• UNITE 1 MUSIC LANGUAGE

    What we are going to learn in this unit
    By the end of this unit, we shall have learnt:
    Ž Music staff
    Ž Music notes
    Ž Duration of the notes

    What are we going to do?

    Through this unit, we are going to:
    Ž Sing sol-fa notes according to their pitches.
    Ž Identify the shapes and values of music notes.
    Ž Identify the pitch of music notes on the staff.
    Ž Subdivide note values into others.

    How we are going to do it?
    We are going to be able to do it by:
    Ž Singing the sol-fa ladder up and down.
    Ž Describing music notes on a music staff.
    Ž Practising music notes on the staff.

    How shall we be able to achieve it?

    As we practise all the above, we should:

    Ž Be patient
    Ž Endure
    Ž Be orderly
    Ž Appreciate the methods used to place music notes on the staff.

    THE MUSIC LANGUAGE
    INTRODUCTION

    In this Unit, we are going to learn the music language. There are several basic
    terms used in this language. These basic terms are names of signs and symbols.
    These signs and symbols describe time, pitch and rhythm. Time, pitch and
    rhythm are some of the main elements of music. So, those elements are used
    in both composition and performance. In this unit, we shall learn the names of
    the different signs and symbols. We shall learn how to use signs and symbols
    to present information. We shall also learn how signs and symbols are drawn.
    The most frequently used signs and symbols are:
    1. Music stave or staff
    2. Treble Clef
    3. Treble staff
    4. Music notes
    5. Note values
    6. Notes and rests
    7. The rhythm names
    8. Note grouping
    9. Alternative words
    10. Notation
    11. Translation of staff notation to sol-fa notation.
    12. Translation of sol-fa notation to staff notation

    THE MUSIC LANGUAGE

    Activity 1.1
    1. Recite the lyrics given below by:
    (i) Reading from the book.
    (ii) Chanting from memory.

    Lyrics

    Music language is the use of signs and symbols.
    The use of signs and symbols,

    The signs and symbols
    Signs and symbols are used
    To arrange music sounds.

    2. Study the song The music language and do the activities that follow.

    THE MUSIC LANGUAGE

    n

    Sing the song “The music language” to:
    (i) Sol-fa notes
    (ii) Syllables
    (iii) Words
    3. Study and describe the signs and symbols in the music score above.

    Music language
    is the use of signs and symbols to represent information. The

    signs and symbols are used to arrange music sounds. The music sounds are
    described in terms of: Pitch, Rhythm and Time.

    What is a music stave or staff?
    A music staff is a set of five horizontal lines.
    A music stave is a two part staff. A two part staff has eleven horizontal lines. A
    music stave is commonly called the great stave. Sometimes it is known as the
    Grand staff.

    Activity 1.2

    Let us read through the skit given below. It is entitled, “The music stave or staff”.
    The skit brainstorms its title. Now, let us form groups in our class. After forming
    the groups, give out parts to the group members. Then, act the skit out in groups.

    THE MUSIC STAVE OR STAFF

    Karenzi : What is the music great stave?
    Nsabimana : Let us carefully observe the table below. It has eleven lines and
    ten spaces. The middle line is shorter than the others.

    Kayitesi : This is the great stave.

    f

    Nsabimana : A great stave is a two part staff. And the two part staff is a table
    of eleven horizontal lines.
    Karenzi : What does that mean then?
    Nsabimana : It means that we should come to a conclusion.
    Kayitesi : How do we conclude then?
    Mukandori : The conclusion is clear. A great stave is a two part staff. A two
    part staff is a set of eleven horizontal lines.
    Kayitesi : True, it is on those lines and spaces that music notes are placed.
    Karenzi : Why do we need a stave?
    Mukandori : Karenzi, that is what we call a great stave.
    Nsabimana : Yes. It is used when writing music for a mixed choir.
    Kayitesi : What do you mean by a mixed choir?
    Mukandori : A mixed choir is a group of male and female singers.
    Kayitesi : Okay, I can see. A mixed choir promotes gender balance.
    Nsabimana : That is obvious dear. Anyway, how can I know the notes for
    female singers?
    Karenzi : That is very easy to tell. The top staff is for the female singers.
    Kayitesi : (confidently) Obviously, the bottom staff is for the male notes.
    Mukandori : (with a smile on her face) This is interesting!
    Karenzi : If I want to write for only one voice, how do I do it?
    Nsabimana : That is when we use the music staff.
    Kayitesi : (she seems confused) What is a music staff?
    Karenzi : (with pride) A music staff is a set of five horizontal lines.
    Mukandori : (contributes) It is on the lines and in spaces that music notes
    are placed. Both lines and spaces are numbered. They are
    numbered from the bottom.
    m
    Kayitesi : What is the difference between a staff and a great stave?
    Karenzi : A great stave is a table of eleven horizontal lines.
    Kayitesi : (with curiosity) Nhuhu, then what is a music staff?
    Karenzi : A music staff is a table of five horizontal lines.
    Nsabimana : Okay, that is right. But why do we need a music staff?
    Mukandori : We need a music staff because it represents all the music
    pitches.
    Kayitesi : Very true. It is on those horizontal lines and spaces that music
    notes are placed.
    Karenzi : (he looks disturbed) A moment please. How does the music staff
    represent the music pitches? (Trying to challenge) By the way,
    what are music pitches?
    Mukandori : (trying to make the point clear) Karenzi… music pitches are the
    different levels of sound used in singing songs. Remember, in
    science we say: Pitch is the highness or lowness of sound.
    Karenzi : Now, how does the music staff represent the music pitches?
    Kayitesi : It does dear. Each line and in the space on the staff represents
    a music pitch.
    Mukandori : For example, the first line is lower than the second.
    Kayitesi : It is also lower than the first space.
    Nsabimana : By the way! What does a music staff look like?
    Karenzi : (He points at the music staff)

