## Topic outline

URLs: 3
• ### UNIT 2: Toys, various materials and teaching and learning aids

This unit gives you capacity and ability to make for yourself different toys and learning and teaching materials you were usually buying from the shops. You will need those materials in your daily life, games even during lessons. The essential questions to be answered after this unit are:

• How can I make toy objects like bird, car, clock, airplane, goat using local materials?

• How can I make teaching and learning aids like rectangle and square using papers?

Activity 1

1. Look at the pictures

2. Take a used paper with at least 20cm.

3. Cut the paper in such way that all the four sides are equal.

4. Fold that paper and make a toy of a flying bird as shown in the pictures following all the 14 steps given.

5. Fly the toy like bird you have made in the school compound

Materials: Pair of scissors, paper

Activity 2

1. Look at the pictures (1, 2 and 3

2. Take a paper with a size of at least 10cm.

3. On the paper draw a square with a right angle and each side of 5cm.

4. Cut the paper using a pair of scissors following the sides of that square (NB: Avoid harming yourself while cutting the paper).

5. Again, take another paper with a size of 10 cm.

6. On the paper draw a rectangle with 2 equal parallel sides of 5cm and 8 cm.

7. Cut the paper using a pair of scissors following the sides of the rectangle.

Materials: Paper, pair of scissors, ruler and Pencil

What are you able to do after this activity?

I am able to make four sided figures (a square and a rectangle) in papers following all the steps given in this book.

Activity 4

1. Look at the pictures 1, 2, 3, 4 and below.

2. Gather materials you shall need (razor blade or sharp knife, empty plastic bottle, a long stick/ wire, a nail for perforating/ piercing).

3. Cut a plastic bottle using a sharp knife and follow steps shown in the pictures, and fix a stick to hold when flying that toy airplane (Note: Be careful while cutting the plastic bottle and avoid harming yourself.)

4. Fly the toy that you have made.

Materials: Razor blade, empty plastic bottle, long stick/wire, nail.

What are you able to do after this activity?

I am able to make a toy like airplane using an empty plastic bottle following all the steps given in this book.

Activity 5

1. Look at the pictures (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8

2. Gather materials you shall need (a pair of scissors and stick/ nail, box, pen, paper ruler, compass).

3. Cut a box using a pair of scissors, follow the steps given in pictures and make a wall clock toy to hang in your classroom. (Note: In the process of cutting a hard box be careful not to harm yourself).

4. Compare your toy wall clock to that of your friend, which one is better?

Material: pair of scissors, box, stick/nail, pen, hard paper, iron rod

What are you able to do after this activity?

I am able to make a wall clock using a hard paper box, following all the steps given in this book.

Activity 6

1. Look at the pictures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and

2. Prepare clay, fine sand and water.

3. Mix clay and fine sand (in the ratio of 2:1).

4. Knead the clay soil with fine sand and water until they fully mixed.

5. Model a goat like sculpture following steps given in the pictures below.

6. Put your model goat like sculpture in a dry place where there is no sun (so that it doesn’t crack).

Materials: o: Clay, fine sand and water

What are you able to do after this activity?

I am able to model a goat like sculpture in clay following all the steps given in this book.

Activity 7

1. Look at the pictures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8

2. Prepare clay, fine sand and water.

3. Mix clay with fine sand (in the ratio of 2:1)

4. Knead the clay soil with fine sand and water until they fully mixed.

5. Model a bird like sculpture using steps given in the following pictures below.

6. Put that model clay sculpture in a dry place free from sunshine (so that it doesn’t crack).

Materials: clay, fine sand and water

What are you able to do after this activity?

