Topic outline

  • Label: 1
  • Key unit competence:To be able to analyse the role of the individual in
    society including family, marriage, local, national and global communities.
    Living in a society involves being part and parcel of the society in all aspects.
    This involves having a sense of belonging, which at a national level, can be
    referred to as citizenship. It is this that defines how an individual relates with
    the society.
    In this unit, we will study the relationship between the individual and the

    society .

    2.1 Individual identity and multiple identities

    2.1.1 Belonging of the individual to various social entities

    Activity 1
    Think of the various social groups that you belong to. Why do you belong
    to each of these groups? Explain your answer to your friend.
    It is said that birds of a feather flock together. This means that there will be
    a reason why you identify with every particular social group that you belong
    to. There are either shared characteristics, shared interests or a shared vision.
    For example, you may be a member of a certain religious group because
    you share the same faith. Similarly, you may also belong to another group of
    people who share similar ambitions with you.

    In spite of belonging to all these groups, you maintain your individual qualities,
    interests and aspirations as a person. These make up your individual identity.
    The different groups you belong to portray your social identity whereas the
    way you do things and your beliefs make up your cultural identity. As such
    though a person may have his/her own individual identity, he/she may also
    have other multiple identities.

    An individual who is socialised to more than one set-up of cultural values
    and various social groups will acquire multiple identities.
    Thus, an individual is likely to identify himself/herself in different ways. For

    (a) Individual identity - a teacher, a man etc
    (b) Cultural identity - Christian, Muslim etc

    (c) National identity - Rwandan, Ugandan, Kenyan etc

    Activity 2

    1. In groups, discuss one national personality of your choice. It could be
    the president, the prime minister, a Member of Parliament or any other
    leader. Write a list of the distinct qualities that make them stand out.

    2. If you are a Rwandan born in Rwanda, went to school in Canada, got
    married in Germany and returned to Rwanda many years later, would
    your behaviour and values be the same as those who never left the
    country? Why or why not?

    From your discussion, you might have seen that individual identity is defined
    by the qualities of a person that make him/her distinct from others.
    Multiple identities, on the other hand, are the various cultural backgrounds
    that one has been socialised to. These influence a person’s decision making in
    life. For example, if an individual is religious, they have a part of the religion
    entity in their personality among other aspects of social life that they are a
    part of. Therefore, this aspect of religion is going to determine how such an
    individual makes decisions. A person’s identities can also be stated using the
    person’s race, class, gender and sexuality.

    Exercise 1

    How do multiple identities of an individual promote his/her social


    2.1.2 Roles and responsibilities of the individual at the levels

    of family, community, nation and the world

    Activity 3

    1. Explain your role in your family.

    2. How do you participate in community and country activities?

    As you discussed you pointed out the different roles you have as a child in
    your family, a member of your community and a citizen of your country. At
    all these levels, you have roles and responsibilities. In order to discharge each
    of these roles and responsibilities, there is need for wise decision-making.
    In the family set up, you have duties and responsibilities that you are expected
    to carry out. For example, helping in household chores and running errands
    for the older members of the family. In school, participating in extra curricula
    activities could be a responsibility.

    An individual’s duties to the community include: cooperation, respect and
    participation in community activities such as umuganda. As a citizen, an
    individual has the responsibility of participating in national activities such as
    voting in elections.

    Adopting habits that help conserve the environment and promote peaceful
    coexistence among members of the society is part of our individual
    responsibilities at all levels. By performing our duties, we are living according
    to the expectations of our societies and this is important because it strengthens
    our solidarity, unity and patriotism.
    When an individual plays his/her roles at the national level, he/she contributes
    to the improvement of human life hence makes the world better.
    It is also important to note that full human potential cannot be reached if
    individuality is suppressed by society. Therefore the society gives us a sense
    of belonging by providing opportunities to share individual traits especially

    during communal activities.

    Exercise 2

    1. Explain your roles and responsibilities at the community level.
    2. How do these roles and responsibilities contribute to national unity and


    2.2 Making choices

    We are always faced with opportunities to make choices. We are called upon
    to choose the subjects to pursue in school, the career path we need to take,
    the friends we make, and many other such decisions. Making choices has

    many aspects to it. These aspects are discussed below.

    2.2.1 Consequences of choices

    Activity 4

    Read the following story and discuss how you would arrive at a decision

    on solving the problem mentioned.

    1. You are a student in Senior Four and you have realised that you have
    contracted a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI). Discuss the best
    way to handle this situation. How did you arrive at the decision?
    2. Debate on the various opinions given by the group members and have
    one student make a presentation on your discussions in class.
    You will find out that every choice has consequences and for one to arrive
    at a decision, he/she must be aware of the nature of consequences to
    expect. For example, from your discussions, you must have argued on the
    merits of opening up to someone about the STI infection. You may as well
    consider going to a health facility or even keep your problem a secret in
    fear of stigmatisation. Each of these choices has either positive or negative
    outcomes to the person making the decision as well as others around him/
    A choice made without first thinking deeply about the consequences that will
    follow can be termed as an impulsive decision. Impulsive decisions are likely

    to lead to negative consequences such as:

    • Yielding to peer pressure
    • Taking drugs leading to drug addiction
    • Making wrong career choices
    • Immorality
    • Contracting HIV and AIDS
    • Unwanted pregnancy
    • Failure in exams
    • Environmental degradation
    • Shame and embarrassment to oneself and family

    • Poverty

    On the other hand, choices that are made after considering all options
    and thinking deeply about their consequences are termed as well thoughtout
    or rational decisions. Rational decisions are likely to lead to positive

    consequences such as:

    • Being principled and avoiding peer pressure
    • Making the right career choices
    • Living a fulfilled life both at work and at the family level

    • Prosperity in career, business and other aspects of life

     • Environmental conservation
    • Fame and recognition in society

    • Success in exams

    Exercise 3

    1. Using the situation given in Activity 4, discuss the consequences that
    would follow if you chose not to go to hospital or seek help from anyone
    because of the fear of stigmatisation.
    2. How would this decision affect your close friends?
    3. Explain the consequences of going to see a doctor after realising that

    you have an STI.

    2.2.2 Influences to the individual

    Activity 5

    What would influence you to decide either to go to the hospital or not to
    in the situation given in Activity 4?
    There are several factors that influence decision-making. These include:
    past experiences, age, peer pressure, levels of commitment to a certain
    matter, financial demands and implications, the living environment and one’s
    religious convictions.

    In the scenario given in the activity above, financial constraints, fear of being
    laughed at by peers as well as the fear of being reprimanded by religious
    leaders may make the victim decide not to go to the hospital where his/ her
    condition is likely to be made public. On the other hand, the fear of being
    discovered by peers, high level of education and high level of self-esteem
    can motivate the victim to seek medical attention.

    It is important to understand the factors that influence choices because then
    we can understand why decisions are made. Good choices help an individual
    to improve a situation while bad choices make situations worse. It is important
    to note that you can choose your actions, but not the consequences. If you do

    not like the consequences that may follow your actions, avoid these actions.

    2.2.3 Manipulations

    Activity 6

    1. Tell your partner about a time you made a decision because you wanted
    to impress or please somebody. How did you feel after you had done
    something you personally didn’t feel was right?
    2. Discuss and write a list of the possible consequences of making choices

    just to impress friends.

    In life, we are sometimes influenced by manipulations of other people to
    make certain choices. Manipulation involves controlling or influencing the
    behaviour or the response of a person on a certain matter using clever, unfair
    or unscrupulous tactics. We get deceived into doing something that we do not
    fully believe in but which favours or pleases the other person. For example,
    teenagers may engage in irresponsible sexual behaviour or go to night parties
    out of the manipulations of their peers. These manipulations can come in
    different types. The following are examples of types of manipulations.

    1. Using sympathy and guilt - this is where an individual appeals to
    the emotions of others by seeking pity and creating guilt if the targeted
    person fails to show mercy by doing what was asked of him/ her.

    2. Indifference – this is where a person pretends not to care about a
    situation intending to draw the attention of others to himself/ herself.

    3. Criticism to gain control – this is belittling other people in a way that
    makes them feel incompetent and unworthy. This way, the critic makes
    the other people perceive him/ her as being more powerful.
    We should be bold enough to stand against any of these types of manipulation
    when making decisions. When we bow to manipulation, we benefit the other
    person. We gain nothing and sometimes we lose out of manipulation. We
    should learn to say ‘No’ to manipulation. For example, teenagers should learn
    to say ‘No’ to peer pressure that coerces them into engaging in irresponsible

    sexual and reproductive behaviour and other socially unacceptable


    Remember dealing with saying ‘No’ is much easier than dealing with a
    Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) or an unplanned pregnancy. Abstain

    from pre-marital sex or protect yourself.

    2.2.4 The process of decision making

    Activity 7

    Explain to your partner how you make your decisions. What process do

    you follow? Share what your partner has told you with the class.

    From the different presentations made, you notice that there are different
    approaches to decision-making. You also notice that decision-making is a
    process that takes time and different steps. It is not an event that happens
    on the spot. While spontaneous decisions are sometimes necessary, such as
    during an emergency, decisions made after consultations and considerations

    are more informed hence more reliable.

    The following are some important steps one should take in order to make a
    wise and informed decision:

    1. Identify the problem or opportunity: If one has to make an appropriate
    choice, he/she must fully understand the problem or opportunity at
    hand. This will help in determining the most appropriate decision by
    considering all the available options.

    2. Research: Get as much information to help you get a deeper understanding
    of the problem or opportunity.

    3. Analyse the information: Study the information gathered and opinions
    given and establish any connections and discrepancies. See how others
    have solved a similar problem or utilised a similar opportunity and the
    consequences that followed. Establish whether the same can happen in

    your case.

    4. Develop options: Come up with the possible solutions to the problem or
    approaches to utilising the opportunity. Consider other alternatives and
    the consequences of each possible solution or approach.
    5. Decide: Choose the most appropriate option after you have considered
    all the available options and their consequences.

    6. Implement: Actualise the decision that you made.

    7. Evaluate: Establish how effective the decision you have made is. In case
    the decision is not effective, the second best option can be tried and a

    new research is carried out.

    Note: Some decisions have huge financial implications. It is necessary
    therefore to do thorough research before making any decision. Consulting
    knowledgeable and experienced people is also necessary to avoid incurring

    financial losses.

    Exercise 4

    1. Since you have learned what decision making entails, what aspect of
    your decision-making do you need to change? Explain to your partner.
    2. What steps would you take when making a communal decision?
    3. Explain what steps you would take to make the decision about the

    career you would like pursue.

    2.3 Personal responsibility

    Activity 8

    Explain what would happen if you failed to do the following:
    1. Wash clothes.
    2. Do your homework.

    3. Brush your teeth.

    The chores mentioned in Activity 8 are done at a personal level. They
    constitute an individual’s personal responsibility. Personal responsibility
    refers to a duty to take action and be ready to bear the resultant consequences

    if something goes wrong.

    Although these are simple chores, they have to be done. Number 1 and 3
    constitute personal hygiene. Failure to do them can lead to certain health
    consequences. For example, if one does not wash his/her socks and
    undergarments, he/she is likely to suffer from athletes’ foot and certain
    infections respectively. Failure to brush our teeth can lead to bad breath and
    tooth decay. Failure to do these two can also lead to social problems. This
    can be in form of one being avoided by those close to him/her. On the other
    hand, failure to work hard will lead to failure in exams.
    From these examples, we can see that personal responsibility cannot be
    avoided. There will always be consequences to our choices. Some of the
    possible consequences include physical injury, shame, guilt, revenge or even


    2.4 Unit summary

    Individual identity and multiple identities

    • Individual identity - the qualities of a person that make him/her distinct
    from others.
    • Multiple identities - the various backgrounds that one has been socialised

    to or groupings that one belongs to.

    Consequences of choices

    a. Negative consequences

    • Yielding to peer pressure
    • Taking drugs leading to drug addiction
    • Making wrong career choices
    • Immorality
    • Contracting HIV and AIDS
    • Unwanted pregnancy
    • Failure in exams
    • Environmental degradation
    • Shame and embarrassment to oneself and family

    • Poverty

    b. Positive consequences

    • Being principled and avoiding peer pressure
    • Making the right career choices
    • Living a fulfilled life both at work and at the family level
    • Prosperity in career, business and other aspects of life
    • Environmental conservation
    • Fame and recognition in society
    • Success in exams
    Types of manipulations

    1. Using sympathy and guilt - an individual appeals to the emotions of
    others by seeking pity and creating guilt if the targeted person fails to
    show mercy by doing what was asked of him/ her.

    2. Indifference – a person pretends not to care about a situation intending
    to draw the attention of others to himself/ herself.

    3. Criticism to gain control – belittling other people in a way that makes
    them feel incompetent and unworthy. This way, the critic makes the

    other people perceive him/ her as being more powerful.

    Steps in decision making

    1. Identify the problem or opportunity
    2. Research
    3. Analyse the information
    4. Develop options
    5. Decide
    6. Implement

    7. Evaluate

    2.5 Test your competence
    Read the story below and then answer the questions that follow.

    A teenage boy engaged in irresponsible sexualf
    behaviour and ended up impregnating his classmate.
    Ashamed of the situation, he tried to convince her to
    abort the child but she objected. She instead shared
    her predicament with her mother and asked for her
    advice. Even though the situation did not impress her
    mother, she guided her and after giving birth, the girl
    went back to a day school while her parents supported

    the young child.


    1. Describe the consequences of the decisions made by the teenage boy
    and his classmate.
    2. Who between the two teenagers was more responsible and why?
    3. Do you suppose their irresponsibility would lead them to a long-term
    commitment? Explain.
    4. Who between the boy and the girl made the best decision. Give reasons

    for your answer.

    • Key unit competence: To be able to argue how sports, leisure and
      competition contribute to personal, collective identity shared with others

      and social development

      3.1 Difference between sport and leisure

      Activity 1

      In groups answer the following


      What are the benefits of
      mparticipating in sports, leisure

      and competitions?

      At school, you have realised that in between the lessons there is break, lunch
      and games. Think of watching TV at home, visiting friends, playing board
      games or any other game in your home environment, tennis, football, and
      how you feel, after watching your favourite game or movie. It feels very
      good to come home after a long day and watch your favorite show on the
      television. However, it will not give the same feeling and benefit if you were
      engaged in sporting activities.

      The difference between leisure and sports is that leisure refers to free time

      spent away from business, work, domestic chores and education. It excludes
      time spent on necessary activities such as eating and sleeping. That means
      to be free from compulsory work and engage in leisure activities such as
      entertaining friends, going on vacation, doing hobbies such as reading,

      watching television, listening or dancing to music, among others.

      Sport, on the other hand, involves all forms of competitive physical activities
      which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain
      or improve physical ability and skills while providing entertainment to
      participants. In sports there are indoor activities such as gymnastics, dance
      sports, cricket and outdoor activities such as swimming, football, basketball,

      hockey, golf, canoeing and sailing.

      3.2 Contribution of leisure, sport and competition to personal
      and collective identity

      Case study 1

      Teta has a low self-esteem so she avoids eye contact and speaks in a
      hushed tone. However, she always says ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ which is
      a learned behaviour.

      1. In groups, discuss how you think Teta really feels.
      2. Imagine you are a teacher. In what ways would you help Teta develop selfesteem?
      How would you make her feel part of the class environment?
      3. Suggest an activity that Teta would focus on to improve her self-esteem

      and practise direct eye contact.

      It is important for people to be included in corporate activities if they are to
      feel that they are part of the group. This is especially true in the school setting.
      Role playing is one of the most helpful activities for improving social skills, as
      it allows one to feel confident in handling different types of situations. Role
      playing can be done through drama where an individual is given a role that
      is different from his/ her personality.

      For example, Teta whose self-esteem is

      low can be given the role of someone in authority. This way she can practise
      how to be self-confident. Drama, music and other performances are some
      of the leisure activities that are carried out in schools. They are encouraged
      through competitions among schools; that is inter-school competitions.

      These help in reducing the barrier to positive social interactions.

      Sport and leisure are also effective in achieving the inclusion and building of

      a collective identity.

      Activity 2

      1. What is happening in the picture?d
      2. What do country representatives in a
      race usually have to identify them?
      3. Whenever an athlete wins a race, the
      country is said to have won. Explain

      this in relation to collective identity.

      During Olympics, athletes represent their respective countries. The symbol of
      the national flag helps in identifying the various countries represented. From
      your discussion of the above identities, you realize that sports contribute to
      identity both at the personal and collective level. Some sports have actually
      been related to certain social groups due to their remarkable performance
      in them. Other national and cultural groups have gained recognition and
      prestige from various leisure and sports activities that they are known for and
      which are mostly used as a tourism attraction in their countries. An example
      is the Brazilian Samba dance, band groups such as the Ingeli band of Rwanda
      which carries the prestige of winning the African Kora awards among others.

      Sport and leisure also bring a sense of national unity. When sporting activities
      are supported by the government and citizens own them, they contribute to
      national identity as people identify with these activities and enjoy participating
      in them either as players or as fans. The president of Rwanda for example
      has highly supported sports through giving prizes for events such as The
      Kigali International Marathon.

      Another example is the World Cup. It brings citizens together in celebrating
      players of soccer at a global level. Socially, sports and leisure have contributed
      greatly in cultivating inclusion in community building, character building and

      social cohesion.

      Case study 2

      Victory for Team Rwanda

      It was a moment of glory for all of us in Rwanda. We had all gathered in
      hotels and restaurants to watch the riders from Rwanda participate in the
      Tour de Rio. They were all riding with passion. It was the stretch between
      Valenca and Teresopolis, a total distance of 153km that left all Rwandans
      at the edge of their seats.

      Team Rwanda rider Camera Hakuzimana broke away from the leading
      park. For 100km he remained in the lead, at some time reaching the
      highest point of a four and a half minute lead. It looked likely that he
      would win this race. We chanted and cheered. We clapped in anticipation.
      I had never felt such excitement due to watching a sporting event, least
      of all, cycling. The cheers brought even more people to the restaurants.
      Rwanda was going to win! It was our time of glory. One of us was making
      us proud.

      Though he did not finally win, he was among the top finishers. He
      crossed the finish line only 54 seconds after the winner, Kleber Ramos
      Silva of Brasilinvest. Other Rwandans in the race did well too. Jean Bosco
      Nsengimana and Patrick Byukusenge finished in 14th and 16th positions
      respectively, to register a remarkable performance for the national side
      that was the only African team in the competition. Teenage debutant
      Joseph Aleluya was in 22nd position. Team captain Janvier Hadi and
      national road race champion Joseph Biziyaremye who had suffered a
      mechanical problem settled for 44th and 58th positions in that order.

      Team Rwanda did the whole country proud. We were all so patriotic
      in cheering for them. They brought us together. There were no tribal
      considerations in cheering them on. No grudge could be remembered
      during this moment. They were Rwandans. We had to cheer them on.
      Though the success was theirs, the glory was shared among all Rwandans.

      It promoted a collective identity.


      1. How do you think the riders felt during the competition?
      2. In what ways do you think Hakuzimana’s identity changed after this
      3. Describe how the performance of Team Rwanda in the riding
      competition contributed to a feeling of collective identity among the
      people of Rwanda.
      4. Share with your group other occasions when sport or leisure has

      promoted collective identity either at a community or national level.

      3.3 Contribution of sports, leisure and competition to

      personal and social development

      Activity 3

      1. Consider the various sports you know of. Do they have rules which the
      players must adhere to? Name some of them.

      2. What values do these rules develop in social life and how do they
      contribute to social cohesion? Apart from the rules, how else do the

      games enhance social development?

      From the discussions, you find out the following:

      • Moral behaviour and inculcation of values such as honesty, fairness and
      determination are enhanced through social interaction that occurs in the
      regulated physical activities conducted in sports.
      • They also engage young people in their communities through volunteering
      hence reinforcing values of social development.
      • Sport and leisure offer equal opportunities to all regardless of gender,
      ethnicity or ability. This reinforces the values of equality and inclusiveness.
      • It also helps young people become more reasonable and critical as

      competitions involve playing tactfully with the aim of winning.

      Exercise 1

      Read the case study below and answer the questions that follow in

      Sonelle had always been a shy girl. She had always feared expressing her
      opinion. She believed it did not matter. After all, others seemed to have
      the solution to every problem. What would they think if she opened her
      mouth to say things she was not even sure of ?

      One day, she was invited by her friends to play the game of Scrabble. Her
      friends seemed to know the game very well. They were making words so

      easily. Indeed, this is what they used to do whenever they were free. 

      Theywere used to it. They knew all the rules and the tricks of the game.

      This day, they decided to play in groups of three. Since Sonelle was so
      timid that she shook whenever she tried to create a word on the board,
      her group suggested that she become the group leader. She would be
      telling them what word to make.

      Hesitantly, Sonelle suggested the first word and it was correct! Then came
      the second word, the third one and so forth. Her group was winning. At
      some point a disagreement arose between the two groups. Encouraged
      by her success in suggesting words for her team, Sonelle decided to
      arbitrate between the two groups. Soon, they were back to the game and
      everybody was happy.

      From that day, everyone wanted Sonelle in her team. They wanted her
      to be the leader too. This extended to school and within no time, Sonelle
      was appointed a prefect. Today, Sonelle is a Chief Executive Officer of
      a multinational company. She discovered her leadership skills in the
      Scrabble game and she never looked back. She became assertive but
      considerate because of guiding her friends during the game. Who knew a

      game of Scrabble can bring such a transformation?


      1. What leisure activity was Sonnelle and her friends involved in?
      2. Explain how the competition in this leisure activity helped Sonelle to
      discover her abilities.
      3. In what ways did Sonelle’s friends help her to develop her abilities?
      4. Draw a chart showing Sonelle’s personal development from the day she
      was invited for a game of Scrabble to where she is today.
      5. In what ways can we use leisure and competition to develop ourselves

      and others around us?

      3.4 Unit summary

      Sport - free time spent away from business, work, domestic chores and


      Leisure - all forms of competitive physical activities which, through casual
      or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability

      and skills while providing entertainment to participants.

      Contribution of leisure and sport to personal and collective


      1. Leisure activities such as drama allow one to feel confident in handling
      different situations.
      2. Sport and leisure activities promote positive social interactions thus
      social cohesion.
      3. Team sports and leisure activities enhance social inclusion thus building
      collective identity.
      4. Sports can lead to individual, collective and national recognition hence
      individual and collective prestige.
      5. Sport and leisure contribute greatly in character building hence persona


      Contribution of sports, leisure and competition to personal
      and social development

      1. Regulated sport and leisure activities inculcate values such as honesty,
      fairness and integrity leading to personal development.
      2. They also engage young people in their communities through
      volunteering hence promote social development.
      3. Sport and leisure offer equal opportunities to all regardless of gender,
      ethnicity or ability hence reinforcing gender equality and inclusiveness.

      4. They help young people to become more reasonable and critical.

      3.5 Test your competence

      Write an essay on the role of sport and leisure to:
      1. Personal development.
      2. Collective identity.

      3. Social development.

      • Key unit competence: To be able to use various sources of information
        to construct and disseminate knowledge.

        This unit is about communication as a process, its various forms and aspects

        that make it effective.

