Topic outline

  • What we are going to learn in this unit
    By the end of this unit, we shall have learnt:
    Ž Music staff
    Ž Music notes
    Ž Duration of the notes

    What are we going to do?

    Through this unit, we are going to:
    Ž Sing sol-fa notes according to their pitches.
    Ž Identify the shapes and values of music notes.
    Ž Identify the pitch of music notes on the staff.
    Ž Subdivide note values into others.

    How we are going to do it?
    We are going to be able to do it by:
    Ž Singing the sol-fa ladder up and down.
    Ž Describing music notes on a music staff.
    Ž Practising music notes on the staff.

    How shall we be able to achieve it?

    As we practise all the above, we should:

    Ž Be patient
    Ž Endure
    Ž Be orderly
    Ž Appreciate the methods used to place music notes on the staff.

    THE MUSIC LANGUAGE
    INTRODUCTION

    In this Unit, we are going to learn the music language. There are several basic
    terms used in this language. These basic terms are names of signs and symbols.
    These signs and symbols describe time, pitch and rhythm. Time, pitch and
    rhythm are some of the main elements of music. So, those elements are used
    in both composition and performance. In this unit, we shall learn the names of
    the different signs and symbols. We shall learn how to use signs and symbols
    to present information. We shall also learn how signs and symbols are drawn.
    The most frequently used signs and symbols are:
    1. Music stave or staff
    2. Treble Clef
    3. Treble staff
    4. Music notes
    5. Note values
    6. Notes and rests
    7. The rhythm names
    8. Note grouping
    9. Alternative words
    10. Notation
    11. Translation of staff notation to sol-fa notation.
    12. Translation of sol-fa notation to staff notation

    THE MUSIC LANGUAGE

    Activity 1.1
    1. Recite the lyrics given below by:
    (i) Reading from the book.
    (ii) Chanting from memory.

    Lyrics

    Music language is the use of signs and symbols.
    The use of signs and symbols,

    The signs and symbols
    Signs and symbols are used
    To arrange music sounds.

    2. Study the song The music language and do the activities that follow.

    THE MUSIC LANGUAGE

    n

    Sing the song “The music language” to:
    (i) Sol-fa notes
    (ii) Syllables
    (iii) Words
    3. Study and describe the signs and symbols in the music score above.

    Music language
    is the use of signs and symbols to represent information. The

    signs and symbols are used to arrange music sounds. The music sounds are
    described in terms of: Pitch, Rhythm and Time.

    What is a music stave or staff?
    A music staff is a set of five horizontal lines.
    A music stave is a two part staff. A two part staff has eleven horizontal lines. A
    music stave is commonly called the great stave. Sometimes it is known as the
    Grand staff.

    Activity 1.2

    Let us read through the skit given below. It is entitled, “The music stave or staff”.
    The skit brainstorms its title. Now, let us form groups in our class. After forming
    the groups, give out parts to the group members. Then, act the skit out in groups.

    THE MUSIC STAVE OR STAFF

    Karenzi : What is the music great stave?
    Nsabimana : Let us carefully observe the table below. It has eleven lines and
    ten spaces. The middle line is shorter than the others.

    Kayitesi : This is the great stave.

    f

    Nsabimana : A great stave is a two part staff. And the two part staff is a table
    of eleven horizontal lines.
    Karenzi : What does that mean then?
    Nsabimana : It means that we should come to a conclusion.
    Kayitesi : How do we conclude then?
    Mukandori : The conclusion is clear. A great stave is a two part staff. A two
    part staff is a set of eleven horizontal lines.
    Kayitesi : True, it is on those lines and spaces that music notes are placed.
    Karenzi : Why do we need a stave?
    Mukandori : Karenzi, that is what we call a great stave.
    Nsabimana : Yes. It is used when writing music for a mixed choir.
    Kayitesi : What do you mean by a mixed choir?
    Mukandori : A mixed choir is a group of male and female singers.
    Kayitesi : Okay, I can see. A mixed choir promotes gender balance.
    Nsabimana : That is obvious dear. Anyway, how can I know the notes for
    female singers?
    Karenzi : That is very easy to tell. The top staff is for the female singers.
    Kayitesi : (confidently) Obviously, the bottom staff is for the male notes.
    Mukandori : (with a smile on her face) This is interesting!
    Karenzi : If I want to write for only one voice, how do I do it?
    Nsabimana : That is when we use the music staff.
    Kayitesi : (she seems confused) What is a music staff?
    Karenzi : (with pride) A music staff is a set of five horizontal lines.
    Mukandori : (contributes) It is on the lines and in spaces that music notes
    are placed. Both lines and spaces are numbered. They are
    numbered from the bottom.
    m
    Kayitesi : What is the difference between a staff and a great stave?
    Karenzi : A great stave is a table of eleven horizontal lines.
    Kayitesi : (with curiosity) Nhuhu, then what is a music staff?
    Karenzi : A music staff is a table of five horizontal lines.
    Nsabimana : Okay, that is right. But why do we need a music staff?
    Mukandori : We need a music staff because it represents all the music
    pitches.
    Kayitesi : Very true. It is on those horizontal lines and spaces that music
    notes are placed.
    Karenzi : (he looks disturbed) A moment please. How does the music staff
    represent the music pitches? (Trying to challenge) By the way,
    what are music pitches?
    Mukandori : (trying to make the point clear) Karenzi… music pitches are the
    different levels of sound used in singing songs. Remember, in
    science we say: Pitch is the highness or lowness of sound.
    Karenzi : Now, how does the music staff represent the music pitches?
    Kayitesi : It does dear. Each line and in the space on the staff represents
    a music pitch.
    Mukandori : For example, the first line is lower than the second.
    Kayitesi : It is also lower than the first space.
    Nsabimana : By the way! What does a music staff look like?
    Karenzi : (He points at the music staff)

                                           Ž This is the music staff.

    m

    Nsabimana : Let us practise how to draw a music staff. Here we apply some
    Fine Art skills of drawing. Use a pencil and a ruler.
    Karenzi : Yes, Let us do so. However, remember that drawing employs
    Fine Art skills and knowledge of Arithmetic.
    Kayitesi : What skills and knowledge?
    Nsabimana : (counting his fingers) One, the skills of drawing a line using a
    ruler in fine art. Two, the knowledge that, “a line is a pattern of

    continuous dots.”(Proudly) Mathematically!

    n

    Kayitesi : How can we know which particular lines of the great stave to use?
    Karenzi : We differentiate the top five lines from the bottom by the use of a clef.
    Nsabimana : What does a clef look like?
    Karenzi : By the way, there are four different clefs. However, at our level
    we are going to learn one. It is called the treble clef.
    Kayitesi : This is the treble clef =
    Mukandori : Okay, before we discuss the treble clef, let us sing.The song is

    called “Twinkle twinkle little star”.

    Activity 1.3

    Study and sing the song “Twinkle twinkle little star”.

    s

    i. Sing the above song to sol-fa notes.
    ii. Sing the song to syllables la, pa and ma.
    iii. Sing the song to words. iv. Draw a two part staff.
    v. Number the lines and spaces on the two part staff.
    vi. What is the difference between a staff and a great stave?
    vii. Why does a staff have five lines and a grand stave has eleven lines?
    viii. How do we identify a particular five lines of the great stave?
    ix. What is the use of a music staff?

    x. The two part staff is called …………………….