I am able to model a bird like sculpture out of clay following all the steps given in this book

End of Unit Assessment 2

1. In the following activities, choose any two and do them:

a) Make a bird out of paper. b) Cut paper and make (a) square,

(b) rectangle c) Make a toy like airplane out of paper and sorghum sticks.

d) Out of a box make a wall clock to hang in the classroom

2. Fill these words in the following sentences: plastic, sides, sand, knife

a) In preparing clay used to model toys, youmix clay with ………and water up to when they are fully mixed up.

b) A………bottle can be used to make a play material that fly like an aero plane.

c) When using a pair of scissors, ……… or a razor blade we must be careful not to harm ourselves.

d) A square is a four sided figure with four equal……. and four right angles.

• ### UNIT 3: Computer my Friend

Computer my Friend

A computer is a tool that is used in the daily life. This unit will help you to discover and identify the main parts of a computer, know their uses and take care while using it at school and at home. The essential questions to be answered after this unit are:

What are the main external parts of a computer we use at school and their uses?

How can I maintain my computer well and use it properly?

Activity 1

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c and d.

2. Open your computer and place it in front of you on your desk.

3. Tell the names of the parts labeled; (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) shown in the pictures a, b, c and d.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

1. Screen/monitor

2. Antenna

3. Keyboard

5. Battery

7. Computer case

Activity 2

1. Look at the pictures (a, b, c and d).

2. Open your computer, place it in front of you on your desk.

3. Explain the use of each part labeled (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) shown in the pictures below.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

The uses of the external parts of a computer are the following:

1. Screen/monitor: Used for reading text or display pictures from the computer.

2. Antenna: They are two and they connect a computer to the internet.

3. Keyboard: Part of a computer that helps us to write.

4. Touch Pad: Part of a computer where pupils slide their fingers to choose or select information on the computer screen. 5. Battery: Part of a computer that stores electricity used by the computer.

6. Charger/Adapter: A cable that connects a computer to the electricity source.

7. Computer case: Part of a computer that covers the internal parts of a computer

1. Look at the pictures (a and b

2. Explain what the pupils are doing.

3. Who is cleaning his computer properly? Why?

4. What else can you avoid in order to maintain your computer safe?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

A computer must be maintained properly in the following ways:

- Cleaning to remove dust

- Covering it to avoid dust

- Putting off after use/shutting down

- Putting in anti virus

• Avoid pouring water on it or putting it in rain;

• Handling it with care to avoid falling down;

• Avoid putting it in very hot areas;

• Avoid putting it in a place which is not well ventilated.

Activity 4

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c, and d

2. Look carefully how those pupils are sited. Who is sited well? Why?

3. Tell someone who is sited poorly in your class to sit well.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

Someone using a computer must sit as follows:
• Sit on the chair upright;
• Sit without bending the back while leaning on the chair/desk;
• Avoid getting your eyes closer to the computer when it is switched on
• Avoid putting the computer on the laps while using it;
• Avoid sitting while bending right or left.

Activity 5
1. Look at the pictures a and b.
2. Show a picture of pupils with dangers of poor sitting posture while using a computer.
3. Say other dangers of poor sitting posture while using a computer.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

Negative effects of poor sitting posture while using a computer are as follows:

• Eye sickness

• Back sickness (backache)

• Bent backbone

• Fatigue

End of Unit Assessment 3

• ### UNIT 4: Air and wind

Doing well activities in this unit will help you discover the presence of air, characteristics of air, identify importance of air, explain the relationship between air and wind, differentiate types of wind and prevent/reduce negative effects of wind. The essential questions to be answered after this unit are:

• What are the characteristics of air? What is the importance of air?

• What is the relationship between air and wind?

• What are the types of wind, its effects and ways of preventing them?

Activity 1

1. Look at the pictures below a, b, c, d and e

2. Take a sealed bottle without water. Do you think there isn’t any water in the bottle or it is empty? If it is not empty, what is the color of the substance in the bottle?

3. Using bicycle pressure pump, tap your finger on its hole closing it, pump while your finger is still holding firmly at the hole of the pump. How do you feel the air inside the pump?

