern Primary School’. There are
    200 pupils and 30 teachers in the school. There are also people who help
    us clean the classrooms and the school compound. They are 15. We also
    have people who prepare our meals. They are also 15. Our school is very well


    Activity 1.5.2
    Answer the following questions.
    1. How many teachers are there in Nziza’s school?
    There are 30 teachers in Nziza’s school.
    2. How many pupils are there in Nziza’s school?
    There are ................................................................................................
    3. How many cleaners are there in Nziza’s school?
    There are ................................................................................................
    4. What is the total number of people in Nziza’s school?

    There are ................................................................................................

    Activity 1.5.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Work in groups to find out answers to the following questions about your school.
    1. How many teachers are there in your school?
    2. How many pupils are there in your school?
    3. How many cooks are there in your school?
    4. How many administrators are there in your school?
    5. How many girls are there in your class?
    6. How many boys are there in your class?
    7. How many buildings are there in your school?
    8. How many classrooms are there in your school?
    9. How many female teachers teach you?

    10. How many male teachers teach you?

    TOPIC 6 School Journeys
    Activity 1.6.1 (READING)
    Read aloud.
    A teacher from Kagabo Modern Primary School wanted to find out how long it
    takes her pupils to reach school. She made a survey by asking each one of her
    students how much time it took them to get to school like this:
    Teacher : How much time does it take you to get to school?
    Pupil : It takes me 90 minutes to get to school.
    Each student had his/her turn to tell the teacher how long it took him/her to get

    to school. The teacher showed her survey results in the graph below.


    The blue bar represents the actual number of students who reach at a particular
    time. The line moving from up to down labelled Y is known as the Y axis. It is
    vertical. It shows the number of students.

    The line moving from left to right at the bottom of the graph labelled X is known

    as the X axis. It is horizontal. It shows the time taken by the students in minutes.

    Activity 1.6.2
    Study and interpret the graph.
    1. How many pupils take between 20 and 40 minutes to get to school?
    2. How many pupils take between 40 and 60 minutes to get to school?
    3. How many pupils take less than 20 minutes to get to school?
    4. How many pupils take between 60 and 80 minutes to get to school?

    5. How many pupils take between 80 and 100 minutes to get to school?

    Activity 1.6.3

    Write (T) for True and (F) for False for each of the following statements.

    Activity 1.6.4 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Form groups. Each member of the group should individually fill in the

    questionnaire below about the time taken to reach school from home.

    A questionnaire about the time taken to reach school.

    How long does it take you to reach school?

    Activity 1.6.5 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Draw a bar graph to represent the information you have collected. Compare
    your results with your group members and make sure you have the

    same results.

    Activity 1.6.6 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Discuss the reasons as to why some learners reach at a particular time.
    TOPIC 7 School Plan

    Below is a plan of Kigoro Primary School. Study it carefully

    Activity 1.7.1
    Answer the following questions.
    1. How many blocks does the school have?
    2. Mention the blocks that the school has.
    3. Which place is the biggest?

    4. Which places do you like the most in this school? Why?

    Activity 1.7.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Form groups, move around the school and draw the plan of your school.

    Pin your plan at a place where everyone can see it.

    Pronouncing Sounds.
    Activity 1.7.3
    Say the following tongue twister about the weather.
    Whether the weather be fine
    or whether the weather be not,
    whether the weather be cold,
    or whether the weather be hot,
    we’ll weather the weather,
    whatever the weather,

    whether we like it or not.

    Activity 1.7.4
    Read the poem below and in groups. Discuss the questions that follow.
    Our School Our School

    Far from my home.
    But a very good school.
    It takes me one hour.
    To get to our school.
    Our school our school.
    They teach interesting subjects.
    English, Mathematics, Science, Social studies
    and Kinyarwanda.
    Wonderful teachers too.
    Our school Our school.
    I love school.
    My favourite subject is English.
    Very interesting.
    And in future

    I want to be a teacher of English.

                                                                by Umuhoza Axcella

    Discussion Questions
    1. What is the poem about?
    2. Who wrote the above poem?
    3. How many subjects are taught at the writer’s school?
    4. Which subject does the writer like most?
    5. What does the writer want to become in future?
    6. How long does it take the writer to reach her school?
    7. What is interesting at the writer’s school?
    8. How are the teachers at the writer’s school?

    URLs: 14Labels: 11File: 1

    TOPIC 1 Describing My Hobbies
    Activity 2.1.1

    Look at the pictures and read the sentences given along with them.

    Activity 2.1.2

    What do you like doing?

    Activity 2.1.3
    Play a game about your hobbies
    One student will go in front of the class and demonstrate his/her hobby to the
    rest of the class. The others will try to guess what it is by a show of hands. The
    one who gets it right, gets the chance to demonstrate his/her hobby. Let the
    other students demonstrate in the same way.

    • Now write down at least three hobbies that you have.

    Activity 2.1.4 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Choose four friends from your class and write sentences about their hobbies.
    TOPIC 2 Recounting Past Activities
    Activity 2.2.1

    Look at the pictures.

    Activity 2.2.2
    For each of the activities, write down a sentence to answer the question.
    • What did (name) do yesterday?

    Make sure you have used the simple past tense.
    For example: • What did Patricia do yesterday?

    Patricia went to school yesterday.

    Activity 2.2.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    In groups of three, talk about what you did over the weekend. Remember to
    use the simple past tense. Then write sentences expressing what your friends

    Activity 2.2.4 (WRITING)
    In your notebooks, change this passage into the simple past tense. Do it
    in pairs.
    Moses wakes up at six o’clock in the morning. He takes a bath. After the bath,
    he eats his breakfast. He puts on his uniform and walks to school. When he
    reaches school, he greets his teachers and his friends. He then enters his class
    and studies different subjects. Moses does all his work neatly and this pleases

    his teachers and parents.

    Activity 2.2.5 (WRITING)
    Write down a paragraph about your activities of the past week. Remember to

    use the simple past tense.

    TOPIC 3 Describing Reading Preferences
    Activity 2.3.1 (LISTENING)

    Listen to the teacher read aloud about Samantha Ineza’s reading habits.
    Now answer the following questions in your exercise book.
    1. What is Samantha’s hobby?
    2. When did the hobby start?
    3. Which books did Samantha first read when she learnt to read?
    4. What kind of books does Samantha read now?
    5. What four things has reading helped Samantha learn?
    (i) …………………………….
    (ii) ………………………………
    (iii) ……………………………..
    (iv) …………………………….
    6. What do you read?

    7. Why do people read?

    Activity 2.3.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    In pairs, ask each other about the reading preferences.
    For example: • What do you read?
    • I like reading storybooks.
    Activity 2.3.3 (WRITING)
    Now write down five sentences about your friends’ reading preferences.
    TOPIC 4 Telling Stories
    Activity 2.4.1 (READING)
    Read about Fatima
    My name is Fatima. I am going to tell you a story about my experience in the market.

    One Saturday, I went with my mother

    to the market. I wanted a new school
    dress and a new pair of shoes. When we
    reached the market, I saw the exact dress
    that I wanted.
    ‘Mom, look. That is the dress I want.’
    I pointed at the dress. ‘Let’s ask the
    shopkeeper how much the dress costs’
    ‘The dress costs 20,000 Frw,’ the
    shopkeeper confirmed.
    My mom had very little money. We
    couldn’t afford the dress. My mom asked
    the shopkeeper to reduce the amount of
    the dress. She explained that she also
    needed shoes for me. The shopkeeper
    asked mom how much she could pay for the dress. Mom said, ‘I can pay 10,000
    Frw for it.’ The shopkeeper agreed and sold the dress at 10,000 Frw. I was very
    We moved ahead and I also found the pair of black shoes that I needed. The
    shoes were not expensive, so my mom bought them.

    I left the market feeling very happy and thanked mom for the dress and the shoes.

    Activity 2.4.2
    Answer the following questions.
    1. Who did Fatima go with to the shop?
    2. What did Fatima want to buy?
    3. How much did each item cost?
    4. Was Fatima happy about going to the market?
    5. What lesson do you learn from this story?
    6. Think of a different ending to the story. If Fatima had not got what she

    wanted from the market, how would she have felt? Write down her feelings.

    Activity 2.4.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Now that you have read Fatima’s story, can you tell us your story?

    Get into groups and narrate your favourite experience to the class.

    Activity 2.4.4 (WRITING)
    Write your narrations in your notebook.
    TOPIC 5 Describing Future Plans — ‘Going to’
    Activity 2.5.1 (READING)
    Read aloud.

    Tomorrow is Saturday. It means that we are not going to school. What are the
    children going to do?
    1. Anna is going to play tennis.
    2. Blair is going to visit his uncle.
    3. Jerry and Christine are going to help their mother with washing clothes.
    4. The teacher is going to the market to buy some fruits.

    5. Shekinah and Abu are going to the cinema to watch a movie.

    Activity 2.5.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Ask and answer. Pair up and talk about what you are going to do.
    Partner A: What are you going to do this afternoon?
    Partner B: I am going to visit my cousin with my brother.
    What are you going to do tomorrow?
    Partner A: I am going to visit the zoo with my family.
    When are you going to visit the zoo?
    Partner B: ………………………………………………………………………
    What are you going to do this weekend?
    Partner A: …………………………………………………………………………

    Continue with the discussion.

    Activity 2.5.3
    Play a game.

    Take turns in doing an action. One person from the class should try to guess

    what the other one is doing. Sentences should be constructed using ‘Going to’.

    Activity 2.5.4 (WRITING)
    Write at least 10 sentences mentioned during the game.

    TOPIC 6 Describing Friends’ Physical Appearance

    Activity 2.6.1
    Look at the pictures and read aloud.

    1. What does she look like?

    She’s tall. Isn’t she?
    Yes, she is.
    She’s beautiful. Isn’t she?
    Yes, she is.
    She is overweight. Isn’t she?
    No, she isn’t. She’s slim.
    She has black hair. Hasn’t she?

    Yes, she has.

    2. What does he look like?

    He is short. Isn’t he?

    Yes, he is.
    He is handsome. Isn’t he?
    Yes, he is.
    He is slim. Isn’t he?
    No he isn’t. He’s overweight.
    He has brown eyes. Hasn’t he?

    Yes, he has.

    Activity 2.6.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Form groups and talk about your group mates. Everyone should take turns
    talking about another group member. The rest of the group members would
    answer whether it is true or not.
    For example: This is Samantha. She has long hair. Hasn’t she?

    The rest will answer. Yes she has. or No, she hasn’t.