        Activity 1

        1. In pairs discuss this scenario: Imagine that you are the Director of a
        school and you would like to inform your students with all the details
        that there will be an event taking place, how would you effectively do
        2. You want to tell your best friend that you are not happy about the
        way he/she has been spreading gossip about you. How would you

        communicate your feelings about the matter?

        From the discussions, it is clear that any time someone wants to communicate,
        they will look for ways to express themselves in the most effective way. The
        appropriate language combined with facial expressions and gestures are
        combined in delivering the message. No matter what type of message is
        being communicated, the objective of all communication is to ensure that
        the message is effectively expressed and well understood. Expression can

        manifest itself through body language, signs, words or emotions.

        This unit aims to enable the learners to:

        1. be able to express themselves effectively.
        2. understand messages communicated by applying proper listening skills.
        3. respond appropriately to messages.
        4. demonstrate understanding of both verbal and non-verbal messages sent
        by others.

        5. be sensitive to the other people’s feelings when communicating.

        4.1 Forms and ways of communication

        Activity 2

        In groups discuss the following:

        1. Imagine that you have been given homework to find out your
        community’s historical background and the cultural beliefs that
        characterise it. Which would be the most appropriate way of gathering
        this information?

        2. Imagine that you have been asked to find out the history of Rwanda.

        How best would you gather this information?

        From your discussion you are likely to encounter two sources of information;
        information that is communicated verbally or through non-verbal
        communication. Oral communication is that which is verbally communicated,
        while non- verbal is that which is communicated by other means other than
        verbal. These include; written and recorded messages, online information,
        expressions such as gestures, tone of the voice, touch, smell and body

        motion; creative and aesthetic symbols that represent certain meanings.

        Activity 3

        1. From your previous discussions in Activity 1, outline the various ways
        through which you would acquire information.
        2. Which of those would be the best or most effective means of

        communication for each of the assignments and why?

        You have most certainly listed ways to communicate such as making a phone
        call or sending a short message, writing a letter or face-to-face communication.
        These can be categorised in two main forms of communication: verbal and
        non verbal communication.
        Verbal communication involves spoken words while written communication
        involves written words.
        There are various ways of communication: oral, written and recorded/
        offline communication. These are called hard ways of communication.

        Online communication is a soft way of communication.

        4.1.1 Verbal communication

        Verbal communication includes sounds and words. Language is said to
        have originated from sounds and gestures. There are many languages
        spoken in the world. Language is part of the cultural system of a society.
        Verbal communication is an effective way of communication and is again
        classified into two types: interpersonal communication and public speaking.
        Interpersonal communication involves two or more people interacting in
        a communication process while public speaking is whereby an individual

        addresses a group of people.

        4.1.2 Non-verbal communication

        Non-verbal communication includes: written information, dancing, sculpturing,
        symbols, sign language, body language, body posture and physical contact,
        like shaking hands, pushing, etc.
        Broadly, non-verbal communication can be categorised into two categories

        as shown below.

        (i) Written communication

        This is practised in many different languages and forms. It can be in the form
        of emails, reports, articles, memos, notes, etc.

        (ii) Visual communication

        This is the display of information like topography, photography, signs,
        symbols, designs, television and video clips. It involves offline recording.
        Effective communication is key for the success of businesses. Informally
        too, little can be achieved without proper communication. It is therefore a
        necessary skill of life.

        There are more media of communication today as technology advances and

        this should increase the effectiveness of communication processes.

        Exercise 1

        1. Explain the meaning of the following terms:
        i. Communication
        ii. Forms of communication

        2. Explain the different ways of communication

        4.2 Effectiveness of communication

        4.2.1 Speaking and listening

        Activity 4

        In groups, discuss how abstinence is one of the most effective methods
        of curbing the spread of HIV and AIDS epidemic in Rwanda. Note down
        the points you have discussed and present them to class. Make sure to
        have a set of questions on your presentation to find out whether you have

        communicated effectively

        From the above activity you realise that the group discussion had to involve
        active interaction of all members of the group. For a speaker to communicate
        effectively in a way understandable by other members, he/ she has to have
        communication skills. In the same way, for the other members of the group
        to understand the message, they have to be good listeners. Being a good
        listener involves:

        1. Using and recognising body language and non-verbal communication
        2. Taking control of emotion and attitude, in a way that doesn’t interfere
        with the interpretation
        3. Eye contact and attentiveness that shows interest to the topic being
        The process of communication is what allows us to interact with other people.
        Without it, we would not be able to share knowledge or experience with
        others. Therefore communication is a process of appropriate transmission,

        reception and feedback of information.

        Exercise 2

        1. Let class members take turns to say the advantages of technology

        2. Debate on its contribution to better education.

        4.2.2. Writing and reading

        Activity 5

        Choose a piece of writing from the newspaper. Read and summarise it.
        The relationship between writing and reading is undeniable as without one,
        the other cannot exist. Unless what is written is read then it is useless. One
        cannot read unless writing takes place. Since writing is the act of transmitting
        knowledge; we must have information to share before we can write it.
        Therefore reading plays a major role in writing. Effective writing allows the
        reader to thoroughly understand everything the writer is saying.
        Effective writing involves; readability and good choice of words. Readability
        entails proper use of words, sentences and paragraphs to ensure clear
        communication of facts and ideas. Good choice of words, on the other hand,
        ensures that the reader does not get bored by maintaining interest.
        For effective and efficient reading, observe the following:

        • have clear reading goals
        • choose the right texts to read
        • use the right reading style; can be skimming, scanning or any other
        appropriate style depending on your goals
        • take notes while reading
        Learning to read and communicate is very important as it is the most
        appropriate way to gain knowledge.

        Exercise 3

        Write a one page essay about the importance of friendship and give it to

        your desk mate to read.

        4.2.3 Feedback in effective communication

        Activity 6

        In groups, discuss why it is important for the teacher to find out from
        the students whether they understand what he/she is teaching. How can

        students show that they understand?

        You have discovered that people are happier when communication is clear
        and effective. The same is true for businesses, schools and homes. There is

        peace and order when communication is effective.

        Businesses thrive or fail depending on how well information circulates within
        the organisation. This means that feedback is central in all communication
        as it ascertains whether the communication process was successful or not.
        Feedback gives people specific goals to reach for and reinforces productive
        behaviour, encouraging them to look for ways to improve based on the work
        they are already appreciated for.

        Effective feedback has benefits to the sender as it helps to know whether the
        message was well understood or not.

        Exercise 4

        Cite an example of communication where feedback is very important.

        4.3 Representation of elements of communication in the form

        of a cycle

        Activity 7

        How would you describe the transmission of a message from one person
        to another or to a group of people?
        The process of communication involves the following elements:
        1. Sender: This is the person who encodes the message to be communicated.
        2. Channel: It is the medium through which the message is to be
        communicated. It can be written, radio, oral etc.
        3. Message: This is the information being communicated.
        4. Receiver: This is the person to whom the message is directed and who
        must decode the message and have feedback to send back to the sender.
        5. Feedback: It is the response given by the receiver after decoding the
        message. In this case, the receiver becomes the sender..

        The cycle continues as the sender is involved in decoding the feedback and

        encoding another message in response to the feedback.

        This can be shown in a diagram as seen below:


        Both the sender and the receiver should have communication skills for
        effective communication to occur. These include:
        i. listening to others (receiving)
        ii. asserting/expressing information clearly(sending)

        Exercise 5
        Make a visual representation showing either a cycle diagram or a chart
        presenting the elements of communication.

        In all these elements, there can be hindrances such as noise and language
        barrier. Barriers to communication can lead to misunderstanding of the
        message. The following diagram illustrates how various factors can hinder

        effective communication between a sender and a receiver.


        Barriers to effective communication
        Exercise 6

        State five barriers to effective communication.
        4.4 Reading and summarising texts and books

        Activity 8

        Read the following text.

        Uwase, who is a secondary school student, has so much to communicate
        to her parents about; she has lost her uniform, needs games wear, has
        a cold and also forgot her dictionary at home. Apart from these, Uwase
        is curious about her aunt’s wedding which took place while she was at
        school. Imagine that you are Uwase and have gotten an opportunity to
        send a short message to your parents. Write a one paragraph message

        highlighting the most important items.

        A summary gives the most relevant information of a text but in a condensed
        form. For example, a whole paragraph can be reduced into a simple sentence
        or a long complex sentence into one or few words where possible. For
        example, in the case above, there is so much Uwase can say to her parents,
        but she has to filter the information into a short message that communicates
        what she feels is the most important.

        In most cases you are likely to have a long text, from which you are supposed
        to write a summary. When summarising a text, consider the following tips.
        Key points in summary writing:

        i. Skim the text (go through it to know what type of a text it is and note its
        subsections e.g. paragraphs)
        ii. Read it again highlighting important information while taking notes
        iii. In your own words write the main points of each section (can be a
        paragraph, a verse etc.)
        iv. For each main point, write a key support point avoiding details such as
        v. Read your summary to see it flows and includes all the main points.

        4.4.1 Features of a good summary
        i. It should contain all the important facts.
        ii. Length should be 1/3 of the text.
        iii. The language should be simple and clear.

        iv. The order of ideas in the summary should not differ with that of the text.

        Exercise 7

        Suppose you were assigned to read the text “The Umuganda” below.
        Following the guidelines outlined above, highlight the major arguments

        and develop a summary of the text.

        Community life is important as it givesk
        members of a society belonging. People
        share the burdens of one another
        and enjoy the unity of togetherness.
        When people come together, there
        is no problem that is insurmountable
        because the weight of every problem
        lies on the shoulders of many people.
        This is why Umuganda in Rwanda is a

        cultural practice that has had so much significance in the society

        Umuganda began in 2007 and it means contribution. It was a practice
        where Rwandans met and solved challenges like building houses for the
        homeless, cleaning up, discussing issues and coming up with amicable

        Everyone including parents, private and government officials including
        the president gather in various places to clean the city or get involved in
        community projects. On this day, all shops remain closed from 7 a.m. to
        11 a.m. and everyone is expected to participate. After the cleaning, there
        is always a public lecture from attending officials or government partners.
        The cleanup is an exercise done around the country. It has moved from
        being a government responsibility to the community who take it as their
        own obligation.

        It is a practice that has changed the face of Rwanda and the country is
        now considered one of the cleanest in Africa, developing at a very fast

        rate. Roads are well organised, cleaned up and clearly marked. Apart from

        cleaning, Umuganda also encourages safety for Rwandans by agreeing
        on safety measures that road users must observe. Motorbike taxi drivers
        all wear helmets clearly marked with an extra for their passengers. All
        drivers are expected to adhere to traffic rules

        If other African countries emulated Rwanda, there would remarkable

        progress in the entire continent.

        4.5 Project writing
        4.5.1 Steps in project writing

        The following are the steps followed when writing a proposal:
        1. Identify topics of interest.
        2. Look for sources of information (library, internet, people.)
        3. Make notes.
        4. Make a plan/sketch.
        5. Write the first draft of the project.
        6. Write the final draft after editing.

        7. Present your project to the relevant authority.

        Activity 9

        In Activity 1 on types of communication, you discussed how to gather
        information. Question one involved gathering information on the cultural
        background of your community, while the second question required
        gathering information on your national history. In this activity, you will
        carry out the actual research by practically gathering this information.
        Subdivide your group members into two and let one group do the first
        question while the other group does the second question. Then present

        your findings to the class.

        The students doing the first question will find it necessary to conduct
        interviews with the older members of the community as they are better placed
        to give information on the cultural set-up of the society. While gathering this
        information, how you record it is of great importance. One, you might decide

        to do a tape recording or take notes as the interviewee speaks.

        Information on the second question which is about the history of Rwanda is
        likely to be found in history books or from the Internet.
        After gathering all the relevant information, the next step will involve writing
        a report of the findings which should be properly presented after undergoing
        editing. The sources of the information must be acknowledged in the final

        Note that when choosing a topic to research on, the following questions are
        important to consider:

        i. Why undertake the research?
        ii. Will the research add on to the knowledge that is already there? This
        is important in avoiding repeating research that has already been done.
        That is why it is necessary to read on the topic before gathering data/
        iii. Will I provide the answer to an important practical or significant problem
        such as environmental sustainance?
        iv. Which is the best way to gather relevant information on the topic I am
        researching on? It is important to note that information can be obtained
        from any credible source depending on the topic. A source can be primary
        or secondary. Primary sources include first hand information such as one
        - on one interview or telephone interviews, observation and focus groups
        while secondary sources include; written material, videos, recorded

        sounds among others

        4.6 Extended work

        As an individual, carry out a research project on school dropouts within your

        community in relation to gender.

        4.7 Unit summary

        Forms of communication

        • Verbal communication
        • Nonverbal communication – written and visual communication

        Ways of communication

        • Hard ways: oral, written and recorded/offline communication.
        • Soft ways: online communication such as emails, faxes and social media


        Elements of communication

        1. The sender            2. The channel
        3. The message        4. The receiver
        5. The feedback

        Features of a good summary

        1. It contains all the important facts.
        2. It is a third as long as the original text.
        3. It uses simple and clear language.
        4. Ideas flow smoothly and are orderly.

        Steps in project writing

        1. Identify topics of interest.
        2. Look for sources of information (library, internet, people.)
        3. Make notes.
        4. Make a plan/sketch.
        5. Write the first draft of the project.
        6. Write the final draft after editing.

        7. Present your project to the relevant authority.

        4.8 Test your competence

        Read different texts on the different challenges students face in learning
        English especially as a second or foreign language. Interview fellow students
        on the challenges they face when learning English. Thereafter, write a
        composition on the topic ‘Challenges of learning English in my school’.
        At the end of your composition, show all your sources of information and

        indicate the references used.

        • Key unit competence: To be able to make informed financial judgement

          and decisions.

          Personal finances are individual or family finances. How we obtain, budget,
          save and spend money over a period of time is called financial management.

          In this unit, we shall learn how to manage personal finances.

          Activity 1

          As a class, brainstorm on the term ‘personal finances’.

          5.1 Sources of revenue

          Activity 2

          1. In pairs, discuss the major activities from which your country earns
          2. Tell your friend some of the activities through which your community
          members earn income.
          Revenue refers to all the money coming into a business, a country or a person
          especially through the sale of goods or services. Revenue can be obtained
          from different sources.

          For an individual, the following are possible sources of income:

          1. Personal savings
          2. Selling of goods and services
          3. Employment
          4. Donations or gifts from friends and relatives
          5. Selling of personal property

          6. Borrowing from friends, relatives and financial institutions

          For a company, the following are possible sources of income:

          1. Savings
          2. Selling of goods and services
          3. Rents and leases of company property
          4. Interests, dividends and royalties paid by other companies

          5. Selling shares to the public

          For a government, the following are possible sources of income:

          1. Foreign exchange
          2. Taxes (propert tax, income tax, import duty etc)
          3. Fines and penalties charged on those whom have broken the law
          4. Fees charged on services rendered by the government
          5. Interest from loans given to individuals and institutions
          6. Grants and donations from international donors
          7. Loans from international lenders
          8. Leases and rents on public property
          9. Income from government-owned corporations
          10. Sale of government assets such as houses
          11. Property trustee – where privately owned property reverts back to the

          government if the owner dies intestate.

          Exercise 1

          As an individual, list the sources of revenue for your country.

          5.2 The concept of saving to an individual and the wider


          Activity 3

          Group work

          1. Discuss in your groups the disadvantages of spending money without
          2. What are the advantages of spending money sparingly in order to save?
          The concept of savings can be categorised into two kinds in order to be
          properly defined.

          (a) Personal savings - This is what people save in order not to consume all
          their income. These savings can remain on bank accounts for future use or
          be invested in other ventures like building houses, shares, and other financial
          instruments. Personal savings depict a relationship between savings, income
          and consumption but the level of income is the major determinant of
          personal savings.

          (b) National (Public) savings - These are personal savings plus the
          business savings and public savings. Public savings are basically tax revenues
          less public expenditure.
          At the individual level, the higher the savings, the higher the standards of
          living. Higher savings among individuals result in financial self-actualisation
          after a period of time. This enables individuals to fulfill most of their
          psychological and physiological needs. These are, for example, good feeding
          and clothing, better housing (private shelter), better child care in form of
          health and education, and even other luxurious property like cars or luxurious
          styles of life like big weekend shopping, holiday abroad, big investments, etc.
          At the society level, savings have a great impact. Consistent personal/
          household savings result in big investment e.g. credit cooperative societies
          which may impact positively on the welfare of the members of society
          especially through soft loans to start or boost small scale business/economic
          When prices of commodities rise, personal savings are affected as people
          spend more on buying commodities.
          Through individual development accounts - these are savings accounts that
          allow individuals and families to save and generate money for a specific
          savings goal. For example, to buy a home or rehabilitate an existing one, start
          or expand a small business, pay for college education or job training, own a
          vehicle for many purposes e.g. personal transport means for convenience to

          reach work or income generation.

          Personal/household savings bear directly on national/public savings,
          especially through individual retirement accounts. Economists argue that
          lower personal savings may lead to a decline in the net national/public
          saving rate. This decline in national saving may lead to insufficient funds for
          the economy to invest in people’s good standards of living. There is also the
          possibility that and the entire society members may not be saving enough
          for retirement.
          It is also obvious that when personal savings are low, investment will also
          be low. Hence low economic growth and economic development in the long

          run. This is a drawback to the economic advancement of the wider society.

          Exercise 2

          What is the difference between personal and national savings?

          5.3 The importance of saving and the role of interest in


          Activity 4

          Discuss as a class what is meant by saving and the role it plays in an


          The importance of savings

          Savings play an important role in an economy. Savings are important at
          different levels. We therefore need to understand who saves, why and how it
          can affect the economy entirely.
          In an economy, savings are done by households, companies and the
          government. Households save in order to cater for future expenses e.g.
          children’s education. If households don’t save, they will have insufficient
          funds to cater for future expenses. For example, they may struggle financially
          at old age or after retirement and as a result become dependent on family
          members or the government.
          Companies always save their net profit; that part of their profits that they do
          not pay out to shareholders as dividends. It is saved for future investment
          financing e.g. in rehabilitation of existing facilities or replacement of worn

          out equipment.

          Therefore, if companies don’t save sufficiently, they will not have enough
          capital to finance any replacements or expand investment. The company
          may not operate efficiently or fully fund its growth potential.
          It may not have enough funds to employ more people especially the skilled
          labour force.
          When the government’s tax revenues exceed expenditure on wages, social
          security payments, fuel, school books, hospital supplies, among other national
          expenses, then it has enough funds to build new roads, bridges, hospitals,
          schools and other public facilities that will improve the living standards of its
          If the government doesn’t save, it will have no funds to finance fixed
          investment in social infrastructure e.g. schools, hospitals, housing and
          physical infrastructure such as roads, bridges, airports, etc. This will result in
          poor standards of living, how economic growth and development.
          Therefore, the three parties: households, companies, and government are all
          interrelated in matters of saving in an economy. Despite the differences in

          savings behavior, they are not independent of each other.

          Exercise 3

          What do you understand by the term ‘savings’?

          The role of interest in saving

          Interest means the cost of borrowing money expressed as a percentage of the
          loan amount. Interest rate is the amount charged, expressed as a percentage
          of the money borrowed by the lenders to borrowers.
          Therefore, we can say that savings are dependent on interest/interest rates.
          If the interest rate is high, the rate of savings will be low and the reverse is


          5.4 Social, moral, ethical and environmental implications of

          financial decisions

          Activity 5

          Brainstorm on the ways we can make wrong financial decisions at school
          and outside school as students.
          Financial decisions, at individual level, can be defined as ways in which an
          individual decides to earn and spend his/her income so as to satisfy his/her
          A person’s financial decisions have implications on the social, moral, ethical

          and environmental conditions of society. These are as presented below.

          Social implications of financial decisions

          Bad decisions at family level impacts the entire society as a society is made
          up of families. Failure of parents to offer good education to their children due
          to inappropriate decision making on finances results to a poorly educated
          society and this has consequences. Either the generation to follow will have
          poor living standards out of the parents’ inability to educate their children
          or there will be insecurity and crime due to frustration over lack of job
          opportunities. This can be caused by luxurious spending. This may lead
          to lack of finances to cater for the immediate household needs like food,

          clothing, etc.

          Environmental implications of financial decisions

          These result from the fact that some investments, however income-generating
          they may be, they can also be destructive to the environment. This can be
          either due to pollution or depleting the natural resources. For example, a
          decision to start a business on charcoal must involve cutting down trees
          which has adverse effects to the environment. Poaching is also destructive
          as it goes against conservation of wildlife. The business may be intended to
          create savings but there are other side effects to the environment.

          Investing in self-help projects for daily income may be either good or bad to

          the society, for example, hotel or bakery investment may enhance service

          delivery and society development as food is a necessity and such a venture
          will definitely meet that need while generating income to the investor.

          However, it may have negative effects e.g. pollution of the environment.

          Ethical implications of financial decisions

          From the ethical point of view, it is necessary to look at morality of one’s
          actions and this involves the sense of right and wrong. No matter how
          financially favourable a situation might be, one should not engage in illegal
          businesses. For example, drug trafficking and corruption are morally wrong
          and illegal. Using personal funds in corrupt deals like bribery is illegal in
          society and unethical. Unethical means that it goes against the moral

          expectations of the society.

          Grabbing public land that is meant for public use to use for personal gain is
          also unethical.
          Another example of an unethical financial activity is engaging in prostitution.
          Practising prostitution is immoral and a social evil.
          Spending money on college education or education upgrading, on the other
          hand, leads to individual and society development. Education is a social need
          that leads to professional qualifications which qualify an individual for job
          opportunities. When people in society gain education, they are likely to live
          better lives.
          When making financial decisions on how to generate more income, save or
          spend money, it is therefore important to consider how the decision is going

          to impact on the society and the environment.

          Exercise 4

          1. What are they doing? p
          2. How is the habit they are engaging

          in affecting their financial situation?

          5.5 Keeping track of personal money and payment

          This involves ways of managing the way we spend our finances. This can be
          on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Keeping track of personal money and
          payment commitments can be realised if the following is done.

          1. Managing finances well

          This can be done by keeping track of the spending habits. This is most
          efficiently done by recording. Recording helps in accounting for every
          expense incurred. It should be done on a daily or weekly basis. Information
          recorded on paper can be transferred to a computer for convenience. In case
          a computer is not accessible, a note book can be used.
          In the note book, information about the spending habits; for example, in a
          month, how much is spent compared to how much should have been spent
          is recorded. This helps to identify misuse and helps in sticking to a personal
          2. Develop a personal budget

          A personal budget is essential for one to know how much he/she expects to
          spend over a period of time. In drawing a personal budget, it is important
          to consider expenses on necessities such as clothes, food, housing, utilities,
          entertainment, etc.
          The budget should reflect personal savings e.g. retirement savings, study
          savings, long-term savings and any other goals. Maintaining weekly or
          monthly checks to see that the expenditures are as budgeted for is very
          important. Even small amounts of money should be accounted for.
          Changes on the budget can be made depending on the available alternatives.
          This is if the changes are appropriate in meeting the personal needs at lower
          3. Pay financial commitments in good time

          Payment commitments refer to the resolve to meet all the financial obligations,
          such as debts and monthly bills. In day-to-day living, we incur expenses that
          are payable on say monthly basis, yearly, etc. Budgeting for one’s finances
          allows for accuracy on the amount to be paid and when it is to be paid. These
          can be electricity bills, water bills, house rent, school fees, loans, credits from

          friends and financial institutions such as banks.