4. Breathe in the smell of air in a bottle of water that was previously full of water. What is the smell of the air?

5. Blow hard air in a balloon and then let the air out of the balloon. Can you explain/tell the color of air from the balloon?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

• Air exists and it is different from emptiness/nothing;

• Air has the following properties:

- Air occupies space

- Air is shapeless; it takes the shape of the container e.g. polythene paper, bottle etc.,

- It has no color

- It has no smell.

- It has weight.

Activity 2

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c, and

2. Are the children in the pictures in a place with air? If yes, how is that air like? Explain.

3. Using a bicycle pressure pump, blow air in a football and a bicycle tyre. How does a football or a tyre get filled with air? 4. Light two candles, cover one with a perforated (holed) glass at the bottom and cover the second one with a normal glass as shown in the picture d; What have you seen?

5. Blow air into a burning charcoal stove. Why is charcoal burning turning more red?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

• Living things (a person, animals, and plants) breathe good air;

• Air is pumped into tyres of non-engine machines, like bicycle and Engine machines like motorcycle, car, and also pumped in balls and balloons.

• Air helps fire to burn.

Activity 3

1. Look at the pictures a and b;

2. Why does the fire flame and smoke of candle b change the direction ?

3. What is the different between air and win ?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

Wind is moving air with more speed as compared to air.

Activity 4

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c and d

2. Explain what is in pictures a, b, c and d

3. In the pictures below, show where there is: (1) Light wind,

(2) Speedy wind (3) Strong wind (4) Moderate wind

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

There are four (4) types of wind: Light (slow) wind, moderate (breeze) wind, speedy (cyclone) wind and Strong wind (storm).

1. Light wind (slow) is a type of wind that blows very slowly.

It is also calm and helps fire to burn.

2. Moderate (breeze) wind is a type of wind that blows and felt on the face.

It also shakes trees and other surroundings.

3. Strong wind is a type of wind that blows at a high speed

and destroys buildings, plants and causes soil erosion.

4. Speedy wind is a type of wind that blows at a very high speed

in a circular form but it takes a short time. It raises dust.

Activity 5

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c and d below.

2. In the pictures below, show where there are good and bad

effects of wind. Explain.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

• The good effects of wind are drying clothes and giving a cool fresh environment.

• Bad effects of wind are destroying buildings, plants and causing soil erosion

Activity 6

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c and d.

2. What is the importance of the trees around the house ?

3. Explain how can we prevent negative effects of wind ?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

Ways of preventing negative effects of wind are:

Planting trees on hills, around houses and in plantations;

• Building hedges using specific tress (live fences using relatively tall trees)

End of Unit Assessment 4

1. Give five properties of air.

2. Mention types of wind you know and explain effects of each type.

3. In this picture below, what is missing so that wind does not destroy the houses and the planted crops in the gardens?

4. Looking at the pictures below, say the good effects of wind and air.

• ### UNIT 5: Soil

In the area where your home is located, places where you go and at your school, there are different physical features. Among them include soil. You may be asking yourself whether all soils are the same, what might be its importance, and what may damage soil or cause it to lose its value and what one can do prevent it from being damaged or lose its value. The essential questions to be answered after this unit are:

• What are the types and uses of soil?

• What can destroy soil and how to prevent them.

Activity 1

• Look at the pictures a, b, and c below;

• What are the pupils doing?

• Compare the amount of water got from soil in each picture.

• Explain why water got in the bottles in each picture is not equal.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

There are three (3) types of soil:

1. Clay soil is a type of soil with very small particles which cannot allow water to pass through easily;

2. Sand soil is a type of soil with big particles which allows water to pass through easily.

3. Loam soil is a type of soil with small particles that holds water or allows very little water to pass through.

Activity 2

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h

2. What are the people in the pictures a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h doing?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

• Loam soil is a type of soil that is the best for farming /growing of crops;

• Sand soil is a type of soil used to make building materials like blocks, roofing tiles, plastering houses;

Clay soil is a type of soil used for modeling different

Activity 3

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c and d;

2. What do you see in the pictures a, b, c and d?

3. Point to the picture which shows that soil has faced some problems? Identify the problems. What caused them? Explain. 4. What can you do to prevent things that destroy soil?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

Soil can be destroyed by the following:

• Rainfall (running water),

• Strong wind

• Fire (Bush burning),

• Things which do not rot [decay] or non-degradable wastes dumped in open places like plastics, polythene bags.