                                           Ž This is the music staff.

    m

    Nsabimana : Let us practise how to draw a music staff. Here we apply some
    Fine Art skills of drawing. Use a pencil and a ruler.
    Karenzi : Yes, Let us do so. However, remember that drawing employs
    Fine Art skills and knowledge of Arithmetic.
    Kayitesi : What skills and knowledge?
    Nsabimana : (counting his fingers) One, the skills of drawing a line using a
    ruler in fine art. Two, the knowledge that, “a line is a pattern of

    continuous dots.”(Proudly) Mathematically!

    n

    Kayitesi : How can we know which particular lines of the great stave to use?
    Karenzi : We differentiate the top five lines from the bottom by the use of a clef.
    Nsabimana : What does a clef look like?
    Karenzi : By the way, there are four different clefs. However, at our level
    we are going to learn one. It is called the treble clef.
    Kayitesi : This is the treble clef =
    Mukandori : Okay, before we discuss the treble clef, let us sing.The song is

    called “Twinkle twinkle little star”.

    Activity 1.3

    Study and sing the song “Twinkle twinkle little star”.

    s

    i. Sing the above song to sol-fa notes.
    ii. Sing the song to syllables la, pa and ma.
    iii. Sing the song to words. iv. Draw a two part staff.
    v. Number the lines and spaces on the two part staff.
    vi. What is the difference between a staff and a great stave?
    vii. Why does a staff have five lines and a grand stave has eleven lines?
    viii. How do we identify a particular five lines of the great stave?
    ix. What is the use of a music staff?

    x. The two part staff is called …………………….

    THE TREBLE CLEF
    Activity 1.4

    Observe and analyse the table below.

    m

    (i) Identify the treble clef on the table above.
    (ii) How many signs do you see on the table above?
    (iii) Where is the treble clef on the staff above?

    (iv) Independently draw each sign.

    Ingabire : In particular what is a clef?
    Kwizera : Okay, let us brainstorm its meaning.
    Mutesi : A clef is a music sign. It differentiates the top five lines from the
    bottom fi ve.
    Ingabire : (with curiosity) How does it differentiate the lines?
    Byiringiro : The treble clef indicates the top five lines. It looks like this =
    n
    Mutesi : Let us also draw it. We can use ordinary pencil. However, we
    can also use HB art pencil
    Byiringiro : Let us draw by tracing it first. This is it.k
    j
    Ingabire : That is it.Then after all that, it is placed at the beginning of the staff.
    This is itk


    Byiringiro : It is now called a treble staff.
    Mutesi : Let us draw it also.

    This is it =m

    Byiringiro : In Fine Art, we say that a line is a collection of dots. Therefore,
    there are different types of lines.

    Mutesi : True: In a music staff, we use straight lines.

    Activity 1.5
    1. Draw a staff.
    2. Insert the treble clef at the beginning of the staff.
    3. Number the lines and spaces of the staff.

    4. Name the lines and spaces using fixed pitch names.

    THE TREBLE STAFF
    Activity 1.6

    Combine the signs given below to form a treble staff.

    n

    Bigirimana : What is a treble staff?
    Uwera : Let us brainstorm it in our group.
    Gatete : (Relating to the previous discussions), it is a set of the top five
    lines of the great stave. Remember what we discussed earlier.
    A staff is a table of five horizontal lines.
    Kalisa : Okay. A staff + treble clef = a treble. (They all laugh)

    Bigirimana : Kalisa’s calculations are musicly expressed like that;

    n

    m

    Uwera : Yes, that is right. The lines and spaces are numbered from the bottom.
    Kalisa : We learnt that music notes are placed on lines and in spaces.
    How are they placed? Do you simply place notes anyhow?
    Gatete : No, they are not placed anyhow. Those lines and spaces are named.
    Bigirimana : How are they named?
    Kalisa : They are named using the fixed pitch names.
    Uwera : What are fixed pitch names?
    Kalisa : They are the first seven letters of the English alphabet.
    These are; A – B – C – D – E – F – G
    Bigirimana : What is the function of those fixed pitch names?
    Kalisa : They fix definite pitch sound on the lines and spaces.
    Uwera : How?

    Kalisa : Okay. Let us carefully study the illustration given below.

    m

    You see? Fixed pitch names are fixed on both lines and spaces.

    Bigirimana : Let us draw and name the treble staff.

    n

    Exercise 1

    1. Study the treble staff below and answer the questions that follow.

    n

    i. What is the fixed pitch name of the first line?
    ii. What is the fixed pitch name of the second line?
    iii. The second space on the treble staff is called…………….
    iv. The fifth line on the treble staff is called………………
    v. What is the fixed pitch name of the fourth line?
    vi. What is the fixed pitch name of the fourth space?
    vii. The third line on the treble staff is called …………………
    viii. Draw the treble staff and then;
    a) On it insert the treble clef.
    b) Number the lines and spaces on the staff.

    c) Name the lines and spaces using fixed pitch names.