          Exercise 5

          In pairs, discuss how a business on drug trafficking affects the society

          5.6 Extended work

          Drawing knowledge from the concept of personal/household saving learnt
          in this unit, make a saving plan for your family for one month. Closely refer

          to the average income of your family against daily expenditure.

          5.7 Unit summary

          Sources of revenue

          For an individual

          1. Personal savings
          2. Selling of goods and services
          3. Employment
          4. Donations or gifts from friends and relatives
          5. Selling of personal property
          6. Borrowing from friends, relatives and financial institutions

          For a company

          1. Savings
          2. Selling of goods and services
          3. Rents and leases of company property
          4. Interests, dividends and royalties paid by other companies
          5. Selling shares to the public

          For a government

          1. Foreign exchange
          2. Taxes (propert tax, income tax, import duty etc)
          3. Fines and penalties charged on those whom have broken the law
          4. Fees charged on services rendered by the government

          5. Interest from loans given to individuals and institutions

          6. Grants and donations from international donors
          7. Loans from international lenders
          8. Leases and rents on public property
          9. Income from government-owned corporations
          10. Sale of government assets such as houses
          11. Property trustee

          Importance of saving

          1. They cater for future expenses.
          2. They can be used for future expansion by companies.
          3. They can be used by governments for development projects.
          4. They can be used by governments to finance long term investments.

          Keeping track of personal money and payment commitments

          1. Managing finances well
          2. Develop a personal budget

          3. Pay financial commitments in good time

          5.8 Test your competence

          Read the short story below then answer the questions that follow.

          Isaac was known to many as a mean person. He would never buy anyone a
          cup of tea though he had a lot of money. His children never had enough to
          eat. They wore tattered clothes. They would be sent home from school due
          to lack of school fees. Isaac kept huge amounts of money in the bank. He

          said that it was his savings for future needs.

          In the same village there lived Ellis. She worked with a multinational company
          and earned a huge salary. However, whenever she got her salary, she went to
          a spending spree. She would buy expensive clothes, travel to different places
          and attend parties with friends. Soon, she would be without money. She
          would start visiting friends and asking them for money to buy food. People
          started laughing at her saying that although she earned a lot of money, she

          was poorer than them.


          1. Do you Isaac’s saving was justified? Explain your answer.
          2. Was Ellis’ way of life responsible? Give reasons for your answer.

          3. What advice would you give to both Isaac and Ellis concerning saving?

          • Key unit competence:To be able to analyse critically how education

            & welfare systems contribute to economic development

            6.1 The concept of education

            Activity 1

            In your groups:

            1. Brainstorm on the concept of education and try to give its definition.
            2. What are the different types of education?
            3. What is meant by welfare and welfare systems?
            The word education is derived from the Latin word ‘educare’, which means ‘to
            bring up’. Education can be defined as the process of imparting knowledge,
            skills, morals, attitudes and values from one person to another.
            Education involves the socialisation of the younger generation through
            continuous efforts to inculcate in them acceptable attitudes, emotional
            control and mental abilities which they may not have acquired naturally or
            on their own.

            There are two types of education: formal and informal education.

            1. Formal education

            Formal education implies any education that is provided by a recognised
            institution, such as a school, following a planned course of study. This begins

            right from kindergarten.

            2. Informal education

            This is a kind of education that is traditional and involves the wise, respectful
            and spontaneous process of imparting knowledge, skills and beliefs through
            conversation, exploration and experience. An example of this education can

            be the traditional learning of household chores in Rwanda.

            6.2 The role of education in economic development

            Activity 2

            Use the pictures provided to explain how formal and informal education

            influences a person’s economic status.


            Economic development can be defined as sustained actions of policy makers
            that lead to an improvement of the standards of living of a particular group
            of people.
            It involves an improvement on aspects such as: human capital, infrastructure,
            regional competitiveness, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy, among
            others. Various roles of education in economic development are explained


            (i) Education is very significant in the economic development of a given
            society. This is because education reduces poverty and social inequality
            by providing the underprivileged with resources and opportunities for
            upward social mobility and social inclusion. This is because education
            to all people ensures that all regardless of social background have equal
            opportunities in the skilled labour market. It reduces poverty in the sense
            that the more educated an individual is, the greater income he/she is
            likely to have and consequently, the higher the standard of living.
            (ii) An increase in the number of people who acquire knowledge and skills
            means an increase in the number of people who can play a meaningful
            role in society. However, when young people drop out of school, they are
            deprived of such skills. This creates social exclusion at individual and
            societal levels. Such children experience poverty and unemployment.
            They engage in criminal activities such as theft, drug trafficking,
            robbery and burglary due to frustration and poverty. This destroys the
            harmony of the society and derails economic development as policies
            are consequently more focused on curbing crime other than economic


            (iii) Since the process of education is aimed at producing intellectually and
            technically skilled people, it is then a fact that it is through education
            that the human capital of a country is acquired. Without a productive
            workforce, there would be no economic development. Human capital
            is an integral part of the resources a country needs in order to drive
            economic growth.
            (iv) The more the educated people in an economy, the more the tax base
            through income tax deductions to the government treasury, and the
            more the spending on commodities especially consumables.
            (v) Education enriches the people’s understanding of themselves and the
            world. This improves the quality of people’s lives which leads to social
            benefits both to the individual and society.
            (vi) Educated people are productive and creative. They make good
            entrepreneurs and advance technology. In this way, there is economic
            development arising from education.
            (vii) Education also helps to secure social progress which improves income
            distribution. It empowers people and strengthens nations. It does so by
            equalising all people and by so doing creates a level ground for all to
            maximise their potential, abilities and overcome poverty.
            (viii) Promotion of the advancement of the millennium development goals
            through universal education and gender equality ensures that education
            systems are not discriminative.
            (ix) Education promotes democracy which gives power to the people.
            This is because it enables people to participate in matters of national
            development by being involved in decision making at a national level.
            Educated people are knowledgeable and among other things, they are
            aware of their rights and responsibilities in the society. As such, they
            are able to take part in national activities at the community level and
            determine their living conditions.
            (x) Education increases the overall productivity and intellectual flexibility
            of the labour force. Therefore, it positions the country at a more
            competitive level in the world market, which is characterised by changing
            technologies and production methods.
            (xi) Through social interaction with people from different social or ethnic
            groups, education contributes significantly to nation building and

            interpersonal tolerance.

            Exercise 1

            State the various roles of education in economic development

            6.3 Inclusive education

            Activity 3

            1. What shows inclusive
            keducation in this picture?

            2. Debate on the motion:
            inclusive education
            contributes to good


            Education as already discussed is broad and very influential in the economic
            development of a country. The education system of a country should not
            discriminate against any member of the society. All children have a right to
            education. For education to be non-discriminative, it has to be all inclusive.
            Inclusive education means a system of education where all learners
            regardless of social, cultural or economic background or their academic
            ability learn together. It also means that they participate in various activities
            in a conducive environment that recognises and accommodates all their
            Inclusive education is about how the classrooms, the school as well as the
            school programmes and activities are designed to enable all students to learn
            together. It is guided by three principles:
            1. All children belong. This is based on the fact that all children and their
            families are valued equally and deserve equal opportunities. It focuses on
            building friendship and membership.
            2. Learners have different learning abilities. Inclusive education provides
            for ways of helping those learners with special needs. Therefore, help
            from friends and teachers is of great essence in the learning process.
            Relevant materials such as technological aid can be of help in serving the
            needs of all learners. Where possible, children with special needs should
            learn together with the other students of their own age in order to access
            education of the same quality.
            3. Education is a child right not a privilege: All children have right to
            Inclusive education is important and has the following benefits:
            • All the people involved in the learning process are able to develop
            individual talents and maximise their abilities in a free environment.
            • It is easier for all to achieve their goals when the environment is favourable.
            • An inclusive education facilitates proper interaction of all and this
            contributes to better interpersonal skills.
            • It also fosters a culture of respect and belonging. People are able to accept
            and respect individual differences and this reduces disrespect that leads
            to harassment and bullying.
            • Inclusive education also expands friendship among learners and
            facilitators of various levels.
            • It also influences both the school and community to appreciate diversity
            and inclusion a broader level.

            An inclusive education enhances social cohesion whereby people live
            together harmoniously. Within a society, people coexist in the sense that
            those that are disadvantaged in one way or another need the others to help
            them stabilise and that is why there is need for welfare systems if economic

            development is to take place.

            Exercise 2

            Discuss why learners with disabilities should study together with learners

            without disabilities.

            Activity 4

            (i) Discuss in groups the various ways in which community members
            can offer financial support to a widow.
            (ii) Have one student pretend to be in need. Role play a fundraising
            event where the rest of the learners are helping him/her out. Let

            one student act as the master of ceremony.

            6.4 Types of welfare systems

            A welfare system is the material and moral support aimed at promoting the
            wellbeing of those in need. In most developed countries, welfare is mostly
            done by the government from its revenues. To a lesser extent charities,
            informal social groups, religious groups, and other inter-governmental
            organisations also help in welfare.
            Welfare systems generally aim at providing services like universal healthcare
            and unemployment insurance. Some countries run conditional cash transfer
            welfare programmes where payment depends on the behaviour of the

            In Rwanda, there are two welfare systems: social security and insurance.

            1. Social security

            The Rwanda Social Security Board (RSSB) administers social security in the
            country. It takes care of such social security aspects as pension, occupational
            risks and health insurance. The following are examples of social security in
            a. La Rwandaise d’Assurance Maladie (RAMA) – This offers social security
            to government employees.
            b. Universal Health Insurance (Mutuelles de Santé)- This provides universal
            health insurance coverage(Mutuelles de Santé) to all Rwandans. It is
            offered through the Ministry of Health.
            c. Ubudehe programme – This provides support to the Rwandans living
            below the poverty line.
            d. Girinka programme – This involves giving a cow for every poor family.
            e. Umurenge VUP – This is a fund for the for the most vulnerable and

            extreme poor in Rwanda.

            2. Insurance

            a. RSSB Medical scheme – This offers medical insurance to all government
            employees and employees from some private organisations.
            b. Military Medical Insurance (MMI) – This offers medical insurance to
            employees in the military.
            c. Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI) – This offers medical
            insurance to all Rwandans.
            d. Insurance from private insurers – These offer various covers and
            policies such as the following:
            • Education policy – caters for education of all members
            • Accidents and losses – covers members against accidents and
            • Motor vehicles cover – covers insured vehicles and their users
            • Health cover – covers medical bills of the insured
            • Property cover – covers business and private premises, equipment

            and other installations

            • Agriculture cover – covers livestock and crops

            Exercise 3

            Describe the different welfare systems in your district.

            6.5 The importance of welfare systems in economic development

            Activity 5

            In your groups, discuss the following question:
            Do welfare systems help in improving the economy of a country? Explain
            your answer.
            The following are ways in which welfare systems contribute to economic
            1. Welfare systems support education, which is an important aspect of
            economic development. Welfare systems strive to reduce the gap between
            the rich and the poor. This lays the basis for a sustained economic
            2. Some welfare systems also focus on matters of health. Social effort is
            made to ensure that all people can afford health care. This helps to create
            a healthy labour force, which is the backbone of economic development.
            In this way, it increases the life expectancy of the labour force in an
            3. All aspects of social security, for example, health insurance, housing
            assistance and others, provide the members of the society with enough
            to spend. This contributes to economic growth in the long run. When
            people have money to spend, the production of goods and service
            delivery is improved. This cash flow from individuals to the government
            increases the revenue of the economy.
            4. The gender balance that is practised in some welfare systems helps to
            create a level ground for women to join the workforce. It also undertakes
            to empower children through early childhood training. This helps to build
            a much more constructive and productive society.
            It can be concluded therefore that welfare systems are not only beneficial to

            the individual but also to the entire economic system.

            Exercise 4

            Explain the role of welfare in economic development by focusing on

            either health or education.

            6.6 Challenges facing education for all

            Activity 6

            Debate on the motion: Education for all may not be realised in all countries
            The concept Education for all (EFA) refers to a commitment by countries
            and government to meet the learning needs of all children, youths and adults
            by 2015. It is spearheaded by UNESCO (The United Nations Educational,
            Scientific and Cultural Organisation.) in partnership with all governments,

            development agencies, civil society and non-governmental organisations.

            These are some of the major challenges facing education for all:

            1. Majority of the donors have neglected to fund EFA goals outside of
            primary education. As a result, pre-primary education and adult literacy
            remain underfunded.
            2. Donors have largely failed on their commitment to deliver aid more
            effectively. Effective international coordination and distribution of aid to
            education have been almost entirely absent.
            3. Low transition rate from primary to secondary school. For example, in
            the Philippines, just 69% of primary school graduates from the poorest
            families continued into lower secondary, compared with 94% from the
            richest households.
            4. Some students drop out of school before they reach their last grade. This
            reduces the government’s effort to make education available for all.
            5. In most countries, there are high levels of illiteracy among adults. This
            makes it hard for parents to support education of their children in such
            activities as helping them in homework.
            6. Child development and child labour reduce opportunities for children
            to attend school. For example, children may be involved in quarrying

            activities or picking tea leaves.

            Exercise 5

            1. Discuss the challenges facing the education sector in Rwanda.

            6.7 Extended work

            In your groups, attempt the following tasks:
            1. Brainstorm on the benefits of education and the challenges of education.
            Write down a poem on your points and recite it aloud as a group.
            2. Define welfare systems. In not more than one month, gather information
            (within and outside school) and write a short report about welfare in your


            6.8 Unit summary

            Formal education - any education that is provided by a recognised
            institution, such as a school, and which follows a planned course of study.
            Informal education - education that is traditional and involves the wise,
            respectful and spontaneous process of imparting knowledge, skills and
            beliefs through conversation, exploration and experience.
            Inclusive education - a system of education where all learners regardless
            of social, cultural or economic background or their academic ability learn
            The role of education in economic development
            1. Education reduces poverty and social inequality by providing the
            underprivileged with resources and opportunities for upward social
            mobility and social inclusion.
            2. It increases the number of people who acquire knowledge and skills
            hence an increase in the number of people who can play a meaningful
            role in society.
            3. It produces a productive workforce which contributes to economic
            4. It broadens a country’s tax base through having more employable
            people hence higher income for the government.
            5. Education enriches the people’s understanding of themselves and the
            world thus improving the quality of people’s lives.
            6. Educated people make good entrepreneurs and help in advancing
            technology thus promoting economic development.
            7. Education also helps to secure social progress which improves income


            Types of welfare systems

            1. Social security

            2. Insurance

            The importance of welfare systems in economic development

            1. They support education which promotes economic development.
            2. They promote good health hence creating a healthy workforce which is
            the backbone of economic development.
            3. They assure social security leading to economic growth.
            4. The offer opportunities for all to grow and support economic growth of
            a country.
            Challenges facing education for all
            1. Low donor funding for pre-primary and adult education.
            2. Low enrolment in early childhood education.
            3. Lack of an effective international coordination and distribution of aid
            to education.
            4. Low transition rate from primary to secondary school.
            5. Some students drop out of school before they reach their last grade.
            6. The lack of an appropriate (and gender-sensitive) curriculum with
            complementary learning materials that focus on the acquisition of key
            competencies (such as literacy and numeracy).
            7. Inadequate attention to child-centred and gender sensitive teaching
            methodology and the use of appropriate teaching and learning

            materials, including books and readers.

            6.9 Test your competence

            1. Analyse the role of education in economic development in Rwanda.
            2. There are different welfare systems in Rwanda. Citing examples,
            explain how these welfare systems contribute to Rwanda’s economic


            • Key unit competence: To be able to explain the importance of career



              Career planning is an essential skill in life. The career that one takes on in life
              is based on the plans that one made or failed to make earlier in life. In this
              unit, we shall study the various strategies that one needs to employ in order

              to actualise his/her career aspirations.

              7.1 The link between education, training, job and income

              Activity 1


              Career planning is an essential skill in life. The career that one takes on in life
              is based on the plans that one made or failed to make earlier in life. In this
              unit, we shall study the various strategies that one needs to employ in order

              to actualise his/her career aspirations.

              7.1 The link between education, training, job and income

              Activity 1

              1. Discuss the most liked jobs in Rwanda in the current situation and
              explain why.
              2. What would you say is the difference between training and education?
              Education differs from training in that training aims at imparting specific
              skills necessary for performing a particular job task while education is aimed
              at inculcating knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and habits to an individual.
              Education is therefore broader than training as it covers a wide range of
              aspects and takes a longer time. It influences how an individual thinks and
              acts in different situations. To some extent, education continues throughout
              a person’s life.
              Both education and training, however, are related. They are both processes
              of imparting knowledge and skills necessary for effectiveness either in daily
              life or in defined tasks. Even after undergoing education, one may need to
              train in a specified field in order to efficiently perform in it. Education and
              training can therefore be termed as complements.
              So how do job and income come in?
              Education and training, to a large extent, determine the job or career an
              individual persues. This in turn determines the amount of income an
              individual earns. Education for example, covers various fields. The school
              curriculum gives an opportunity for learners to be exposed to a wide range
              of fields at the basic level. Once they have basic knowledge on virtually all
              fields, they are then able to choose areas of interest in which they can pursue
              a career later in life. These choices determine what type of education an
              individual gets and the kind of job he/she is likely to do.
              Training is done prior the employment to enhance good performance of the
              job already chosen. While working, training is also done to maintain and
              improve on skills of doing a particular job. Training can be professional,
              physical or developmental.
              Good education and good training lead to a more skilled and productive
              labour force. Skilled individual is at a better position to acquire a job that is

              well paying.

              Exercise 1

              Discuss how education and training can influence a person’s promotion

              at work.

              7.2 Types of jobs and the expected income

              Activity 2

              1. In your groups, identify two common jobs in your community.
              2. Try to brainstorm on the income and incentives that the people
              performing them may be getting. Would you like to perform such
              jobs in future? Give reasons.
              As discussed earlier, jobs can be categorised using different criteria. The

              most common one is formal or informal employment.

              1. Formal jobs

              Formal jobs are professional career that involves an official agreement
              between an employer and an employee.
              A formal job has a set salary and benefits , a stable working location, regular
              working hours and some contributions for taxes and social security.
              The formal jobs have a higher remuneration as compared to the informal jobs.
              Terms of employment is mostly permanent, full time and regular. Examples

              of formal jobs include: teaching, medical practice and accounting.

              2. Informal jobs

              Informal jobs are mostly short term engagements between an employer and
              an employee. The agreement is to do a certain task, usually casual work.
              There is no written contract between the employer and the employee.
              Informal jobs examples are: mechanical jobs, household employment,
              painting, offloading trucks, quarrying and stone work etc.

              Terms of employment can either be temporary, part time or seasonal.

              3. Seasonal jobs

              Seasonal jobs are jobs that are available at certain periods of time and
              are dependent on other factors. Such factors include school holiday jobs,

              agricultural seasons, peak tourism periods etc.

              4. Temporary jobs

              Temporary jobs are jobs that are to be done within a specified period of time.

              A good example is a contract job.

              5. Self employment

              Self employment occurs when an individual has a personal business from
              which he/ she derives profits.
              There is a wide range of fields that one can study in especially for formal
              employment. They include the following:

              1) Architecture and engineering
              2) Community services
              3) Computer and Maths
              4) Construction
              5) Criminal justice/ law enforcement
              6) Education training
              7) Farming, fishing and forestry
              8) Food service: Food preparation and serving can earn a good wage with
              little or no formal education.
              9) Health and medical: The health and medical industries offer the most
              stable and highest paying career fields. They offer competative pay and
              10) Management and administration: Managers and administrators are
              always in high demand and are valued for their management expertise.
              11) Natural sciences (physical and social sciences): There are many career
              opportunities in natural sciences that offer very attractive incentives,
              wages and salaries.
              12) Production and manufacturing: These also offer a wide range of job
              13) Sales and marketing
              14) Transport and material moving
              These are some of the various job possibilities that one can have in mind
              when planning for a career.

              Expected income from different jobs

              The difference in the amount of income in the formal sector however, depends
              on various aspects. One such aspect is the level of education required for
              one to work in a particular job. Some professions require a tertiary college
              certificate others require a university degree, while others require a post
              graduate degree. The higher the level of education required for a job, the
              higher the income.
              There is also a variation in the length of time required to gain certain skills
              and qualifications. Some degrees such as medicine, engineering and law for
              example, take a longer period of time to acquire as compared to other degrees
              such as arts. This rates them higher in the amount of income obtained from
              Scarcity of a skill is also an aspect that distinguishes careers. The more
              scarce a skill is, the higher the income it is likely to generate. Scarcity is
              caused by among other factors, the cost of training and qualification to
              pursue the career. This is because levels of education are transitional and
              there are certain qualification requirements in moving from one level to
              another and also choosing the careers to pursue. Different careers require
              different qualifications.
              The choice of a career, is not only determined by the amount of income or

              qualification required but also by one’s interests and talents.

              Exercise 2

              Using examples, demonstrate how various jobs differ in the amount of


              7.3 Career planning process

              Activity 3

              1. What do you understand by the term ‘career’?
              2. In pairs, share your areas of interest in terms of job aspirations. How
              did you develop interest in that area? How do you plan to achieve it?
              A career can be defined as an occupation undertaken for a considerable
              period of a person’s life and with opportunities for progress.
              It is the process and actions taken by a person throughout their lifetime in
              relation to his or her occupation. One’s career is described by the jobs held,
              titles earned and the work accomplished over a long period.
              A career plan, on the other hand, can be defined as an individual’s choice of
              occupation or career path. It is a life-long process in selecting an occupation,
              locating career opportunities, developing oneself professionally and possibly
              changing one’s career.
              Career planning may happen once in one’s life. However, it can also happen
              several times as one gains more experience and re-defines his or her potential
              and interests.
              Career choice is very important because it guides an individual in decision
              making. For example, in deciding what courses to study. Career planning
              takes a number of steps as discussed below.

              The steps in the career planning process are:

              (a) Consider your interests and talents. People have different interests. An
              interest is something that draws someone’s attention and that which
              one enjoys doing. Talents, on the other hand, are things that one does
              exemplary well without much effort. When making a choice on the career
              goals to set, these two aspects are very important. This is because doing
              a job which one has interest in is fulfilling and the ability to do it without
              much effort makes one much more productive even after education and
              training. One’s strengths and weaknesses are also important in assessing
              what form of career is suitable.
              (b) Consider the available options that would suit your interests and
              abilities. Here, one should find out the job opportunities that make
              the best use of his/her interests and abilities.
              (c) Find out the academic and other requirements needed to secure the
              (d) Set goals to achieve those requirements. For example, aspiring to
              pursue a career in economics will require one to study courses on
              that field. To be able to achieve this, one has to do well in business
              and entrepreneurship subjects.
              Goal setting in planning for a career is very essential. This is because it is
              important to have an end towards which all efforts must be directed. This
              end is the goal to be achieved.
              Career planning is therefore very important as it:
              1. Enables an individual to focus his/ her abilities, opportunities and efforts
              towards one major goal.
              2. Enables individuals to maximise their potential with an aim of achieving
              their aspirations.
              3. Places individuals at their most suitable career hence enhancing
              4. Helps individuals develop skills.
              5. Enhances productivity in one’s field.
              6. Brings the uniqueness of individuals together therefore enabling
              complementarity at work.
              7. Career planning reduces staff turnover. Staff turnover is the number of
              people losing jobs.