    Activity 2.6.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Model a figure

    (i) On a piece of paper, make a model drawing of a head with eyes, nose, ears,
    mouth, teeth and hair. Make sure you use colours for the eyes and hair.
    (ii) Fold the paper so that only the neck shows (so the head is folded behind).
    Then pass your paper to a different student.
    (iii) Now draw your body starting from the neck and going down to the ankles.
    Make it either a really short or long body and make it as funny as you can.
    (iv) Finally, draw funny feet on your picture. Then fold up your papers and
    return each piece to the person who drew the head.
    (v) Unfold the paper and have a good laugh at the pictures. Now present
    your person in the drawing to the rest of the class and talk about him/her.

    For example: This is Tom. He is short. He has pink hair.

    Activity 2.6.4
    Copy the survey chart in your book. Go around the class and make a survey

    describing six of your friends in class. Then present it to the class.

    Activity 2.6.5
    Answer this question as you present your work.
    Tell me about your friend. What does he/she look like?
    Activity 2.6.6
    Find the words for colours from the table and write them in your exercise book.
    Big, small, white, tight, green, black, new, red, brown,
    bread, blue, build, yellow, grey, book, maroon
    Activity 2.6.7

    Find the words for size from the table below and write them in your exercise book.

    TOPIC 7 Describing Friends’ Personalities

    Some adjectives are opinion words. Opinion adjectives are used to tell us what

    one feels and believes about someone.

    Activity 2.7.1
    Form groups of three and rearrange the letters in the brackets to form
    correct words.

    For example: • I am an obedient girl. (dientobe)
    • I am a confident boy. (fniocendt)
    1. Michael is a ……………………. person. (firndley)
    2. I don’t like being very ……………………. (frefula)
    3. She is an …………………………….actor. (inelteglnit)
    4. Djessa is a very …………………….. boy. (oeegusrn)
    5. My father is an………………………. man. (ohenst)
    6. My mother is a ………………………. woman. (hlmube)

    7. My friend is ………………………. (nunfy)

    Answer the Riddle

    If I have it, I don’t share it. If I share it, I don’t have it. What is it?

    Activity 2.7.2
    Sing Along
    Tell me about your best friend!
    What does he look like?
    What does he look like?
    Tell me all about him.
    Verse 1
    He’s tall
    He’s got short hair
    He’s got big ears

    But most of all, he is confident and kind!


    Tell me about your best friend!
    What does she look like?
    What does she look like?
    Tell me all about her.
    Verse 2
    She’s got short hair
    She’s got big eyes
    She’s got black hair

    But most of all, she is generous and great.

    Activity 2.7.3
    Your turn.

    Add four verses to the song about your friend.
    TOPIC 8 Talking about Friends
    Activity 2.8.1 (WORKING TOGETHER
    Act this out with your friend.
    Stephan: Hello. My name is Stephan. What is your name?
    Gloria: My name is Gloria. We belong to the same school.

    : Do you have any friends at school?
    Gloria: Yes I do. My best friend
    is Flourine. She is the
    first person who helped
    me when I had just joined
    the school. She is a very
    friendly person. She is
    very good at Mathematics.
    She always helps me with
    my homework.
    Stephan: That is good to hear. My
    friend is called Kabera.
    Gloria: Where does he live?
    Stephan: He lives in Gisenyi.
    Gloria: What does he like?
    Stephan: Kabera likes sports. Whenever it’s time for P.E. he gets very
    excited. He has taught me a lot of moves in football. I am now

    better than most boys in my class.

    Activity 2.8.2

    Answer the following questions.

    1. Who are talking in the conversation?
    2. Who is Stephan’s friend?
    3. What does Stephan’s friend like?
    4. Where does Stephan’s friend live?
    5. How has he/she helped Stephan?
    6. Who is Gloria’s friend?
    7. What does Gloria’s friend like?

    8. Which adjectives are used to describe Gloria’s friend?

    Activity 2.8.3 (WRITING)
    Write a paragraph describing your friend’s personality traits.
    Activity 2.8.4 (READING)
    Read the passage silently.
    Kaberuka and the Lovely Puppy
    Once upon a time, there lived a fat man with his slim wife, Gwiza. Gwiza was
    very beautiful and kind to animals. She loved cats and dogs. So, Kaberuka
    decided to buy a puppy for her. She loved the puppy very much because it was
    cute. It had brown spots and soft fur. On top of that, it would catch many rats in
    the house. It also guarded the household against thieves.
    The puppy enjoyed going out for a walk. One day, it went out alone. A cruel
    man was walking beside the road and noticed the puppy looking at him. He
    got hold of it, hid it in the nearest dark place, twisted its neck and killed it. He

    dropped the dead body in the nearest big rubbish can.

    That evening, Gwiza tried to call the

    puppy to go and eat something but she
    did not get to see the puppy. She tried
    asking the people around whether they
    had seen her lovely puppy but everyone
    told her they had not seen it. She then
    decided to check in every small and big
    hiding place. She discovered that the
    puppy had been killed and thrown in the

    big rubbish can.

    The cruel man was found by the police in charge of animal protection and was
    asked to pay a lot of money as punishment.
    Everyone felt so depressed about the loss of their lovely puppy. But Kaberuka
    promised Gwiza that he would buy her another puppy. She was very happy to

    be promised that.

    Activity 2.8.5
    Answer the following questions.

    1. What is the title of the story?
    2. What is the name of Kaberuka’s wife?
    3. What did Kaberuka buy for his wife?
    4. What did the puppy love doing?
    5. Where did the cruel man meet the puppy?
    6. What did he do to the puppy?
    7. Why was Kaberuka’s wife happy at last?

    8. Fill in the table with the appropriate adjectives as used in the story.


    9. Discuss with your friends what you liked the most in this story.
    10. In groups, think of a different ending to the story narrating if Gwiza had
    found her puppy alive.
    11. Discuss the effects of doing wrong in a society.

    12. Summarise the story in about 10 sentences.

    TOPIC 9 Comparing People
    Activity 2.9.1

    Look at the pictures and read the sentences below:


    They are Christiano and Jane. Christiano is fatter than Jane. Jane is thinner than

    Christiano. They are both attractive. Jane is more confident than Christiano.

    Activity 2.9.2 (READING)
    Read the following sentences with your friend.
    Marion is fatter than Claudine.
    Claudine is older than Marion.
    Marion is more confident than Claudine.
    Claudine is stronger than Marion.
    Claudine is always busier than Marion.

    Marion is smarter than Claudine.

    Activity 2.9.3

    Turn to your partner and make sentences about each other.


    Activity 2.9.4 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Make sentences.

    Form groups and see how many sentences you can make comparing the
    following people in the table. Make a conclusion about the people in terms of


    For example: Esperance lives in Kibuye. She is younger than Kagabo.

    Answer the Riddle
    What word becomes shorter when you add two letters?
    Sounds and Spellings:
    Think of more adjectives that end with ‘er’. Then write them down.

    For example: prettier, harder.

    Activity 2.9.5 (READING)
    Read the passage silently.

    The Dog and the Wolf
    Once there lived a beautiful dog and a big wolf who were best friends. Every
    day they met under an old mango tree at the end of the forest. They would
    spend hours talking about the latest news about where they lived. The dog
    would tell the wolf what was happening on his master’s farm and the wolf told
    the dog all the news of the forest.
    One day the wolf said to the dog, ‘Listen, my friend, I hear that your master’s

    cat has given birth to little kittens.’

    ‘That’s true. Just think!
    Six little kittens in the house.
    And all of them are so fat and pretty!’
    ‘You are making me hungry by just talking about it,’ said the wolf. The wolf
    wanted to eat the kittens. ‘I must go and see them tonight.’
    ‘No, my friend, don’t do that,’ said the dog. ‘We agreed that we would meet
    here, and that I would tell you all the news, but you will never come to my
    master’s farm. If you break your promise, we cannot be friends any longer.’
    ‘Why should we fight over such a small thing?
    Six little kittens! If I ran off with one, no one would ever come to know the
    ‘Please, my friend.Don’t come to my master’s house.
    I am afraid you will make trouble.’
    ‘What kind of trouble?’ asked the wolf. ‘Don’t worry. I will go into the house
    quietly and no one will hear or see me.’
    ‘But I will hear you.’
    ‘You? But you are my friend. You will be loyal to me.’
    ‘That’s easy enough for you to say. But don’t forget that my master is also my
    friend. He looks after me and gives me food. How can I be disloyal to him?
    What will he think of me?’
    ‘That’s your problem,’ said the wolf.
    ‘I must have the kittens for my supper tonight, so take my advice and be quiet
    about it.’
    Night came and the wolf kept his word. He went slowly up to the house. He
    found a space large enough to fit and entered. The cat and kittens were resting
    under the table. The dog saw him and he thought to himself, ‘What am I to do?

    I’ll wait a while.

    If the wolf does it 
    quietly, I shall be quiet also. But if he makes the slightest
    noise, I shall let my master know about it.’ As soon as the wolf was next to the
    kittens, mother cat started growling and the kittens started crying, ‘meow,
    meow, meow…..’Mother cat knew she couldn’t defend her little ones.
    She was too small compared to the wolf.
    The dog too added a howl to the chorus which awakened his master. The
    farmer ran into the room where the kittens were and gave the wolf a serious

    beating. The wolf could hardly move.

    The next morning, the dog went back to the place where they used to meet.
    He found the wolf trying to nurse his wounds. The dog apologised to the wolf
    and the wolf too apologised to the dog. They promised to respect each other’s
    suggestion in case something like this ever happened again. They once again

    became good friends.

    Activity 2.9.6
    Together with a partner answer the following questions.

    1. Who are the two friends?
    2. What did the wolf want to have for supper?
    3. What did the dog tell him to do?
    4. Why did the wolf insist on going to the farm?
    5. What did the dog do when it saw the wolf?
    6. Who saved the kittens?
    7. What happened to the wolf when it went to the farm?
    8. Why was the wolf very angry at the dog?
    9. What lesson do you learn from this story?
    10. In a paragraph, write the continuation of this story with another ending.

    11. Act out the story.


    TOPIC 1 Talking about Places Where You Live
    Activity 3.1.1 (READING)

    Read Samantha and Ethan’s conversation about where they live.
    Samantha: Where do you live, Ethan?
    Ethan: I live in Butare. Where do you live, Samantha?

    Samantha: I live near Butare, in a place called Rwasave.

    Activity 3.1.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)

    Ask and answer your classmates about where you live and where they live.

    TOPIC 2 Talking about Population
    Butare Population
    Activity 3.2.1 (READING)

    Read the caption.
    Butare is located in the South Province of Rwanda and is the capital of Huye

    district. It is a city of about 77,000 people.

    Activity 3.2.2
    Answer the following questions.
    1. Where is Butare located?