    THE MUSIC NOTES
    Activity 1.7

    Observe and draw the symbols shown below:

    f

    Let us brainstorm the meaning of the word music notes. The word “music”
    means something is connected with music. The word “note” means sound.
    Therefore, Music notes are the sounds of music. Music notes are represented
    by the use of symbols. The symbols represent the note values. The lines and
    spaces on the staff represent the pitches. There are seven common symbols.

    These are:

    n

    Activity 1.8
    Let us practise drawing the music notes.
    A semi- breve has an oval shape. It looks like this ( ). Draw it by tracing

    first. It is traced like this;

    n

    Then join it like this:

    d

    This is a semibreve. ( )
    A minim has an oval shaped note head ( ) and a steam (|). Now, fi rst trace

    the note head like this:

    d

    Then add the stem like this:

    d

    Now join the dashes like this:

    g

    This is my minim note. ( )
    A crotchet has a shaded oval note head and a stem ( |). We draw an oval

    shape like this;

    n

    Then shade it like this;

    d

    After shading it, add the stem like this;

    n

    This is my crotchet note. (k )
    A quaver has a shaded oval note head n. It has a stem (|), and a flag (m ).

    We draw an oval shape like this:

    Then shade it like this:

    n

    Then add the stem and a flag like this:

    n








    This is my quaver note. (n )
    A semiquaver has a shaded note head. It also has a stem and two flags. We

    first draw the oval shape like this:

    n

    Then add the stem and two flags like this:

    j

    This is my semiquaver note. (m )
    A demi-semiquaver has a shaded note head. It also has a stem and three
    flags. It is also drawn by shading an oval note head. Thereafter, a stem and

    three flags are added. It looks like this:

    m

    This is my demi-semiquaver. ( n)
    A hemi-demi-semiquaver has a shaded note head. It also has a stem and
    four flags. An oval note head is also shaded. On it a stem and four flags are

    added. It looks like this:m

    h

    A hemi-demi-semiquaver”.

    This is my hemi-demi-semiquaver. (m )

    Activity 1.9
    1. Draw the symbols of the music note named below.
    a. A crotchet.
    b. A minim.
    c. A semibreve.
    d. A demi-semiquaver.
    e. A quaver.

    f. A hemi-demi-semiquaver.

    2. Fill in the blank spaces with the right symbols or names.

    f

    THE NOTE VALUES/ DURATION OF THE NOTE
    Activity 1.10
    1. Let us form groups and discuss the values of each symbol in the table

    below.

    d

    2. Study the analysis given below.
    Comparing music notes of different values.
     A semibreve is as long as two minims.
     A semibreve is as long as four crotchets.
     A semibreve is as long as eight quavers.
     A semibreve is as long as sixteen semiquavers.
     A semibreve is as long as thirty-two demi-semiquavers.
     A semibreve is as long as sixty-four hemi-demi-semiquavers.
    i. We can also say that:
     A minim is a half of a semibreve.
     A crotchet is a quarter of a semibreve.
     A quaver is an eighth of a semibreve.
     A semiquaver is a sixteenth of a semibreve.
     A demi-semiquaver is a thirty-second of a semibreve.
     A hemi-demi-semiquaver is a sixty-fourth of semibreve.
    ii. We can further discuss and say that;
     A semibreve is twice as long as a minim.
     There are two minim notes in a semibreve.
     A crotchet is twice as long as a quaver.
     A quaver is twice as long as a demi-semiquaver.
     A semiquaver is twice as long as a hemi-demi-semiquaver.
    What do we mean by the term note values?
    We already said that a note is a symbol representing a sound. Value means the
    length or duration of the sound. Therefore, note value is the length or duration of
    a sound. Each and every music note has its value.


    Exercise 2

    Study the table below and answer the questions.

    f

    1. How many crotchet beats are there in one semibreve?
    2. Draw the symbols named below.
    i. A semibreve =………… ii. A crotchet = ……..……
    3. There are ………………………… crotchet beats in one semibreve.
    4. A semibreve is 4 times as long as ………….……………
    5. A …………………………… is equivalent to 4 crotchets.
    6. How many hemi-demi-semiquavers are there in one crotchet?
    7. A crotchet is 16 times as long as a ……….………………
    8. A ………… is equivalent to 16 hemi-demi-semiquavers.
    9. There are ………......... demi-semiquavers in one minim.
    10. A minim is 16 times as long as a …………………………
    11. A …………………… is equivalent to 16 demi-semiquavers.
    12. There are ………………………. Crotchets in one minim.
    13. A minim is twice as long as a ………………………
    14. A ……………………………………….. is equivalent to 2 crotchets.
    15. There are ………………… Demi-semiquavers in one quaver.
    16. A quaver is 4 times as long as a ……………………………
    17. A demi-semiquaver is twice as long as ………………………………

    18. Fill in the blank spaces as indicated on the table below.

    f

    19. Give the correct values of the symbol additions.

    sActivity 1.11
    Let us form groups of fours and act the skit below. The skit brainstorms the
    values of a clap.
    The values of a clap
    Bigirimana : What is the value of a clap?
    Uwera: A clap is equivalent to a steady pulse.
    Gitete: A pulse is a steady beat underlying any given song. So, a
    pulse is equivalent to a crotchet beat.
    Kalisa: So… a clap is equivalent to a crotchet beat?