• Over grazing

Activity 4

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c and d;

2. Which picture shows the importance of water in soil?

3. Which picture shows where water damaged soil?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

1. The importance of water on soil are

• Water softens the or moisturizes soil which enables farmers to grow crops.

• Water helps the plants to grow well.

2. The dangers of water on soil are

• Water causes soil erosion;

• Water causes the landslides;

Activity 5

1. Look at the pictures a and b;

2. What can you do to prevent soil damage?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

We prevent soil damage by:

• Planting trees;

• Practicing terracing;

• Avoiding bush burning;

• Avoiding dumping materials which do not rot on the soil surface.

End of Unit Assessment 5

1. a) Give the types of soil?

b) What are the characteristics of each type of soil?

2. Write true or false.:

a) When modeling decorations clay soil is mixed with fine sand.

b) When we want to identify the type of soil we are guided by its smell.

c) When modeling pots, clay soil is used, mixed with water, dried under sunshine and then burnt to harden it.

3. Answer Yes or No where necessary:

a) Loam soil is used to model decorations, bricks and pots.

b) Sand soil is /good for plant growth c) Soil erosion is caused by running water.

4. Why is that all soils cannot be for constructing houses?

5. Apart from water, give any other thing that destroys soil.

6. Identify the importance of water in soil.

• ### UNIT 6: PLANTS

There are a lot of plants around our homes. Some grow naturally while others are planted by human beings. However, all are important to people, animals and the environment as well.

The essential questions to be answered after this unit are:

• What are the main parts of the plant?

• What is the function (use) of each part to a plant?

• What is the importance of plants?

Activity 1

1. Look at the pictures a, b, and c

2. What are the main parts of a plant?

3. Give the importance of each part of the plant.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

The main parts of the plant are:

Roots, Stem, Branches and Leaves. Other parts are Flowers and Fruits. Each part of a plant has its own function (use):

• Roots hold the plant firmly in the soil and absorb food (nutrients) and water from the soil;

Stem and branches hold leaves, flowers and fruits. They also carry food and water to other parts of the plant;

• Leaves make food for the plant and help the plant to breathe

• Flowers give fruits;

Fruits give new plants.

Activity 2

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i and j

2. Explain what you see in pictures a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i and j

3. What are the two groups of plants you have seen in the pictures?

4. Basing on the pictures, what is the importance of plants to us?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

Plants are divided in two groups:

• Food crops: Irish potatoes, beans, banana.

Cash crops: Coffee, Tea, pyrethrum, cotton, sugar cane…

The following are the importance of the plants:

• Some are source of food: Irish potatoes, beans, banana

Some are for sale: Coffee, Tea

Some are used as herbal medicine: Eucalyptus, ginger bush (Umuravumba) and others.

• Some are used for decoration: Flowers.

Some are used to control soil erosion: Seteria , elephant grass, pass palm.

• Some are used for fire wood and timber: Eucalyptus, pines, grevilia, and others.

Some are used for fencing (hedges) Euphorbia (imiyenzi), bamboo, ficus thonningii(umuvumu) and others.

End of Unit Assessment 6

a) Draw a bean plant and show its major (main) parts. b) Explain the importance of each part of the plant.

2. In the table below, put these plants in groups based on their use: beans, peas coffee, tea, Lemon, flowers, aloevera, ginger bush (umuravumba), Eucalyptus (inturusu), and euphorbia (umuyenzi).