    2. What is the population of Butare?

    Activity 3.2.3
    Conduct a survey in your school and make sentences, such as the above,
    about your school.
    Activity 3.2.4
    Go out in your community and try to count the people around. Then write about
    your community, considering where it is located and its population. You can
    count females, males and children separately.

    Present your work to the class.

    TOPIC 3 Talking about Facilities

    Learn these words.

    Activity 3.3.1

    Study the map.

    Activity 3.3.2 (READING)
    Read this aloud.

    This is a map of the town where Ethan lives. His father works at Butare Post
    Office next to the Chinese Restaurant. Can you see it? His mother works in
    the NUR registrar office. In Butare, there is a museum known as the Museum
    of Rwanda in the northern side of the town. There is also a university known
    as the National University of Rwanda. This is near KCB Bank. Another major
    place in Butare is the Butare Catholic Cathedral. This one is near the Cathedral
    Road which takes you to Rwasave Fish Pond found in the eastern side of the

    town. Butare has so many facilities.

    Activity 3.3.3
    Look for the following places on the map of Butare
    • Banks
    • ESSO Butare Secondary School
    • Huye District Headquarters

    • Kobil Petrol Station

    Activity 3.3.4
    Find more facilities and write them down.
    For example: • There’s a mosque in Butare.
    • There is an airstrip in Butare.
    Answer the Riddle
    What starts with the letter ‘P’ ends with the letter ‘E’ and has thousands

    of letters?........................

    TOPIC 4 Talking about Places
    Activity 3.4.1

    Look for these words from the text.


    These are known as adverbs of place. They show where something is located.

    Some other words are—along, across, behind, in front of.

    Activity 3.4.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Ask and answer questions about the map of Butare.
    1. Can you tell me where the Restoration Church is?
    Ans. It is in the northeast near Engen Petrol Station.
    2. Which facility is opposite to the Bank of Kigali?
    Ans. It is the Post Office.
    3. Which bank is opposite the hospital road?

    Ans. It is Eco Bank.

    TOPIC 5 Giving Directions
    Activity 3.5.1 (WORKING TOGETHER)

    Ethan is directing Samantha to get to a place.
    In groups of three, look at the map and follow Ethan’s directions to find out

    which place he is directing Samantha to.

    (i) Beginning from Esso Butare Secondary School, walk along the Hospital
    Road up to where it joins the highway RN1. Turn southwards and walk
    up to where the roads RN1 and RN19 meet. Continue straight along
    RN19 for a short distance. The building is on the left.
    (ii) Beginning from Esso Butare Secondary School, walk along the Hospital
    Road up to the campus bus stop on RN1. Move northwards along RN1.
    Keep moving up to the road junction where Cathedral Road joins RN1.
    Continue along RN1 until you reach the crossroads just after Butare

    Post Office. Turn left and move straight along the Airport Road.

    Activity 3.5.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Write directions to the following places from Butare airstrip.
    (i) Butare Market
    (ii) Rwasave Fish Pond

    (iii) Kobil Petrol Station

    TOPIC 6 Talking about Transport

    Means of Transport

    Learn these words.

    Activity 3.6.1
    Fill in the missing letters to form any of the above words.
    1. M__t__ __c__cl__              2. B__ __
    3. __l__                                        4. T__ __i

    5. __ai__                                      6. __ra__ __l

    Activity 3.6.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Work with a partner. Find words that have not been used in the above exercise.
    Take turns in asking and answering. One partner writes a word and leaves out
    the vowel letters. The other partner is supposed to think of the vowel letters
    to complete the word. The word is supposed to be one of those from the box


    Activity 3.6.3
    Read about how the following people travelled to different places
    • Mr. Kamwezi has travelled on a motorcycle from Butare to Kigali. It has
    taken him three hours to ride from Butare to Kigali.
    • Mrs. Kamwezi and Patricia have travelled on a plane from Butare to Kigali.
    They are still at the airport. It has taken them fifteen minutes to reach
    • Ariane has come for her holidays. She is still at the bus station. She has
    travelled from her school in Butare by bus for one hour and thirty minutes.
    • Mr. Mugiraneza has come to Kigali for a business meeting. He has driven
    his car from Butare to Kigali for two hours.
    • Mr. Gaspard’s family has used a public taxi to travel from Butare to Kigali.
    It has taken two hours for them to reach Nyabugogo taxi park in Kigali.

    • The tourists have walked from Kigali to Butare to the museum. They have walked for two days.

    Activity 3.6.4
    Answer the following questions.

    1. What means of transport can you use to travel from Butare to Kigali and
    from Kigali to Butare?
    - You can travel by aeroplane from Butare to Kigali.
    2. How long does it take you to travel from Butare to Kigali by car?
    You can travel from Butare to Kigali by car in two hours.
    3. How long does it take you to travel from Butare to Kigali by taxi?
    4. How long does it take you to travel from Butare to Kigali by bus?
    5. How long does it take you to travel from Butare to Kigali by motorcycle?
    6. How long does it take you to travel from Butare to Kigali by plane?

    7. How long does it take you to walk from Kigali to Butare?

    Activity 3.6.5 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    As a class, discuss the transport facilities you can see around your village. Tell
    the class how they work.
    For example: Here at school, we have school buses. They pick us from home
    to school and drop us back from school to home. When I board a school bus, it
    takes me one hour to get to school or home.

    Answer the Riddle

    What goes through towns and over hills but never moves?

    TOPIC 7 Comparing Means of Transport
    Activity 3.7.1
    Read the following statements.

    1. Flying a plane is faster than riding a motorcycle.
    2. Walking is less expensive than travelling by taxi.
    3. Air transport is more expensive than road transport.
    4. Driving a car is faster than riding a bicycle.
    5. Sailing in a boat is cheaper than travelling by bus.
    Activity 3.7.2
    Use the following gerunds to form sentences of your own.
    Riding, crawling, running
    Activity 3.7.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)

    Form groups and fill in the chart below comparing different means of transport.

    Activity 3.7.4
    Now form sentences of your own.
    For example: • A plane is the biggest means of transport.
    • A car is faster than a motorcycle.
    • A motorcycle is less expensive than a car.
    Continue the practice with other means of transport.


    TOPIC 1 Talking about Today’s Weather
    Activity 4.1.1 (READING)

    Learn the weather words. Read aloud.

    Activity 4.1.2
    Find ten weather words by drawing a circle around each one of them in

    the puzzle.

    Activity 4.1.3
    Read about today’s weather.

    1. What is the weather like?
    Ans. Today it’s sunny.
    English Textbook 49
    2. What’s the weather like today?
    Ans. Today the weather is rainy.
    3. What’s the weather like today?
    Ans. Today there is a lot of lightning.
    4. What is the weather like today?
    Ans. Today the weather is sunny.
    Answer the Riddle
    What comes down and never goes up?
    Activity 4.1.4 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    With a partner, make questions and answers like those above. Remember to
    use different weather vocabulary.
    TOPIC 2 Talking about Weather in the Past
    Activity 4.2.1 (READING)

    • Can you try to remember what the weather was like last week, or
    1. What was the weather like last week?
    Ans. Last week it was rainy.
    2. What was the weather like yesterday?
    Ans. Yesterday, it was cool.
    3. What was the weather like last month?
    Ans. Last month it was mostly dry.
    4. What was the weather like last year?

    Ans. Last year, it was wet.

    Activity 4.2.2
    Form questions and answers from the table. Interpret the pictures and write the


    For example: • What was the weather like yesterday?

    • Yesterday, it was hot.

    TOPIC 3 Weather in Rwanda
    Activity 4.3.1 (READING)

    Read the following text.
    The weather of Rwanda comprises four seasons: two wet seasons and two dry
    seasons. The first wet season is short. It lasts from October to November.
    The second wet season is the main wet season. It is longer than the first one.
    It lasts from the middle of March up to the end of May. During these seasons, it
    is rainy and cold. Farmers plant their crops during these seasons because the
    land is soft and moist. Cultivation is easier.
    The third season is the first dry period. It lasts from December up to mid-March.
    The fourth season is the second dry period. It lasts from June up to the end of
    August. During these periods, it is mostly sunny and partly cloudy. The land is
    too dry and places are dusty. Farmers cannot plant any new crops.
    On an average, the hottest month is August. The coolest month is May. April is

    the wettest month and July is the driest month.

    Activity 4.3.2
    Complete these questions.

    Rwanda has .................... seasons. These are .................... The first wet
    season is from .................... up to .................... The second wet season is from
    .................... up to .................... .
    Activity 4.3.3
    Answer the following questions.

    1. Which month is the coolest?
    2. What is it like in January?
    3. What do farmers do during the wet season?

    4. Which months are dusty and dry?

    Activity 4.3.4 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Work in groups. Fill in the chart below with the appropriate weather conditions

    for each month as explained in the passage.

    Answer the Riddle
    What is the next in the sequence ‘JFMAMJJASON’?........

    The chart below shows the number of rainy days during the year.

    • The vertical axis shows the number of rainy days.
    • The horizontal axis shows the months in a year.
    Activity 4.3.5
    Study the bar graph above and talk about the rainy months in a year.
    Answer the following questions.
    1. In which month does it rain very much?
    2. Which month has the least number of rainy days? …………………….
    3. In which months are the rainy days the same?
    4. How many days does the month of January receive rain?
    5. How many days does the month of April receive rain?
    6. How many days does the month of July receive rain?
    7. How many days does the month of December receive rain?
    Activity 4.3.7 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Discuss the number of days your village receives rain in each month and write

    about it in one paragraph.

    Answer the Riddle
    What goes up when rain comes down?
    TOPIC 4 Talking about the Weather in Our District
    Activity 4.4.1 (READING)

    Read the passage about Nyarwaya.
    My name is Nyarwaya. I come from Karongi district. In our district, it is the dry
    season in June. I don’t like the dry season because it is very hot and dusty. I
    walk to school. When I get to school, my feet are dusty. I am always thirsty and
    tired. My parents do not like the dry season because the gardens are dry and
    the crops do not grow well. There are no green vegetation. The cows, goats
    and sheep are thirsty and hungry. People are always ill because the dust gets
    into their nose and eyes.
    I like swimming during the dry season. My little brother likes playing at the

    beach in Karongi.

    We get the rainy season in April. I like the rainy season. When it rains, I like
    playing with my friends. We go sliding in the mud and we also make little boats.

    My sister does not like the rainy season because she hates mud.

    Activity 4.4.2

    Answer True or False.