    Uwera: Very true, it is equivalent to a crotchet beat.

    Bigirimana: Let us do the activity below by clapping the steady pulse. We
    should do it while singing it to words. Let us use a “taa” to
    represent a clap.
    Uwera: One, two, three, and sing.
    Verse 1
    Rwanda nziza gihugu cyacu
    Wuje imisozi ibiyaga n’ibirunga
    Ngobyi iduhetse gahorane ishya
    Reka tukurate tukuvuge ibigwi
    Wowe utubumbiye hamwe twese abanyarwanda
    Uko watubyaye
    Berwa, sugira, singizwa iteka.
    Verse 2
    Horana Imana murage mwiza
    Ibyo tugukesha ntibishyikirirwa
    Umuco dusangiye uraturanga
    Ururimi rwacu rukaduhuza
    Ubwenge, umutima, amaboko yacu
    Nibigukungahaze bikwiye
    Nuko utere imbere ubutitsa.
    Verse 3
    Abakurambere b’intwari
    Bitanze batizigama
    Baraguhanga uvamo ubukombe
    Utsinda ubukoroni na mpats’ibihugu
    Byayogoje Afurika yose
    None uraganje mu bwigenge
    Tubukomeyeho uko turi twese.
    Verse 4
    Komeza imihigo Rwanda dukunda
    Duhagurukiye kukwitangira
    Ngo amahoro asabe mu bagutuye
    Wishyire wizane muri byose
    Urangwe n’ishyaka utere imbere
    Uhamye umubano n’amahanga yose

    Maze ijabo ryawe riguhe ijambo.

    Uwera : We have been clapping a steady pulse. It is equal to a crotchet
    beat.

    Bigirimana : Let us study the example below.

    m

    Uwera : Let us all clap the above rhythm.
    Kalisa : In the same way, let us clap the rhythms given below.
    (i)m
    (ii)n
    (iii)n
    Activity 1.12
    Bigirimana : In our group, I am going to clap some rhythms. You will listen
    carefully as I clap. I will clap each rhythm four times. Each
    time, there will be an interval of ten seconds. After the fourth
    time, you will write it back.

    Get a pencil, rubber, and a paper.

    n

    Rhythm one = taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa.
    Rhythm two = taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa.

    Rhythm three = taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa.

    NOTES AND RESTS
    Activity 1.13
    Let us observe, study and analyse the table below. In the table, we need to
    identify the notes and their equivalent rests.
    m

    A note is a symbol for sound whereas a rest is a symbol for silence. In music,
    expressions are gained by the use of occasional silences. Those silences are
    called rests.
    The rests must have the same length as the notes they silence. So, every note
    has its equivalent rest. A rest gives the performer and the listener chance to do
    the following:
    Ž comprehend the previous message.
    Ž prepare for new ideas.
    Ž rest.
    Ž take a breath.
    Study the table given below and analyse the following:
    Ž The shapes of the rests.
    Ž The values of each rest.

    Ž Their equivalent notes.

    m

    Now, let us practise drawing the rests.
    A semibreve rest hangs on the fourth line of the staff. This is how we draw it. We
    firstly draw a short line like this; ____. After that we draw a rectangle hanging on
    that line. It will look like this;sThen we shade the rectangle shape. So, the
    semibreve rest looks like this:d

    Activity 1.14

    Ž Get a pencil, rubber and a paper.
    Ž Draw a line first.
    Ž Draw a rectangle hanging on the line.

    Ž Then shade the rectangle.

    m

    A minim rest sits on the third line of the staff. This is how we draw it. We also
    draw a short line like this; ____. After that we draw a rectangle sitting on that
    line. It will look like this;mThen we shade the triangle shape. The minim rest
    will look like this:n

    Activity 1.15
    Ž Get a pencil, rubber and a paper.
    Ž Draw a line first.
    Ž Draw a rectangle hanging on the line.

    Ž Then shade the rectangle.

    c

    Ž Continue drawing the following rests.

    d

    Now how do we write rests on the staff?
    A semibreve rest hangs on the fourth line of the staff.
    A minim rest sits on the third line of the staff.
    The rest of the rests are written to cover the second and third space of the staff.
    To write a rest for the whole bar, we use a semibreve rest. It is also used in duple
    and triple time.

    Activity 1.16

    Study and practise writing rests on the staff as below.

    d

    d

    Exercise 3
    1. Draw the equivalent rests in the corresponding boxes.
    i. A semibreve ………………………….
    ii. A crotchet ……………………………….
    iii. A minim …………………………………..
    iv. A demi-semiquaver ………………..
    v. A quaver …………………………………..