    THE TREBLE CLEF
    Activity 1.4

    Observe and analyse the table below.

    m

    (i) Identify the treble clef on the table above.
    (ii) How many signs do you see on the table above?
    (iii) Where is the treble clef on the staff above?

    (iv) Independently draw each sign.

    Ingabire : In particular what is a clef?
    Kwizera : Okay, let us brainstorm its meaning.
    Mutesi : A clef is a music sign. It differentiates the top five lines from the
    bottom fi ve.
    Ingabire : (with curiosity) How does it differentiate the lines?
    Byiringiro : The treble clef indicates the top five lines. It looks like this =
    n
    Mutesi : Let us also draw it. We can use ordinary pencil. However, we
    can also use HB art pencil
    Byiringiro : Let us draw by tracing it first. This is it.k
    j
    Ingabire : That is it.Then after all that, it is placed at the beginning of the staff.
    This is itk


    Byiringiro : It is now called a treble staff.
    Mutesi : Let us draw it also.

    This is it =m

    Byiringiro : In Fine Art, we say that a line is a collection of dots. Therefore,
    there are different types of lines.

    Mutesi : True: In a music staff, we use straight lines.

    Activity 1.5
    1. Draw a staff.
    2. Insert the treble clef at the beginning of the staff.
    3. Number the lines and spaces of the staff.

    4. Name the lines and spaces using fixed pitch names.

    THE TREBLE STAFF
    Activity 1.6

    Combine the signs given below to form a treble staff.

    n

    Bigirimana : What is a treble staff?
    Uwera : Let us brainstorm it in our group.
    Gatete : (Relating to the previous discussions), it is a set of the top five
    lines of the great stave. Remember what we discussed earlier.
    A staff is a table of five horizontal lines.
    Kalisa : Okay. A staff + treble clef = a treble. (They all laugh)

    Bigirimana : Kalisa’s calculations are musicly expressed like that;

    n

    m

    Uwera : Yes, that is right. The lines and spaces are numbered from the bottom.
    Kalisa : We learnt that music notes are placed on lines and in spaces.
    How are they placed? Do you simply place notes anyhow?
    Gatete : No, they are not placed anyhow. Those lines and spaces are named.
    Bigirimana : How are they named?
    Kalisa : They are named using the fixed pitch names.
    Uwera : What are fixed pitch names?
    Kalisa : They are the first seven letters of the English alphabet.
    These are; A – B – C – D – E – F – G
    Bigirimana : What is the function of those fixed pitch names?
    Kalisa : They fix definite pitch sound on the lines and spaces.
    Uwera : How?

    Kalisa : Okay. Let us carefully study the illustration given below.

    m

    You see? Fixed pitch names are fixed on both lines and spaces.

    Bigirimana : Let us draw and name the treble staff.

    n

    Exercise 1

    1. Study the treble staff below and answer the questions that follow.

    n

    i. What is the fixed pitch name of the first line?
    ii. What is the fixed pitch name of the second line?
    iii. The second space on the treble staff is called…………….
    iv. The fifth line on the treble staff is called………………
    v. What is the fixed pitch name of the fourth line?
    vi. What is the fixed pitch name of the fourth space?
    vii. The third line on the treble staff is called …………………
    viii. Draw the treble staff and then;
    a) On it insert the treble clef.
    b) Number the lines and spaces on the staff.

    c) Name the lines and spaces using fixed pitch names.

    THE MUSIC NOTES
    Activity 1.7

    Observe and draw the symbols shown below:

    f

    Let us brainstorm the meaning of the word music notes. The word “music”
    means something is connected with music. The word “note” means sound.
    Therefore, Music notes are the sounds of music. Music notes are represented
    by the use of symbols. The symbols represent the note values. The lines and
    spaces on the staff represent the pitches. There are seven common symbols.

    These are:

    n

    Activity 1.8
    Let us practise drawing the music notes.
    A semi- breve has an oval shape. It looks like this ( ). Draw it by tracing

    first. It is traced like this;

    n

    Then join it like this:

    d

    This is a semibreve. ( )
    A minim has an oval shaped note head ( ) and a steam (|). Now, fi rst trace

    the note head like this:

    d

    Then add the stem like this:

    d

    Now join the dashes like this:

    g

    This is my minim note. ( )
    A crotchet has a shaded oval note head and a stem ( |). We draw an oval

    shape like this;

    n

    Then shade it like this;

    d

    After shading it, add the stem like this;

    n

    This is my crotchet note. (k )
    A quaver has a shaded oval note head n. It has a stem (|), and a flag (m ).

    We draw an oval shape like this:

    Then shade it like this:

    n

    Then add the stem and a flag like this:

    n








    This is my quaver note. (n )
    A semiquaver has a shaded note head. It also has a stem and two flags. We

    first draw the oval shape like this:

    n

    Then add the stem and two flags like this:

    j

    This is my semiquaver note. (m )
    A demi-semiquaver has a shaded note head. It also has a stem and three
    flags. It is also drawn by shading an oval note head. Thereafter, a stem and

    three flags are added. It looks like this:

    m

    This is my demi-semiquaver. ( n)
    A hemi-demi-semiquaver has a shaded note head. It also has a stem and
    four flags. An oval note head is also shaded. On it a stem and four flags are

    added. It looks like this:m

    h

    A hemi-demi-semiquaver”.

    This is my hemi-demi-semiquaver. (m )

    Activity 1.9
    1. Draw the symbols of the music note named below.
    a. A crotchet.
    b. A minim.
    c. A semibreve.
    d. A demi-semiquaver.
    e. A quaver.

    f. A hemi-demi-semiquaver.

    2. Fill in the blank spaces with the right symbols or names.

    f

    THE NOTE VALUES/ DURATION OF THE NOTE
    Activity 1.10
    1. Let us form groups and discuss the values of each symbol in the table

    below.

    d

    2. Study the analysis given below.
    Comparing music notes of different values.
     A semibreve is as long as two minims.
     A semibreve is as long as four crotchets.
     A semibreve is as long as eight quavers.
     A semibreve is as long as sixteen semiquavers.
     A semibreve is as long as thirty-two demi-semiquavers.
     A semibreve is as long as sixty-four hemi-demi-semiquavers.
    i. We can also say that:
     A minim is a half of a semibreve.
     A crotchet is a quarter of a semibreve.
     A quaver is an eighth of a semibreve.
     A semiquaver is a sixteenth of a semibreve.
     A demi-semiquaver is a thirty-second of a semibreve.
     A hemi-demi-semiquaver is a sixty-fourth of semibreve.
    ii. We can further discuss and say that;
     A semibreve is twice as long as a minim.
     There are two minim notes in a semibreve.
     A crotchet is twice as long as a quaver.
     A quaver is twice as long as a demi-semiquaver.
     A semiquaver is twice as long as a hemi-demi-semiquaver.
    What do we mean by the term note values?
    We already said that a note is a symbol representing a sound. Value means the
    length or duration of the sound. Therefore, note value is the length or duration of
    a sound. Each and every music note has its value.