              Exercise 3

              Why do you think it is beneficial for educated people to carry out career
              planning? Explain in detail.

              7.4 Importance of career choice in achieving personal
              financial goals
              Activity 4

              Discuss in groups why you think your dream career will stabilise you
              financially and help you achieve your future goals.
              As discussed earlier, different careers offer different rates of income. Career
              choice therefore can either facilitate achievement of financial goals or limit
              their achievement.
              A financial goal is a plan for the future that involves spending money. This can
              be living comfortably, providing quality education to one’s children or even
              supporting one’s aging parents. For one to achieve these goals, he/she has to be
              financially prepared. To be financially prepared means that one has the means
              of earning enough money to cater for these needs. The choice of career directly
              impacts on the financial ability of an individual to achieve the financial goals.
              Career choice enhances achievement of personal financial goals in the
              following ways:
              1. When choosing a career, one is likely to choose a career that is financially
              rewarding as opposed to an unplanned job that one lands out of lack of
              another alternative.
              2. Choosing a career and directing all efforts in pursuing it results in
              remarkable skill and a high level of competence in the field. This places
              an individual in a high ranking position in the field of practice and thus
              he/she gets a higher income.
              3. Career choice and planning provides for upgrading of skills in one’s area
              of specialisation. This leads to professionalism which allows for increment
              of income as more and more expertise is gained.

              Exercise 4

              1. Analyse the career journey of any successful person you know of.
              Write an essay highlighting the major steps involved in building his/
              her career.

              7.5 Extended work

              Prepare a career plan for a career of your choice in future. Remember to
              include all the details.

              7.6 Unit summary

              Types of jobs

              1. Formal jobs
              2. Informal jobs
              3. Seasonal jobs
              4. Temporary jobs
              5. Self employment

              Steps in the career planning process

              1. Consider your interests and talents.
              2. Consider the available options that would suit your interests and
              3. Find out the academic and other requirements needed to secure the
              4. Set goals to achieve those requirements.

              Importance of career planning

              1. It enables an individual to focus his/ her abilities, opportunities and
              efforts towards one major goal.
              2. It enables individuals to maximise their potential with an aim of
              achieving their aspirations.
              3. It places individuals at their most suitable career hence enhancing
              4. It helps individuals develop skills.
              5. It enhances productivity in one’s field.
              6. It brings the uniqueness of individuals together therefore enabling
              complementarity at work.
              7. Career planning reduces staff turnover. Staff turnover is the number of
              people losing jobs.

              Importance of career choice

              1 It helps one to choose a career that is financially rewarding.
              2. It enables one to direct all efforts in pursuing the career leading to
              remarkable skill and a high level of competence in the field.
              3. It provides for upgrading of skills in one’s area of specialisation

              7.7 Test your competence

              Write an essay explaining the importance of career planning.

              • Key unit competence: To be able to analyse critically fair operating



                In this unit, we will study some of the fair operating practices in business.
                We all depend on certain businesses and business people to get our supplies
                at home and in the office. We always hope that we get the best deals at
                the grocers shop and wherever else we do shopping. This cannot happen

                without fair operating practices.

                8.1 The concept of corruption

                Activity 1

                In pairs, discuss what you understand by the term ‘corruption’.


                Corruption refers to a very broad range of behaviour that particularly has
                something to do with power misuse. Corruption is an ill that is eating away
                most societies of the world, especially in the African continent.
                It involves the abuse of a position in order to gain an unmerited advantage
                through means that are illegitimate, immoral or unethical. It can be for
                personal gains or in favour of certain groups of people. It is mostly associated

                with bribery.

                Exercise 1

                Identify any corrupt practices in your community. Refer to any of them

                that you witnessed. How was it handled by the authority?

                8.2 Forms of corruption

                Activity 2

                1. In about five minutes, role play people carrying out an act of
                corruption. The rest of the class should act as audience.
                2. In pairs, discuss ways in which corruption is practised in most African
                Acts of corruption may be petty or grand depending on the magnitude of
                the resources misappropriated or the measure of the injustice undertaken.
                Corruption takes many forms depending on the nature of the dishonest
                behaviour practised. The forms can be analysed as follows:
                1. Bribery – It is arguably the most common form of corruption. Bribery
                involves two parties: the giver and taker of the bribe. A bribe is an illegal
                payment given to a person either directly or indirectly for him/ her to act
                in a certain way, or refrain from acting in his/her official capacity. This
                can be to allow illegal businesses such as smuggling of goods or to be
                exempted from legal procedures such as taxes or licences.
                2. Embezzlement – This is theft or misappropriation of money and other
                resources put under one’s responsibility but belonging to someone else.
                Embezzlement of funds is common in political situations where public
                money meant to be used in improving the standards of living of the
                citizens is misappropriated and used in personal projects by government
                officials. Apart from funds, human resource and public facilities can also
                be embezzled by being used to serve purposes other than the legitimate
                3. Nepotism – This is the practice of unfair distribution of resources or
                treatment of people that involves favouring closely related people in
                performance of one’s official duties. It can be giving individuals or groups
                of individuals jobs, promotions, or even salary increment based on the
                fact that they are related to you.
                4. Patronage – This is whereby a public officer gives favours such as
                employment in return for political support. For example, an aspiring
                politician may use his influence to illegally help people acquire positions
                in public offices in exchange for support in his/ her political ambitions.
                5. Theft and fraud – Some officials steal state assets kept under their
                watch or those assets made available to them by virtue of their positions
                in government. Fraud involves using deception to convince the owner
                of funds or assets to give them up to an unauthorised party. A good
                example is where a person in authority misdirects company funds into
                non-existent companies and then later transfers them into a personal
                account. Acquiring publicly owned assets such as money through illegal
                means is the most common form of corruption.
                6. Institutional corruption – This form of corruption can happen where
                conflicts of interest are not managed. Institutional corruption takes place
                when those who are in charge of a project make decisions about those
                projects in their own favour, not considering other people who are in dire
                need and depend on those projects. For example if an official is foreseeing
                a water project to help people in a dry locality have piped water, that
                official may make the decision to have fewer pipes so that he can spend
                less in the project and reserve more finances for him/herself.
                7. Extortion and blackmail – Extortion and blackmail involve the use
                of threats to gain access to another person’s information or property.
                This can be the threat of violence or false imprisonment as well as
                exposure of an individual’s secrets or prior crimes. A good example is
                where an influential person threatens to go to the media if they do not
                receive speedy medical treatment or where a person demands money in
                exchange for continued secrecy.
                8. Abuse of office/ discretion – This refers to the misuse of one’s powers
                and decision-making facilities. Examples include a judge dismissing a
                criminal case unjustly or a customs official using their position to allow
                a banned substance such as drugs to be imported or exported with the

                intention of gaining financially from it.

                Exercise 2

                In about two paragraphs, write about four forms of corruption and cite

                African examples where possible. Give your essay a relevant title.

                8.3 The causes and effects of corruption

                8.3.1 Causes of corruption

                Activity 3

                How does corruption affect the society?

                Corruption starts within a person. The desire to make money or acquire
                certain privileges lures people to accept bribes or do certain things for their

                own gain and so they become corrupt.

                The following are the major causes of corruption:

                1. Ambiguity of laws - Most constitutional laws are not clear on matters
                of corruption and this creates loopholes for people to get away with
                corruption cases.
                2. In most cases, corruption begins from the top officials and people in
                positions of authority. This makes people feel secure in corruption deals.
                3. Bribing provides an alternative to following long procedures. People
                who can afford these alternatives would not take the trouble to follow
                these procedures.
                4. Poor enforcement of law on property rights leads to a misconception
                that violation of these rights has little or no consequences.
                5. Poor governance – The overall system of governance that has no place
                for moral and ethical values kills any spirit of justice that would help
                overcome corruption.
                6. Personal greed and desire for money or wealth with no regard for
                7. The desire to serve personal interests rather than public interest at work
                place. This may be due to weak supervision in the public sector.
                8. Lack of awareness on matters of law and the justice system in the wider
                population. This renders people incapable of reporting incidents of
                corruption. This is because if someone does not recognise a crime or
                an act of injustice committed against them, then it is hard for them to
                act or resist it.
                9. Fear of victimisation. If one really needs a service and his/ her request
                for the service is met by demands for a bribe, this person may fail to resist
                offering the bribe out of the fear that resistance may cause difficulties in
                achieving his/ her goals.
                8. Some slogans encourage self–centeredness and therefore inspire
                corruption. For example: ‘take advantage while you can’; ‘everyone
                does it’ etc.
                9. Systems that do not emphasise on accountability and transparency also
                cause corruption.
                10. Slow and unreliable judicial processes such that even when one gathers
                enough courage to report corruption, the procedures involved take long
                and may actually not be effective enough to discourage the crime. The
                procedures are also costly to follow through.
                12. There is lack of moral criteria in promotions. Promotion should be
                based on proven integrity and responsibility but this is not always the
                case. Promotions are at times based on corruption and this creates a
                system built on the vice of corruption.
                13. Lack of will to prosecute those in power. Most of the times reports on
                corruption point at influential public figures whose cases are downplayed
                as those in charge often feel like they have less power to penalize them.
                In conclusion, the causes of corruption can be said to be built around

                personal, cultural, institutional and organisational factors.

                8.3.2 Effects of corruption

                Corruption is all about taking advantage of someone else’s condition and the
                possibility of gaining from it. It becomes a social issue when it becomes an
                assumed culture whereby people in a society cannot access public services
                and resources without bribing those in authority. The result of this is that
                the poor suffer more as they lack the social networks and funds to access
                these services. National resources and opportunities therefore end up being
                owned by those in power and those with the means. The gap between the
                rich and the poor widens and oppression and exploitation become rampant.
                What results is a society whose economic development is crippled as the
                revenues supposed to develop the nation are misappropriated and unequal
                distribution of resources denying a high percentage of the population an
                opportunity to develop.
                Corruption has far reaching negative effects from the individual level,
                community level, national level, all the way to the international level. These

                effects are:

                1. Corruption undermines economic development, distorts political systems
                and halts infrastructural development.
                2. It kills a person’s sense of morality. Every act of corruption leads
                to oppression of one party to benefit another. It is therefore an act of
                3. A system of corruption enhances social inequality as resources are
                utilised by those in power and the rich.
                4. It leads to political instability as leaders are not elected out of integrity
                but through corrupt means.
                5. Corruption undermines human rights. A society where people are
                deprived of their rights lacks in peace and people are always in a struggle
                for a dignified life.
                6. At the community and national level, corruption slows down development
                as resources meant to drive development projects are pocketed by the
                ruling class.
                7. Corruption encourages illegal activities and crime as criminals and law
                breakers are able to bribe their way out. The rule of law is compromised.
                8. The authority and integrity of public administration structures is
                9. Corruption leads to depletion of national wealth. Selfish individuals use
                the national resources for personal advancement. They convert public
                wealth to private property.
                10. It also causes inflation. It is responsible for increased costs of foods and
                services as the revenue that would have been used to subsidise these
                necessities is misappropriated.
                11. Corruption leads to unequal allocation of resources which leads to
                imbalance in economic development. Some regions are improved while
                others remain marginalised.
                12. It discourages people from working together for the common good. This
                may lead to frustration and general apathy among the public which can
                create a weak civil society that is not unified.
                13. Corruption results in social inequality and widens the gap between the
                rich and the poor, causes civil strife, increased poverty and lack of basic
                needs like food, water and drugs.
                14. It also causes jealousy, hatred and insecurity.
                Corruption is therefore is a bad practice. It undermines the legitimacy of
                a government, weakens state structures, reduces productivity and hinders

                national development.

                Exercise 3

                What do you think should be done to corrupt officers in your country?

                8.4 Fair competition

                Activity 4

                Debate on the following motion: ‘Fair competition and respect are
                unattainable in modern society.’
                Fair competition means that the same rules and conditions are applied to all
                participants and that the actions of some do not affect the ability of others
                to compete. People can only compete fairly when all the advantages and
                opportunities are equally provided to all competitors.
                In trade, fair competition means a situation where business people compete
                on balanced factors such as price, quality and service. This means that there
                is no monopoly of business; rather, there is opportunity for all who are
                interested in the business.
                Healthy competition can improve a country’s economic performance. Open
                business opportunities reduce the cost of goods and services and therefore

                contributes to improving the economy.

                8.4.1 Advantages of fair competition

                1. It leads to friendship among competitors.
                2. Respect for one another.
                3. It promotes honesty and fairness in business transactions.
                4. It encourages teamwork.
                5. It promotes economic growth and poverty reduction. It can lead to
                significant reforms in the business world due to increased competition.
                6. Fair competition helps consumers to get a good deal and contentment for
                what they spend. It ensures that good quality products are produced.
                7. Fair competition leads to the urge of being better in the market. It
                encourages competitors to innovate. This reduces pressure on costs and
                produces more returns due to efficiency in production.
                8. It lowers prices for consumers.
                9. It enhances technological advancement.
                10. Consumers have a wider variety to choose from; hence they become
                more informed on different qualities of products that can be available.
                11. There is availability of products in different prices, and therefore all

                classes of people are catered for.

                8.4.2 Justification for fair competition

                If there was only one airline that was offering international transport, no
                matter the quality of the services that it would offer, travellers would have
                no option but to use it. This kind of airline can be said to be a monopoly.
                However, if the market was open and there were many other options for
                air travel, this airline would be forced to ensure that its services are of good
                quality for it to survive in the transport industry. This would ensure that

                consumers get value for their money.

                Exercise 4

                Discuss with your partner the ways in which your society tries to be fair

                to everybody.

                8.5 Respect of property rights

                Activity 5

                1. What is happening in thisl


                2. Who do you think the pens

                belong to?

                3. Who has the right to the


                In most cases, disagreement over who owns property or how property
                ought to be used leads to strife and at times violence. These disagreements
                arise from disrespect for property rights or unclear definition of ownership.
                Property rights determine how a resource or property is owned and used. A
                property can be owned by an individual, a group of individuals, an association

                or the government.

                Property rights are made necessary by the fact that many people live together
                either in a family, a community or the wider society. If each person lived
                alone, then there wouldn’t be a need for property rights. In essence, property
                rights help to ensure a peaceful coexistence among members of a family or
                community as they ensure that ownership to property is defined.
                Apart from ownership, property rights also determine the relationship of
                other parties linked to the property. Violation of these rights is punishable
                and this reduces incidents of disrespecting others property rights.
                A person’s property rights can be said to have been violated when:
                • someone destroys the property
                • someone uses it without permission from the owner
                Property such as land can also be infringed upon when:
                • Someone grabs the property (such as land)
                Property rights enable a property owner to have control over the property in
                the following ways:

                (i) The right to use the property - this means that a property owner has
                the right to decide whether and how to use the property. For example, if
                someone owns a piece of land, it is within their right to decide whether
                to put the land to use or not and how to use it.
                (ii) The right to earn income from the property - an owner of a property
                may decide to hire it out or put it to personal use.
                (iii) The right to transfer the property to others - this is where someone
                decides to sell his/ her property to someone else or even give it without

                any financial returns.

                (iv) The right to enforcement of property rights - this means that one
                who owns a property has the right to exercise all the rights pertaining

                ownership of that property.

                Advantages of property rights

                1. Property rights provide security for the future. This is in matters of
                inheritance of his/her property. When someone is the owner of a
                property, he/ she has the right to transfer ownership to an individual of
                choice. Once ownership has been transferred, the property rights protect
                the new owner such that no one else can claim the property.
                2. Property rights also act as a catalyst for socio- economic progress as
                people want to work hard to own their own property. If all property were
                communally owned, people would not find much prestige in owning
                3. The boundaries of how a property should be used also enhance peace
                and harmony in the society.
                4. It is a source of prestige and gives one a higher social status.
                However, property rights may lead to greed for property, capitalism, inequality

                and corruption.

                Exercise 5

                What makes it difficult for people to realise their full property rights?

                8.6 Extended work

                Imagine you have started a small business in your village. How would you

                promote fair competition in your business?

                8.7 Unit summary

                Forms of corruption

                1. Bribery
                2. Embezzlement
                3. Nepotism
                4. Patronage
                5. Theft and fraud
                6. Institutional corruption
                7. Extortation and blackmail

                8. Abuse of office

                Causes of corruption

                1. Ambiguity of laws
                2. Long procedures in carrying out a transaction (bureaucracy)
                3. Poor enforcement of law on property rights
                4. Poor governance
                5. Personal greed and desire for money or wealth
                6. The desire to serve personal interests rather than public interest

                8. Lack of awareness on law and the justice

                Effects of corruption

                1. It undermines economic development, distorts political systems and
                halts infrastructural development.
                2. It kills a person’s sense of morality.
                3. It enhances social inequality as resources are utilised by those in power
                and the rich.
                4. It leads to political instability as leaders are not elected out of integrity
                but through corrupt means.
                5. It undermines human rights.
                6. It slows down development as resources meant to drive development
                projects are pocketed by the ruling class.
                7. It encourages illegal activities and crime as criminals and law breakers
                are able to bribe their way out.
                8. The authority and integrity of public administration structures is
                9. It leads to depletion of national wealth.
                10. It also causes inflation.
                11. It leads to unequal allocation of resources which leads to imbalance in
                economic development.
                12. It discourages people from working together for the common good.
                13. It results in social inequality and widens the gap between the rich and
                the poor, causes civil strife, increased poverty and lack of basic needs
                like food, water and drugs.

                14. It causes jealousy, hatred and insecurity.

                Advantages of fair competition

                1. It leads to friendship among competitors.
                2. Respect for one another.
                3. It promotes honesty and fairness in business transactions.
                4. It encourages teamwork.
                5. It promotes economic growth and poverty reduction.

                6. It ensures that good quality products are produced.

                8.8 Test your competence

                1. Read the case study below then answer the questions that follow.

                Gasore had shop in his village. He had to travel for long distances to get
                goods to sell in his shop. For this reason, he sold the goods at his shop at
                double the expected price. Most villagers did not like this but had no other
                However, Gasore was very kind to his customers. He always packed the
                goods they bought for them with a smile. He also sold only approved goods
                and refused to deal in goods bought in the black market. For this reason, the
                villagers loved him.


                a. Identify any unfair operating practices that Gasore engaged in.
                b. What are the fair operating practices that Gasore practised?
                c. In what way do you think the fair business practices benefitted the
                people of Gasore’s village?

                2. Read the story below then answer the questions that follow.

                There once lived a king who ruled in far island. He made all laws for his
                people. He distributed land to his people and dictated who could own what.
                He argued that everything in the island belonged to him. For this reason, he
                would take people’s property at will.
                Sometimes he would take other people’s cattle for his private party. He would
                also take their land and give to foreigners who brought him goods. This made
                the people of the island unhappy.


                a. Do you think the king respected property rights? Explain your answer.

                b. What are the effects of not respecting property rights?

                • Key unit competence: To be able to overcome environmental



                  Environmental management is an issue many governments in the world
                  are grappling with. Environment refers to the surrounding or conditions
                  in which a person, animal or plant lives. There are six key elements of
                  natural environment that are significant when talking about environmental

                  degradation. These are:

                  1) Atmosphere
                  2) Water resources
                  3) Soil
                  4) Oceans
                  5) Forests

                  6) Living species

                  Many international fora have been held to discuss ways of conserving the
                  environment. Population increase has been blamed for many environmental
                  problems. In this unit, we will study in depth environmental management

                  and population dynamics.

                  9.1 Rwandan and global environmental degradation

                  Activity 1

                  1. What do you think are the causes of environmental degradation?
                  Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through
                  depletion of resources such as air, water and soil. There are many causes of

                  environmental degradation. The following are some of the causes:

                  1. High population growth
                  2. Deforestation
                  3. Wetlands encroachment
                  4. Overstocking
                  5. Monoculture
                  6. Pollution
                  7. Landfills

                  8. Natural causes

                  1. High population growth: Rapid population growth puts strain on
                  natural resources which results in degradation of our environment. More
                  population means more demand for basic needs. Most of these basic needs
                  such as food, clothes and shelter are obtained from the natural resources.
                  As the population increases, more space to grow food and build homes is
                  needed. This leads to other factors of environmental degradation: wetland

                  encroachment and deforestation.

                  2. Deforestation: Deforestation involves
                  lthe cutting down of trees. Trees can be
                  felled for various reasons. The most
                  common reasons are:
                  i. To use of forest land for agriculture or
                  animal grazing
                  ii. To harvest wood for fuel and house
                  iii. Logging to make way for more homes and industries
                  3. Wetlands encroachment: Wetlands are places where there is shallow
                  water or very soggy soil at least part of the time. They include marshes
                  and swamps. Wetland encroachment involves intrusion of humans into such
                  natural areas either for farming or settlement. Wetlands play a vital role in
                  conservation of the environment. They cleanse and rejuvenate rivers. They
                  also prevent flooding by holding water. In this way, wetlands help keep river
                  levels normal and filter and purify the surface water. During storms, and
                  whenever water levels are high wetlands accept water. When water levels are
                  low, they slowly release water.
                  4. Overstocking: Overstocking of grazing animals has impact on the
                  environment in two major ways. First, there is the physical impact of the
                  animal on soil as they move around. Secondly, there is the chemical and
                  biological impact of the faeces and urine that the animals deposit to soil.
                  Physically damaged soil can be even more susceptible to the chemical and
                  biological impact of faeces and urine.
                  5. Monoculture: Monoculture, also known as monocropping, is where
                  farmers opt to specialise in farming only one type of crop year after year.
                  This practice has severe implications on the environment as it depletes
                  nutrients from the earth and weakens the soil making it unable to support
                  healthy farming. Once the soil weakens, farmers are forced to use chemical
                  fertilizers to encourage plant growth and fruit production. These chemicals
                  in turn disrupt the natural make-up of the soil and contribute further to
                  nutrient depletion. Monocropping also contributes to the spread of pests and
                  diseases. These are further treated with chemicals. When these chemicals
                  reach ground water or become airborne, pollution results.
                  6. Pollution: This is the contamination of air, soil, or water by the discharge
                  of harmful substances. Pollution can be on air, water or land.
                  7. Landfills: A landfill is a place where refuse and other waste material are
                  buried and covered with soil. They come from the large amount of waste that
                  gets generated by households, industries, factories and hospitals.
                  8. Natural causes: Things like avalanches, quakes, tidal waves, storms, and
                  wildfires can totally crush nearby animal and plant groups to the point where

                  they can no longer survive in those areas.

                  Exercise 1

                  Discuss with a friend the constituents of the environment and show

                  human dependence on the environment.