    2. Study the table given below and fi ll in the blank spaces.

    n

    THE RHYTHM NAMES
    Activity 1.17

    1. Study, analyse and interpret the song below.

    n

    (i) Sing the song to sol-fa notes.
    (ii) Sing the song to words.
    (iii) Discuss the message in the song.
    (iv) How is the message in the song important to us?
    (v) Let us research on the word inclusive education.
    (vi) How can we achieve peace and unity in our class?
    (vii) How can we avoid conflict?

    (viii) How can we become useful to ourselves?

    2. Observe, study and analyse the table below and do the activities that follow.

                          Matching Rhythm names to staff notes

    n

    3. Match rhythm names to the symbol patterns below.

    (i)n

    (ii)n

    (iii)n

    4. Match symbols to the rhythm names pattern below.

    h

    Rhythm names are syllables which represent the beat values. A semibreve beat
    is as long as four claps. It is represented by taa-aa-aa-aa. A minim is represented
    by taa-aa. A crotchet is represented by taa. Smaller beats are grouped into the
    values of a crotchet. For example, two quavers are equal to a crotchet.(g)
    = to a crotchet) which is the same as
    ta-te = taa. Four semiquavers are equal
    to a crotchet.(n= to a crotchet) which is the same as ta.fa-te.fe.
    Activity 1.18

    1. Observe, Study and analyse the tables below

    b

    2. Study and analyse the examples below and do the activities that follow
    on each example.
    Example 1
    Below is a passage of rhythm names.
    taa taa taa-aa taa ta-te taa ta.fa-te.fe taa-aa taa-aa taa-aa-aa-aa.

    This is how we match rhythm symbols to rhythm names.

    f

    (i) Clap the above rhythms.
    (ii) Recite the above rhythms to rhythm names.
    Example 2
    This is a passage of rhythm symbols.
    n

    This is how we match rhythm names to rhythm symbols.

    n

    (i) Clap the above rhythm.

    (ii) Recite the above rhythm to rhythm names.

    Exercise 4
    1. Match rhythm symbols to the rhythm names given below.
    (i) taa ta - te taa-aa ta - te taa - aa ta . fa – te . fe taa taa – aa – aa - aa.
    (ii) taa taa taa - aa ta – te ta – te taa ta . fa – te . fe taa - aa taa - aa.
    (iii) taa - aa ta – te - taa ta - te taa ta - te taa taa - aa taa - aa.
    (iv) ta - te ta - te taa taa taa ta – fa – te - fe taa - aa taa taa ta –te taa.
    (v) taa – aa taa - aa taa taa ta – te ta - te taa taa taa - aa.
    (vi) Write the rhythm names of the following symbol names.
    a.) A semibreve = …………………….
    b.) A minim = ……………………..
    c.) A crotchet = ………………………
    d.) A quaver = ……………………

    2. Match rhythm names to the rhythm symbols given below.

    d

    NOTE GROUPING

    Activity 1.19

    b

    Note grouping is the accepted joining of music notes. The accepted joining of
    notes groups them into a beat. For example;
    Two quavers are joined into a crotchet beat (d ).
    Four quavers can also be joined into a minim beat (f).
    Four semiquavers are joined into a crotchet beat(j).
    Joining two or more music notes is called beaming.

    Example:

    (i)dAre beamed as h
    (ii) dare beamed asn
    (iii)jare beamed asb

    Beaming Rhythm symbols in a passage

    Example:

    The rhythmic passage below is not beamed.

    d

    (i) Clap the above rhythm passage.
    (ii) Recite the above rhythm passage to rhythm names.

    The above rhythm passage is beamed as shown below.

    j

    (iii) Clap the above rhythm passage.
    (iv) Recite the above rhythm passage to rhythm names.
    Shorter notes with different values are also beamed together.
    Example:
    gare beamed as n
    bare beamed as j

    The Rhythmic passage below is not beamed.
    h
     (i) Clap the above rhythm passage.
    (ii) Recite the above rhythm passage to rhythm names.

    (iii) The above rhythm passage is beamed as shown below.

    d

    (v) Clap the above rhythm passage.
    (vi) Recite the above rhythm passage to rhythm names.
    Activity 1.20
    Study the rhythm illustrations given below.

    1. This is a grouping of quavers into a crotchet beat.

    n

    (i) Clap the above rhythm passage.
    (ii) Recite the above rhythm passage to rhythm names.

    (iii) Study and Identify the number of beams used in the above examples.

    2. This is a grouping of semiquavers into a crotchet beat.

    d

    (i) Clap the above rhythm passage.
    (ii) Recite the above rhythm passage to rhythm names.
    (iii) Study and Identify the number of beams used in the above examples.
    3. Study and Identify the beams used in the above examples.
    The shorter notes or beats are grouped using a beam. A beam joins two or more
    notes into the basic beat. However, four quavers are always joined into a minim
    beat.
    Now, how do we define the word beam?

    “It is a line which joins shorter notes into a beat”.

    Exercise 5
    1. Study and analyse the exercises. Thereafter, beam the notes given in

    the rhythm patterns below.

    s

    2. A crotchet is as long as ………………….quavers.
    3. There are ……………… semiquavers in one crotchet.
    4. A minim is as long as ………………………. Quavers.
    5. There are ………………….. Semiquavers in one minim.