    Exercise 2

    Study the table below and answer the questions.

    f

    1. How many crotchet beats are there in one semibreve?
    2. Draw the symbols named below.
    i. A semibreve =………… ii. A crotchet = ……..……
    3. There are ………………………… crotchet beats in one semibreve.
    4. A semibreve is 4 times as long as ………….……………
    5. A …………………………… is equivalent to 4 crotchets.
    6. How many hemi-demi-semiquavers are there in one crotchet?
    7. A crotchet is 16 times as long as a ……….………………
    8. A ………… is equivalent to 16 hemi-demi-semiquavers.
    9. There are ………......... demi-semiquavers in one minim.
    10. A minim is 16 times as long as a …………………………
    11. A …………………… is equivalent to 16 demi-semiquavers.
    12. There are ………………………. Crotchets in one minim.
    13. A minim is twice as long as a ………………………
    14. A ……………………………………….. is equivalent to 2 crotchets.
    15. There are ………………… Demi-semiquavers in one quaver.
    16. A quaver is 4 times as long as a ……………………………
    17. A demi-semiquaver is twice as long as ………………………………

    18. Fill in the blank spaces as indicated on the table below.

    f

    19. Give the correct values of the symbol additions.

    sActivity 1.11
    Let us form groups of fours and act the skit below. The skit brainstorms the
    values of a clap.
    The values of a clap
    Bigirimana : What is the value of a clap?
    Uwera: A clap is equivalent to a steady pulse.
    Gitete: A pulse is a steady beat underlying any given song. So, a
    pulse is equivalent to a crotchet beat.
    Kalisa: So… a clap is equivalent to a crotchet beat?

    Uwera: Very true, it is equivalent to a crotchet beat.

    Bigirimana: Let us do the activity below by clapping the steady pulse. We
    should do it while singing it to words. Let us use a “taa” to
    represent a clap.
    Uwera: One, two, three, and sing.
    Verse 1
    Rwanda nziza gihugu cyacu
    Wuje imisozi ibiyaga n’ibirunga
    Ngobyi iduhetse gahorane ishya
    Reka tukurate tukuvuge ibigwi
    Wowe utubumbiye hamwe twese abanyarwanda
    Uko watubyaye
    Berwa, sugira, singizwa iteka.
    Verse 2
    Horana Imana murage mwiza
    Ibyo tugukesha ntibishyikirirwa
    Umuco dusangiye uraturanga
    Ururimi rwacu rukaduhuza
    Ubwenge, umutima, amaboko yacu
    Nibigukungahaze bikwiye
    Nuko utere imbere ubutitsa.
    Verse 3
    Abakurambere b’intwari
    Bitanze batizigama
    Baraguhanga uvamo ubukombe
    Utsinda ubukoroni na mpats’ibihugu
    Byayogoje Afurika yose
    None uraganje mu bwigenge
    Tubukomeyeho uko turi twese.
    Verse 4
    Komeza imihigo Rwanda dukunda
    Duhagurukiye kukwitangira
    Ngo amahoro asabe mu bagutuye
    Wishyire wizane muri byose
    Urangwe n’ishyaka utere imbere
    Uhamye umubano n’amahanga yose

    Maze ijabo ryawe riguhe ijambo.

    Uwera : We have been clapping a steady pulse. It is equal to a crotchet
    beat.

    Bigirimana : Let us study the example below.

    m

    Uwera : Let us all clap the above rhythm.
    Kalisa : In the same way, let us clap the rhythms given below.
    (i)m
    (ii)n
    (iii)n
    Activity 1.12
    Bigirimana : In our group, I am going to clap some rhythms. You will listen
    carefully as I clap. I will clap each rhythm four times. Each
    time, there will be an interval of ten seconds. After the fourth
    time, you will write it back.

    Get a pencil, rubber, and a paper.

    n

    Rhythm one = taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa.
    Rhythm two = taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa.

    Rhythm three = taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa taa.

    NOTES AND RESTS
    Activity 1.13
    Let us observe, study and analyse the table below. In the table, we need to
    identify the notes and their equivalent rests.
    m

    A note is a symbol for sound whereas a rest is a symbol for silence. In music,
    expressions are gained by the use of occasional silences. Those silences are
    called rests.
    The rests must have the same length as the notes they silence. So, every note
    has its equivalent rest. A rest gives the performer and the listener chance to do
    the following:
    Ž comprehend the previous message.
    Ž prepare for new ideas.
    Ž rest.
    Ž take a breath.
    Study the table given below and analyse the following:
    Ž The shapes of the rests.
    Ž The values of each rest.

    Ž Their equivalent notes.

    m

    Now, let us practise drawing the rests.
    A semibreve rest hangs on the fourth line of the staff. This is how we draw it. We
    firstly draw a short line like this; ____. After that we draw a rectangle hanging on
    that line. It will look like this;sThen we shade the rectangle shape. So, the
    semibreve rest looks like this:d

    Activity 1.14

    Ž Get a pencil, rubber and a paper.
    Ž Draw a line first.
    Ž Draw a rectangle hanging on the line.

    Ž Then shade the rectangle.

    m

    A minim rest sits on the third line of the staff. This is how we draw it. We also
    draw a short line like this; ____. After that we draw a rectangle sitting on that
    line. It will look like this;mThen we shade the triangle shape. The minim rest
    will look like this:n

    Activity 1.15
    Ž Get a pencil, rubber and a paper.
    Ž Draw a line first.
    Ž Draw a rectangle hanging on the line.

    Ž Then shade the rectangle.

    c

    Ž Continue drawing the following rests.

    d

    Now how do we write rests on the staff?
    A semibreve rest hangs on the fourth line of the staff.
    A minim rest sits on the third line of the staff.
    The rest of the rests are written to cover the second and third space of the staff.
    To write a rest for the whole bar, we use a semibreve rest. It is also used in duple
    and triple time.

    Activity 1.16

    Study and practise writing rests on the staff as below.

    d

    d

    Exercise 3
    1. Draw the equivalent rests in the corresponding boxes.
    i. A semibreve ………………………….
    ii. A crotchet ……………………………….
    iii. A minim …………………………………..
    iv. A demi-semiquaver ………………..
    v. A quaver …………………………………..

    2. Study the table given below and fi ll in the blank spaces.

    n

    THE RHYTHM NAMES
    Activity 1.17

    1. Study, analyse and interpret the song below.

    n

    (i) Sing the song to sol-fa notes.
    (ii) Sing the song to words.
    (iii) Discuss the message in the song.
    (iv) How is the message in the song important to us?
    (v) Let us research on the word inclusive education.
    (vi) How can we achieve peace and unity in our class?
    (vii) How can we avoid conflict?

    (viii) How can we become useful to ourselves?