• ### UNIT 7: Light and heat

In our environment, work can be done during day time or at night when there are other sources of light other than sunlight. Some sources of light can also give us heat.
The essential questions to be answered after this unit are:
• What are the various sources of light and heat?
• What is the importance and dangers of light and heat?
• What can I use to measure my body temperature and how?

Activity 1

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c, d, e and f;
2. Explain what you see in the pictures. What is the common characteristic of materials in pictures?
3. Identify sources of light you know.

What have you discovered from the pictures?
I have discovered that
• There is light and darkness.
• Major sources of light are: sun, torch, fire, candle, lanterns, Kerosene lanterns, bulbs, match stick, pressure lamp, fire wood…and others.

Activity 2

1. Look at the pictures a, b and c

2. What separates the two parts observed in picture a?

3. Can a person in picture c search and get easily any material he /she is looking for in that room? Why?

4. Prepare a dark room by putting curtains on the windows and doors such that no light can enter. Explain what is darkness?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

There is always darkness when there is no light.

Activity 3

1. Look at the pictures a, b and c;

2. What do the pictures show?

3. Why do the shadows in pictures a, b, and c have different  height?

4. What is the role of the sun in the presence of the shadow?

5. Measure the height of the shadow for any tree in your school

compound at different time intervals (morning, afternoon and

evening). Give reasons why the tree’s shadow has a different height.

6. Using a torch, make a shadow of a notebook and pen in your

classroom. What do you think is a shadow?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

A shadow is an image formed when light is blocked.

Activity 4

1. Look at the pictures (a and b);

2. What do the pictures and b show?

3. Find where there is fresh green grass in your school compound.

Find a big stone and cover some grass. Wait for seven days and then remove the stone.

What have you seen? Now, explain the importance of sunlight to plants.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

• Light helps people to see.;

• Light allows plants to have green color.

• Light helps plants to make their own food (starch).

Activity 5

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c and d;

2. What do the pictures a, b, c and d show?

3. In the pictures a, b, c and d choose a picture which shows a pupil who is reading while avoiding the dangers of light.

Why have you chosen that picture?

4. What are the dangers of too much light or dim light?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

• Too much light affects the eyes.

• Dim light also affects the eyes.

Ways of avoiding the dangers of light:

• We should avoid reading under too much light or dim light.

• We should use recommended sun glasses (sun gurgles) to reduce the amount of light.

Activity 6

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c, d, e and f

2. What do the pictures a, b, c, d, e and f show?

3. Which of the materials shown in pictures a, b, c, d, e and f can produce heat?

4. Identify some of the materials you use at home that give out heat?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

Sources of heat are: Sun, candle, lantern, kerosene lantern, electrical bulb, match stick, gas lamp, firewood and others.

Activity 7

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c and d;

2. Look at the picture a, b, c and d show?

3. Basing  on Pictures a, b, c and d explain the importance of heat to livings things.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

Heat is important because:

• Heat helps in cooking of food;

• Heat helps in warming the house;

• Heat helps in drying of clothes and crops

• Heat helps young animals to grow well (chicken).

• Heat helps in ironing of clothes

Activity 8

1. Look at the pictures (a and b);

2. What do the pictures a and b show?

3. What are the dangers of heat shown in the pictures a and b?

4. In which way can you protect yourself from the dangers of too much heat ?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

Heat causes the following effects:

• Heat leads to loss of water in living things;

• Heat leads to burning of food when cooking;

• Heat leads to drying of plants and crops;

• Heat causes bush burning (it is easy for dry grass to catch fire).

Activity 9

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c and d;

2. What do the pictures a, b, c and d show?

3. What are the types of thermometers shown in the pictures ab, c and d?

4. What are the parts that make up a thermometer ?

5. What is the use of a thermometer ?

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

There are three types of thermometers:

• Medical/clinical thermometer;

• Laboratory thermometer;

• Meteorological thermometer (Six’s thermometer) A thermometer has three major parts:

Capillary (Mercury or alcohol) tube, bulb and Stem.