    Answer the following questions.
    1. What is the name of Nyarwaya’s district?
    2. When is the wet season in Nyarwaya’s district?
    3. Why does Nyarwaya hate the dry season?
    4. What do Nyarwaya and his friends do during the dry season?
    5. What does Nyarwaya’s brother like doing during the dry season?
    6. What activities does Nyarwaya do during the wet season?
    7. Why does Nyarwaya’s sister hate the wet season?
    Activity 4.4.4
    Complete the following statements with what you do in different kinds of

    For example: When it is sunny, I play outside.
    (i) When it is rainy, ……………………………. .
    (ii) ………………………, I wear a jacket.
    (iii) When it is cloudy, ……………………………. .
    (iv) ……………………….., I like swimming.

    (v) When it is windy,……………………………. .

    Activity 4.4.5
    1. Get to your groups. Think about the weather patterns in the last four
    months in your district.

    2. Now write a paragraph describing the weather patterns and what you did
    during those seasons.
    Answer the Riddle
    A man was driving his car. His lights were not on. The moon was not out.

    In front, a woman was crossing the street. How did he see her?

    TOPIC 5 Describing the Advantages and Disadvantages
    of the Weather
    Activity 4.5.1 (LISTENING)

    Listen to your teacher reading out a text about the advantages and disadvantages
    of weather.
    Activity 4.5.2
    As you listen, outline the advantages and disadvantages of weather using

    the table below.

    Activity 4.5.3

    Use the information of Activity 4.5.2 to match the following sentences.

    Activity 4.5.5 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    In your group, discuss what can be done to prevent the bad effects of weather.
    Write what you have discussed in your notebook.
    Activity 4.5.6
    Take action now to show how you respect the environment. What are the

    different ways in which you can help make your environment healthy.

    Common word endings and families
    Apart from sunny, write any other words you know of about the weather that

    end with ‘y’.

    Activity 4.5.7

    Read the poem and discuss questions about it.

    Climate Change, Climate Change
    The world is getting warmer,
    No rain at all.
    There are more floods
    Because of human activities.
    Climate change, climate change.
    We are cutting down trees,
    Setting up many industries,
    People are burning bushes,
    Overgrazing is too much.
    Misuse of swamps and
    58 English Textbook
    A lot of charcoal burning.
    Climate change, climate change.
    As a result,
    Gases from industries have destroyed the Ozone layer.
    Sunshine is too much and
    Temperatures are going up.
    The Arctic ice is melting.
    Pollution is too much and
    Sea levels are rising
    The world is getting warmer.

                                                                           By Rehema. M

    Discussion Questions
    1. What is the poem about?
    2. Give two reasons why the world is getting warmer.
    3. How are too many industries dangerous?
    4. Who wrote the above poem?
    5. What is overgrazing?
    6. Suggest two causes of climate change.
    7. Why is bush burning bad?
    8. What is happening to sea levels?

    9. Why are temperatures moving up?


    TOPIC 1 Naming Jobs
    Activity 5.1.1

    Read and practice the following names of jobs.
    • A teacher
    • A farmer
    • A taxi driver
    • A doctor
    • A nurse
    • A carpenter
    • A shopkeeper
    • A chef

    • A secretary

    Activity 5.1.2

    Answer the questions given below the pictures

    Activity 5.1.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Play a game.

    Rearrange any of the above words for jobs and ask your friend to arrange it to
    find the word you mean. If your partner gets it, then it’s his/her turn to give a
    word to you.
    For example:
    Partner A: (write) aefmrr

    Partner B: Farmer

    TOPIC 2 Describing Jobs
    Activity 5.2.1

    Use the following words to fill in the gaps.
    garage, health centre, police officer, actress, food, wood
    1. What does a carpenter do?
    • A carpenter makes things from ………….. .
    2. What does a chef do?
    • A chef cooks …………. .
    3. Where does a nurse work?
    • A nurse works in a …………… .
    4. Who takes care of law and order in a community?
    • A ………………..takes care of law and order in a community.
    5. Who entertains people?
    • An …………………..entertains people.
    6. Where does a mechanic work?

    • A mechanic works in a ………………. .

    Activity 5.2.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Play a memory game.

    1. Ask your partner a question about a job (who cooks?; who teaches?).
    2. Your partner is supposed to answer very quickly. Take turns in asking
    and answering.
    3. The rules are: hesitation, no isolation and no repetition.

    4. The more questions one answers, the more points he/she earns.

    TOPIC 3 Talking about People’s Jobs
    Activity 5.3.1

    Look at the picture below.

    Activity 5.3.2
    Ask and answer.

    1. Where does the person in ‘E’ work?
    Ans. He works in a Primary School.
    What does he do?
    Ans. He teaches pupils.
    2. Where does the person in B work? ...................
    What does she do? …………………….
    Continue this process for all the pictures.
    Activity 5.3.3 (READING)
    Read about the pictures.
    1. My mother is called Mrs. Kabuga. She is a nurse.
    2. Mr. Hakizimana is my uncle. He is a farmer.
    3. My father is Mr. Kabuga. He is a secondary school teacher.
    4. My aunt’s husband is Mr. Ruzinda. He is a carpenter.

    5. Mr. Kazungu is a friend of my father. He is a school bus driver.

    Activity 5.3.4
    Tell me about yourself.

    1. What does your mother do?
    2. What does your father do?
    3. What does your uncle do?
    4. What does your aunt do?
    Answer the Riddle
    A father and his son were on their bicycles and got crushed. Two
    ambulances came and took them to different hospitals. The son was in
    the hospital in the operating room and the doctor said, ‘I can’t operate

    on you; ‘you are my son’ How is that possible?

    TOPIC 4 Talking about Helping at Home
    Activity 5.4.1 (READING)
    Read the text.

    My name is Karitanyi. I live with my mother Mrs.Rusanga, father Mr. Rusanga,
    my little sister Uwineza and big brother Kabano. My mother usually cooks food
    for us. Uwineza is often seen with her in the kitchen helping with the cooking.
    They also wash the clothes, dishes and clean the house. Uwineza always
    sweeps the compound with me. She seldom works alone because she is still
    very young.
    I sometimes help my mother wash the dishes. My major duty is to fetch water
    and help my father to milk the cows. My father repairs the house, works in the
    garden and takes care of the cows. He never cooks because he is always busy
    doing work that needs a lot of energy.
    Kabano helps my father with repairing the house and working in the farm. He

    also looks after the goats and sheep. We are all happy working together at home.

    Activity 5.4.2
    Answer the following questions.

    1. Who does Karitanyi live with?
    2. What jobs do the following do at Karitanyi’s home?
    64 English Textbook
    (i) Uwineza (ii) Mrs. Rusanga (iii) Mr. Rusanga
    (iv) Karitanyi (v) Kabano
    3. Why is it important to work together at home?
    4. What jobs do people at your home do?
    5. What lesson do you learn from the text?
    6. Write a paragraph about your responsibilities at home. Include what your

    family members also do.

    TOPIC 5 Talking about How Often Do You Do Jobs
    Activity 5.5.1
    Learn these words.

    Always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, never, once, twice, thrice
    Find some of the words in the above story and write them down.
    Activity 5.5.2
    Complete the following sentences from the above story using the above
    adverbs of frequency.

    1. Karitanyi…………….sweeps the compound.
    2. Mrs. Rubanga………………..cooks food at home.
    3. Mr. Rubanga……………….. washes the dishes.
    4. Uwineza……………….works alone.

    5. Kabano…………….. helps his father milk the cows.

    Activity 5.5.3

    Make sentences about what jobs you do at home.

    Activity 5.5.4
    Complete the following sentences about how many times you help at home.
    1. How many times do you help in cooking at home?
    • Twice a week?
    2. How many times do you wash clothes in a week?
    • ……………..a week.
    3. How often do you help in the garden?
    • ………………..a week.

    Activity 5.5.5
    Turn to your friend and keep asking and answering.
    TOPIC 6 Talking about Helping in the Community
    Activity 5.6.1 (READING)
    Read the text.

    Community Work in My Village (1)

    My name is Ishema. I like the last Saturdays of the month very much. Last
    Saturday was the last Saturday of the month.
    I prepared myself and got ready to participate in
    Umuganda, also known as community work. In our
    village, our chief went around collecting everyone
    to clean up a certain field which would be used as
    a football pitch.
    We dug up and slashed the tall grass. My parents went with the rest of the village
    members to clear up the garbage area. They loaded it on to big rubbish truck and
    burnt some of it. We were happy helping clean up our community area.

    Answer the following questions.

    1. Whose story is this?
    2. When do they do community work?
    3. What is he going to do?
    4. Who else did he go with?
    5. Why were they happy after the community work?
    6. Would you also be excited to participate in Umuganda? Why?
    7. What did you like about Ishema’s activities?
    8. What activities do you do in your community?
    9. What activities do people in your family do?

    10. Why is it important to help in our communities?

    Activity 5.6.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    In groups, talk about what you did in the past and write about it. Say what you
    did and when you did it.
    Activity 5.6.3 (WRITING)
    Write two paragraphs expressing what you would have liked to do last weekend
    but couldn’t do it.
    Activity 5.6.4 (LISTENING)
    Listen to the teacher reading to you about community work in the past.
    Activity 5.6.5 (WORKING TOGETHER)

    Group up and write down the major activities people do in their communities.

    TOPIC 7 Talking about in the Future
    Activity 5.7.1 (READING)

    Continue reading the text and look out for the use of the future tense.
    Community work in our village (2)
    Next time during the community work programme, we will clean our road that
    takes us to the market. We will also plant some flowers along the road to make

    it look beautiful. I am looking forward to that day.

    Activity 5.7.2
    What will they do next Saturday?
    (i) They will plant flowers next Saturday.
    (ii) They will ………………………………………….
    Activity 5.7.3
    Form eight sentences about what you will do next Saturday, Sunday and next
    For example: I will talk to the teacher next week.
    Activity 5.7.4
    Discuss your sentences with your group.
    Activity 5.7.5
    Ask and answer the members’ sentences. Take turns in asking and answering.

    You can use specific names of your friends.

    For example:
    1. When will he do community work?
    • He will do community work on Friday.
    2. When will you plant the field?
    • I will plant the field next month.
    3. When will she clean the house?
    • She will clean the house on Thursday.

    Continue with the practice.

    Word Families and Roots.
    We can form jobs from verbs by adding ‘er’.
    For example:
    Teach : Teacher
    Treasure : Treasurer
    Form more from the following:
    (i) Firefight : …………………….
    (ii) Read : ………………………….
    (iii) Drive : …………………………

    (iv) Build : ………………….

    Activity 5.7.6
    Read the poem in groups of four and discuss the questions that follow.

    Community Work, Community Work.