    2. Observe, study and analyse the table below and do the activities that follow.

                          Matching Rhythm names to staff notes

    n

    3. Match rhythm names to the symbol patterns below.

    (i)n

    (ii)n

    (iii)n

    4. Match symbols to the rhythm names pattern below.

    h

    Rhythm names are syllables which represent the beat values. A semibreve beat
    is as long as four claps. It is represented by taa-aa-aa-aa. A minim is represented
    by taa-aa. A crotchet is represented by taa. Smaller beats are grouped into the
    values of a crotchet. For example, two quavers are equal to a crotchet.(g)
    = to a crotchet) which is the same as
    ta-te = taa. Four semiquavers are equal
    to a crotchet.(n= to a crotchet) which is the same as ta.fa-te.fe.
    Activity 1.18

    1. Observe, Study and analyse the tables below

    b

    2. Study and analyse the examples below and do the activities that follow
    on each example.
    Example 1
    Below is a passage of rhythm names.
    taa taa taa-aa taa ta-te taa ta.fa-te.fe taa-aa taa-aa taa-aa-aa-aa.

    This is how we match rhythm symbols to rhythm names.

    f

    (i) Clap the above rhythms.
    (ii) Recite the above rhythms to rhythm names.
    Example 2
    This is a passage of rhythm symbols.
    n

    This is how we match rhythm names to rhythm symbols.

    n

    (i) Clap the above rhythm.

    (ii) Recite the above rhythm to rhythm names.

    Exercise 4
    1. Match rhythm symbols to the rhythm names given below.
    (i) taa ta - te taa-aa ta - te taa - aa ta . fa – te . fe taa taa – aa – aa - aa.
    (ii) taa taa taa - aa ta – te ta – te taa ta . fa – te . fe taa - aa taa - aa.
    (iii) taa - aa ta – te - taa ta - te taa ta - te taa taa - aa taa - aa.
    (iv) ta - te ta - te taa taa taa ta – fa – te - fe taa - aa taa taa ta –te taa.
    (v) taa – aa taa - aa taa taa ta – te ta - te taa taa taa - aa.
    (vi) Write the rhythm names of the following symbol names.
    a.) A semibreve = …………………….
    b.) A minim = ……………………..
    c.) A crotchet = ………………………
    d.) A quaver = ……………………

    2. Match rhythm names to the rhythm symbols given below.

    d

    NOTE GROUPING

    Activity 1.19

    b

    Note grouping is the accepted joining of music notes. The accepted joining of
    notes groups them into a beat. For example;
    Two quavers are joined into a crotchet beat (d ).
    Four quavers can also be joined into a minim beat (f).
    Four semiquavers are joined into a crotchet beat(j).
    Joining two or more music notes is called beaming.

    Example:

    (i)dAre beamed as h
    (ii) dare beamed asn
    (iii)jare beamed asb

    Beaming Rhythm symbols in a passage

    Example:

    The rhythmic passage below is not beamed.

    d

    (i) Clap the above rhythm passage.
    (ii) Recite the above rhythm passage to rhythm names.

    The above rhythm passage is beamed as shown below.

    j

    (iii) Clap the above rhythm passage.
    (iv) Recite the above rhythm passage to rhythm names.
    Shorter notes with different values are also beamed together.
    Example:
    gare beamed as n
    bare beamed as j

    The Rhythmic passage below is not beamed.
    h
     (i) Clap the above rhythm passage.
    (ii) Recite the above rhythm passage to rhythm names.

    (iii) The above rhythm passage is beamed as shown below.

    d

    (v) Clap the above rhythm passage.
    (vi) Recite the above rhythm passage to rhythm names.
    Activity 1.20
    Study the rhythm illustrations given below.

    1. This is a grouping of quavers into a crotchet beat.

    n

    (i) Clap the above rhythm passage.
    (ii) Recite the above rhythm passage to rhythm names.

    (iii) Study and Identify the number of beams used in the above examples.

    2. This is a grouping of semiquavers into a crotchet beat.

    d

    (i) Clap the above rhythm passage.
    (ii) Recite the above rhythm passage to rhythm names.
    (iii) Study and Identify the number of beams used in the above examples.
    3. Study and Identify the beams used in the above examples.
    The shorter notes or beats are grouped using a beam. A beam joins two or more
    notes into the basic beat. However, four quavers are always joined into a minim
    beat.
    Now, how do we define the word beam?

    “It is a line which joins shorter notes into a beat”.

    Exercise 5
    1. Study and analyse the exercises. Thereafter, beam the notes given in

    the rhythm patterns below.

    s

    2. A crotchet is as long as ………………….quavers.
    3. There are ……………… semiquavers in one crotchet.
    4. A minim is as long as ………………………. Quavers.
    5. There are ………………….. Semiquavers in one minim.

    6. Study the table below and fill in the blank spaces.

    d

    ALTERNATIVE WORDS
    Activity 1.21
    Study and analyse the table below. Fill in the provided spaces with the alternative names.
    h
    The Latin speaking countries name music notes in Latin. The British name them
    in English. One note is outdated. That is the breve. It lasts for eight beats. This
    is it: || h||
    The British named it a double whole note. Therefore, alternative names are the

    symbol names in English.

    Activity 1.22

    1. Study the table given below.

    h

    2. Give the alternative names:
    (i) A breve ………………
    (ii) A semibreve …………
    (iii) A minim ………………
    (iv) A crotchet ……………
    (v) A quaver ………………
    (vi) A semiquaver …………………
    (vii) A demi-semiquaver ……………
    (viii) A hemi-demi-semiquaver ……………

    The English speaking countries can write notes in figures. For example; a whole

    note can be written as 1 note. A half note can be written as 1/2 note.
    A quarter note can be written as 1/4 note.
    An eighth note can be written as 
    1/8th
    note. A sixteenth note is written as 1/16th note. A thirty-second note is written as 1/32nd note. And then a sixty-fourth note is written as 1/64th note.

    Exercise 6

    1. Fill in the table with the alternative words.

    u

    2. Study the table given below and fi ll in the blank spaces.

    n

    NOTATION
    Activity 1.23

    1. Study and read the lyrics of the song “What is notation”?

                                                Verse one

                                                What is Notation?
    Notation is a system
    Of using signs and symbols
    To represent information.
    Verse two
    Join in notating
    For it is beneficial
    Notating is beneficial, it raises our finances.
    It always keeps us busy.
    It stops lousiness.
    It shapes moral and boosts income.
    Verse three
    Keep on notating
    Stop wasting the time
    Malingering always
    It leads us to the virus.
    Which brings all sorts of illness.That’s so painful and causes death. Then we depart
    (i) Recite the lyrics given above.
    (ii) Recite the lyrics given above from memory.
    (iii) Discuss the message in each verse.
    (iv) Brainstorm the importance of notation.
    2. Study and analyse the fl ow of the song “What is notation?” Thereafter, do the activities that follow.
    h
    Ž Sing the song What is notation to sol-fa notes.
    Ž Sing to words.
    Ž Recite the rhythm names of the song What is notation?
    Notation is a system of using signs and symbols to represent information. In
    music, symbols represent rhythm whereas signs represent pitch. Music has two
    main elements. These are pitch and rhythm. Pitch deals with the arrangement
    of lines and spaces. Rhythm deals with the arrangement of music symbols.