                  Effects of environmental degradation

                  Activity 2

                  What effects of environmental degradation do you see around your


                  1. Impact on human health: Air pollution from toxic gases coming from
                  industrial exhaustion can cause respiratory problems like pneumonia and
                  asthma. Millions of people are known to have died due to indirect effects
                  of air pollution. Noise pollution can cause irreparable damage to our ears
                  when exposed to continuous high sounds like honking of vehicles on a
                  busy road or machines producing a lot of noise in a factory or a mill.
                  2. Global warming: This is the gradual increase in the overall temperature
                  of the earth’s atmosphere. It is generally attributed to the greenhouse
                  effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide and other pollutants.
                  3. Loss of biodiversity: Biodiversity is the variety of life in the world or
                  in a particular habitat or ecosystem. Pollution leads to loss of various
                  kinds of life right from small organisms, to aquatic life to human life.
                  Biodiversity is important for maintaining balance of the ecosystem. This
                  happens through combating pollution, restoring nutrients, protecting
                  water sources and stabilising climate. When any kind of life in the
                  ecosystem is lost, one of these elements is affected. Deforestation, global
                  warming, overpopulation and pollution are few of the major causes of

                  loss of biodiversity.

                  4. Ozone layer depletion: Some air pollutants lead to depletion of the
                  ozone layer which is responsible for protecting the earth from harmful
                  ultraviolet rays. Its depletion leads to emission of harmful radiations back
                  to the earth.
                  5. Effects on tourism industry: When there is water pollution and the
                  green cover is replaced by plastic waste and other landfills, the natural
                  environment that constitutes tourist attraction sites such as waterfalls,
                  wetlands and wildlife are destroyed. This will definitely affect the tourism
                  industry. Landfills are also known to produce foul smell when burned and
                  they pollute the environment and destroy the beauty of the city. This can
                  be a setback to tourism.
                  6. Droughts: Depletion of natural resources such as forests due to
                  deforestation interferes with climatic conditions such as rainfall as the
                  water catchment areas are interfered with in the process. Intrusion in

                  wetlands is another cause of lack of rainfall.

                  7. Desertification: Cutting down of trees can lead to desertification.

                  9.2 Conservation of the environment

                  Activity 3

                  In what ways do you think we can conserve the environment in Rwanda?
                  Rwanda has done a lot towards the conservation of nature. It’s a national
                  policy for all citizens to plant trees. The ‘cut one, plant two’ policy has almost
                  become a common practice though it’s still challenged by the unsensitised
                  members of the society. This is aimed at averting environmental degradation,
                  adverse climatic changes and the sustainability of the natural environment.
                  Environmental conservation is a gradual process of small changes that are
                  more sustainable and can improve life. The following are ways of conserving
                  and protecting our environment:
                  1. Planting trees
                  2. Conserving water
                  3. Ensuring proper disposal of waste
                  4. Using less fossil fuel-based products
                  5. Buying recycled products
                  6. Protecting wildlife
                  7. Educating others on environment friendly habits
                  Exercise 2
                  With a reference to your own home as a Rwandan, explain some of
                  the activities you have tried to do in order to be identified as a nature


                  9.3 The relationship between economic growth, social development

                  and environmental protection

                  Activity 4

                  In groups, choose representatives and help them prepare a 5-minutes talk on
                  the impact of war on the environment.
                  The three concepts are closely linked in that economic growth ensures the
                  satisfaction of material human needs and aspirations. This leads to social
                  All human activities that are designed and implemented for the economic
                  growth of a country and the social needs may impact on the environment
                  either directly or indirectly.
                  However, in as much as human beings strive to achieve social development,
                  environmental conservation should be observed. Economic development
                  is associated with technological and industrial advancement. If people are
                  not sensitive to the environment, so much can go wrong in matters of the
                  environment while pursuing economic growth.
                  Some economic activities can be destructive to the environment even though
                  they are income generating. For example, in commercial agriculture, farmers
                  may have to use fertilisers and pesticides in order to have higher produce
                  that maximises profits. The practice can lead to economic growth but at the
                  same time the chemicals are likely to destroy the natural resources such as
                  the soil and water.
                  Other human activities that can have adverse effects on the environment
                  include: diversion of water courses, the extraction of minerals, emission of
                  heat and gases into the atmosphere due to industrial processes, deforestation
                  as a result of people using trees as raw materials to make commercial
                  products and genetic manipulation of natural plants to have more produce
                  at lower costs.
                  It is also important to note that environmental degradation can be quite
                  costly to a country. The cost of land reclamation is high. These may involve
                  restoration of green cover, cleaning up of landfills and protection of
                  endangered species.
                  The economic impact can also be in terms of loss of tourism industry. When
                  the natural resources that serve as tourists’ attraction sites are polluted and
                  diminished, this impacts negatively on the tourism sector. When there are
                  fewer tourists visiting a country, the revenue also goes down and as a result
                  the socio- economic development of that country is affected.
                  Another way in which environmental protection is related to socio- economic
                  development is that pollution can cause diseases on the population. Disease
                  is an economic aspect in the society because it means incurring costs in
                  medical procedures and incapacitating a part of the population since when
                  people get sick, they are less productive.
                  Therefore, even as we strive for economic growth and social development,
                  we should avoid over-exploitation of natural resources to avoid depletion. We
                  should pursue development that encourages environmental sustainability.

                  Exercise 3

                  Discuss how man’s desire to achieve economic growth and social
                  development has impacted on the environment.

                  9.4 The benefits of renewable energy resources in comparison
                  with unsustainable finite resources
                  Activity 5

                  Give the types and examples of energy resources that are used in Rwanda
                  An energy resource is something that can provide energy. Energy can be
                  in the form of heat, light, a force that moves objects, electricity etc. Energy
                  consumption among human beings has increased over time.
                  Most of the energy we use today comes from fossil fuels. These have
                  consequences on the environment. This is because, they are non- renewable
                  and when burnt, they produce emissions that pollute the environment. Fossil
                  energy sources include oil, coal and natural gas. Fossil fuel industries drill or
                  mine these energy sources, burn them to produce electricity, or refine them
                  for use as fuel, for heating or transportation. A high percentage of human
                  emissions come from burning fossil fuel.
                  Energy sources can be classified into two types: non-renewable and


                  1. Non-renewable energy resources are the resources that can be exhausted
                  by use. Examples of these are the fossil fuels which include coal, gas, oil
                  etc. They are also referred to as unsustainable finite resources.
                  2. Renewable energy resources are those that regenerate as fast as they are
                  consumed and are continually available. Examples are: wind, water, solar
                  and geothermal.
                  There are many forms of renewable energy. Most of these renewable
                  energies depend in one way or another on sunlight. Solar energy is the direct

                  conversion of sunlight using panels or collectors.

                  9.4.1 The advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy



                  1. They are renewable and therefore sustainable. They will never run out.
                  2. Renewable energy facilities generally require less maintenance than
                  traditional generations. Their fuel is generated from natural and available
                  resources which reduces the costs of operation.
                  3. Renewable resources produce little or no waste products, hence they
                  have minimal impact on the environment.
                  4. Renewable energy projects can extend economic benefits to many
                  geographical areas since most projects are located away form large urban
                  centers and suburbs of capital cities. These economic benefits may be

                  from the increased use of local services as well as tourism.


                  1. It’s difficult to generate the quantities of electricity that are as large as
                  those produced by non-renewable fuel generations. This implies that
                  we may need to reduce the amount of energy facilities or if not, have a
                  balance of many different power sources.
                  2. There is unreliability of supply because renewable energy relies on the
                  weather for its source of power. Hydro generations need rain to fill dams
                  to supply flowing water. This causes unpredictability and inconsistence.
                  3. The current cost of renewable energy technology is by far higher than
                  the fossil fuel generation. This is because it is a new technology and as

                  such it has a large capital investment.

                  9.4.2 Advantages and disadvantages of non-renewable energy



                  1. They seem abundant e.g. oil, gas and coal. It is believed that if channelled
                  correctly, the supplies will be safe for the future generations.
                  2. They seem widely available and affordable e.g. oil and diesel are still good
                  choices for powering vehicles. They are cost effective and much easy to
                  produce and use. They have market value e.g. the produce makes money
                  and pays workers. This boosts the economy.
                  3. The non-renewable energy sources base can help the governments
                  to possess bargaining tool to help their economy stay afloat despite
                  struggling with their trade practices


                  1. Because they come from sources on earth, once they are used up, they
                  can’t be replaced or revitalised.
                  2. Pollution through the products they leave behind and mining causes
                  damages to the environment. Fossil fuels contribute to global warming
                  through the high levels of emissions that they produce.
                  In conclusion, renewable energy resources, unlike the non-renewable
                  resources, are sustainable. They can never run out and hence the future

                  generation can also use them.

                  Exercise 4

                  a) Identify some of the key resources that man harvests from nature for
                  survival but must be consumed sustainably.
                  b) Explain the merits and demerits of the different types of energy

                  resources used in Rwanda.

                  9.5 Extended Work

                  a) In your groups, you have about 3 weeks to research information about an
                  energy saving stove, write detailed notes on how it is constructed.
                  b) You are then advised to use local raw materials to construct an energy

                  saving stove which you will share with your parents.

                  9.6 Unit summary

                  Causes of global degradation

                  1. High population growth
                  2. Deforestation
                  3. Wetlands encroachment
                  4. Overstocking
                  5. Monoculture
                  6. Pollution
                  7. Landfills

                  8. Natural causes

                  Effects of environmental degradation

                  1. Ill health
                  2. Global warming
                  3. Loss of biodiversity
                  4. Ozone layer depletion
                  5. Desertification
                  6. Decreased earnings from tourism
                  7. Drought
                  How to conserve the environment
                  1. Planting trees
                  2. Conserving water
                  3. Ensuring proper disposal of waste
                  4. Using less fossil fuel-based products
                  5. Buying recycled products
                  6. Protecting wildlife

                  7. Educating others on environment friendly habits

                  9.7 Test your competence

                  Read the case study below and then answer the question that follows.

                  Charles lived on the slopes of a mountain. He kept so many cattle in his
                  small piece of land. Because they destroyed all the vegetation in his land, soil
                  erosion became a problem to him. Gulleys cut across his farm. His animals
                  could not cross from one side of the farm to the other. Soon, they had little

                  to eat. To reclaim the land, Charles started building gabions.


                  Write an essay showing the environmental degradation that Charles faced
                  and the approaches he used to conserve his farm. Suggest other possible

                  conservation methods that Charles could use.

                  • Key unit competence: To be able to analyse the role of science and

                    technology to improve healthy behaviours.


                    This unit is about the major role played by science and education in enhancing
                    health in the social lives of Rwandan citizens and the world at large.
                    Study these pictures and say how they promote or show decline of good

                    health in the society.


                    10.1 Rwanda’s socio – economic and demographic indicators



                    10.1.1 Incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS by age and


                    Activity 1

                    Study the graph below showing HIV prevalence by age as captured in

                    Rwanda in 2011. In groups, answer the question that follows.



                    Explain the HIV prevalence in the following age brackets:
                    a) Below 15 years
                    b) 15 – 24 years
                    c) Above 25 years

                    Even though Rwanda was among the first African countries to record cases
                    of HIV and AIDS, she has had a remarkable improvement in the war against
                    AIDS with incidents of HIV and AIDS mortality dropping with more than
                    8% per year. This can be seen in the decreasing new cases of infection per
                    year. For example: During the early 1990s, Rwanda experienced over 25,000
                    new HIV cases per year. In 2013, the country recorded about 10,200 new
                    HIV infections, half the number in the previous decade even as the overall
                    population grew. Studies have also showed that 83% of Rwandans living with
                    HIV and AIDS have successfully repressed the virus. This improvement can
                    be attributed to the Rwandan government’s early action and high standards
                    for HIV care.
                    According to a study carried out by United Nations in the year 2014, people
                    living with HIV and AIDS in Rwanda were estimated to be 210, 000 of the
                    total population. 190, 000 of these were adults aged 15 years and above and
                    22, 000 were children aged 0-14 years. 85, 000 children were orphaned as a
                    result of AIDS. Deaths caused by AIDS in 2014, were estimated to be 3,000.
                    From these numbers, it is estimated that 60% of the adult population living
                    with HIV/AIDS are women.
                    HIV and AIDS is more prevalent among women and girls than their male
                    peers in every age group. Young women aged 18-19 years are 10 times more
                    likely to acquire HIV and AIDS than young men of the same age. HIV and
                    AIDS is higher among women living in urban areas, those who are widowed,
                    divorced or separated, women with secondary education or higher, and
                    among those living in the highest wealthy class. In the 20-24 age categories,
                    young women have a 5 times higher risk of HIV and AIDS infection than
                    their male peers.
                    Among men, HIV and AIDS prevalence is higher among older men, although
                    men have a lower HIV and AIDS prevalence than women in all age groups
                    except those aged 40-44. It is higher in men living in urban areas, those who
                    are divorced or separated, and those with no education. Research also shows
                    that HIV and AIDS is more common among the wealthy men than the poor.
                    From these statistics on HIV and AIDS prevalence, it is clear that a large
                    population of those at risk of HIV and AIDS are in the most productive age
                    of their lives. In addition to the health strain this condition puts on individuals
                    and their families, it is also significant to the country’s economy because
                    when a large population of the most productive workforce either lose their
                    lives or the capacity to take up their responsibilities, the whole economy is
                    distabilised. Orphaned children also may lack opportunities to better their
                    lives, such as education and moral support. A large amount of the country’s
                    resources are also directed to medical concerns and matters of development

                    no longer get first priority. What results is a weak economy.

                    Exercise 1

                    The table below shows the HIV prevalence by age and gender among
                    Rwandans in 2013. Study it and answer the questions that follow.

                    HIV prevalence by age and sex


                    Source: Rwanda AIDS Indicator and HIV Incidence Survey 2013 (Rwanda
                    Biomedical Centre)
                    1. Explain HIV prevalence among men.
                    2. Explain HIV prevalence among women.

                    3. Comment on the general prevalence of HIV by age in Rwanda.

                    10.1.2 Infant and maternal mortality rate

                    Activity 2

                    Study the table below showing the evolution of child mortality rate between

                    1978 and 2012 by sex and then answer the questions that follow.


                    Sources: Rwandan 1978, 1991, 2002 and 2012 Censuses (NISR) as
                    captured in January 2014 Thematic Report: Mortality by National

                    Institute of Statistics of Rwanda.


                    1. Explain the trend that can be seen in the table above.
                    2. Critically analyse this trend giving reasons why this trend is the way it is.
                    3. Why do you think the mortality rate among males is higher than that of
                    According to the table shown in Activity 1, infant mortality has been going
                    down in Rwanda. This is except for the year 2002 when it went up. However,
                    with the improved quality of health services provided by the government,
                    the situation has improved drastically. This has dropped to a record low of
                    deaths among males and deaths among females by 2012.
                    The major cause of mortality amongst children is malaria, followed by
                    anaemia, acute respiratory infection, and diarrhoea – all of which are
                    preventable through comprehensive and well-coordinated interventions,
                    such as the distribution of mosquito nets, improved access to water and
                    sanitation, better cooking stoves, and simple health interventions such as

                    rehydration salts (Ministry of Health et al 2009)

                    Exercise 2

                    Explain the causes of child mortality as displayed in the pie chart below.


                    10.1.3 Factors contributing to a reduction in infant mortality rate

                    1. The increase in skilled health care providers during childbirth has been
                    especially important for women and for children. The government of
                    Rwanda has been improving the maternal health services by ensuring
                    that there are enough trained doctors, nurses and midwives to offer the
                    required services in ensuring that there are as few death cases as possible
                    associated with maternity and child care. By 2012, there was one doctor
                    per 16,000 people and one nurse per 1,300 people. Before 1997, Rwanda
                    had no trained midwives, but now there are around 1,000.
                    2. Improvements in immunisation to children of five years and below and
                    exclusive breastfeeding of children up to six months after birth have also
                    been very effective in reducing child mortality in Rwanda.
                    3. The fact that parents have been encouraged to plan their families to a size
                    they can provide sufficient care for, has also been a positive factor towards
                    maintaining healthy families, where mothers have good reproductive
                    health and children are have access to health facilities and live healthily.

                    Today the average family size in Rwanda is about four children per family.

                    Exercise 3

                    1. Brainstorm on the causes of the high HIV and AIDS prevalence in the
                    Rwandan society.
                    2. There has been an improvement on the maternity related deaths
                    in Rwanda since 1994. Explain some of the reasons leading to the


                    10.2 Medical research and ethics on HIV and AIDS

                    Activity 3

                    There are many diseases today whose cause, cure/ prevention are
                    known. In groups brainstorm on how these causes, cure or prevention
                    were discovered.
                    Medical research refers to an organised way to learn more about health
                    in general, and also about better ways to prevent and treat diseases in the
                    future. Research involves finding out the facts about a situation in order to
                    address it in the best way possible. Without research therefore, leaders in a
                    government would be making decisions based on assumptions which can at
                    times be untrue. This makes it absolutely important especially on matters
                    of health such as HIV and AIDS. The government of Rwanda has come up
                    with policies that encourage research such as The Health Sector Research
                    Policy which establishes research projects on three main communicable
                    diseases; HIV and AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Research on these areas
                    will enhance proper use of resources in the prevention and treatment of
                    these diseases.
                    In conducting this research, information has to come from the people within
                    the society. Most of the sources of information may be victims of the disease.
                    Therefore people seeking this information have to be sensitive and have the
                    right judgement of the right approach to use; rules and standards can also
                    be applied to draw a line on what is acceptable and what is not when doing
                    research on HIV and AIDS. These specific rules and values are known as
                    Ethics are specific values, standards, rules and agreements people adopt to
                    conduct any practice such as professions.
                    The medical profession is one that critically requires ethics because it
                    deals with delicate social matters and if not ethically practised, can cause

                    psychological and social harm to the people concerned.

                    Ethics on HIV and AIDS research

                    Activity 4

                    If you were a researcher, how would you apply ethics to get information
                    about HIV and AIDS from patients suffering from the disease?
                    HIV and AIDS is a disease characterised by a suppressed immune system. Its
                    cure is yet to be discovered but research by doctors has come up with Antiretro
                    viral drugs that help in HIV/AIDS management. With the ARV therapy,
                    patients can realise their full lives. HIV/ AIDS just like any other disease is a
                    sensitive issue especially when victims are involved and as such professionals
                    must apply ethics when gathering information for research purposes.
                    The following are some of the ethics to be observed:
                    1. Matters of socio-cultural setting must be considered. When conducting
                    research, AIDS should be viewed as a disease that affects humans not
                    merely biologically, but also socially in terms of their conceptions of
                    sexual behavior and their belief systems of disease, illness and sickness.
                    2. There is need observe medical ethics in order to avoid stigma in the
                    process of research. ‘Vulnerable populations’ refers to people in need
                    of special care, support, or protection because of risk of abuse or
                    neglect. For example; if not treated with respect and human dignity,
                    people suffering from HIV and AIDS can be vulnerable to stigma. That
                    is why it is important to be sensitive and conscious to other people’s
                    vulnerability when conducting research.
                    3. In order to interview or take any pictures of individuals, they must be
                    well informed of how the information will be used for them to make
                    a decision whether they want to be involved or not. This aspect is
                    called informed consent. It is against ethics to gather information from
                    children in the absence of an adult who’s taking responsibility of them.
                    4. The dignity and rights of vulnerable populations must be upheld.
                    Matters of privacy and confidentiality, of people suffering from HIV
                    and AIDS must be observed. Individual health status is confidential to
                    the individual. When gathering data on HIV and AIDS from people, the
                    information gathered should be maintained anonymous as a way of
                    protecting them from any unwanted negative publicity.
                    5. Stigma and discrimination; because of the stigma surrounding HIV
                    and AIDS, many people are unwilling to openly discuss the illness.
                    According to UNAIDS, ‘The stigma associated with AIDS has silenced
                    open discussion, both of its causes and of appropriate responses.
                    6. Considering this situation the risk of harm when researching on HIV
                    and AIDS must be minimal. Participation in giving information and
                    informed consent must be carefully obtained; consent should be given
                    not due to desperation or lack of other options but out of willingness.
                    7. Fair representation of both sexes when doing research is part of ethics.

                    This is because, some cultures consider women inferior and this may

                    lead to gender imbalance especially if the information gathered is
                    meant to be used in decision making for the whole society. Sexual roles
                    and gender relationships play a great role in the understanding of HIV
                    and AIDS.
                    The power set up in the society between men and women influences HIV
                    transmission. Women are attributed lower rank in many societies, making
                    them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection as they lack the support and
                    socio-economic status to fully determine their sexual relations. That is, in
                    some traditional cultures, women do not have the power to determine who
                    their sexual partners are. When collecting data therefore, researchers should
                    make sure that their sources represent both sexes fairly. In this way, the
                    information gathered will not be biased in any way.
                    In conclusion, it is important to note that as much as medical research is
                    important in determining crucial social aspects such as ways of controlling
                    the spread of HIV and AIDS and improving human life, the process of research
                    must be undertaken with responsibility. Ethics should guide any research in
                    order to avoid socio- cultural/ psychological harm to the interviewees or the

                    people helping in giving information

                    Exercise 4

                    As partners discuss the ways in which you would ethically relate with
                    your friend if he/she openly shared with you that he/she is HIV positive.

                    Refer both to school and community environments.

                    10.3 The role of health education in promoting sustainable

                    health behaviour in relation to HIV/ AIDS and reproductive


                    Activity 5

                    You must have some knowledge on how unbalanced diet, unhygienic
                    habits and irresponsible sexual behaviour cause diseases. Share your
                    knowledge in groups.
                    Health education is a process of learning aimed at helping people to improve
                    their health by adding on to their knowledge and influencing their attitude
                    towards a healthier lifestyle. Education plays a great role in exposing people
                    to information about possible causes of diseases and therefore enlightens
                    them on preventive measures. Diseases come in different circumstances;
                    some are caused by unhygienic habits such as failure to adopt hand washing
                    habits or not boiling drinking water, others are caused by poor diet such
                    unbalanced nutrition.
                    Reproductive health refers to a state of physical, mental and social wellbeing
                    in all matters relating to the reproductive system, at all stages of life.