    I enjoy community work
    Because we work together.
    Last week, we cleaned all the roads
    And repaired the bridge.
    Community work, community work
    On Saturday we will do community work
    And clean the trench near Mukamana’s restaurant
    I will also plant flowers along the road.
    Community work, community work.
    Our roads will look nice
    Because of our flowers
    And other people will be happy
    With our work.
    Let’s all do community work.


                                                  By ISHIMWE. R. KELLY

    Discussion Questions
    1. What is the title (heading) of the poem?
    2. Who wrote the above poem?
    3. What is the poem about?
    4. What will the writer do according to the poem?
    5. How many stanzas does the above poem have?
    6. Why does the writer enjoy community work?

    7. According to the poem, who has a restaurant?


    TOPIC 1 Naming Animals
    Activity 6.1.1

    Look at the pictures.

    Activity 6.1.2
    Ask and answer.

    Point at the picture and then ask and answer.
    1. What’s this? This is a zebra.
    2. What’s this? This is a giraffe.

    Continue with the exercise.

    Activity 6.1.3
    Play missing consonants.

    The following words have vowel letters only. Fill in the gaps by finding the
    missing consonant letters.
    1. This is a __e__ __a.
    2. This is a __i__a__ __e.
    3. This is a __ __i__ __a__ __ee.
    4. This is a __o__ __ e__.

    5. This is an e__e__ __a__ __.

    Activity 6.1.4
    Turn to your friend and take turns practising this. One partner eliminates the
    consonants and the other one fills in the missing consonant.
    Answer the Riddle
    Where does an elephant pack its luggage?
    TOPIC 2 Classifying Animals
    • What do animals eat?
    Activity 6.2.1

    Learn these words.

    Activity 6.2.2 (READING)
    Read the P4 Quiz aloud.

    Teacher: Alison, what does a lion eat?
    Alison: A lion eats other animals.
    Teacher: That’s correct, Alison. You earn two points.
    Greg, what does a giraffe eat?
    Greg: A giraffe eats leaves. It uses its long neck to get the leaves from the

    r: That’s also correct. You earn two points Greg.
    Julius, what does a chimpanzee eat?
    Julius: A chimpanzee eats
    both plants and meat.
    Teacher: That’s correct, Julius.
    You also earn two
    Now each one of
    you is going to tell us
    which word is used to
    describe that kind of
    animal according to
    what they eat. Alison,
    what’s your answer?
    Alison: A lion eats meat. It’s called a carnivore.
    Teacher: Excellent, Alison. You get three points for that. Greg, now it’s your
    Greg: Thank you very much, teacher. A giraffe eats grass and leaves. It’s
    a herbivore.
    Teacher: Good job, Greg. You get three points for that excellent answer. It’s
    now your turn, Julius.
    Julius: Thank you very much, teacher. Chimpanzees eat both plants and
    animals. They are called Omnivore.
    Teacher: Excellent answer, Julius. You get three points for your answer.
    Thank you all for your wonderful answers. You are all winners and

    you will all get prizes.

    Activity 6.2.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)

    Get into groups of four and act out the quiz.

    Activity 6.2.4
    Fill in the missing words from the quiz using carnivore, herbivore and

    1. A lion is a……………………….animal.
    2. A chimpanzee is an …………………….animal.
    3. A giraffe is a……………………..animal.
    4. Omnivore eat …………………
    5. Carnivore eat …………….
    6. Herbivore eat ……………
    Who got a prize after the quiz? .................
    Activity 6.2.5 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Ask and answer.

    1. Is an elephant a herbivore? Yes, it is.
    2. Is a gazelle a carnivore? No, it isn’t.
    3. Is a lion an omnivore? No, it isn’t.
    4. Is a hyena a carnivore? Yes, it is.

    Continue with the practice with your friend.

    Activity 6.2.6

    Fill in the following table with the appropriate names of the animals.

    Activity 6.2.7
    Play an act.

    1. Form groups. Make different masks of faces of animals and put the masks
    on your faces.
    2. Act like that animal, the way it walks and make its sound.
    3. Imagining that you are that animal, talk about the different things you eat

    and conclude by saying what kind of animal you are.

    Answer the Riddle

    What is a cheetah’s favourite food?

    TOPIC 3 Comparing Animals

    Activity 6.3.1 (READING)
    Look at the pictures and read the sentences below.
    1. The giraffe is taller than an elephant.
    2. An elephant is taller than a cheetah.
    3. The giraffe is the tallest animal.
    4. The elephant is the biggest animal.
    Amazing facts
    Read the following true sentences about animal and tell...

    a. Giant George is the largest dog.

    b. Blue whales are the largest animals ever known to live on the Earth.

    c. Giraffes are the tallest animals in the world.

    d. The fastest land animal is the cheetah.

    Activity 6.3.2
    Answer the following questions.
    1. Which is the largest animal in the world?
    2. What is the size of the largest animal?
    3. Which is the fastest animal?
    4. How fast does it run?
    5. Which is the largest dog?
    6. How big is it?
    7. Which is the tallest animal in the world?
    8. Which of these amazing facts do you like the most?
    9. Why?
    10. Which amazing fact were you aware of already?
    Answer the Riddle
    A monkey, a squirrel and a bird are racing to reach the coconut tree. Who

    will get to the banana first. Is it the monkey, the squirrel, or the bird?

    TOPIC 4 Talking about Animals in Rwanda
    Listen to the teacher reading to you a text about animals in Rwanda.


    The wildlife of Rwanda has got a lot of plants and animals. It has got natural
    vegetation and three major National parks. The three protected areas are Akagera
    National Park, Volcanoes National Park and Nyungwe Forest National Park.
    Akagera National Park covers an area of 108,500 ha. It is located in the North
    Eastern side of Rwanda. It has so many kinds of animals. There are some
    bird species, buffalos, zebras, giraffes, antelopes, hippopotamuses, elephants,
    warthogs, a few Lions, gazelles, crocodiles, snakes and rare giant pangolins.
    Another national park is the Nyungwe Forest national park. This covers
    an area of 101,900 ha. It is found in the South Western part of Rwanda. It
    has many kinds of animals. These include: most of Rwanda’s primates: 13
    primates including chimpanzees, golden birds, butterflies, wild cats, jackals,
    and mongoose.
    Yet another major national park is called the Volcanoes National park. It covers
    an area of 16000 ha. It is found in the North western part of Rwanda. It has
    most of Rwanda’s mountain gorillas, 180 species of birds, monkeys, some
    elephants, buffalos, bush pigs, bush buck, hyenas and duikers.
    Every animal is very important. We therefore need to protect the environment

    so that we can maintain a good environment for these animals to stay in.

    Activity 6.4.1

    Fill in the table with the different names of animals

    Activity 6.4.2

    According to the teacher’s reading, which animals live in Rwanda?

    Activity 6.4.3 (READING)
    Read the following sentences.

    1. Rwanda has most gorillas.

    2. There are many monkeys in Rwanda.
    3. There aren’t any tigers in Rwanda.
    4. There are some lions in Rwanda.

    5. There are some pangolins in Rwanda.

    TOPIC 5 Talking about where Animals Live in Rwanda
    Activity 6.5.1

    Read and practice the following words.

    Activity 6.5.2
    Study the map given below showing Rwanda’s National parks and Forest


    Activity 6.5.3
    Draw the map in your notebook and write the animals found in their respective
    Activity 6.5.4 (READING)
    Read the following sentences.
    1. There are gorillas near Virunga mountains.

    2. There are monkeys in the north.

    Activity 6.5.5
    Make sentences about animals and their locations. Remember to use specific
    directions according to the compass.
    TOPIC 6 Conducting a Survey
    Jonathan made a survey in his class of 30 pupils to find out how many had
    seen the following animals: lizard, zebra, lion, monkey, elephant. The graph

    below shows the results of his survey.

    Activity 6.6.1
    Study the graph.

    Graph showing number of wild animals seen by pupils

    The vertical axis shows the number of pupils who have seen a particular animal.
    The horizontal axis shows animals which the students have seen.

    Activity 6.6.2
    Answer the following questions about the graph shown in Activity 6.6.1.
    1. How many pupils are in Jonathan’s class?
    2. How many pupils have seen a lizard?
    3. How many pupils have seen a monkey?
    4. How many pupils have seen a lion?

    5. How many pupils have seen an elephant?

    Activity 6.6.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Form groups. Each member of the group should individually fill in the
    questionnaire below about the following wild animals: snake, lion, zebra,
    elephant, eagle.

    Activity 6.6.4
    Each one should collect the data from all the classmates, including your group
    members. Compare the results and make sure that they are the same.
    Activity 6.6.5
    Draw a graph and present the information in a graph.
    Activity 6.6.6
    Ask and answer questions about the graph.
    1. Who has seen an eagle?
    2. Who has seen a snake?
    Continue with the exercise.
    Activity 6.6.7 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Work with your group to find words with the word ‘wild’. Then find the meaning

    from the dictionary.

    Word families

    Learn the word ‘wild’.
    ‘Wild’ is a German word which means living in a state of nature, undomesticated,
    or not tamed. Words with the word ‘wild’ are all to do with its meaning.
    For example:
    1. A Wild cat meaning any undomesticated cat.
    2. Wild life means plants and animals found in their natural



    TOPIC 1 Our Rights and Responsibilities

    Activity 7.1.1 (READING)
    Read about your rights and responsibilities.
    The following is a list of Rights and Responsibilities discovered by a group of

    Primary Four learners who study in a school in Kayonza.

    Activity 7.1.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Act it out in pairs. One of you should talk about the rights and the other about
    responsibilities. Act as though you were teaching each other about the ‘Rights

    and Responsibilities’.

    Activity 7.1.3
    Match the picture shown on the previous with the sentences below. Fill the gap
    with the appropriate number of the picture.
    1. It’s our responsibility to respect other people _____________.
    2. We have a right to education _____________.
    3. It’s our responsibility to help in doing work in our community ____________.
    4. We have a right to safe playing _____________.
    5. It is our responsibility to help the old and poor _____________.
    TOPIC 2 Talking about Our Rights
    Activity 7.2.1 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Talk in groups.

    1. What are our rights? We have a right to education.
    2. What are our rights? We have a right to good health.
    3. What are our rights? We have a right to fair treatment.

    Continue with the practice.

    Activity 7.2.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Discuss in groups what each right means.

    For example: The right to education means that we must receive good education
    from a good school.
    Continue with the discussion.
    Activity 7.2.3

    In pairs, act out your rights.

    TOPIC 3 Talking about Our Responsibilities
    Activity 7.3.1
    Role play
    In groups of four, act out the following play.
    Immy : Good morning, Rhona! I hope you are okay this morning.
    Rhona : Yes, Immy; I am very fine.
    Brandon : Hello sisters, mom has gone to the market. She told me to tell you
    that we have some duties to do this morning.
    Immy : What are those, Brandon?
    Rhona : I am not going to do anything. It is my right to be looked after, not to

    do house work.