    Rhythm

    Rhythm is the fl ow of music beats. Rhythm can be arranged using beats of the
    same values. However, in most cases beats are commonly varied. A good

    rhythm combines notes of different values.

    Study and analyse the examples given below. Thereafter, do the activity
    that follows.
    Example one: 

                                                Notating rhythms using only crotchet beats.

    (i)n

    (ii) d

    Activity 1.24
    1. Let us form groups and clap the rhythms in example one.
    2. Now, let us use rhythm names to recite the rhythms in example one.
    3. Let us individually compose our own rhythms using crotchet beats. Our
    rhythms should have sixteen crotchet beats in total. Thereafter, insert
    vertical lines every after four crotchet beats. And then double lines at the

    extreme end.

    Example two:

    Notating rhythms using crotchet and quaver beats.

    n

    Activity 1.25
    1. Let us form groups and clap the rhythms in example two.
    2. Now, let us use rhythm names to recite the rhythms in example two.
    3. Let us individually compose our own rhythms using crotchet and quaver
    beats. Our rhythm should have sixteen crotchet beats in total. Thereafter,
    insert vertical lines every after four crotchet beats. And then double lines

    at the extreme end.

    Example Three:

    Notating rhythms using minims, crotchets and quaver beats.

    d

    Activity 1.26
    1. Let us form groups and clap the rhythms in example three.
    2. Now, let us use rhythm names to recite the rhythms in example three.
    3. Let us individually compose rhythms using minims, crotchets and quaver
    beats. Our rhythm should have sixteen crotchet beats in total. Thereafter,
    insert vertical lines every after four crotchet beats. And then double lines

    at the extreme end.

    Example four:

    Notating rhythms using minims, crotchets, quaver and semiquaver beats.

    j

    Activity 1.27
    1. Let us form groups and clap the rhythms in example four.
    2. Now let us use rhythm names to recite the rhythms in example four.
    3. Let us individually compose rhythms using minims, crotchets, quavers
    and semiquaver beats. Our rhythm should have sixteen crotchet beats in
    total. Thereafter, insert vertical lines every after four crotchet beats. And

    then double lines at the extreme end.

    Example five:

    Notating rhythms using semibreves, minims, crotchets, quaver and semiquaver beats.

    n

    Activity 1.28
    1. Let us form groups and clap the rhythms in example four.
    2. Now, let us use the rhythm names to recite the rhythms in example four.
    3. Let us individually compose and notate rhythms using all different
    symbols. Our rhythms should have sixteen crotchet beats in total.
    Thereafter, insert vertical lines every after four crotchet beats. And then

    double bar-lines at the extreme end.

    Activity 1.29

    Pitch

    h

    1. Sing up and down the sol-fa ladder.
    2. Sing up and down the sol-fa ladder with leaps of thirds.
    (i) d : m : r : f : m : s : f : l : s : t : l : d’
    (ii) d’ : l : t : s : l : f : s : m : f : r : m :d
    3. Sing up and down with leaps of fours.
    (i) d : f : r : s : m : l : f : t : s : d’
    (ii) d’ : s : t : f : l : m : s : r : f : d

    Pitching in sol-fa notation

    Pitch is the highness or lowness of sound. It deals with the structure of signs. The
    signs are arranged in a table form. Those tables guide us to identify the particular level of pitch. It means that a table tells us exactly how high or low the sound is.
    There are two types of those tables:
     The sol-fa ladder.  The staff.
    Those two tables lead us to the two types of reading and writing music. These are:
     Sol-fa notation.  Staff notation.

    What do we mean by sol-fa notation?
    It is the writing of music notes using seven letters. The seven letters are selected from the English alphabets.
    These are: d : r : m : f : s : l : t . The pitches of those notes are

    represented on a table called a sol-fa ladder.

    Activity 1.30

    This is the sol-fa ladder.

    n

    d

    1. Study and analyse the above sol-fa ladder. Thereafter, do as instructed below.
    (i) Sing up and down the sol-fa ladder.
    (ii) Sing up and down the sol-fa ladder with leaps of thirds.
    (iii) Sing up and down the sol-fa ladder with sequences of threes.
    2. Sing the sol-fa melodies below.
    (i) d : r : m r : m : f m : f : s f : s : l 1 s : l : t l : t : d’
    (ii) d : r : d r : m : r m : f : m f : s : f 1 s : l : s l : t : l

    (iii) d : m : d r : f : r m : s : m f : l :f 1 s : t : s l : d’ : l

    Pitching in staff notation

    What do we mean by staff notation?

    It is the writing of music notes using signs and symbols. The symbols are arranged on five horizontal lines called a music staff. It has lines and spaces which represent
    different pitches. Every pitch on a line or in space has a name. Those names are

    called fixed pitch names. They are the first seven letters of the English alphabet: A B C D E F G. Those fixed pitch names are arranged on the treble staff as shown below.

    n

    Activity 1.31

    1. Study and analyse the staff given below.

    n

    Analysis:
    The table is a two part staff. The top part has a treble clef. After the treble clef
    comes a figure. There are several semibreve rests. After every semibreve rest,
    there is a vertical line. At the extreme end, there are double lines. The very last

    one is thicker than the rest.

    Exercise 7
    1. What name is given to the table in activity 1.31?
    2. Name the clef at the beginning of the top staff in activity 1.31.
    3. Name the rests shown in the staff.

    4. Draw a treble staff. On it insert fixed pitch names.

    TRANSLATION OF STAFF SYMBOLS TO SOL-FA NOTES

    Activity 1.32

    1. Study and identify the fixed pitch names of the symbols indicated on the

    staff.

    n

    (i)…….. (ii)…….. (iii) …….. (iv)……… (v)……….. (vi)…….. (vii)…….. 
    2. Name the fixed pitch names indicated on the above treble staff:
    (i)................. (ii).............. (iii) ................ (iv) ....................

    (v) ........... (vi) .............. (vii)................... (viii)...................

    Translating symbols is changing from staff notation to sol-fa notation. We can
    change from staff notation to sol-fa notation. We can also change from sol-fa
    notation to staff notation. We discussed that each line and space represents a
    pitch. Therefore, doh can be on any line or space. doh is the centre on which

    other notes gravitate. So we should know the sol-fa ladder.

    Activity 1.33

    1. Study and identify the fixed pitch names indicated on the treble staff.

    h

    (i)…….. (ii)…….. (iii) …….. (iv)……… (v)……….. (vi)…….. (vii)…….. 
    Name the pitch names:
    (i) =………………………………
    (ii) =………………………………
    (iii) =……………………………..
    (iv) =…………………………….
    (v) =……………………………..
    On the staff, the tonic is either on line or in space. Look at the illustrations below.
    (i) The tonic doh is on line E

    This is it:

    h

    This means that doh is on line E. Then space F is ray. Line G is me and so on.