                    Importance of health education on reproductive health

                    1. Education on sexuality and health imparts skills on how to relate
                    appropriately with people of the opposite sex and other interpersonal
                    relationships, such as relationships with parents and peers. Communication
                    and decision making when it comes to peer pressure and knowledge
                    about the body and how it functions, the menstrual cycle of girls, among
                    other related topics on sexuality are some of the important things to
                    2. Health education saves lives and improves reproductive health.
                    Reproductive health education in most developing countries has not
                    been well utilised because discussion of issues such as sexual intercourse
                    and sexuality make people feel uncomfortable. This influences parents
                    and guardians and other knowledgeable members of the society to be
                    silent on reproductive health matters. This has consequences because
                    teenagers due to lack of knowledge end up messing up by experimenting
                    their sexuality and through peer influence, they engage in irresponsible
                    sexual behaviour.
                    3. People especially women have lost their lives due to reproductive health
                    related issues. Care before and during pregnancy, during delivery and
                    after childbirth saves women’s and children’s lives and prevents ill health
                    and disabilities.
                    4. A number of people especially adolescents contract sexually transmitted
                    infections due to lack of knowledge on how to prevents the spread and
                    treatment of such diseases.
                    5. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies can reduce cases of unsafe abortion
                    which is one of the causes of maternal deaths.
                    6. Sexual and reproductive health information and services can reduce
                    the prevalence of STIs, including HIV, to which many young people are
                    especially vulnerable.
                    7. Sexual and reproductive health care education can also be a way to
                    engage men as well as address gender roles and responsibilities, gender
                    based violence, sexual abuse and harmful practices. Some of the harmful
                    sexual behaviour include sexual harassment and abuse cases such as
                    8. Girls between the ages of 20-24 years are more vulnerable to STIs including
                    HIV than young men. Despite this situation, they rarely make use of the
                    available health services partly due to the fact that they have little or no
                    knowledge on how to best use them when they need them. Increased
                    knowledge and a positive attitude towards acquiring reproductive health
                    knowledge is necessary among the youth. This will no doubt reduce the
                    risk of infection and facilitate treatment to those already affected.
                    9. It fosters knowledge of positive living by giving guidance to those suffering
                    from HIV and AIDS and other diseases on how to go about treatment
                    and live their lives as desired by working towards achieving their goals.
                    In the same way, discrimination and stigmatisation against any member
                    of society on the basis of his/ her health situation is highly discouraged.
                    This is because all members of the society should live harmoniously
                    supporting each other in order to achieve social cohesion.

                    The following activities are important in carrying out reproductive health
                    • Promotion of healthy sexual behaviour; this includes, abstinence, proper
                    use of condoms and avoiding high risk sexual behaviour such as: having
                    multiple sex partners, or engaging in commercial sex relationships.
                    • Encouraging the use of health services for diagnosis and treatmentfor
                    example, in case an individual develops symptoms of a sexually
                    transmitted disease, he/ she should seek medical diagnosis and advice
                    on treatment.
                    • Prevention and care at the primary healthcare level- emphasis should
                    be put on preventive lifestyles rather than curative measures. That is
                    even though there is cure for the sexually transmitted diseases, the best
                    approach should be to abstain from irresponsible sexual behaviour, as
                    this helps in maintaining a well lived life without early responsibilities of
                    parenting and also keeps one safe from diseases and anxieties of early
                    • Encouraging parent/ guardian/ teacher/ peer educator to adolescent
                    communication on sexual matters- adolescents should be able to open
                    up on their challenges in order to get proper advice.
                    In a nutshell therefore, reproductive health education, empowers the
                    vulnerable members of the society especially adolescents and women by
                    equipping them with knowledge on the best way to approach issues of sexual
                    and reproductive health. It is also relevant to the male gender in encouraging

                    a responsible sexual behaviour.

                    Exercise 5

                    The picture shows Gasore and his
                    omother. His mother is talking to him
                    about responsible sexual behaviour.
                    What is the importance of holding such

                    talks with our parents/guardians?

                    10.4 The impact of progress and innovation in science and

                    technology including ICT

                    Activity 6

                    Imagine a world without the technological gadgets shown. How different

                    would it be from the current situation?


                    Technology has been part of our lives it plays very crucial roles in our daily
                    lives. Practically almost all sectors of life involve use of technology. It saves
                    life, makes work easier and the world a better place to live in.
                    Innovation is creating new value or modifying what already exists into
                    something more valuable and efficient.
                    Innovation can be viewed as appreciation of better solutions that meet
                    arising needs. Some of the ways in which innovation occurs is by:

                    1. Creating new technology in infrastructure such as communication and
                    2. New production techniques in production enterprises or
                    3. New farming methods in agriculture
                    The question then is: how does this innovation impact on science and
                    Science is the coordinated human effort to understand the history of the
                    world and how it works. Scientists apply the knowledge and understanding
                    of the natural world to improve the living conditions.
                    Technology refers to knowledge that deals with the creation and use of
                    technical means. Innovation therefore is central to technology since it is all
                    about creation that adds value to the existing means.
                    Innovation also directly impacts on science as it makes it easier to carry out
                    scientific procedures of finding evidence and meaning of nature in relation
                    to social life.
                    Innovation has led to advances in science and technology and in return due
                    to the increased ability to create, distribute and exploit knowledge there has
                    been an improvement in wealth creation and the quality of life.
                    ICT (Information and Communications Technology) is evidence of how great
                    an impact innovation can have on the society. Were it not for innovation,
                    the information and communications industry would not be as advanced
                    as it is today. So many applications have been innovated on cell phones
                    and computers which make life easier and more comfortable. Individuals,
                    companies and governments have been empowered to use more efficient
                    means in going about their businesses. For example, through the introduction
                    of electronic business transactions such as western union, banking, money
                    transfers and other ways of electronic commerce. An example is M-pesa in
                    Kenya, a mobile payment under vodaphone subsidiary Safaricom.
                    Business has also been enabled online via internet. Companies transact their
                    services on the website which makes it convenient and reduces costs.
                    Social life has also been upgraded through availability of advanced technology
                    in entertainment and media such as radio networks and television, music
                    systems and internet. Communication via social media also provides a
                    medium for people to interact and share ideas which is a major aspect of
                    development. It has led to introduction of improved social media platforms
                    including the internet, Facebook, Twitter and Skype through the use of
                    electronic gadgets such as computers and mobile and the mobile phones. All
                    these make communication easy, cheap and convenient.
                    The internet has made it possible for people from all over the world to share
                    knowledge on virtually all fields. This provides information for research
                    purposes in scientific research. This includes health research about HIV and
                    AIDS and other epidemics like Ebola, Marburg, Yellow fever, food science
                    research, medical research for vaccines, synthetic biology, medical theories
                    and technologies, and climatic research. Researchers can access scientific
                    information from the internet which links the whole world irrespective of
                    space and time.
                    Innovation can be shared as knowledge through institutions that offer
                    technology courses and inspire creativity in young minds. In this way, human
                    capacity is built and an enabling environment provided for future innovation.
                    This spurs economic growth at the national and global level.
                    Innovation has also led to improvement in education. This is because teachers
                    can use technology such as projections as their teaching tools so as to cater
                    for visual aids of learning.
                    Innovation is playing a significant role in health. Most medical procedures
                    including tests and treatments are done through technology. In the past it
                    was difficult to carry out medical checkups because doctors/physicians
                    didn’t have tools but now, technology has made it very easy.
                    There are many diseases without cure and many treatments for diseases that
                    still need to be improved.
                    In the transport system, technology eases movement of both people
                    and goods. This is made possible by the existence of various means of
                    transport such as the road, water or air transportation. Since transport has
                    made movement over long distances possible, people are able to travel to
                    other continents and this enhances cultural interaction and international
                    The use of traffic lights to coordinate movement and control traffic congestion
                    is a result of technology. Innovators are still coming up with new ideas on
                    how to conserve the environment while still embracing technology. For
                    example ideas have been proposed on alternative sources of energy apart
                    from the commonly used fossil fuels.
                    Agricultural sector has also greatly improved as a result of technological
                    advancement. Through progress and innovation highly productive seeds,
                    animal species and environmental-friendly agricultural fertilisers have been
                    invented. This has improved commercial and subsistence farming in different
                    global societies, thereby improving global economic development.
                    Innovation provides a source of income to so many people. Information
                    Technology experts, for example, in sharing their knowledge through teaching
                    or in business deals such as mobile phone and other electronics traders are
                    able to earn a living from it. Businesses also earn revenue for the country,
                    China for example is widely known for its extensive businesses in mobile
                    phone trade.
                    In conclusion, progress in innovation contributes a great deal to science
                    and technology as it is the backbone of all technology. Without the creation
                    and invention of new ideas technology and science would not advance.
                    Technological advancement has far reaching implications most of which are
                    positive as already discussed as it decreases the need for manpower and is
                    time saving e.g. use of computers and home appliances such as washing
                    machines, cookers, among others. Some implications however can be
                    detrimental. For example: environmental pollution, moral values degradation
                    due to uncontrolled information from the internet and disruption of natural
                    relationships among members of a society as people get used to use of
                    electronic gadgets over interpersonal social interaction.

                    Exercise 6

                    In your groups, discuss in detail the impact that science and technology
                    has had on the Rwandan health sector in the last decade

                    10.5 Extended work

                    1. Refer to any orphanage in your country. Identify and explain the reasons
                    for the high numbers of children living in orphanages in Rwanda.
                    2. What challenges do the caretakers face and have they tried to overcome
                    You have been asked to find out the causes of the HIV/AIDS prevalence
                    particularly in your community. What ethical values are you going to observe?
                    What challenges do public health units face with HIV/AIDS patients and
                    how have they been tackled?

                    10.6 Unit summary
                    Medical research and ethics on HIV and AIDS

                    1. Be sensitive to the beliefs and culture of people involved.
                    2. Avoid any form of stigma in the process of research.
                    3. Seek permission from participations, subjects or their guardians
                    4. Respect the dignity and rights of all.

                    Ways in which health education promotes sustainable reproductive

                    1. It imparts skills on how to relate appropriately with people of the
                    opposite sex.
                    2. It saves lives and improves reproductive health.
                    3. It equips women with knowledge on the necessary measures to take
                    during and after pregnancy in order to have healthy children and also
                    live healthy lives.
                    4. It equips adolescents with knowledge on how to manage and prevent
                    the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
                    5. It reduces cases of unsafe abortions and maternal deaths.

                    10.7 Test your competence

                    1. Discuss the impact of health education on the lives of the people of
                    2. Explain how progress in innovation, science and technology have

                    affected the medical field and therefore people’s lives.

                    • Key unit competence: To be able to appreciate national heritage,

                      cultural preservation and recognise their impact on lifestyle.


                      As Rwandans, there are things that belong to us by virtue of being born in

                      Rwanda. There are also historical events or processes that have a special
                      meaning in our memory. Then there are sites that are of great significance to
                      us all and which have been registered by the government as being of national
                      importance to the history of the nation. All these things are what we can
                      collectively refer to as our heritage. This unit explores national heritage, the

                      elements that characterise it and ways in which it can be preserved.

                      Activity 1

                      Study the pictures below. Say what is shown in each picture.


                      11.1 Elements of national heritage

                      In Activity 1, you identified some things that are specific to us as Rwandans.
                      These form a part our national heritage. Our national heritage includes all
                      those cultural aspects or traditions that have been passed down through
                      generations. Broadly, there are three elements of national heritage. These


                      1. Fabric
                      2. Stories

                      3. Culture

                      1. Fabric

                      Activity 2

                      What do the following pictures show about Rwanda?.



                      The pictures above show different fabrics that identify us as Rwandans: the
                      national flag, the umushanana dress code and the modern dress. However,
                      the national fabric goes beyond just our dress. It involves physical structures
                      and objects that carry memories and have symbolic meanings to the people.
                      These can be greenstones, old bottles, objects left behind by early settlers or
                      even reminder of our culture such as the presidential palace in Kanombe and
                      the King’s palace in Nyanza.
                      It also involves our social fabric: the values we consider important and
                      the way we relate with one another. To instill the right values and promote
                      social cohesion which strengthens our social fabric, programmes such as the
                      following are carried out in Rwanda:
                      a. Itorero
                      Traditional Itorero was a cultural school where Rwandans would learn
                      language, patriotism, social relations, sports, dancing, songs and defence. This
                      system was created so that young people could grow with an understanding of
                      their culture. Participants were encouraged to discuss and explore Rwandan
                      cultural values. The tradition of Itorero also provided formative training for
                      future leaders.
                      As part of efforts to reconstruct Rwanda and nurture a shared national
                      identity, the Government of Rwanda drew on aspects of Rwandan culture
                      and traditional practices to enrich and adapt its development programs to the
                      country’s needs and context. The result is a set of Home Grown Solutions -
                      culturally owned practices translated into sustainable development programs.
                      One of these Home Grown Solutions is the Civic Education Program, also
                      known as Itorero.
                      Itorero was reintroduced in 2009 as a way to rebuild the nation’s social
                      fabric and mobilise Rwandans to uphold important cultural values. The
                      culture of an intore (a person who has received the teachings of Itorero)
                      is regarded highly. Itorero creates opportunities for participants to enhance
                      positive values, build a sense of responsibility through patriotism and gain
                      professional knowledge.
                      The National Itorero Commission is responsible for overseeing the
                      implementation of the program and of ensuring that Rwandans from all walks
                      of life have the opportunity to take part. Between 2007 and 2012, Itorero
                      ry’Igihugu (the National Itorero Commission) trained 284,207 intore including
                      teachers, executive secretaries, farmers, community policing committees
                      and members of the Rwandans abroad community.

                      b. Ndi Umunyarwanda

                      Rwanda is a country that has had more divisive politics than mostpostindependence
                      African states. It is this division that led to the 1994 genocide
                      against the Tutsi in which many lives were lost. Keeping quiet and hoping
                      that people will forget this and move on with their lives is likely to pose a
                      danger of future recurrence.
                      To avoid this, the leadership of Rwanda aims to inculcate true Rwandanness
                      (Ndi Umunyarwanda) among all Rwandans, founded upon Rwanda’s national
                      philosophy – Agaciro. This is to be done through the Ndi Umunyarwanda
                      programme. This programme aims at bringing reconciliation and with it the
                      essence of our nationhood. This will lead to national cohesion and unity of


                      2. Stories

                      Activity 3

                      In groups, narrate to each other stories that you have heard from your
                      grandparents or older relatives
                      Stories, such as the ones you told each other in Activity 3 from a great part
                      of our national heritage. They are an easy way of communicating societal
                      norms, values and morals. They also describe both real and fictional events
                      that have occurred over time explaining happenings over the course of
                      history. We often encounter stories through reading, listening from oral
                      tradition especially in folk tales and watch them from documentaries that are
                      visual records of historical occurrences. They describe and explain history.
                      Oral traditions are told with so much creativity and this makes them interesting
                      to share. They enhance understanding of the past practices or people’s way
                      of life and make meaning of our cultures clearer.
                      Apart from oral traditions, stories can be told in other ways: written literature,
                      recorded stories as in videos and movies etc. They can be creatively
                      constructed or told as real events. Real stories remind us of the people
                      involved in major events of our history and the places where these events
                      happened as well as the processes involved. Creative stories on the other
                      hand, are constructed to represent the real events. They are told in a more
                      interesting way. They include legends, songs, plays, folk tales, epics, etc.
                      For example in Rwanda, there are the royal myths called lbitekerezo which
                      means thoughts and narratives of past events.
                      There is also royal poetry known as the lbisigo. This is a record of the deeds
                      of the kings in peotic form. It existed from ancient times.
                      The ubucurabwenge is a list of the order of kings of Rwanda beginning with
                      the reigning king to the first king of man; son of king Shyerezo Nkuba.

                      It is through stories that generations pass on their identity and heritage.

                      3. Culture

                      Activity 4

                      Study the following pictures in groups. Explain how they form part of our





                      The pictures you studied above form a part of the Rwandan culture. The
                      clothes we wear, the foods we eat, the houses we live in, our costumes and
                      other items of art, the language we speak and the ceremonies we celebrate
                      make up our culture. But culture goes beyond these. It also includes the
                      practices, beliefs, values, and symbols that we share, and that are passed
                      along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next.
                      Rwanda is blessed with a very rich culture as shown in the pictures above.

                      The following are other examples of the Rwandan culture.

                      a. Intore dance

                      Intore is a sort of war dance which encourages those who wage war or hunt.
                      It is also danced in the royal court to cheer up the king. The carefully selected
                      dancers are called intore. Intore means “the elite” or “leader.” Those who are
                      part of an Intore troupe are selected for their exceptional physical and moral
                      qualities. During their training, not only do they learn to dance but they also
                      receive education in moral values. The Intore dancer is characterised by

                      elegance and littleness.


                      Intore dancers

                      b. Umuganura (Harvest day)

                      Umuganura means “Thanks Giving Day”. It was performed by Rwandans
                      at the beginning of every harvest. It was a very big event in the kingdom
                      as Rwandans celebrated their achievements in terms of harvest both at the
                      kingdom and family level.
                      Umuganura today has broadened its meaning from formally being agro-based
                      harvest to include achievements from other sectors that have contributed
                      to the development of the country such as: health, education, ICT, sports,
                      mining, infrastructure, culture, tourism etc. The aim, like it was in early days
                      of celebrating Umuganura, is to thank God for the harvest and to strategise

                      for the next season to ensure that the harvest is good.


                      Participants in Umuganura

                      c. Inkinimba

                      Inkinimba dance is usually performed by the farmers to celebrate their
                      harvest. It can also be performed when telling stories about the Rwandese
                      culture, history or when praising the Rwandese heroes and kings. It is the

                      symbol of strength and stamina, specifically for cattle farmers.

                      11.2 The role of cultural preservation

                      Activity 5

                      You have already learnt a lot about culture. Why do you think it is
                      necessary to preserve culture? Discuss in groups.
                      Since times are changing and people are becoming westernised, culture
                      has greatly changed. What was culturally acceptable ten years ago may
                      not be embraced in today’s cultural context. Therefore it is necessary to
                      preserve culture. The following are some of the reasons for preserving


                      1. It safeguards a community’s traditions, good practices and ways of life
                      from being eroded.
                      2. It enables in a country to keep its heritage and maintain it.

                      3. It guides on performance of cultural practices such as naming of children, payment of dowry and burying the dead.

                      How culture can be preserved

                      Activity 6

                      Discuss ways in which culture can be preserved?
                      We can preserve culture in the following ways:
                      1. Participating in family traditions. For example sharing religious beliefs
                      or customs valued by one’s parents enables one to understand and
                      appreciate culture, which causes one to respect and honour that aspect
                      of cultural heritage.
                      2. Learning to speak the ancestral language that an individual is born into.
                      Language comprises idioms, proverbs and music, which express the
                      values of a specific group of people.
                      3. Sharing knowledge and information about each culture’s way of dress,
                      music, art and storytelling.
                      4. Keeping traditional artwork in museums as cultural artifacts.
                      5. Through social gatherings where songs, proverbs and stories can be
                      shared. For example, in Rwanda culture is preserved in oral literature

                      such as:

                      • Amateka y’Imiryango - histories of major families.
                      • Ibyivugo - self praises and heroic poetry
                      • Indirimbo z’Ingabo - army music
                      • Amaziha y’inka - pastoral poetry
                      • Imyasiro - hunting poetry.
                      • Imigani - proverbs and sayings
                      • Ibisakuzo - riddles and enigmas

                      • Inanga - songs by stringed instruments.

                      6. Maintaining family history through giving children names of dead

                      ancestors in order to keep their legacy and name alive.

                      11.3 Impact of differing cultures on lifestyle and habits

                      Activity 7

                      In your class, look at the various classmate’s favourite sports. If you do
                      not know, ask them. Do you find girls to prefer certain games to others?
                      How about boys? Do you think their preference has anything to do with
                      Are men expected to behave in a certain way according to culture? How
                      about girls? What are some of these expectations?
                      The term lifestyle can mean interest, opinions or habits that define how an
                      individual or group of people lives. Lifestyle entails both psychological and
                      physical factors. The physical factors that influence life styles include the
                      following; the economic status of a person, level of education, geographical
                      location, gender, age among others. Psychological factors on the other hand
                      include the personal values, preferences and cultural orientations.
                      Culture therefore is a major aspect that influences how individuals live in
                      other words their lifestyle.
                      As discussed earlier, culture can be viewed from the physical symbols of a
                      community or mere practices and beliefs. A rural setting promotes a more
                      defined culture as compared to an urban setting due to the fact that in the
                      rural area the people living there share the values that constitute culture
                      while in urban areas there is a mix of cultures as people migrate from various
                      cultural backgrounds and come together. In the rural also, there is more open
                      space which encourages a social life unlike in towns where the open space
                      is limited hence individualism results. This is why most cultural practices are
                      widely practised in the rural areas.
                      Differing cultures impact on lifestyle and habits in the following ways:
                      (i) The food one is likely to prefer is to a large extent determined by how an
                      individual has been socialised, that is the cultural background. In most
                      cultures, certain food types are meant for men as they are perceived
                      to need more heavy meals. This is due to the fact that gender roles in
                      the society define the manual works needing more energy as masculine
                      roles hence meant for men. The way foods are prepared is also a cultural
                      aspect. A lot has however changed in the recent past as the traditional
                      cooking methods are gradually being replaced by western ideas on how
                      food should be cooked. Food preferences are also changing. People
                      seem to be shifting from the natural foods from the farm to processed
                      foods. This is especially happening in towns.
                      (ii) The mode of dressing is also determined by culture. This is however
                      being eroded as people adapt to the western influences on dressing.
                      (iii) The kind of houses people live in is another aspect of lifestyle influenced
                      by culture. Not only the type of the house but also the way in which
                      people share their spaces influenced by culture in various ways. In some
                      cultures for example, parents should not share a roof with their children
                      who are married. Others have specific positions where individuals
                      should have their houses built depending on their status in the family.
                      This is also changing over time as contact with other cultures through
                      education, urbanisation and media has slowly dissolved these values
                      and today a very small space can be shared by all members of the family
                      including the in-laws.
                      (iv) Cultural setup also shapes attitude among members of a community. For
                      example, some cultures exalt men above women and men view women
                      to be inferior on the basis of gender. This leads to habits of disregarding
                      girls to an extent of denying them education in some places. In the same
                      regard, boys grow with the belief that they are supposed to be manly and
                      not show emotion. That they should be tough and do the heavier duties
                      in the society, play the rough games and pursue the more demanding
                      careers. These are however perceptions instilled by culture and should
                      not in any way be emulated. Civilisation has brought a positive change
                      on the issue of gender equality and more emphasis is being put in
                      providing equal opportunities for both girls and boys and enhancing a
                      sense of equality in the society. This new culture encourages the view
                      that gender roles complement each other and none of them is superior
                      to the other.
                      (v) Habits are also influenced by the major practices in one’s cultural
                      background. For example, you will find certain social groups engaging in
                      activities such as weaving, carving, dancing, etc. they draw these habits
                      from the cultural activities. Others are culturally hunters, due to their
                      geographical locations.
                      Language spoken is an aspect of culture. Education is however providing
                      optional languages such as English and this is slowly bringing a change
                      in a people’s mode of interaction.
                      (vi) Religion and spirituality, also impact on a person’s lifestyle and habits.
                      Religion more than anything else has a strict sense of right and wrong.
                      This means that one can only do what his/ her religion allows them
                      to do. Be it matters of what food to eat, how to dress or with whom to
                      associate. Communities that have one dominantly shared religion will
                      be a very close-knit community. This is because all cultural values and
                      associations are commonly believed and preserved. In our country we
                      have religious beliefs that hold our society together and it’s a common
                      thing for people to be influenced by their religious affiliation.

                      Other factors that impact on lifestyle
                      1. Migration

                      Migration is the movement of individuals from one geographical area to
                      another almost always with the intention of starting a new life or because of
                      occupational, family or other individual reasons. This means that one leaves
                      his original cultural background and will pick up new lifestyle habits from the
                      new environment

                      2. Education

                      Education is the root to civilisation having both positive and negative effects
                      on an individual. Education and exposure through television and the internet
                      has led to people taking on other people’s culture and beliefs and leaving
                      their own culture.