    Brandon : I’ll tell you any way. Rhona, mom asked you to do the dishes and
    sweep the compound. Immy, mom asked you to take care of us
    since we are younger. She said you should boil some tea for us and
    clean the house. I was told to complete my homework, help when I
    can. When we all finish, we can go and play with our neighbours.
    Immy : Thank you for telling us what mom asked us to do. If we have rights,
    we also have responsibilities. Mom tells us our responsibilities and
    it is our responsibility to obey. Let us all do what we were told to do.
    Rhona : I agree with you Immy. We must show responsibility by being

    respectful. I’ll do what mom asked me to do. So let us go and begin.

    Activity 7.3.2 (READING)
    Answer the following questions.

    1. How many people are there in the conversation?
    2. Who gave the responsiblilties?
    3. Who reported the responsibilities?
    4. What was Immy’s responsibility?
    5. What was Rhona’s responsibility?
    6. What was Brandon’s responsibility?
    7. Did the children agree to their responsibilities?
    8. What are your responsibilities as a child?
    (a) I must respect other people’s opinions.
    (b) I must _____________________
    (c) I must _____________________
    (d) I must _____________________

    (e) I must do my best at school.

    Activity 7.3.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Now form groups and talk about your rights, together with your responsibilities.
    TOPIC 4 Talking about Rules

    Activity 7.4.1 (READING)

    Read the text.

    School Rules

    Uwizera was in P.4. His teacher always talked about the school rules to follow
    while at school. Uwizera liked following the rules. The rules were as follows:
    when you want to speak, you must put your hand up. Do not shout while others
    are talking. You must take turns talking. You must wait for your teacher to talk.

    Do not talk back when the teacher is talking to you. You must respect everyone.

    Do not use insulting words and actions towards other people. You must respect
    all school property. Do not climb on furniture or break school property. Work
    and play safely. Do not hurt others.
    Because Uwizera was an obedient boy, he always gave his friends good advice
    concerning rules. He told them that rules are everywhere. We have rules at
    school, at home, in worship places…….. we need to follow rules because they
    keep us safe. Without rules, children could run around. That would not be safe.
    Someone could get hurt. Rules keep things fair. Without rules, a friend might
    not get a turn in a game. That would not be fair. Without rules, the world would
    not be a safe and fair place to stay in.

    At the end of every day, Uwizera’s teacher said, ‘You did a good job, Uwizera.’

    Activity 7.4.2
    Choose the best alternative to indicate your answer.

    1. What did Uwizera want to do?
    (a) to follow school rules.
    (b) to run around.
    2. What must Uwizera do if he wants to speak?
    (a) He must shout out. (b) He must put his hand up.
    3. What school rule should you follow when working with others?
    (a) You should take turns speaking.
    (b) You should hit and push others.
    4. Where do we find rules?
    (a) Only at school. (b) Everywhere.
    5. Why are rules important?
    (a) Rules are fun to follow. (b) Rules keep us safe.
    6. What happens when Uwizera follows rules?

    (a) His teacher is happy. (b) Uwizera has no friends.

    Activity 7.4.3
    Answer the following questions.

    1. What lessons did you learn from the story?
    2. What would happen if Uwizera did not follow the rules?

    3. Why is it important for all of us to follow rules?

    Activity 7.4.4 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    In groups, write the rules that Uwizera’s teacher talked about.
    Separate them in two groups; one group; with what you are supposed to do
    (do’s) and another one with those you are not supposed to do, (don’ts) by filling

    the following table.

    School Rules

    Activity 7.4.5 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Now, think of the school rules you must follow in school. Prepare a list of all the
    rules you think should be good school rules.
    Activity 7.4.6 (WRITING)
    Write them down on a chart. Make it as beautiful and attractive as possible. Put
    it up on the display board.

    Activity 7.4.7

    Present your group chart to the class. Have an exhibition of these chart in class.

    TOPIC 5 Talking about Consequences
    Activity 7.5.1 (READING)
    Read the following sentences.
    1. If we play well, we will get more play time.
    2. If we show respect to others, we will get extra points.
    3. If we participate well in the class, we receive a gift from the treasure box.
    Activity 7.5.2

    Construct as many sentences as you can from the box below.

    Activity 7.5.3
    In your groups, talk and write about the possible behaviour consequences in
    your class and school.
    Answer the Riddle

    Poor people have it, rich people need it. If you eat it, you die. What is it?

    TOPIC 6 Talking about Our Basic Needs
    Activity 7.6.1 (READING)
    Read the poem aloud.

    Our Needs
    We all need food
    And a great deal of water
    For if we drink and feed,
    Our lives will be better.
    Every human needs shelter
    And good clothing
    So that we can live together
    And the society keeps growing.
    We need proper health care
    So we can better prepare
    With a good education
    And efficient sanitation

    We can have a better nation.

    Activity 7.6.2
    Answer the following questions.

    1. What is the title of the poem?
    2. How many stanzas are in the poem?
    3. Which needs are talked about in the first stanza?
    4. Why do we need the things talked about in the first stanza?
    5. Which needs have been talked about in the second stanza?
    6. Why are the needs talked about in the second stanza important?
    7. Which needs are talked about in the third stanza?
    8. Why are the needs talked about in the third stanza important?
    9. What is the poem talking about in the summary?

    10. Discuss whether one can live without the mentioned needs.

    Answer the Riddle
    What is as light as a feather, but even the world’s strongest person
    cannot hold it for more than one minute?
    Common Word Endings and Word Families.
    Activity 7.6.3
    Go back to the poem and find words in stanza three that end in the same way.
    Write them down.
    Activity 7.6.4
    Look for the above said words in the dictionary and see what they mean.

    What do they have in common?


    TOPIC 1 Recounting Past Activities

    Activity 8.1.1 (READING)

    Read the following.

    good1. Yesterday, I watched TV.

    2. Last weekend, I visited the zoo.

    3. On Sunday, we went to the beach.
    Activity 8.1.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Talk in groups about something special you did in the past. Remember to use
    the past tense.
    For example: Last month, I visited my uncle in the U.S.A.
    • After every one has said what they did, each one has to report what the
    other did.

    For example: She went to visit her uncle in the U.S.A.

    Activity 8.1.3 (READING)
    Read the letter.

    Post Office Box 69
    Magerwa, Rwanda
    Dear Joselyn,
    I hope you are very fine. I am also fine. I am writing to explain to you the
    wonderful things you missed when we visited the museum. We went with our
    parents and other friends during the weekend.

    We saw and learnt amazing things at the museum. We saw a big map of

    Rwanda as we entered the museum. We learnt of how people lived in the past.
    For example, we saw pots in different sizes, which they used for storing milk
    and water.
    We also saw the different houses people lived in. They used to build huts. The
    huts built for kings were very special. We entered one of the king’s huts too.
    We saw different dressing styles and haircuts. The styles depended on one’s
    role in society.
    I wish you had come with us. We missed you a lot. We took some photos of the
    museum. I have placed it here with this letter.
    My mom said that we will go there another time. I hope that the next time we
    go there, you will be with us.

    Your best friend


    Activity 8.1.4
    Answer the following questions about the letter.
    1. Who wrote the letter?
    2. What did Munezero, her parents and friends do over the weekend?
    3. What did they see in the museum?
    4. What did they learn from the museum?
    5. Who was the letter written to?
    6. What did you enjoy most from Munezero’s letter?

    Activity 8.1.5 (WRITING)
    Write a letter to your friend about something special you did in the past.
    Answer the Riddle

    What goes up and never comes down?

    TOPIC 2 Describing Traditional and Modern Tools and
    Activity 8.2.1

    Look at the pictures below.

    Activity 8.2.2
    In groups, talk about the traditional tools and utensils that were used. Then
    compare them with the tools and utensils that are used in modern times. Talk
    about how the utensils that are used now.
    Activity 8.2.3
    Answer the following questions.
    1. Which traditional tools were used in Rwanda?
    2. What were they used for?
    3. Which modern tools are used in Rwanda now?

    4. What are they used for?

    Activity 8.2.4
    Make sentences from the substitution table below. Be sure to use ‘we use...’ for
    the modern tools and ‘People used….’ for traditional tools.

    For example: People used baskets, we use gift boxes.

    OPIC 3 Describing Traditional and Modern Farm

    Activity 8.3.1 (READING)

    Activity 8.3.2
    Answer the following questions:

    1. Which crops were grown in the past?
    2. Which crops are grown today?
    3. Which crops are grown today but were not grown in the past?
    4. Which crops do you grow

    5. Write true or false

    TOPIC 4 Describing Traditional and Modern Household
    Activity 8.4.1

    Look at the pictures below. Label the pictures and tell whether they were used

    in the past, or are used today.

    Activity 8.4.2
    Get into groups and take turns to construct sentences like the following about
    traditional and modern practices.
    1. People made pots from clay.
    2. They made furniture from wood.
    3. We make cupboards from wood.

    Continue with the exercise.

    Activity 8.4.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Play a game.

    1. Form two groups.
    2. Let each group choose a representative.
    3. Make sure each group has a pencil, an eraser and a paper.
    4. Send your representative to the class leader.
    5. The class leader will tell all representatives a household object in a low
    voice so that the other group members do not hear.
    6. The rules for the representative are as follows.
    (a) Listen to the leader and make sure you heard what he/she said.
    (b) Rush to your group and draw for them what the leader told you.
    Do not use your voice in any way to tell them what you’re drawing.
    Just use actions. For example, shaking your head to approve or
    (c) Do it as fast as possible.
    (d) Draw clearly so that your group members can quickly guess what it is.
    7. The rules for the group members are as follows.
    (a) Wait for your representative to come and draw.
    (b) Keep guessing what he/she is drawing until he/she approves your
    (c) Then shout it out to be the first. If your group shouts it loud and fast,
    the leader will approve and give your group points.
    (d) Send different representatives to give each one a chance.

    8. The winner will depend on how many points the group has earned.

    TOPIC 5 Describing Traditional and Modern Farming

    Look at the pictures below.

    Activity 8.5.1
    Look at the pictures and complete the following sentences using the words—

    crops, tools, farms.

    Activity 8.5.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Talk about the differences between traditional farming and modern farming.
    Activity 8.5.3
    Go out in the community and talk to people about farming practices in the past.
    Report to your group about your findings and compile them. Then present them
    to the class.
    Activity 8.5.4 (WRITING)
    Write a simple text comparing traditional and modern farming using the two

    pictures shown earlier. Remember to use determiners.