    (ii) The tonic doh is in the space F

    n

    This means that doh is in space F. Then line G is ray. Space A is me and so on.
    Now, how are notes placed on to the staff?
    Example one

    See the illustrations below. They are scales on the staff.

    n

    The above illustration can be translated into sol-fa notes. It will appear like in the
    illustrations given below.
    n
    The scale below is F meaning that the home tone is on the line.
    m
    The scale above is translated as below.
    n
    The scale below is D meaning that the home tone is on the space below the first line.
    d
    The scale above is translated as below.
    b
    Activity 1.34
    1. a) Study the examples given below.
    b) Sing the examples below to sol-fa names.
    2. Write sol-fa notes above the symbols on the staff.
    n

    Writing music must be pleasant to look at. It should also be easy to read. The
    music must be accurate. A note should be placed exactly where it should be. If
    it is on the line, let it be a line. If it is in a space it should be a space. Any slight
    mistake may turn sense into nonsense.

    The illustration below makes sense.

    n
    Notes above the middle line have their stems down.
    n
    The notes below the middle line have their stems up. Notes on the middle line
    can have their stems up or down.n
    When the stem goes up, it comes after the note. When it goes down, it comes

    before the note.

    Activity 1.35
    1. Let us study and analyse the melodies given below and then do activities

    below.

    n


    n

    i. Sing the melodies to sol-fa names.
    ii. Sing the same melodies to syllables “la” and “ma.”
    iii. Copy the melodies in our books and then insert sol-fa notes above the staff.

    2. Study and analyse the following melodies. Thereafter, do the activity that follows.

    n

    a) Sing the above melodies to sol-fa names.
    b) Sing the above melodies to the syllables indicated.
    c) Sing the above melodies to rhythm names “taa.”
    3. Copy the following melodies, hear them as you write. Then add sol-fa
    notes above each note.
    n
    4. Copy the following and add the stems needed. Thereafter, add the sol-fa
    notes. Lastly sing the activity from your own copy.
    n
    5. Copy all the melodies in activity 1.35, number 4. Make oval note heads
    exactly on the correct line or space. Add the stems where necessary. Try
    to hear the fl ow of the notes as you write them. Thereafter, write sol-fa

    notes above the staff and sing through several times.

    TRANSLATION OF SOL-FA NOTES TO STAFF SYMBOLS
    Activity 1.36

    1. Study and analyse the sol-fa and staff melodies below.

    n

    (i) Sing the melody in sol-fa notes.
    (ii) Sing the melody in staff symbols.
    (iii) Identify the doh on the staff.

    (iv) Discuss the fixed pitch names of the symbols on the staff.

    How do we translate sol-fa notes to staff symbols?
    We must establish where the tonic should be. So, we can either choose a line
    or a space.
    How do we choose where to place the tonic?
    For example: We are going to translate the sol-fa notes below to staff symbols. The doh will be on the first line E.
    nd :r bm :fn s :mb f :sn l :s f :mn r :r bd : -m
    This is the translation.
    m
    Activity 1.37
    Translate the given sol-fa melodies into staff melodies. The notes with a dot in
    between are quaver notes.

    (i) Id : d . r I m :m I f :s . m I r : - I d :d . r I m : m I r :r Id : - II

    m

    (ii) Id : d I m.r : m . f I s :s I l . s :f . m I r :r I f . m : f . s I m :r Id : - II

    n

    (iii) I d :m I s : s I f :m I r : - I d :m I s :s I m :r Id : - II

    n

    (iv) I m :m I r :r I f . m : r . d I r : - I s :s I f :f I m . r :d . t, I d : - II

    m

    A melody is a single line of music notes.
    A single line of music notes is called a music line. A music line is a combination

    of rhythm and pitch. Pitch deals with the vertical arrangements of signs.

    Rhythm deals with flow and values of music beats. The flow can be fast or slow. It can have beats with the same or different values.
    The melodies below are arranged in different ways. The first one has notes with
    the same values. See below.
    Activity 1.38
    Study the melodies given below. After studying, sing them to sol-fa names.
    (i) The melodies to syllables “ la” “ma” and “na”.
    c
    (ii) Compose your own melodies using:
    a) Only crotchet beats.
    b) Crotchets and quaver beats.

    c) Minim, crotchet, quaver and semiquaver beats.

    Unit summary
    In this unit, we learnt about:
    Ž Great stave/Grand staff
    Ž Treble
    Ž Clef
    Ž Treble clef
    Ž Treble staff
    Ž Music notes
    Ž Note values
    Ž Rest
    Ž Rhythm names
    Ž Fixed pitch names
    Ž Note grouping
    Ž Alternative words
    Ž Notation
    Ž Staff symbols
    Ž Sol-fa notes
    Ž Sol-fa notation
    Ž Staff notation

    Units Assessment

    1. Discuss the difference between a staff and a great stave.
    2. Illustrate a great stave.
    3. Explain the importance of a music staff.
    4. What is a clef?
    5. When does a staff become a treble staff?
    6. Illustrate a treble staff.
    7. Discuss the importance of the fixed pitch names.
    8. Draw a table of all the music notes.( from the whole note to a sixty-fourth note).
    9. Illustrate the following:
    (i) A whole note (ii) A quarter note
    (iii) A half note (iv) A thirty-second note
    10. Write the symbols of the following rhythm names:
    (i) taa taa ta- te ta - te taa-aa taa taa taa taa taa taa ta-te ta -te taa-aa.
    (ii) taa ta-fa-te-fe ta-te taa taa taa taa taa ta-te ta-te taa-aa .

    11. By the use of a beam, group the rhythms below.

    m

    12. Give the alternative words of the following terms:
    a) A crotchet b) A semibreve
    c) A semiquaver d) A hemi-demi-semiquaver

    e) Match rhythm names to the Rhythmic symbols given.

    n

    GLOSSARY
    A clef: A sign which shows the particular five lines of the great stave.
    A music staff : A table of five horizontal lines.
    A note : A sign for sound.
    A rest: A sign for silence.
    A treble staff: The top part of the great stave.
    Fixed pitch names: The first seven letters of the English alphabet.
    Music notes: Sounds which can make music.
    Notation: A system of using signs and symbols to represent information.
    Note grouping: The accepted joining of music notes.
    Rhythm: The flow of music beats.
    rhythm names: Syllables used to perform rhythms.
    Staff: A set of any five horizontal lines.
    Stave: A table for piano or both men and women voices.

    • What are we going to learn in this unit?
      By the end of this unit, we shall have learnt:
      Ž ledger lines
      Ž measure or bar
      Ž bar lines
      Ž simple time signature
      - Two four 2/4
      - Three four 3/4
      - Four four 4/4
      Ž music rest
      Ž beats or pulses

      What are we going to do?

      Through this unit, we are going to:
      Ž describe shapes and values of musical notes.
      Ž use simple time signatures.
      Ž identify pitches of the musical notes on the staff.
      Ž convert notes into other notes.

      How are we going to do it?

      We are going to be able to do it by:
      Ž describing musical notes and rests on a musical staff.
      Ž practising musical notes.

      How shall we be able to achieve it?

      As we practise all the above, we should:
      Ž appreciate the test of music.
      Ž love musical pitch variation.
      Welcome to unit 2. In unit 1, you were introduced to the staff. Let us increase our

      knowledge and skills in using the staff.