                      3. Language

                      Language as a means of communication will always help to establish its own
                      sense of culture. Where you do not your first language, you may fail to get
                      certain aspects of your culture.

                      11.4 Influences of culture on what is considered acceptable and
                      unacceptable sexual behaviour
                      Activity 8

                      You have heard of taboos on sexual behaviour in your community, discuss
                      some of these taboos.
                      A taboo is a prohibited act based on a social custom. They therefore spell out
                      what is socially acceptable and what is not. When an individual engages in an
                      unacceptable behaviour, then they are liable to a punishment. Taboos differ
                      from one community to another. Taboos are meant to curb irresponsible or
                      harmful behaviour and what is morally acceptable depends on the society in
                      which an individual lives.
                      Some of the issues addressed by these taboos include; rape, homosexuality,
                      abortion, prostitution, conducting sexually suggestive behaviour in public,
                      incest (sexual relations between members of the same family) and sex
                      between unmarried people. In some communities, traditionally the young
                      woman to be married did not have to give consent; dowry was paid without
                      her knowledge and marriage was an arbitrary act where the men took her
                      by force to her new home. In other communities, this could be considered as
                      aggression and harassment of young girls by forcing them into marriage. In
                      the same way, for some communities, there are boundaries to the communities
                      from which a man can choose a marriage partner.
                      Apart from the traditional taboos, the modern society is organised in such a
                      way that citizens of a country are governed by a constitution. The constitution
                      is a set of laws guiding the members of the society on what is unlawful and
                      how it is punished. In some countries, sexual behaviuor such as homosexuality
                      and abortion are outrightly prohibited while in other constitutions it is not. In
                      virtually all laws, rape and sexual harassment are totally unacceptable.

                      Exercise 1

                      Describe harmful social and cultural practices that have a negative impact
                      on health.

                      11.5 Ways in which culture, human rights and social practices
                      influence gender equality and gender roles
                      Activity 9

                      1. In your family set up, what roles do the female members of the family
                      do that would seem inappropriate for the male family members to do?
                      2. Who defines the roles that are meant for either men /women?
                      Gender is the state of being either male or female. Culture plays a great
                      role in socialising people to their respective roles. Since culture is passed
                      on from one generation to another, cultural practice that determine gender
                      roles are passed on from parents to their children, grandchildren and great
                      grand children.
                      Even though culture socialises members of the society to particular roles, it
                      is important to note that members of a society are equal and whatever roles
                      they play contribute to the good of the entire community. These roles; be it
                      babysitting or earning for the family, are all equally important

                      Human rights and social practices
                      Activity 10

                      Write a list of the various human rights you know
                      Every human being deserves certain things vital for life. The global law
                      states that human rights must be observed as they are universal for all people
                      regardless of nationality, place of residence, sex, ethnic origin, color, religion,
                      language, or any other status. For example: the right to education, food and
                      shelter, health among others. We are all equally entitled to our human rights
                      without discrimination. These rights are all organised, co-dependent and
                      indivisible. They are often determined by the law and universally accepted.
                      Article 1 of The Human Rights declares that “All human beings are born free
                      and equal in dignity and rights.” This means that it is wrong to consider any
                      sex (male/ female), race, ethnic group or other groups inferior as the Human
                      Rights Declaration prohibits this and maintains that all people are equal.

                      11.6 Unit summary
                      Elements of national heritage

                      1. Fabric
                      2. Stories
                      3. Culture

                      The role of cultural preservation

                      1. It safeguards a community’s traditions and good practices from being
                      eroded away.
                      2. It enables a country to maintain its national heritage.
                      3. It guides in performance of cultural practices within a community.

                      Impact of differing cultures on lifestyle and habits

                      1. It leads to introduction of different foods to a community.
                      2. It introduces varied modes of dressing to a community.
                      3. It brings about construction of new types of houses to live and do
                      business in.
                      4. It shapes the beliefs and attitudes of the people.
                      5. Members of the community may form new habits.
                      6. A new religion or aspects of another religion may be introduced into
                      the existing one.

                      11.7 Test your competence

                      Describe Rwanda’s national heritage showing clearly the rich cultural
                      diversity in the country.

                      • Key unit competence: To be able to relate or interact effectively with
                        families, peers at school and community


                        The issues of gender, gender roles, gender equality and equity have recently
                        been in the limelight across the world. In this unit, we will study how all the

                        above gender-related issues relate to the society.

                        12.1 Gender equality and equity

                        Activity 1

                        1. Take two minutes to individually think of what gender and society
                        mean. Write your thoughts and then share them with your partner.
                        2. If you were asked to put people in your community into groups, how
                        would you categorise them?
                        From your class discussions you have discovered that people tend to group
                        themselves based on gender, sexuality, social class, religious convictions or
                        even on tribal and racial basis. In this unit we will concentrate on gender

                        equality, gender roles and families.

                        Activity 2

                        1. Discuss the possible meanings for the terms equality and equity. Use
                        text books and dictionaries.
                        2. Decide in your groups whether equality and equity are evident in your
                        3. Discuss whether you think human beings need equality.
                        Gender refers to the social understanding of being male or female. It goes
                        beyond the biological meaning to a cultural meaning.
                        Gender equality means that women and men as well as girls and boys
                        enjoy the same rights, resources, opportunities and protection.
                        Gender equity is the process of avoiding discrimination on the basis of
                        sex (male/ female). This can be by engaging both sexes in decision making,
                        allocating resources equally and providing equal opportunities.
                        In Rwanda, the Gender Monitoring Office which is a government body that
                        ensures that all national activities are gender equitable including elections.
                        Several organisations also work towards promoting positive masculinity
                        which encourages men to be loving, caring fathers and partners who are
                        supportive of gender equality and women’s empowerment.
                        Gender equality means that each gender play roles of equal importance to
                        the society. It is also important to note that biological characteristics relate
                        the female gender to particular roles such as nursing infants as they have the
                        maternal ability to do so.
                        On the other hand, the masculinity of the male gender places them at a
                        better position to carry out the more demanding manual jobs. This does not
                        limit the women to domestic chores and neither does it prohibit men from
                        carrying out domestic activities such as cooking. Equal opportunities such as
                        education and resources enable girls, boys, men and women to make choices
                        on what to do in life. For example, today there are many chefs who are men
                        and architects who are women.
                        Traditionally in Rwanda, activities such as drumming were left for men, but
                        today, teams of girls drum with strength and skill. Fathers are encouraging
                        daughters to do engineering and other courses that were perceived to be
                        men’s domain. Several women, for instance, have joined the army.
                        Gender complementarity is therefore the aspect of making both males
                        and females carry out roles that support each other. This is because one

                        gender cannot make a society. Both complement each other.

                        How to promote gender equality

                        Activity 3

                        1. Discuss ways of promoting gender equality.
                        2. Explain why it is important for the government to promote gender
                        your discussions you have no doubt learnt that equality is necessary
                        for all of us. Equality can be taught and practised starting from the school
                        environment by creating a positive learning environment in which both boys
                        and girls have positive role models and positive messages about responsibility.
                        Gender equality in Rwanda has greatly improved. This is evident in the
                        following areas:-
                        • More girls are enrolled in school as opposed to the past when mostly
                        boys went to school.
                        • Women can access loans to start businesses and therefore become more
                        self reliant.
                        • Today, women are taking up high-end jobs that were dominated by the
                        men. Instead of serving as personal assistants and secretaries, they are
                        occupying managerial offices just as the male counterparts.
                        • Laws are being put in place to allow the female gender to inherit property
                        just in the same way the males are heirs.
                        • Rwanda has maintained gender equality in terms of leadership as
                        seen in the number of female leaders today. The number of female
                        parliamentarians is 64%. This means that the majority are women.
                        • Rape has been acknowledged as a very serious offence; there are heavily
                        jail sentences for perpetrators.
                        • Women have been given the right to choose whether to pool assets
                        together with the husband or to keep them separate.
                        Men, women, boys and girls should be encouraged to explore and understand
                        how gender equality will benefit their families and communities. This can also
                        help individuals understand their roles and place in the family and society.
                        Good role models, both men and women have a big role to play in
                        teaching and encouraging the different gender groups to develop their own
                        responsibilities. A change in the way children are brought up is necessary.
                        We should eliminate stereotypical influences on the child. This can be done
                        by effecting change in the way we view: class and ethnicity, social norms
                        about women and men, boys and girls –as well as their, capabilities, security,
                        opportunities, empowerment and freedom. After the 1994 genocide against
                        the Tutsi, the Rwandan people had an opportunity to experience women
                        leadership. Women who make up a majority of those who survived acted
                        as judges in Gachecha courts and played great roles in putting the country
                        in order. Since then, the gender stereotypes has slowly faded and gender
                        equality has played a major role in the growth of Rwanda as a nation.
                        Gender equality can be promoted in schools, families and work places. The
                        following are some of the ways in which gender equality can be promoted.
                        1. Ensure equal pay and fair representation of men and women at all levels:
                        male teachers assistants; female head teachers and other senior levels.
                        2. Develop initiatives that promote education for all. This will facilitate
                        equality in opportunities later in life. In Rwanda for instance, there is a
                        compulsory education programme that has put boys and girls in primary
                        and secondary schools in equal numbers.
                        3. Challenge the existing stereotypes, that is, images that portray either
                        gender in a certain way.
                        4. Have clear and defined procedures for identifying and reporting sexual
                        harassment for both sexes. The Rwandan government has provided
                        hotlines for the police as a way of curbing rape cases. Sexual harassment
                        is highly punished in Rwanda. Laws have been put in place to stop gender


                        Exercise 1

                        State the meaning of gender, gender equality and equity.
                        12.2 Benefits of gender equality and complementarity
                        Activity 4
                        Debate on the following motion:
                        A gender balanced society is better than a gender imbalanced society.
                        Discuss the main points raised by each side after the debate
                        There are benefits when gender equality and complementarity is exercised.

                        These benefits are given below:

                        1. When women are presented with equal opportunities as men, they are
                        able to acquire education as opposed to when they do not enjoy gender
                        2. Career progression for women becomes easier when there is gender
                        equality and complementarity.
                        3. Women are able to enjoy financial independence and new roles in society
                        when gender equity is put in practice.
                        4. When women are given the same opportunities as men, there is human
                        development in the society.
                        5. When all members of the society have the opportunity to earn, there is
                        likely to be improved economic growth.
                        6. When women get equal opportunity as men, they also enjoy freedom,
                        choice and happiness.
                        7. Gender equality improves economic and social conditions for everyone.
                        When both parents are earning, families are healthier and better fed. Their
                        income, savings and investments go up. This extends to the community
                        and the entire nation.
                        8. When both girls and boys live free from rigid stereotypes that limit their
                        potential, they are able to exploit their full potential in a way that benefits
                        themselves and the society they live in.
                        9. In organisations and institutions where there is gender balance, there is
                        likely to be better decision-making and more effective implementation of
                        these decisions as everyone is involved in decision and therefore own the

                        decisions made.

                        Exercise 2

                        Highlight the benefits of gender equality and complementarity.

                        12.3 Gender roles and gender stereotypes

                        Activity 5

                        Act out the following dialogue and answer the questions that follow.
                        Interchange the roles and let mother play the role of father and Jacob’s
                        sister play the role of Jacob and vice versa.
                        Father: (Arriving home from work carrying a newspaper) How are you
                        Jacob: (watching TV) Am fine dad.
                        Father: Where is your sister? I need a cup of tea.
                        Jacob: She is washing the utensils.
                        Father: How about your mother?
                        Jacob: She is picking vegetables from the garden.

                        Father: Can you make a cup of tea for me?

                        12.3.1 Gender roles

                        The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines gender roles as socially
                        constructed roles, behaviours, activities and attributes that a given society
                        considers appropriate for men and women. Simply put, they are the roles that
                        men and women are expected to occupy based on their sex.
                        Traditionally, many Western societies have believed that women are more
                        nurturing than men. Therefore, the traditional view of the feminine gender
                        role prescribes that women should behave in ways that are nurturing. One way
                        that a woman might engage in the traditional feminine gender role would be
                        to nurture her family by working full-time within the home rather than taking
                        employment outside of the home. Men, on the other hand, are presumed
                        by traditional views of gender roles to be leaders. Them traditional view
                        of the masculine gender role, therefore, suggests that men should be the
                        heads of their households by providing financially for the family and making

                        important family decisions.

                        Activity 6

                        Explain the gender roles in the following pictures


                        12.3.2 Gender stereotypes

                        Gender stereotypes are over-generalisations about the characteristics of
                        an entire group based on gender. A man might say women aren’t meant
                        for combat, while a woman might say men do nothing but watch sports.
                        Stereotypes are not always necessarily true because they come from making
                        general conclusions about a group of people based on mere assumptions.
                        These general conclusions cannot be true for all people because individuals
                        have different desires, feelings and thoughts. Both the female gender and

                        the male gender have been stereotyped in the society. The following are

                        examples of gender stereotypes:

                        1. Women are rational beings.
                        2. Men are tough and protective.
                        3. Men are neither neat nor and clean.
                        4. Women make good secretaries and teachers.
                        5. They are also viewed as fragile and emotional, caring and more appropriate
                        for jobs like nursing.
                        These stereotypes begin right from childhood once the sex of a child is known.
                        The newborn is welcomed in a very stereotyped setting that’s decorated with
                        items suggesting how he/she ought to grow. Girls are made to love dolls and
                        take care of them as women take care of children while boys are bought car
                        toys and video games. While growing, they are assigned roles in the same
                        way. Boys can watch TV while girls do all the cleaning and cooking, unless
                        there is a fence to trim. Boys are also encouraged to do outdoor sports such
                        as bicycle riding and hiking. These stereotypes grow with children and are

                        passed on to generations.

                        12.3.3 Why are stereotypes simple assumptions?

                        Stereotypes are mere assumptions because as discussed earlier, individuals
                        have different desires, feelings and thoughts. It would therefore be untrue to
                        say that all men are leaders and all women are submissive because there are
                        women leaders. Some women are also doing well in the technical careers such
                        as pilots, mechanics and so forth, in the same way men are growing interest

                        in cosmetics industry, hairdressing and others are chefs in restaurants.

                        Exercise 3

                        Identify various gender roles and gender stereotypes in your community.

                        12.4 Impact of gender stereotypes on individuals, families

                        and society

                        Activity 7

                        Case study

                        One day, Mary’s mother came home and found the house in a mess.
                        Dirty dishes were left
                        don the dining table.
                        The floor was dirty
                        and the basket was
                        full of dirty clothes.
                        Mary was feeling
                        unwell and was lying
                        on the sofa while
                        her brother was
                        playing his video
                        game. What was the
                        best thing for Mary’s

                        mother to do?

                        Gender stereotypes portray teaching or serving in a hotel as female careers
                        while higher medical professions are perceived to be male careers. From the
                        discussion above, however, you realise that none of these careers belong
                        only to men or women. Holding on to these beliefs has very negative impacts
                        on individuals, families and the society at large. For example, the assumption
                        that women are more emotional than rational is demeaning to the female
                        gender and makes them look inferior to the male gender. This can lead to
                        disrespect in the family and consequently break the harmony that should be
                        in a family
                        Gender stereotypes portray teaching or serving in a hotel as female careers
                        while higher medical professions are perceived to be male careers. From the
                        discussion above, however, you realise that none of these careers belong
                        only to men or women. Holding on to these beliefs has very negative impacts
                        on individuals, families and the society at large. For example, the assumption
                        that women are more emotional than rational is demeaning to the female
                        gender and makes them look inferior to the male gender. This can lead to
                        disrespect in the family and consequently break the harmony that should be

                        in a family.

                        The following are the effects of gender stereotypes on individuals, family and


                        1. It can cause psychological distress to an individual. For example, where
                        a boy is told that he should not cry in public, he is likely to suppress
                        his emotions to prove his masculinity yet undergo a lot of emotional
                        2. It can easily reduce an individual’s self-esteem. When women are viewed
                        as passive members of the family who must always be submissive and have
                        no place in decision-making, their sense of value is ideally diminished.
                        They may end up feeling unwanted yet they are a central part of the
                        society in real sense and can make great leaders.
                        3. Stereotyping can prevent individuals from pursuing their dreams such as
                        a person’s career of interest. This denies such a person the opportunity
                        to live a fulfilling life. For example, a female student may have interest
                        in a mechanical job, but the fear of not meeting the expectations of the
                        society may hold her from pursuing her dream career hence not achieving
                        her full potential.
                        4. It can be used as a basis for discrimination. For example, this can happen
                        in the family when sharing household chores. The girl child, for example,
                        may be overwhelmed with responsibilities such as preparing meals,
                        cleaning, laundry and buying grocery while her male siblings engage in
                        fun activities.
                        5. It can lead to subordination of one gender in society. For example, in the
                        earlier days, women were not allowed to vote. This denied them of the
                        right to elect leaders of their choice.
                        6. It can bring confusion and disagreement in the family about whose
                        responsibility it is to provide for the family. Though any member of the
                        family can be the breadwinner depending on the situation, stereotyping
                        that presumes that the man should fend for the family can be detrimental
                        when the man in the family is not able to earn for one reason or another.
                        He may feel incapable of doing his duty even when he is not to blame.
                        This can also have a negative impact on the family because the idea that
                        a woman should not fend for the family is a hindrance to improving the
                        living standards of the family as the income comes from one source.

                        Exercise 4

                        1. Explain the impact of gender stereotypes on individuals, families and

                        2. Write an essay on gender issues in the society today.

                        12.5 Unit summary

                        Gender - the social understanding of being male or female.
                        Gender equality – a situation where women, men, girls and boys enjoy the
                        same rights, resources, opportunities and protection.
                        Gender equity - the process of avoiding discrimination on the basis of sex
                        (male/ female).
                        Gender complementarity - the aspect of making both males and females
                        carry out roles that support or complement each other.
                        Gender roles - socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities and attributes
                        that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.
                        Gender stereotypes - over-generalisations about the characteristics of an
                        entire group based on gender.

                        Benefits of gender equality and complementarity

                        1. When women are presented with equal opportunities as men, they are
                        able to acquire education as opposed to when they do not enjoy gender
                        2. Career progression for women becomes easier when there is gender
                        equality and complementarity.
                        3. Women are able to enjoy financial independence and new roles in
                        society when gender equity is put in practice.
                        4. When women are given the same opportunities as men, there is human
                        development in the society.
                        5. When all members of the society have the opportunity to earn, there is
                        likely to be improved economic growth.
                        6. When women get equal opportunity as men, they also enjoy freedom,
                        choice and happiness.
                        7. Gender equality improves economic and social conditions for everyone.
                        8. When both girls and boys live free from rigid stereotypes that limit
                        their potential, they are able to exploit their full potential in a way that
                        benefi ts themselves and the society they live in.
                        9. In organisations and institutions where there is gender balance, there is
                        likely to be better decision-making and more effective implementation
                        of these decisions as everyone is involved in decision and therefore

                        own the decisions made

                        Impact of gender stereotypes on individuals, families and society

                        1. It can cause psychological distress to an individual.
                        2. It can easily reduce an individual’s self-esteem.
                        3. Stereotyping can prevent individuals from pursuing their dreams such
                        as a person’s career of interest.
                        4. It can be used as a basis for discrimination
                        5. It can lead to subordination of one gender in society.
                        6. It can bring confusion and disagreement in the family about whose

                        responsibility it is to provide for the family.

                        12.6 Test your competence

                        Read the case study below then answer the questions that follow.

                        Rose was working in an institution that took care of children. Though she
                        was more learned than most of her male counterparts, she was always given
                        the responsibilities of taking care of children and feeding them. Whenever an
                        opportunity arose for promotion, she was always overlooked with a simple

                        explanation, ‘You are a woman’. This hurt Rose a lot.


                        1. Identify any gender issues in this story.
                        2. What gender roles do you find in this story?
                        3. Explain the gender stereotype seen Rose’s case.
                        4. Suggest possible solutions to the challenges Rose was facing at her


                        • Key unit competence: To be able to describe and compare various
                          forms of art.

                          Art plays a major role in society. It is a skill that has been there even in early
                          civilisation. The society employs the use of art for various purposes. In this

                          unit, we will study how art relates to the society.

                          13.1 History of arts

                          Activity 1

                          1. Brainstorm on the meaning of art.
                          2. Find out from any relevant material, either a dictionary or textbook, the
                          various forms of art.
                          3. Think of the media and the community you live in. What are the forms
                          of art that can be found there?
                          There are different definitions of art. Each individual explains art uniquely.
                          Simply put, art is a collection of creative human activities and the expression
                          of those activities. It usually involves the results of the imagination and

                          activities that lead to the production of works of art. It mostly involves

                          Art is as old as human kind. It began with the Stone Age man who had
                          paintings and curving of sculptures. Some of these paintings and carvings
                          may not have survived time but some of the ancient art works and artists are
                          still popular today. The ancient man carried out these art activities as a way

                          of expressing his understanding of the world around him.

                          13.2 Forms and uses of art

                          Activity 2

                          1. In pairs, discuss how you can categorise the various forms of art you
                          know of.
                          2. What is the value of art to any society?
                          In your discussion on what comprises art, you may have found out that most
                          art works are majorly for aesthetic purposes. This means that art is about
                          creating beautiful products that can be appreciated. However, art does not
                          only involve beautiful creations for appreciation, some art works are useful
                          in other ways apart from appreciation. Some activities go beyond the value
                          of beauty to other functions such as weaving beautiful baskets to be used in
                          carrying grocery, or artistically baking a cake to be eaten at a wedding. Other
                          art works such as sculptures of national figures are symbolic and carry social
                          memories of past experiences. Paintings and sculptures can also symbolise
                          an idea. For example, a carving that portrays a beautiful African woman
                          holding a baby presents the idea of an ideal African woman and the noble
                          role they play in nurturing life.
                          Depending on the function they serve and the manner of presentation, art

                          can be categorised into various forms. They include:

                          1. The visual arts: Artists use paint, canvas, stones and clay among other
                          materials to create physical or static art objects. They include paintings,
                          drawings, carvings and sculptures.

                          2. Performing arts: These are art forms where artists use their voices
                          and/or the movement of their bodies, often in relation to other objects, to
                          convey artistic expression. Performing
                          farts include a variety of disciplines
                          but all are intended to be performed
                          in front of a live audience. Artists who
                          participate in performing arts in front
                          of an audience are called performers.
                          Examples of these include actors,
                          comedians, dancers, magicians, circus artists, musicians and singers
                           3. Media arts: These are arts that use media devices. They include:

                          photography, visual designs and computer art.

                          4. Culinary arts: This is what we commonlyu
                          call cuisine. It involves foods that are traditionally
                          eaten and are part of a people’s culture. When this
                          happens, the method of cooking becomes an art.

                          5. Literature: This includes novels, plays, poetry and short stories. At one
                          point in your studies, you must have come across poems, read various novels

                          or story books. These are forms of art.