    6. Study the table below and fill in the blank spaces.

    d

    ALTERNATIVE WORDS
    Activity 1.21
    Study and analyse the table below. Fill in the provided spaces with the alternative names.
    h
    The Latin speaking countries name music notes in Latin. The British name them
    in English. One note is outdated. That is the breve. It lasts for eight beats. This
    is it: || h||
    The British named it a double whole note. Therefore, alternative names are the

    symbol names in English.

    Activity 1.22

    1. Study the table given below.

    h

    2. Give the alternative names:
    (i) A breve ………………
    (ii) A semibreve …………
    (iii) A minim ………………
    (iv) A crotchet ……………
    (v) A quaver ………………
    (vi) A semiquaver …………………
    (vii) A demi-semiquaver ……………
    (viii) A hemi-demi-semiquaver ……………

    The English speaking countries can write notes in figures. For example; a whole

    note can be written as 1 note. A half note can be written as 1/2 note.
    A quarter note can be written as 1/4 note.
    An eighth note can be written as 
    1/8th
    note. A sixteenth note is written as 1/16th note. A thirty-second note is written as 1/32nd note. And then a sixty-fourth note is written as 1/64th note.

    Exercise 6

    1. Fill in the table with the alternative words.

    u

    2. Study the table given below and fi ll in the blank spaces.

    n

    NOTATION
    Activity 1.23

    1. Study and read the lyrics of the song “What is notation”?

                                                Verse one

                                                What is Notation?
    Notation is a system
    Of using signs and symbols
    To represent information.
    Verse two
    Join in notating
    For it is beneficial
    Notating is beneficial, it raises our finances.
    It always keeps us busy.
    It stops lousiness.
    It shapes moral and boosts income.
    Verse three
    Keep on notating
    Stop wasting the time
    Malingering always
    It leads us to the virus.
    Which brings all sorts of illness.That’s so painful and causes death. Then we depart
    (i) Recite the lyrics given above.
    (ii) Recite the lyrics given above from memory.
    (iii) Discuss the message in each verse.
    (iv) Brainstorm the importance of notation.
    2. Study and analyse the fl ow of the song “What is notation?” Thereafter, do the activities that follow.
    h
    Ž Sing the song What is notation to sol-fa notes.
    Ž Sing to words.
    Ž Recite the rhythm names of the song What is notation?
    Notation is a system of using signs and symbols to represent information. In
    music, symbols represent rhythm whereas signs represent pitch. Music has two
    main elements. These are pitch and rhythm. Pitch deals with the arrangement
    of lines and spaces. Rhythm deals with the arrangement of music symbols.

    Rhythm

    Rhythm is the fl ow of music beats. Rhythm can be arranged using beats of the
    same values. However, in most cases beats are commonly varied. A good

    rhythm combines notes of different values.

    Study and analyse the examples given below. Thereafter, do the activity
    that follows.
    Example one: 

                                                Notating rhythms using only crotchet beats.

    (i)n

    (ii) d

    Activity 1.24
    1. Let us form groups and clap the rhythms in example one.
    2. Now, let us use rhythm names to recite the rhythms in example one.
    3. Let us individually compose our own rhythms using crotchet beats. Our
    rhythms should have sixteen crotchet beats in total. Thereafter, insert
    vertical lines every after four crotchet beats. And then double lines at the

    extreme end.

    Example two:

    Notating rhythms using crotchet and quaver beats.

    n

    Activity 1.25
    1. Let us form groups and clap the rhythms in example two.
    2. Now, let us use rhythm names to recite the rhythms in example two.
    3. Let us individually compose our own rhythms using crotchet and quaver
    beats. Our rhythm should have sixteen crotchet beats in total. Thereafter,
    insert vertical lines every after four crotchet beats. And then double lines

    at the extreme end.

    Example Three:

    Notating rhythms using minims, crotchets and quaver beats.

    d

    Activity 1.26
    1. Let us form groups and clap the rhythms in example three.
    2. Now, let us use rhythm names to recite the rhythms in example three.
    3. Let us individually compose rhythms using minims, crotchets and quaver
    beats. Our rhythm should have sixteen crotchet beats in total. Thereafter,
    insert vertical lines every after four crotchet beats. And then double lines

    at the extreme end.

    Example four:

    Notating rhythms using minims, crotchets, quaver and semiquaver beats.

    j

    Activity 1.27
    1. Let us form groups and clap the rhythms in example four.
    2. Now let us use rhythm names to recite the rhythms in example four.
    3. Let us individually compose rhythms using minims, crotchets, quavers
    and semiquaver beats. Our rhythm should have sixteen crotchet beats in
    total. Thereafter, insert vertical lines every after four crotchet beats. And

    then double lines at the extreme end.

    Example five:

    Notating rhythms using semibreves, minims, crotchets, quaver and semiquaver beats.

    n

    Activity 1.28
    1. Let us form groups and clap the rhythms in example four.
    2. Now, let us use the rhythm names to recite the rhythms in example four.
    3. Let us individually compose and notate rhythms using all different
    symbols. Our rhythms should have sixteen crotchet beats in total.
    Thereafter, insert vertical lines every after four crotchet beats. And then

    double bar-lines at the extreme end.