      Activity 2.1

      Sing this song:

      m

      Activity 2.2

      (a) Watch carefully your friend as he/she draws the staff on the chalkboard.

      n

      (b) Draw a music staff in your book.

      N

      Points to note as you draw:
      Ž The lines must appear as a set.
      Ž The lines must be horizontal.
      Ž The lines are five.
      Ž They are equidistant. This means that the spaces in between are of the
      same width.
      Ž The lines are geometrically parallel.

      (c) You surely know the treble clef we have sung about in the song.

      N

      Let us practise drawing it. In the drawing below, observe the arrows.

      N

      d) After you have perfected your drawing, do it on the staff. It is placed at the

      beginning of the staff, like this:

      G

      Exercise 1
      1. What does the treble clef help us to do?
      2. How many lines does the staff have?
      3. How many spaces does the staff have?
      4. Another name for the staff is stave. In which line of the song is the word
      stave used?
      5. Some notes in the song do not fit on the staff. These notes are placed on
      the short line below or above the staff. The short lines are called ledger lines.
      B
      Write down the words which appear against ledger lines in the song you have
      sung.
      6. Copy the song The treble clef in your book.

      LESSON 2

      In this lesson, we are going to learn a new song. The title of the song is Let us
      draw. We will study the rhythm names, staff rhythm symbols and the poem of

      the song.

                                                  Let us draw

      B

      N

      N

      N

      M

      Activity 2.3
      1. Recite the poem of the song Let us draw.
      2. Sing the song Let us draw to words.
      3. Say the rhythm names of the song.
      4. Sing the song to syllables ta la ma pa ca.
      5. Write the rhythm names of the song.
      6. Write the staff rhythm symbols of the song.
      7. Write the words of the song Let us draw.
      8. Write all the staff notes sung about in the song.

      Aural work

      Aural work is about listening. Listening is hearing with an intention to understand.
      We listen to understand the rhythm of a song. We also listen to understand
      pitches, message, phrases and time signature.

      Activity 2.4

      1. Let your friend say the rhythm names below as you listen. Write them
      down on a piece of paper.
      (i) taa ta.te taa ta-te taa taa-aa
      (ii) ta-te ta-te taa-aa taa taa taa-aa
      (iii) taa-aa-aa-aa ta-te taa taa taa
      (iv) ta.fa-te.fe taa ta-te taa taa-aa taa-aa

      2. Say the rhythm names of the staff rhythm symbols given below.

      N

      3. Match rhythm names to the above staff rhythm symbols in no.2.
      4. Sing to tonic sol-fa as you clap the rhythm patterns in no.2 above. Give

      a stronger clap at every vertical line.

      Exercise 2
      1. If taa is the name of a crotchet beat:
      (a) How many crotchets make a minim?
      (b) How many crotchets make a semibreve?
      (c) How many quavers make a crotchet?
      (d) How many semiquavers make a minim?
      2. Look at music on the staff. What happens to the stems of music notes

      when you cross the middle line?

      M

      LESSON 3
      Music is for listening to. It becomes meaningful to the ear when it is organised in
      manageable units. One of these musical units is a bar.
      N
      Bars must be of equal length. In a piece of music, a bar is made of beats. A bar can be of 2 beats, 3 beats, 4 beats or more. Another name for bar in music is measure.


      Examples

      N

      NB: In all the bars presented here, the basic beat is a crotchet.
      Ž They are in simple time.
      Ž The time signature has two numerals.
      The top figure refers to the number of beats in a bar. The lower figure shows the
      type of beat used. The figure 4 represents a crotchet.
      Therefore:
      2
      4
      means 2 crotchet beats
      3
      4
      means 3 crotchet beats
      4
      4

      means 4 crotchet beats

      Copy down the following examples:

      D

      Note:
       When writing on the staff, the time signature is placed immediately after the
      key signature.
       It appears only once at the beginning of music. Later, if music changes
      time, a new time signature is inserted.
       The time signature is not a fraction symbol. So there is no beam between
      the top and bottom figures.
       The block symbol is used here to show the position of G on the staff.
      In music performance, we have accent or stress. Some accents are stronger

      than others. These are said to be strong accents or beats.

      Activity 2.5
      Clap the rhythm pattern below.

      Clap louder the notes with this symbol M.

      M

      The notes with the symbol are the strong accented notes.
      Place a vertical line against an accented note.
      N
      The lines dividing the music are called bar lines. The two lines at the close are
      double bar lines. Bar lines divide music into sections called bars or measures.
      A double bar ends a piece of music. Sometimes it ends a section of music.

      We also use it to close a music exercise.

      Exercise 3
      (a) Study the rhythm patterns below.

      (b) Using the given time signatures, add bar lines to the exercises.

      N

      Activity 2.6

      (a) Sing to sol-fa the melodies given below:

      N

      (b) Write down the melodies you have sung.

      Activity 2.7

      Get a friend and act this dialogue.

      B

      N

      B

      M

      N

      N

      LESSON 4
      In this lesson, we are going to sight sing melodies in Simple Duple Time. The
      time signature for Simple Duple Time is 2/4
      . The symbol 2/4
      means two crotchet

      beats in a bar. We shall also learn the value of a dotted note.

      Activity 2.8

      Clap the following rhythm patterns as your friend recites the rhythm names.

      B

      In 2/4 time, the first beat is always stressed. The second beat is weak.

      Such music is normally suitable for marching.

      B

      Activity 2.9
      (a) Write the following melodies in staff.

      (b) Sing them aloud to a friend.

      S

      Activity 2.10

      Get a friend and perform this dialogue:

      B

      B

      N

      (v) An arcH joining two or more notes of the same pitch is a tie. It is
      also called a bind. When performing rhythm names, the taa or ta is said

      only once at the beginning.

      Activity 2.11

      Here are some melodies for you to sing. Sing them to tonic sol-fa.

      N

      Exercise 4
      1. Learn the song Environment protection and answer the questions

      which follow.

      B

      N

      Questions
      (a) How many bars does the song Environment Protection have?
      (b) What is the time signature of the song?
      (c) In which bars do we find this rhythm N? Use bar numbers to locate
      the answer.
      (d) Mention two ways we should protect the environment.
      (e) Copy down the music of the phrase (To maintain our health and lives).

      LESSON 5
      Be prepared to be introduced to music suitable for a waltz dance.
      As you work through the activities in this lesson, observe the following:
      1. The time signature.
      2. The distribution of accents.
      3. The common note values.
      4. The common grouping of notes.

      Here is a song: Strong Weak written in triple time

                                     STRONG, WEAK

      N

      Activity 2.12

      Based on the song Strong, Weak
      1. Recite the rhythm names of the song.
      2. Recite the words as you clap the first and last beats of a bar.
      3. Sing the song to tonic sol-fa.
      4. Sing the song to syllables like la pa ma ca.
      5. In a group, sing the song to words as you clap the first beat of a bar.

      6. Write the song, Strong, Weak in your book.

      Exercise 5
      1. What is the title of the song you have sung?
      2. Name the composer.
      3. What is the key of the song?
      4. State the time signature.
      5. In what time is the song?