    TOPIC 6 Comparing Traditional and Modern Food
    Activity 8.6.1 (READING)

    Read the text.

    Traditional Food
    Last weekend I visited my grandmother. I sat down with her and she
    told me some things about the past. We mostly discussed about the
    food they ate and what we eat in the modern times. She told me that
    when they were still very young, their staple foods were mostly bananas,
    beans, maize, millet, peas, sweet potatoes and cassava.
    They ate twice a day. The most common meals included: cassava
    flour porridge, ‘Isombe’. They also ate pumpkins mixed with beans and
    boiled groundnuts paste mixed with millet flour paste.
    The fruits they ate were avocadoes, mangoes and papayas.
    She told me that most of their foods were carbohydrates and fewer
    crops were grown. They ate less meat because cows were considered
    to be a sign of wealth.
    She also added that they had several drinks. These included ‘ikivuguto’
    made from milk, beer made from fermented bananas’ juice mixed with
    roasted sorghum flour, ‘Ikigage’ made from dry sorghum and fermented


    Activity 8.6.2

    Answer true or false.

    Activity 8.6.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    In your group demonstrate how each food was made in traditional society. You
    can ask the elderly people to teach you before you present it to the class.
    Activity 8.6.4
    If you found a very old person, what questions about food in the past would you
    ask him or her?
    Activity 8.6.5 (READING)

    Read the text about modern food.

    Modern Food
    She asked me whether I was aware of the changes that had happened
    since their time. I told her I knew of some changes. I told her that today, we
    eat a lot of meat from cattle and goats, chicken, fish, served with rice, Irish
    potato chips, or French fries. In restaurants Indian, Chinese and Italian
    dishes, are served.
    We grow a lot of crops for export.
    Among the drinks are wines, sodas, processed juices, beers such as Mutzig,

    Primus and Armstel. These are processed for commercial purposes.

    Activity 8.6.6
    Answer the following questions
    1. What kind of foods are served in international restaurants?
    2. What foods were added on to the foods in the past?
    3. What drinks are produced in modern times?
    4. Do people today eat a lot of meat?
    5. What food do you usually eat at home?
    Activity 8.6.7 (WRITING)
    Write a summarised text comparing traditional and modern food. Remember

    to use determiners like; few, many, some, a lot and any other you have learnt.

    Answer the Riddle
    Throw away the outside and cook the inside. Then eat the outside and
    throw away the inside. What is it?
    Word Families
    Say the following words.

    Served, asked, processed, created, planted.


    TOPIC 1 Naming and Locating Countries

    Activity 9.1.1 (WORKING TOGETHER)

    Get into groups of four and then point at these countries on the map.

    Talk about them in the following way:
    For example: This is China. It is in the Northern Hemisphere. Beijing is the
    capital city of China.
    Each member of the group should talk about four countries. Take turns in
    talking about the countries and make sure each person has had a chance to

    talk about all the countries.

    Activity 9.1.2 (WRITING)
    Write down five sentences such as the ones given in your book about each
    TOPIC 2 Talking about Personal and Family Experiences

    of Countries

    Activity 9.2.1 (READING)
    Read the following sentences paying attention to the use of the present
    perfect tense.
    Learner 1: I have climbed the Eiffel Tower. I climbed it when I went to visit
    my uncle who lives in Paris. It is very beautiful.
    Learner 2: My uncle has been to Tanzania. He has seen Mount Kilimanjaro.
    It is the highest mountain in Africa.
    Learner 3: My cousin lives in Rome. He has seen St. Peter’s Basilica in the
    Vatican, where the Pope lives.
    Learner 4: I have seen a picture of the Statue of Liberty. It is in New York.
    Learner 5: My mother has travelled on the River Nile. It is the longest river in

    the world.

    Activity 9.2.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Form groups of five and act out the above conversation.
    Activity 9.2.3
    Think of the places that your relatives or you have been to, or have visited and
    tell your classmates about them.
    Activity 9.2.4 (WRITING)
    Now write sentences about those experiences. Pay attention to the use of ‘has‘/

    ‘have‘ and the present simple tense.

    Activity 9.2.5 (WORKING TOGETHER

    Use this map to locate places you have had the experience of visiting. Show

    the places to your partner

    TOPIC 3 Describing Rivers

    Answer the Riddle
    What has a head, but never weeps, has a bed but never sleeps, can run
    but never walks, and has a bank but no money?
    Activity 9.3.1 (LISTENING)
    Listen to the teacher reading to you a text about countries in the world. Pay
    attention to the different rivers and their measurements.
    Activity 9.3.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)

    Get into groups and summarize the data about rivers in the table given below:

    Activity 9.3.3
    Use the compiled data to complete the following sentences.
    1. ………….. is the longest river in the world.
    2. The Amazon is ……………… kilometres
    3. The Fuji Mountain is longer than ……………… .
    4. ………………. Mountain is the shortest mountain of the five.

    5. Mississippi is longer than ……………. and …………….. .

    Answer the Riddle
    What has four eyes but can’t see?
    TOPIC 4 Describing Cities
    Activity 9.4.1 (LISTENING
    Listen again to the teacher reading to you the text in Activity 9.3.1 about

    countries. Pay attention to information given about cities.

    Activity 9.4.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Get into groups and discuss the cities you have heard about.
    Activity 9.4.3
    Now write about the cities.

    For example:

    1. Washington is the capital city of the United States of America.
    2. Beijing has 21 million people.
    3. Kigali is the biggest town in Rwanda.
    Continue this exercise in your group. Write as many sentences as possible

    about the cities.

    Activity 9.4.4

    Present your work to the class.

    TOPIC 5 Describing Buildings
    Activity 9.5.1 (LISTENING)
    Listen again to the text read to you by your teacher given in Activity 9.3.1. Pay
    attention to the names of the buildings in the world and their measurements.
    Remember that towers are also buildings.
    Activity 9.5.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Get to your groups and fill in the table below with the information from the text

    about the buildings.

    Activity 9.5.3
    Now exchange the information gathered with your group while constructing
    sentences about the buildings.
    Activity 9.5.4 (WRITING)
    Write them down and compare your sentences with the other groups’ sentences.
    For example: 1. The Burj Khalifa in Dubai is 828 metres tall.
    2. The Eiffel Tower is the tallest building in France.

    Continue with the exercise.

    TOPIC 6 Comparing Cities, Rivers and Buildings
    Activity 9.6.1 (READING)
    Read this text.
    About the World

    The world has over 200 countries. Each country has a capital city.
    Russia is the largest country in the world measuring up to 18,000,000 square
    kilometres. Its capital city is Moscow measuring 2,511 square kilometres. It’s
    famous for having an amazing cathedral called St. Basil’s Cathedral.
    Canada is the second largest country in the world measuring up to 10,000,000
    square kilometres. Its capital city is Ottawa. It’s famous for its amazing falls
    called the Niagara Falls.
    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has the tallest building in the world called Burj
    Khalifa in Dubai which measures 828 metres. Its capital city is Abu Dhabi.
    China is situated in the Northern Hemisphere. Its capital city is Beijing. Beijing
    is one of the largest populated areas with 21,000,000 people. It’s famous for
    the River Yangtze which measures 6380 kilometres.
    The United States of America (USA) is situated in the Northern Hemisphere. Its
    capital city is Washington. Its longest river is called River Mississippi measuring
    3734 kilometres.
    In the Southern Hemisphere is South Africa. It is located in Africa. Its capital city
    is Pretoria. It’s known for having a unique mountain called the Table Mountain
    measuring 3 kilometres.
    Another country in the Southern Hemisphere is Brazil. Its capital city is Brasilia.
    We find the Amazon River here, measuring 6400 kilometres.
    Japan is situated in the Far East. Its capital city is called Tokyo. It’s famous for
    Mt. Fuji measuring 3776 metres.
    Israel is also located in the Middle East. Its capital city is Tel Aviv.
    The United Kingdom (UK) is located in Western Europe. Its capital city is
    London. We find a famous clock called Big Ben measuring 96 metres in height.
    France is also in Western Europe. Its capital city is Paris. It’s famous for the
    Eiffel Tower which measures 320 metres in height.
    In Africa, we find Egypt which is located in North Africa. Its capital city is Cairo.
    It is famous for the wonderful pyramids.
    Rwanda is situated in East Africa. The tallest building in Rwanda is Kigali City

    Tower building.

    Uganda is also in East Africa, neighbouring Rwanda in the North. Its capital city
    is Kampala. It’s known to have the source of the Nile River, the longest river in
    the world. It measures 6,670 kilometres.
    Tanzania is in East Africa. Its capital city is Dodoma. It borders Uganda in the
    South. It is famous for having the highest mountain in Africa, called Mount


    Activity 9.6.2 (WRITING)
    Use the table given below to match the pictures with the correct captions. Fill in
    a letter to represent the correct picture for the caption.

    Activity 9.6.3 (WORKING TOGETHER

    For example: (i) Kigali city is the biggest city in Rwanda.

    (ii) The Nile River is longer than the Amazon River

    Activity 9.6.4
    Go to the text ‘About the World’ and locate all the mentioned places in
    the map.
    Common word endings

    Practise these endings.

    Activity 9.6.5
    Complete the word puzzle by filling in the correct answer. The numbers
    besides the question are guidelines on the number of letters the answer


    1. The capital city of Russia is _______. (6)
    2. Its capital city is New Delhi. (5)
    3. The capital city of Rwanda. (6)
    4. What is the capital city of Japan? (5)
    5. The second longest river in the world. It is found in Brazil. (6)

    6. The most famous landmark in Paris-France is the _______ Tower. (6)

    1. The capital city of Tanzania is ________. (6)
    2. What is the capital city of the United States of America? (10)
    3. The longest river in the world is called ________ River. (4)
    4. The Nile is longer than the ________ river in China. (7)
    5. The tallest building in the world is Burj ________. (7)

    6. What is the capital city of Canada? (6)


    TOPIC 1 Describing Climate Change

    Activity 10.1.1 (READING)

    Read the following text.
    Our world is now changing. The seasons are changing. We can notice that we
    feel too hot. The temperatures are rising; therefore the earth is getting warmer.
    There are more droughts. These cause famine because crops dry and animals
    have no water to drink. The sea ice is melting. Sea levels are rising which causes
    floods in low lying areas at the coasts. Rain patterns are changing. This makes it
    hard to determine when to plant crops. The major cause of these changes is global

    warming. This is the general increase in the average temperatures of the earth.

    Activity 10.1.2
    Answer the following questions.

    1. What is global warming?
    2. Is the climate changing? Which facts indicate how climate has changed?
    3. Are the sea levels rising?
    4. What would happen if the sea levels were not rising?