    Activity 1.29

    Pitch

    h

    1. Sing up and down the sol-fa ladder.
    2. Sing up and down the sol-fa ladder with leaps of thirds.
    (i) d : m : r : f : m : s : f : l : s : t : l : d’
    (ii) d’ : l : t : s : l : f : s : m : f : r : m :d
    3. Sing up and down with leaps of fours.
    (i) d : f : r : s : m : l : f : t : s : d’
    (ii) d’ : s : t : f : l : m : s : r : f : d

    Pitching in sol-fa notation

    Pitch is the highness or lowness of sound. It deals with the structure of signs. The
    signs are arranged in a table form. Those tables guide us to identify the particular level of pitch. It means that a table tells us exactly how high or low the sound is.
    There are two types of those tables:
     The sol-fa ladder.  The staff.
    Those two tables lead us to the two types of reading and writing music. These are:
     Sol-fa notation.  Staff notation.

    What do we mean by sol-fa notation?
    It is the writing of music notes using seven letters. The seven letters are selected from the English alphabets.
    These are: d : r : m : f : s : l : t . The pitches of those notes are

    represented on a table called a sol-fa ladder.

    Activity 1.30

    This is the sol-fa ladder.

    n

    d

    1. Study and analyse the above sol-fa ladder. Thereafter, do as instructed below.
    (i) Sing up and down the sol-fa ladder.
    (ii) Sing up and down the sol-fa ladder with leaps of thirds.
    (iii) Sing up and down the sol-fa ladder with sequences of threes.
    2. Sing the sol-fa melodies below.
    (i) d : r : m r : m : f m : f : s f : s : l 1 s : l : t l : t : d’
    (ii) d : r : d r : m : r m : f : m f : s : f 1 s : l : s l : t : l

    (iii) d : m : d r : f : r m : s : m f : l :f 1 s : t : s l : d’ : l

    Pitching in staff notation

    What do we mean by staff notation?

    It is the writing of music notes using signs and symbols. The symbols are arranged on five horizontal lines called a music staff. It has lines and spaces which represent
    different pitches. Every pitch on a line or in space has a name. Those names are

    called fixed pitch names. They are the first seven letters of the English alphabet: A B C D E F G. Those fixed pitch names are arranged on the treble staff as shown below.

    n

    Activity 1.31

    1. Study and analyse the staff given below.

    n

    Analysis:
    The table is a two part staff. The top part has a treble clef. After the treble clef
    comes a figure. There are several semibreve rests. After every semibreve rest,
    there is a vertical line. At the extreme end, there are double lines. The very last

    one is thicker than the rest.

    Exercise 7
    1. What name is given to the table in activity 1.31?
    2. Name the clef at the beginning of the top staff in activity 1.31.
    3. Name the rests shown in the staff.

    4. Draw a treble staff. On it insert fixed pitch names.

    TRANSLATION OF STAFF SYMBOLS TO SOL-FA NOTES

    Activity 1.32

    1. Study and identify the fixed pitch names of the symbols indicated on the

    staff.

    n

    (i)…….. (ii)…….. (iii) …….. (iv)……… (v)……….. (vi)…….. (vii)…….. 
    2. Name the fixed pitch names indicated on the above treble staff:
    (i)................. (ii).............. (iii) ................ (iv) ....................

    (v) ........... (vi) .............. (vii)................... (viii)...................

    Translating symbols is changing from staff notation to sol-fa notation. We can
    change from staff notation to sol-fa notation. We can also change from sol-fa
    notation to staff notation. We discussed that each line and space represents a
    pitch. Therefore, doh can be on any line or space. doh is the centre on which

    other notes gravitate. So we should know the sol-fa ladder.

    Activity 1.33

    1. Study and identify the fixed pitch names indicated on the treble staff.

    h

    (i)…….. (ii)…….. (iii) …….. (iv)……… (v)……….. (vi)…….. (vii)…….. 
    Name the pitch names:
    (i) =………………………………
    (ii) =………………………………
    (iii) =……………………………..
    (iv) =…………………………….
    (v) =……………………………..
    On the staff, the tonic is either on line or in space. Look at the illustrations below.
    (i) The tonic doh is on line E

    This is it:

    h

    This means that doh is on line E. Then space F is ray. Line G is me and so on.

    (ii) The tonic doh is in the space F

    n

    This means that doh is in space F. Then line G is ray. Space A is me and so on.
    Now, how are notes placed on to the staff?
    Example one

    See the illustrations below. They are scales on the staff.

    n

    The above illustration can be translated into sol-fa notes. It will appear like in the
    illustrations given below.
    n
    The scale below is F meaning that the home tone is on the line.
    m
    The scale above is translated as below.
    n
    The scale below is D meaning that the home tone is on the space below the first line.
    d
    The scale above is translated as below.
    b
    Activity 1.34
    1. a) Study the examples given below.
    b) Sing the examples below to sol-fa names.
    2. Write sol-fa notes above the symbols on the staff.
    n

    Writing music must be pleasant to look at. It should also be easy to read. The
    music must be accurate. A note should be placed exactly where it should be. If
    it is on the line, let it be a line. If it is in a space it should be a space. Any slight
    mistake may turn sense into nonsense.

    The illustration below makes sense.

    n
    Notes above the middle line have their stems down.
    n
    The notes below the middle line have their stems up. Notes on the middle line
    can have their stems up or down.n
    When the stem goes up, it comes after the note. When it goes down, it comes

    before the note.