                          Uses of art
                          1. It is used to communicate an idea e.g. a painting or carving.
                          2. It is used to entertain e.g. a dance or music.
                          3. It is used to give pleasure. Observing beautiful art gives pleasure.
                          4. It fosters community interaction by bringing people together during art
                          5. It is a means for self expression. Through art, artists are able to express
                          their feelings and ideas.
                          6. Art preserves history and expresses the human experience. A good
                          example are the prehistoric sites and genocide sites in Rwanda. A piece
                          of art can hold memories of the past experiences of a group of people or
                          even an individual.
                          7. Art has been used as a way of communicating beliefs.
                          8. Forms of arts and culture naturally manifest aspects of socio-economic
                          activities popular among certain people.
                          9. Art has a way of increasing global interactions as people of different
                          cultural origins appreciate art from other regions.
                          10. Through art, education on social matters is enhanced. For example, the
                          drama and music festivals held in schools have music and poems that are

                          based on educational themes that address social issues.

                          13.3 Characteristics of fine art by region (African, European,

                          Asiatic, Egyptian, Greek, Italian, American, Chinese)

                          Activity 3

                          Fine art is the making and study of visual arts. Different regions have a
                          different sense of art. This is because most works of art reflect the cultural,
                          environmental and political contexts of the regions in which they are created.
                          In Africa, for example, some of the fine arts include:
                          (a) Pottery. This is due to the fact that in traditional Africa, a pot was useful

                          in cooking and storing drinks.


                          (b) Masks. These are associated with religious
                          kceremonies as African Traditional Religion had a lot
                          to do with spirituality. Different masks represented
                          various deities.
                          Royal regalia, especially in West Africa, was common
                          due to the monarchy system where there was a
                          royal family ruling a kingdom.

                          (c) Sculptures, paintings and carvings, for
                          example the timber carvings, tinga tinga paintings
                          and Makonde sculptures of East Africa.
                          (d) Zimbabwe is known for its soapstone sculptures
                          of birds and impressive buildings, while some of
                          South Africa’s art includes clay figures of cylinder shaped heads

                          with a mixture of both human and animal features.


                          Chinese fine art is characterised by calligraphy, ceramics, engravings,
                          jewellery, paintings, photography, sculptures, ivory carving, stone carving,
                          woodwork, embroidery and textile works, weaving and government seals.
                          European modern art does not portray much of nature. Its earlier art was
                          however influenced by the church. The art includes architectural designs,
                          paintings and sculptures. Most of these art works reflected the history of the
                          church. This was followed by an interest in myths of gods and goddesses in
                          art. However, for so many years now, European art has not been based on
                          religion or any particular ideology. Instead, it is influenced by the politics of

                          either the state or other institutions.

                          Asia is known mainly for dance and theatre performances. From the earliest
                          times in East Asia, dance, music and dramatic performances by masked
                          characters served a religious function. The masked characters were meant
                          to act as supernatural beings during various rituals. Hand puppets, sculptures
                          and paintings were common in South Asia.
                          Egyptian art is mostly characterised by paintings,
                          osculptures and statues. In painting, all colours have
                          meaning. Artists used six colours. These were: red,
                          green, blue, yellow, white and black. Red, the colour
                          of power, symbolised life and victory, as well as anger
                          and fire. Green symbolised new life, growth and fertility,
                          while blue symbolised creation and rebirth. Yellow
                          symbolised the eternal, such as the qualities of the sun
                          and gold. Yellow was the colour of Ra and of all the
                          pharaohs, which is why the sarcophagi of the Pharaohs
                          was made of gold. Funeral masks were made of gold to
                          symbolise the everlasting and eternal pharaoh who was now a god. White
                          was the colour of purity, symbolising all things sacred and was typically used
                          in religious objects and tools used by the priests. Black was the colour of
                          death and represented the underworld and the night.
                          Sculpturing also involved carving and casting metal. For Egyptian sculptures,
                          the head and legs had to be visible while the eyes and the upper body were
                          to be viewed from the front. Male statues had to be darker than female
                          ones. When seated, the subject’s hands had to be on
                          jhis/her knees. Gods too were depicted according to
                          their position in the hierarchy of deities and always in
                          the same guise. For instance, Horus (the sky god) was
                          always represented with a falcon’s head while Anubis
                          (the god of funeral rites) was always depicted with a
                          jackal’s head.
                          Greek fine art, on the other hand, is characterised by
                          very distinct features. Even though it has aspects of
                          sculptures and paintings, its art did not draw meaning
                          from supernatural deities. The ancient art featured
                          statues of naked male Greeks and clothed women. Art
                          later advanced to monuments of heroic warriors, fine
                          metal works, weapons and jewellery, mainly placed in
                          graves to show the social status of the deceased. There
                          was also decorated vessels such as jugs and flower
                          Italian fine art entailed well designed architecture. In the later days, there
                          emerged wall paintings, mosaic ceilings, floor work and funerary sculpture.
                          Other artists carved statues of biblical characters such a King David and the
                          disciples of Jesus.
                          American fine art is characterised by paintings where all available space is
                          covered with flat figures arranged in geometric patterns. Visual art, includes
                          brightly coloured masks, ceremonial costumes, bracelets and necklaces, as
                          well as a range of clay, stone and wood sculptures.
                          Mosaic art was frequently used to decorate masks as well as architecture.
                          Megaliths, which are arrangements of stones, were used to create a type of
                          monument. Rock art and wooden carvings as well as mural paintings are also

                          common in American art.


                          Exercise 1
                          Explain the characteristics of various types of fine art categorising them

                          by the regions.

                          13.4 Various forms of art including architecture, painting, fashion,

                          photography, sculpture and music from a variety of cultures, styles

                          and traditions

                          Activity 4

                          1. In groups, perform a traditional song and a secular song that are
                          common. Identify the differences between the two.
                          2. Discuss the various dresses and costumes worn during traditional
                          ceremonies such as weddings
                          Art forms differ from one culture to another due to the fact that shared artistic
                          qualities and aesthetic conscience exist across cultural barriers. For example,
                          certain architectural designs, sculptures, fashion and music are associated

                          with particular cultures. Let’s look at the following distinctions:

                          13.4.1 African art

                          African art exhibits form, composition and presence. In most cases, it serves
                          as a metaphor for the African view of the origin and evolution of the universe
                          and dramatically harmonises humanity and the environment. African art has
                          both spiritual and social significance.
                          Different social spheres such as family, clan, communa
                          groups and tribe
                          kreflect their identity through art.
                          A major characteristic of African art is that it touches 
                          on human emotions. Some are subtly expressed
                          while others are overtly expressed.
                          Consider the Yoruba iron figure. Here, the blacksmith
                          artist has transformed iron, a natural element of the
                          earth, into an image that suggests the very powers
                          of life. The arms and legs, elongated and enlarged,

                          show energy around the static environment.

                                                                                                                                                   Iron figure from Yoruba

                          Another characteristic of African art is its j

                          intricate details. For example, a statue of a

                          Lumbo mother and child captures the essence

                          of the maternal relationship. The tilt of the

                          head and the kneeling pose with turned feet

                          show life. The large left hand cradles the

                          entire child while the heavily lidded, downcast

                          eyes depict serenity and peace. The image

                          therefore portrays the universal nurturing role

                          of a mother.

                          African music can also be looked at as
                          an art. It can at times be unaccompanied
                          by instruments. Some music is however
                          performed with instruments.
                          There are many different instruments that are
                          used in African music. These vary from region
                          to region. The many different types of drums  
                          are called membranophones because they
                          have skin. The other main types of instruments
                          can be categorised as shown below:
                          (a) Idiophones: These are instruments that involve banging for them to
                          produce sound. They include:
                          • Rattlers (shakers)
                          • Bells
                          • Mbira (thumb piano)
                          • Xylophones or balaphones
                          • Clap sticks
                          • Slit gongs
                          • Stamping tubes
                          (b) Aerophones: These are instruments that are played by blowing air
                          through them. They include:
                          • Flutes (bamboo, horn)
                          • Ocarinas
                          • Panpipes
                          • Horns from animal tusks
                          • Trumpets made from wood or metal
                          • Pipes being single or double reeds
                          • Whistle
                          (c) Chordophones: These are stringed instruments. Examples are:
                          • Zithers
                          • Lutes (kora)
                          • Lyres
                          • Musical bows
                          The most common features of African music are:
                          • Basic form of all songs is ‘call and response,
                          • Melodies are usually short and simple and repeated.
                          • Melodies can be changed at will by other singers so that we end up with a
                          theme and then variations on that theme. This is ideal as a song can serve
                          many functions.
                          • Performers often improvise new melodies while others continue the
                          original melody creating a polyphonic texture.
                          African fashion is diverse depending on the community. In Rwanda, for
                          example, the umushanana, which consists of a wrap skirt with enough gathers
                          at the hips and a sash that drapes over the shoulder, is a dress for women.
                          Traditionally, this dress was mainly worn by older women but with the

                          changing times, umushanana is now mostly worn during formal occasions.


                          Umushanana with women and men’s traditional attire

                          For other parts of Africa such as Uganda, traditional fashion comprises of
                          many variations. However, the most popular of them in women and men is
                          Gomesi and Kanzu. The pure traditional dresses of the Ugandan people also
                          consisted of many personal adornments like body marks, tattoos and facial
                          paintings. Similarly they were also fond of wearing various ornaments like
                          bracelets, earrings, nose pins, beads and headgears. Ankle jingles, bird
                          feathers and cowrie shells also played an important role in the adornments

                          of the people of Uganda.

                          13.4.2 Indian art

                          Indian art such as the paintings, carvings and sculptures represent the deities.
                          Multiple arms indicate that the figure is a deity, representing their superhuman
                          powers. Asanas are the postures used to reflect the mood of the deity – the

                          mood can be fierceness or relaxation.


                          A deity belonging to the Indians
                          The Buddha is usually seen in either a meditative lotus position or standing.
                          Half-closed eyes symbolise meditation, emphasising looking inwards and
                          cultivating spiritual control. A third eye in the middle of the forehead signifies

                          the deity’s divine wisdom and power.


                          Fire represents destructive, purifying power. Drums, since they make sound
                          that travels through the air, represent ether, the prime substance from which
                          all creation was derived.
                          Snakes are symbols of regeneration and fertility. They are positive symbols
                          with no association with evil as is the case with Western art. The art on
                          deities emphasises certain attire appropriate for that particular deity and
                          may at times represent the story behind the powers of that deity.
                          Indian art is often united with architecture, serving the purpose of aiding
                          devotees in ritual worship. The exterior walls of most Hindu temples are in
                          most cases decorated by images of these deities.
                          Indian art is also characterised by a strong appeal to senses. For example,
                          the twining plant forms leaves, flowers, vines, as framing devices around
                          sculptures, niches, doorways and gateways. They are as well integrated into
                          sculptural design. These symbolise fertility, growth and prosperity.
                          Indian sculptures and paintings are also characterised by
                          lsharp expression of sexuality. This is portrayed by idealised,
                          voluptuous female bodies. Yakshis (nature spirits) represent
                          procreative abundance and bounty and represent the
                          generosity of the gods. The female form is based on the
                          vajra (2 headed thunderbolts) or the double drum. Both
                          have full rounded forms connected by a narrow waist in
                          the middle. The yakshis and Hindu goddesses are largebreasted,
                          narrow-waisted, round-hipped beauties.
                          Idealised, sensual male bodies are shown as well with smooth, simplified body
                          volumes and very little muscle definition. This is different from the Western
                          ideal of the male. Explicit references to sexual union symbolise the creative
                          force within the universe. This is seen from the abstracted sexual organs (the
                          male linga, the female yoni), particularly in Shiva temples, symbolise creative

                          force and the union of the male and female principles.


                          Indian women hold sari as their dress of identity. Even though
                          kother styles have emerged, women put on sari to occasions and
                          ceremonies. The sari is usually adorned with jewelry to create

                          a dazzling look common among Indian women


                          Indian men are known to dress in Lungi which is tied at the waist or
                          a Sherwani. This is the long, dazzling, often jeweled jacket that you
                          see men wearing on special occasions. It is traditionally a wedding
                          jacket, but can be worn for other events. Most of the Indian attires

                          are functional


                          Indian music consists of folk, classical and pop music, among others. The
                          Classical music is characterised by microtones, notes, ornamentations and
                          melodies improvised from grammar and rhythmic patterns used in percussion
                          also known as tala. A large number of instruments are used in Indian music
                          and some of the key ones are the Sitar, Veena, Dhol, Tabla, Harmonium,

                          Shehnai, Bansuri, etc.

                          13.4.3 Western art


                          A distinct art of the West is the Ballet dance: Ballet, theatrical dance in which
                          a formal academic dance technique — the danse d’école — is combined with
                          other artistic elements such as music, costume, and stage scenery.

                          Western construction methods progressed from the most primitive shed
                          roof and simple truss to the vertical posts, or columns, supporting horizontal
                          beams, or lintels. In 19th century, with the advent of cast-iron and steel
                          construction, a new architectural age dawned and higher, broader and lighter
                          buildings became possible. Later, these architectural designs improved and
                          today computerised architecture comes in more creative designs.

                          Western women of the old times wore full skirts that nearly reached the floor,
                          with the fullness concentrated over the hips to create a broad horizontal
                          profile. Under the gowns, women of fashion wore heavily boned stays
                          (or corsets) that extended from the bust to below the hips. On their feet,
                          women wore high-heeled shoes, and in their hair, which was swept up in high
                          coiffures, they wore jewels and flowers. Gowns were also made of relatively
                          heavy, crisp fabrics, which enhanced the feeling of weight and presence.
                          These garments projected a heaviness and commanding flamboyance
                          characteristic of furniture and architecture of the time as well.
                          The following years adapted lighter weight fabrics. Skirts were rounded and
                          often finished with a train, and waistlines moved higher. Men`s fashions were
                          derived from military models. However, the modern times have a wide range
                          of fashion incorporated from all over the world.
                          13.5 Classification of arts by fine arts and applied arts
                          Activity 5
                          Have you come across decorated baskets, pots or wooden objects? How
                          about framed photographs or simple paintings? Discuss the difference in
                          function between them.
                          By definition, fine art means creative art, especially visual art, whose products
                          are to be appreciated primarily or solely for their imaginative, aesthetic
                          or intellectual content. They only serve the purpose of appealing to the
                          senses. They include: painting, sculpture, architecture, music, poetry, film,
                          photography, conceptual art, printmaking and performing arts which include
                          theatre and dance.
                          The applied arts, on the other hand, are the application of design and
                          decoration to everyday objects to make them aesthetically pleasing. These
                          objects apart from depicting art, are useful in day-to-day activities. Examples
                          of applied art are basketry, weaving and pottery as long as the products of
                          these art works are not for mere decoration but are also useful in household
                          or outdoor activities. The main difference between the fine arts and applied
                          arts is that fine art is used only for beauty purposes while applied art has

                          utility value.

                          Exercise 2

                          With illustrations, differentiate between fine and applied arts.

                          13.6 Rwandan unique arts and craft

                          Activity 6

                          Describe the unique art of Rwanda.
                          Considering that Rwanda is a unified country in terms of language and
                          culture, occupied by the Banyarwanda, their culture is more concrete
                          than in other regions where culture is diversified.

                          Traditional handicraft which forms part of Rwandan art includes:


                          One of the major unique arts of the Banyarwanda is the Imigongo paintings.
                          These paintings are made using cow dung and are produced by locals from

                          the village of Nyakarambi near Rwandan’s Rusumo Falls.


                          Rwanda paintings
                          Music and dance also play an important role in the tradition of Rwandan
                          people. They express among other values; bravery, excellence and humour.
                          Traditional songs are often accompanied by a solitary lulunga, a harp-like
                          instrument which is made of eight strings.
                          The most famous traditional dance is Intore, a highly vigorous dance consisting
                          of three components - the ballet, performed by women; the dance of heroes,
                          performed by men, and the drums. Traditionally, music was transmitted
                          orally with styles varying between the social groups. Drums were of great
                          importance. Traditionally, the royal drummers enjoyed high status within the
                          court of the umwami. Drummers usually played together in groups of seven
                          or nine.
                          A wide range of traditional handicrafts is produced in rural Rwanda, ranging
                          from ceramics and basketry to traditional wood carvings and contemporary
                          paintings. Rwanda’s traditional Agaseke baskets are some of the unique form
                          of handicraft that are famous the world over. Most of the art works, however,
                          are functional items rather than purely for decoration. Examples include:
                          Woven baskets and bowls.
                          Architecture is also part of Rwandan art and craft. Houses with dome-like
                          round shape made from cedar poles, linked with bamboo and reeds and
                          thatched with grass or banana leaves were a common sight in rural Rwanda
                          before colonialism. Later, clay walling with the walls decorated with bold
                          geometrical patterns became common for the circular thatched houses.
                          Today, the clay-filled timber framed walls have been replaced with sundried
                          brick walling.
                          The people of Rwanda also have a strong oral tradition. Their oral tradition
                          entails poetry and folk stories. The epic musical poetry also known as
                          ibitekerezo and the royalty poems also known as ubucurabwenge and ibisigo
                          form the rich oral tradition of the Banyarwanda. Through them, most of the
                          country’s moral values and history have been passed from one generation to


                          13.7 Importance of the various forms of art to an individual,

                          national and global community

                          Activity 7

                          Which kind of Rwandan music catches your attention the most? Discuss
                          the role played by performing artists in Rwanda.
                          At the individual level, art is a way of communicating beliefs and expressing
                          ideas about the human experience. The artist passes his/her imagination
                          through creating a piece of art that elucidates meaning to the audience. It is
                          a fact that some stories, feelings or ideas cannot be well put in words, but a
                          painting or a photograph exposes all aspects including the emotions of the
                          time and the mood. However, stories can also be creatively narrated.
                          At an individual level, art provides an opportunity for pleasure. Art appeals
                          to the senses hence giving pleasure to the viewer, listener or reader. At a
                          national level, art serves a communal purpose. For example, the paintings on
                          the historic encounters of a people, serve as a preservation of that particular
                          experience in symbolic forms. Whenever members of that particular
                          community experience the art, they relate it to their past experiences.
                          Sculptures also serve as symbols as they hold meanings that can be shared
                          by the entire community. A sculpture of a political figure, for example,
                          symbolises the ideas represented by that particular political group which he/
                          she stood for/ stands for.
                          Music and dance as forms of art also help in bringing people together, hence
                          encouraging social interaction among members of a community.
                          Art also preserves history. For example, both oral and written literature tells
                          the stories of past experiences. Works of literature do not die, but are passed
                          from generation to generation. In this same way, these collective experiences
                          are passed from generation to generation.
                          Art also contributes to the national identity of a group of people. For example
                          communities, even nations have attire with which they are identified. Most
                          of these attires are traditional and are commonly worn during occasions or
                          ceremonies. Music and dance are also culture oriented
                          Internationally, art can be a means of distinguishing various nations. The
                          uniqueness of art that belongs to a particular nation can draw people from
                          other nations to that appreciate it. Therefore, art serves as a tourist attraction

                          and in this way it contributes to the national revenue significantly.

                          Exercise 3

                          1. In your study groups discuss the importance of arts.

                          2. Link different forms of art and their applications.

                          13.8 Unit summary

                          Forms of art

                          1. Visual arts
                          2. Performing arts
                          3. Media arts
                          4. Culinary arts

                          5. Literature

                          Uses of art

                          1. It is used to communicate an idea e.g. a painting or carving.
                          2. It is used to entertain e.g. a dance or music.
                          3. It is used to give pleasure. Observing beautiful art gives pleasure.
                          4. It fosters community interaction by bringing people together during art
                          5. It is a means for self expression.
                          6. Art preserves history and expresses the human experience.
                          7. Art has been used as a way of communicating beliefs.
                          8. Forms of arts and culture naturally manifest aspects of socio-economic
                          activities popular among certain people.
                          9. Art increases global interactions as people of different cultural origins
                          appreciate art from other regions.

                          10. Through art, education on social matters is enhanced.

                          Importance of the various forms of art to an individual, national

                          and global community

                          1. Art is a way of communicating beliefs and expressing ideas about the
                          human experience.
                          2. It provides an opportunity for pleasure.
                          3. Sculptures serve as symbols as they hold meanings that can be shared
                          by the entire community.
                          4. Art preserves a community’s or a nation’s history.
                          5. Art can be used to express the national identity of a group of people.
                          6. Art can be a means of distinguishing various nations.

                          13.9 Test your competence
                          Art serves different roles in society. With reference to arts from Rwanda,
                          explain the role of art to the following:
                          (i) an individual,
                          (ii) a nation,

                          (iii) the global community.


                          Applied arts - the application of design and decoration to everyday objects
                          to make them aesthetically pleasing.
                          Architecture - the process of planning, designing, and constructing buildings
                          and other physical structures.
                          Career - an occupation or profession, especially one requiring special
                          training, followed as one’s lifework.
                          Channel – a medium through which messages are communicated.
                          Citizenship – the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as
                          being a member of a country.
                          Cohesion - the bonds or unity between members of a community or society.
                          Gender complementarity – the view that men and women have different
                          but complementary roles and responsibilities in life.
                          Decode – to find or understand the true or hidden meaning of something.
                          Degradation – the process in which the beauty or quality of something is
                          destroyed or spoiled.
                          Encode - to put a message into the form of a code so that it can kept secret.
                          Equality - the quality or state of having the same rights, social status etc.
                          Equity - fairness or justice in the way people are treated.
                          Ethics - rules of behaviour based on ideas about what is morally good and
                          Feedback - the response of an audience to a message or activity.
                          Fine art - a visual art considered to have been created primarily for aesthetic
                          and intellectual purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness.
                          Habit - something that a person does often in a regular and repeated way.
                          Heritage - something possessed as a result of one’s natural situation or birth.
                          Identity - the qualities, beliefs, etc., that make a particular person or group
                          different from others.
                          Indifference - absence of compulsion to or toward one thing or another.
                          Job - the work that a person does regularly in order to earn money.
                          Leisure - time when you are not working; time when you can do whatever
                          you want to do.
                          Manipulation – act of controlling someone by artful, unfair, or means
                          especially to one’s own advantage.
                          Mortality rate - the number of a particular group of people who die each
                          Non-renewable – not able to be replaced by nature or natural processes.
                          Performing arts - art forms in which artists use their voices and/or the
                          movements of their bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey
                          artistic expressions.
                          Property rights – rules determining how a resource or economic good is
                          used and owned.
                          Receiver – one who receives something such as a message.
                          Renewable - able to be replaced by nature
                          Revenue - money that is collected for public use by a government through
                          Sender – one who sends.
                          Stereotype - to believe unfairly that all people or things with a particular
                          characteristic are the same.
                          Visual arts - art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture,
                          printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking and architecture.
                          Welfare - a government programme for poor or unemployed people that
                          helps pay for their food, housing, medical costs, etc.

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                          2. Senyonga, Moses. (2000). Reflections in General Paper: A
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                          3. Shuayb, M. (2012). Rethinking Education for Social Cohesion:
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                          4. Timothy, Dallen J. (2011). Cultural Heritage and Tourism. Bristol, UK:
                          Channel View Publications.
                          5. Uwanziga, J. Nzamuita.(2015). Manners in Rwanda: Basic knowledge
                          of Rwandan Culture, Customs and Kinyarwanda Language. Kigali,
                          Rwanda: New Times.
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