The use of a thermometer is to measure the temperature of the human body, object or place.

Activity 10

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c and d;

2. What do the pictures a, b, c and d show?

3. Measure your body temperature following the steps below:

• Shake (calibrate) the thermometer until it reads 0;

• Place the thermometer under your armpit and wait for three (3) minutes;

• Remove the thermometer from your armpit and read the new number it is showing.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

To measure human body temperature, you follow the steps below:

• Bringing back the thermometer reading to 0 (by shaking);

• Put the thermometer under armpit;

NB: The normal human body temperature is 37OC

Activity 11

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c, d, e, f and g;

2. What do the pictures a, b, c, d, e, f and g show?

3. Which objects in the pictures a, b, c, d, e, f and g give both light and heat?

4. Do all the sources of light also give heat? Explain and give examples.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

• Most of the light sources are also heat sources.

Examples: Sun, torch, fire, candle, lantern, petrol/oil lamp, gas lamp, electrical bulb, match stick, fire wood.

• However, there are some small insects (beetles/ fireflies/ lightning bugs) that give out light but don’t produce heat.

End of Unit Assessment 7

1. Identify five objects that give out light.

2. What is the difference between light and darkness?

3. Write True or False:

a) Shadow is lack of light.

b) All sources of light are also sources of heat.

c) Our eyes can be affected badly when we read from sunshine without eye protection tools.

d) The normal human body temperature is 40oc.

4. Give two dangers of heat to plants and animals. 5. Show how a medical thermometer is used?

6. List four objects/materials that give out light but don’t give out heat.

• ### UNIT 8: Sensory organs

The human body has different body parts which support one another to make a complete person. For a person to receive well information from the environment, it requires to have normal and well-functioning sensory organs. This unit will help you to know the importance of sensory organs and find out ways to keep them healthy. The essential questions to be answered after this unit are:

• What are the human sensory organs and their functions?

• How can I keep my sensory organs well?

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c, d and e

2. What do the pictures a, b, c, d and e show?

3. How many sensory organs have you seen in the pictures?

4. Name every sensory organ you have seen.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

Human body has five (5) sensory organs:

Eye, Ear, Tongue, Skin and Nose

The importance of human sensory organs are:

• Eye, the function of an eye is to see;

Ear, the function of the ear is to hear sound;

• Tongue, the function of the tongue is to taste and help a person to swallow;

• Nose, the function of the nose is to smell and help a person to breathe;

Skin, the function of the skin is to feel anything that touches or gets into contact with a human body, it also protects or covers the body and regulates body temperature.

Activity 2

1. Look at the pictures a, b, c, d, e and f

2. What do the pictures a, b, c, d, e and f show?

3. Which picture shows the child doing what is not allowed (dangerous).

4. Explain how you can keep well/ healthy your sensory organs.

What have you discovered from the pictures?

I have discovered that

Ways of keeping sensory organs well/ healthy are:

• Washing the whole body with water and soap;

• Cleaning the ears using a clean piece of cotton cloth;

• Brushing the teeth and mouth after every meal or eating;

• Cleaning the nose using a clean handkerchief;

• Washing eyes with clean water using soap;

• Seeking medical treatment when sick.

End of Unit Assessment 8

References

1. MINEDUC (1997). Integanyanyigisho y’Ubumenyi n’Ikoranabuhanga Riciriritse mu mashuri abanza. Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Integanyanyigisho, Kigali.

2. MINEDUC (2009). Social Studies Curriculum for Rwanda’s Basic Education Program me, Year 1 to 6. National Curriculum Development Centre, Kigali.

3. MINEDUC (2015). Competence – Based Curriculum Framework, Pre-primary to Upper Secondary. Rwanda Education Board, Kigali.

4. MINEDUC (2015). Integanyanyigisho y’Ubumenyi n’Ikoranabuhanga Riciriritse, Ikiciro Cya Mbere cy’Amashuri Abanza. Rwanda Education Board.