    Activity 10.1.3 (WORKING TOGETHER)

    What problems has climate change caused to the world?
    Activity 10.1.4

    Answer by making sentences from the table below:

    Give a title to the text above.
    Activity 10.1.5

    Look at the pictures and match them with the captions below.

    TOPIC 2 Describing The Causes of Climate Changes

    Activity 10.2.1 (READING)
    Read this poem.

    We need to cook,
    We need to make furniture,
    We need electricity.
    And so we are burning too much wood.
    A cause of climate change.

    We need places to stay,

    We need medicines,
    We need places to construct factories.
    And so we are cutting down too many trees,

    A cause of climate change.

    We need factories,
    We need industries,
    They produce attractive goods.
    And so they are polluting so much of the environment.

    A cause of climate change.

    Activity 10.2.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Discuss with a partner.
    1. Recite the poem to your partner.
    2. What is the poem about?
    3. What needs are presented in stanza 1?
    4. What needs are presented in stanza 2?
    5. What needs are presented in stanza 3?
    6. What are the causes of climate change?
    • Polluting so much of the …………………
    • We are cutting down too many …………….
    • We are burning too much…………….
    7. What is the importance of factories and industries? Write a short note on
    the importance of factories and industries.

    8. Agree on a title for the poem.

    Answer the Riddle
    If I drink I die; if I eat, I’m fine. Who am I?
    Activity 10.2.3
    Draw pictures to represent the main idea in each stanza.
    TOPIC 3 Describing Our Responsibilities
    To avoid more climate changes, we must fulfil our responsibilities.
    Activity 10.3.1 (LISTENING)
    • Listen to the teacher reading to you the text about climate change.
    • Pay attention to the use of ‘must’ and ‘mustn’t’ and determiners such as

    ‘less’, ‘so much’, ‘fewer’, less and ‘many’, ‘more’.

    Climate changes
    We don’t want our earth to die because of climate changes. Without fish
    swimming, birds flying in the air, fresh air to breathe, water to drink and crops
    to eat, we will die. To stop all of this, we must fulfil our responsibilities.
    We must switch to renewable energy sources, like solar power. Let’s therefore
    talk to our families, schools and communities, to change by installing solar
    panels, solar heaters or even use wind turbines.
    We must use less energy. Let’s unplug all electric devices which are not in
    use, so we can use less energy. Don’t leave cell phones chargers, televisions,
    radios plugged, in if you’re not using them.
    We must reduce the use of cars, trucks, air planes. These pollute the environment
    with the gas they give off. Let’s walk, take a bicycle, or a school bus. Don’t use
    a car everywhere that you want to go to.
    We mustn’t use a lot of water. Let’s always turn the water off whenever we are
    not using it. Do not let rain water be wasted. Store it for future use.
    We must reduce rubbish. Let’s reduce the rubbish like, bottles, cans, papers by
    reusing, or recycling them so that they can be remade into new products. Don’t
    buy new things you won’t use and don’t use polythene papers as packaging.
    Use less packaging.
    We must cut down fewer trees. Let’s save some trees in our areas to work as
    wind breakers and give us shade. If possible, don’t cut down any trees.
    We must plant more trees. Let’s always plant trees in our schools, communities
    and compounds. Whenever we cut one tree, let’s plant two more trees.
    We must burn less wood. Let’s reduce on the use of charcoal for cooking. We
    can use biogas for cooking and solar power.
    Change starts now. We must go and tell everyone about it. Let’s use attractive
    posters, give presentations that explain how people’s actions can cause and

    reduce climate changes.

    Activity 10.3.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    In your groups, discuss the responsibilities that we have to undertake to reduce
    climate changes. Each group member individually writes the responsibilities he/she
    can remember and then shares the secret answers with the other group members.
    Activity 10.3.3 (WRITING)
    Write them down using must or mustn’t and the determiners (less, so much,
    fewer, less and many) on a well decorated poster. Leave some space on the

    poster for later use.

    Activity 10.3.4

    Now make sentences from the table below:

    TOPIC 4 Making Suggestions
    Activity 10.4.1 (LISTENING)

    Listen again to the teacher reading to you a text about climate change. Pay
    attention to the use of ‘let’s’ and determiners like ‘more’, ‘fewer’, ‘less’, ‘so
    many’, ‘so much’.
    Activity 10.4.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Get into your groups and secretly write down what you heard about the use of
    Activity 10.4.3
    Share your ideas with your group. Write all your answers together on a paper.

    You can add ideas you think are new that were not in the text.

    Activity 10.4.4
    Construct sentences using ‘let’s’ and determiners. For example: Let’s recycle
    more rubbish. Let’s cut down fewer trees.
    • Share your answers with the whole class.
    Activity 10.4.5 (WRITING)
    Write them in the space you left on your poster about must and mustn’t. Leave
    more space.
    Answer the Riddle

    What is at the end of ‘planting’?

    TOPIC 5 Prohibiting
    Activity 10.5.1

    Listen again to the teacher reading the text about climate change. Pay attention

    to the use of ‘don’t’ and determiners (less, so much, fewer, less and many).

    Activity 10.5.2 (WORKING TOGETHER)
    Get into groups and discuss the sentences that express things that you’re not
    allowed to do in order to protect your environment. Then write them down.
    • Remember to use determiners. You can think of more prohibitions.
    For example: 1. Don’t cut down trees.
    2. Cut down fewer trees.
    3. Burn less wood.
    Activity 10.5.3
    Add your findings to the poster.
    Activity 10.5.4

    Pin your poster where everyone can see it.

    Activity 10.5.5 (WRITING)
    Write a simple text expressing the dangers of climate change. Remember to
    use determiners of quantity.

    Common word endings and families.

    • Practise the following words.

    Glossary (Meaning of New Words)
    Administration : The management of any office, business or organization;
    Airport : A place where planes land and take off
    Airstrip : A strip of ground set aside for the take-off and landing of aircraft.
    Apologize : To express regret for something that one has done wrong.
    Attractive : Something pleasing or appealing to the senses.
    Axe : A tool for cutting down wood.
    Bank : An institution where one can keep/borrow money.
    Bar : A box in a graph of different heights, with each box representing
    a different value or category of data and the heights representing
    Block : A group of buildings with roads on each side.
    Build : To form something by combining materials or parts.
    Burn : To be consumed by fire.
    Bus : A motor vehicle for transporting a large number of passenger via
    Capital : The city or town that functions as the seat of government and
    administrative centre of a country or religion.
    Car : A road vehicle, typically with four wheels, powered by an internalcombustion
    engine and able to carry a small number of people.
    Carnivore : Any animal that eats meat as the main part of its diet.
    Cattle : Animals of a group related to domestic cattle, including yak,
    bison and buffaloes.
    City : A large settlement bigger than a town.
    Classroom : A room in which a class of pupils or students is taught.
    Climate : Weather conditions in a place over a long period of time
    Cloudy : Covered with clouds.
    Cold : Having a low temperature; lacking warmth
    Collect : To gather together.
    Confident : Very sure of something.
    Crossroads : A place where two roads meet and cross each other.
    Crop : A natural production from a farm or garden.
    Cultivation : The action of cultivating land or the state of being cultivated.
    Debate : An argument, or discussion, usually in an ordered or formal
    Destroy : To end the existence of (something) by damaging or attacking it.
    Drought : A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a
    shortage of water.
    East : A cardinal point of the compass to the right of north.
    Export : To send goods/services to another country for sale.
    Fearful : Feeling or showing fear or anxiety.
    Few : A small number of (something).
    Floods : Overflow of water from lakes or other body of water due to
    excessive rainfall or other input of water.
    Fly : To travel through the air.
    Friendly : Generally warm, approachable and easy to relate with.
    Furniture : Movable items used to make a room suitable for living or working
    in, such as tables, chairs, stools, desks, beds, etc.
    Generous : Showing a readiness to give more of something.
    Global warming : A gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth‘s
    atmosphere generally attributed to the green house effect
    caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs and other
    Growl : The deep threatening sound made in the throat by an animal; the

    sound made by a hungry stomach.

    Hard : Requiring a lot of effort to do or understand.
    Harvest : Gathered crops or fruits.
    Health : Being free from any illness or injury.
    Hemisphere : A half of the celestial sphere.
    Herbivore : An organism that feeds on plants.
    Highway : A public road especially an important road that joins cities or
    towns together.
    Hoe : A tool used for digging consisting of a long handle with a flat
    Honest : Free of deceit, truthful and sincere
    Horizontal : At right angles to the vertical; parallel to the level ground.
    Hot : Having a high temperature; giving off heat
    Howl : To make a loud, prolonged mournful cry, as that of a dog or wolf.
    Humble : Not proud or arrogant.
    Ice : Water in solid form; frozen.
    Import : To bring goods/services from another country for sale.
    Intelligent : Having good understanding or showing intelligence of a high level.
    Jewellery : Collectively personal ornamentation
    Join : To put or come together.
    Junction : A place where roads come together.
    Lightning : A bright flash of light which accompanies thunder
    Market : A place where goods are sold.
    Melt : To make or become liquified by heating or warmth.
    Next : Physically close.
    North : A cardinal point of the compass lying in the plane of the meridian
    and the left of a person facing the rising sun.
    Obedient : Willing to comply with an order or request.
    Omnivore : An animal or person that eats a variety of food of both plant and
    animal origin.
    Opposite : Located directly across from something else.
    Population : The number of people living in a place.
    Post Office : A place concerned with the delivering of letters or mails and
    selling stamps.
    Rainy : Having or characterized by considerable rainfall.
    Ride : To transport by means of a motor cycle or bicycle.
    Rise : Come or bring up.
    Sail : To commute by water means.
    Sea : The expanse of salt water that covers most of the earth’s surface
    and surrounds its land masses.
    Shelter : A place giving temporary protection from bad weather or danger.
    Skinny : Having little flesh and fat.
    Snowy : Covered with snow
    South : A cardinal point of the compass lying directly opposite North.
    Stormy : Affected by storm
    Sunny : Weather with a lot of sunshine.
    Support : To keep from falling.
    Transport : To carry or bear from one place to another.
    Travel : To be on journey.
    Trouble : A dangerous situation.
    Vertical : Being in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the horizon;
    Weather : The state of the atmosphere with respect to wind, temperature,
    cloudiness, moisture and pressure.
    West : A cardinal point of compass 900 to the left when facing north,
    corresponding to the point where the sun is seen to set.
    Windy : Characterised by wind.
    Wood : middle part of a tree which can be used as firewood.
    X- axis : It is the horizontal line on the Cartesian plane.
    Y- axis : It is the vertical line on the Cartesian plane.
    Zoo : An area in which animals, especially wild animals are kept so

    that people can go and look at them.