    Activity 1.35
    1. Let us study and analyse the melodies given below and then do activities

    below.

    n


    n

    i. Sing the melodies to sol-fa names.
    ii. Sing the same melodies to syllables “la” and “ma.”
    iii. Copy the melodies in our books and then insert sol-fa notes above the staff.

    2. Study and analyse the following melodies. Thereafter, do the activity that follows.

    n

    a) Sing the above melodies to sol-fa names.
    b) Sing the above melodies to the syllables indicated.
    c) Sing the above melodies to rhythm names “taa.”
    3. Copy the following melodies, hear them as you write. Then add sol-fa
    notes above each note.
    n
    4. Copy the following and add the stems needed. Thereafter, add the sol-fa
    notes. Lastly sing the activity from your own copy.
    n
    5. Copy all the melodies in activity 1.35, number 4. Make oval note heads
    exactly on the correct line or space. Add the stems where necessary. Try
    to hear the fl ow of the notes as you write them. Thereafter, write sol-fa

    notes above the staff and sing through several times.

    TRANSLATION OF SOL-FA NOTES TO STAFF SYMBOLS
    Activity 1.36

    1. Study and analyse the sol-fa and staff melodies below.

    n

    (i) Sing the melody in sol-fa notes.
    (ii) Sing the melody in staff symbols.
    (iii) Identify the doh on the staff.

    (iv) Discuss the fixed pitch names of the symbols on the staff.

    How do we translate sol-fa notes to staff symbols?
    We must establish where the tonic should be. So, we can either choose a line
    or a space.
    How do we choose where to place the tonic?
    For example: We are going to translate the sol-fa notes below to staff symbols. The doh will be on the first line E.
    nd :r bm :fn s :mb f :sn l :s f :mn r :r bd : -m
    This is the translation.
    m
    Activity 1.37
    Translate the given sol-fa melodies into staff melodies. The notes with a dot in
    between are quaver notes.

    (i) Id : d . r I m :m I f :s . m I r : - I d :d . r I m : m I r :r Id : - II

    m

    (ii) Id : d I m.r : m . f I s :s I l . s :f . m I r :r I f . m : f . s I m :r Id : - II

    n

    (iii) I d :m I s : s I f :m I r : - I d :m I s :s I m :r Id : - II

    n

    (iv) I m :m I r :r I f . m : r . d I r : - I s :s I f :f I m . r :d . t, I d : - II

    m

    A melody is a single line of music notes.
    A single line of music notes is called a music line. A music line is a combination

    of rhythm and pitch. Pitch deals with the vertical arrangements of signs.

    Rhythm deals with flow and values of music beats. The flow can be fast or slow. It can have beats with the same or different values.
    The melodies below are arranged in different ways. The first one has notes with
    the same values. See below.
    Activity 1.38
    Study the melodies given below. After studying, sing them to sol-fa names.
    (i) The melodies to syllables “ la” “ma” and “na”.
    c
    (ii) Compose your own melodies using:
    a) Only crotchet beats.
    b) Crotchets and quaver beats.

    c) Minim, crotchet, quaver and semiquaver beats.

    Unit summary
    In this unit, we learnt about:
    Ž Great stave/Grand staff
    Ž Treble
    Ž Clef
    Ž Treble clef
    Ž Treble staff
    Ž Music notes
    Ž Note values
    Ž Rest
    Ž Rhythm names
    Ž Fixed pitch names
    Ž Note grouping
    Ž Alternative words
    Ž Notation
    Ž Staff symbols
    Ž Sol-fa notes
    Ž Sol-fa notation
    Ž Staff notation

    Units Assessment

    1. Discuss the difference between a staff and a great stave.
    2. Illustrate a great stave.
    3. Explain the importance of a music staff.
    4. What is a clef?
    5. When does a staff become a treble staff?
    6. Illustrate a treble staff.
    7. Discuss the importance of the fixed pitch names.
    8. Draw a table of all the music notes.( from the whole note to a sixty-fourth note).
    9. Illustrate the following:
    (i) A whole note (ii) A quarter note
    (iii) A half note (iv) A thirty-second note
    10. Write the symbols of the following rhythm names:
    (i) taa taa ta- te ta - te taa-aa taa taa taa taa taa taa ta-te ta -te taa-aa.
    (ii) taa ta-fa-te-fe ta-te taa taa taa taa taa ta-te ta-te taa-aa .

    11. By the use of a beam, group the rhythms below.

    m

    12. Give the alternative words of the following terms:
    a) A crotchet b) A semibreve
    c) A semiquaver d) A hemi-demi-semiquaver

    e) Match rhythm names to the Rhythmic symbols given.

    n

    GLOSSARY
    A clef: A sign which shows the particular five lines of the great stave.
    A music staff : A table of five horizontal lines.
    A note : A sign for sound.
    A rest: A sign for silence.
    A treble staff: The top part of the great stave.
    Fixed pitch names: The first seven letters of the English alphabet.
    Music notes: Sounds which can make music.
    Notation: A system of using signs and symbols to represent information.
    Note grouping: The accepted joining of music notes.
    Rhythm: The flow of music beats.
    rhythm names: Syllables used to perform rhythms.
    Staff: A set of any five horizontal lines.
    Stave: A table for piano or both men and women voices.