      6. Which beats of the bar are weak?

      SIGHT SINGING EXERCISE IN TRIPLE TIME

      Sight-sing the following melodies.

      N

      N

      Activity 2.13

      Look at these waltz dancers:

      N

      Ž Waltz is a ballroom dance in 3/4 time.
      Ž A piece of music for this dance is also called a waltz. It is composed in triple time.

      Activity 2.14
      Listen to this music Sound the drum as you study it in this book.

                                                  SOUND THE DRUM

      N

      N

      Exercise 6
      1. What is the song Sound the drum about?
      2. Why do you tighten the skin?
      3. What happens to the vibrations when you tighten the skin?
      4. What happens to the pitch when the skin is relaxed?
      5. In which branch of science is sound talked about?
      6. How many beats are there in a bar?
      7. Why do you think the double bar || appears twice in the song?

      8. Mention a dance which is suitable for this song.

      LESSON 6
      When music is written with a 4/4
      time signature, it is in simple quadruple time.

      Activity 2.15

      Sing the following examples to sol-fa.

      B

      Note the following common grouping of notes in a 4/4 time signature:

      N

      Note that a quaver note may follow a quaver note. The two or four notes may be

      joined by a beam. e.gN

      N

      Activity 2.16

      Clap the rhythm as you sing to sol-fa.

      M

      (c)(i) Copy down the two exercises in your book.
      (ii) Add sol-fa notes to the exercises.

      Activity 2.17

      Let us sing a song titled Circumference.
      It is written in 4/4 time.
      N

      Questions
      1. In which branch of Mathematics is the word circumference used?
      2. This song gives us one meaning of circumference. Give another meaning
      of the word.
      3. Bar 4 has a rhythm pattern .C Which other bar in the song has
      the same rhythm pattern?
      4. How many bars does the song Circumference have?
      5. What is the time signature of the song Circumference?

      6. What is the longest note in the song? In which bars does it appear?

      Exercise 7
      Sight read the following melodies to sol-fa. Let one student in the group be the
      conductor.
      N
      N
      Note the shift of the strong and weak accent in bars 1, 2 and 4. This is called

      syncopation.

      LESSON 7
      Rests in 2/4 time.
      In music, a period of silence is called a rest. The rest lasts as long as the note
      it represents.
      The following are some of the notes and their corresponding rests.
      n
      n

      Activity 2.18

      In groups recite the rhythm names of the following exercises:

      n

      Now clap as you say the rhythm names.

      n

      Activity 2.19

      In a group, sight read the following melodies which have rests.

      n

      d

      Activity 2.20

      It is now time to learn and sing a song about gender equality.

      n

      n

      Exercise 8
      1. Define the word rest in music.
      2. How many bars are there in Daughter’s song?
      3. What does the symbol 2/4 stand for?
      4. Using bar numbers, identify all the bars where the rests appear.
      5. In Daughter’s Song, the girl is actually sobbing. How does the music
      suit the sobbing mood?
      6. Learn the song by heart and sing it to your classmates.

      LESSON 8

      In lesson 7, you learnt about rests in 2/4
      time. Rests can also be found in triple

      time music. Here is a song which will serve as an example.

      n

                    Figure 2.17: Franklin Delado Roosevelt

      n

      n

      Activity 2.21

      n

      Ž Clap as you recite the rhythm names.

      Ž Clap louder on the first beat of a bar.

      n

      n

      nActivity 2.22
      Form groups in your class. Let each group choose a leader.
      (a) Clap as you recite the rhythm names of When I think of one man.
      (b) Sing the song to syllables la pa ma ta and so on
      (c) Recite the words of the first verse as you clap the rhythm.
      (d) Recite the words of verse 2 as you clap the first beat of the bar. Clap it loud.
      (e) Sing the song to tonic sol-fa.
      (f) Sing the song to words.
      (g) Find out the major world event which took place when Roosevelt was
      president of USA.

      Exercise 9

      1. What is the message in the song When I think of one man?
      2. Using bar numbers, identify all the bars where rests occur.

      3. Add bar lines to the exercise below:

      n

      4. Sight sing the following melodies to tonic sol-fa.

      n

      n

      n

      LESSON 9
      In this lesson you will visit selected corners of your classroom. If you have a
      visitor, please go about with him or her. The song you are about to learn will give
      you more feeling of quadruple time. Notice also the beauty of the rests where

      they occur. Dotted notes are introduced to add colour to the music.

      n

      Figure 2.19: A boy and a girl showing their parents items in the music corner.

      n

      n

      n

      n

      b

      n

      b

      Activity 2.23
      (a) Clap the rhythm of the song Visit our class.
      (b) Recite the rhythm names as you clap.
      (c) Recite the words as you clap the first beat of a bar.
      (d) Sing the music to tonic sol-fa.
      (e) Sing the song to syllables like ta, ma, la, pa.

      (f) Sing the song to words.

      Activity 2.24
      Get more acquainted with rhythm.

      Clap as you recite the rhythm names.

      n

      Exercise 10
      Add bar lines to the patterns you have recited above. Use 4/time signature.

      Do not forget to insert a double bar at the end of each pattern.

      Exercise 11

      Transfer the following sol-fa melodies to the staff.

      m

      Exercise 12
      Based on the song Visit our class
      1. What is the time signature of the song?
      2. When you add up all verses, how many verses does the song have?
      3. Mention the different activities one can do in the mentioned corners.
      Match the activity with the subject corner.
      4. Which bars have the longest note?
      5. The longest rests are found in the following bars: .......................
      Use bar numbers to locate the rests.
      6. Point out the similarities and differences between verses 1 and 2. Use

      bar numbers in your discussion.

      h

                             Figure 2.26: A girl writing on the board as the boy watches.

      LESSON 10

      n               Figure 2.27: A boy on clutches conducting a discussion.

      Activity 2.25
      Form groups. In your groups:
      (a) Brainstorm the meaning of standardisation culture.
      Ž Make a list of the examples mentioned in the song (We belong......)
      Ž Suggest more areas where standardisation culture can be seen.
      (b) Recite the lyrics of the song We belong to the global village.
      (c) Recite the rhythm names of the song.
      (d) Sing the song to tonic sol-fa.
      (e) Sing the melody of the song to syllables like la, pa, ma.
      (f) Sing the song to words.

      (g) Let each group come forward and sing one different verse to the class.

                 We belong to the global village

      n

      h
      d
      n
      n
      f

      Coda

      n

      Activity 2.26

      In your groups: Study the sol-fa notation of the song We belong to the global

      village.

      (a) Copy down the sol-fa music of bars 4 to 6. Mark the accent marks as

      |strong Weak|

      b

      (b) Sustaining a note is indicated by placing a dash( ) after that note. Identify

      the bars which have this punctuation:

      f

      (c) Dividing a beat(pulse) into halves is done by inserting a dot, like this:

      n

      Look for the bars in the song where this music occurs.

      (d) Dividing a pulse in quarters calls for use of dots and commas.

      Example

      n

      Exercise 13

      Add bar lines to the following patterns in 2/time.

      n

      Exercise 14

      Translate the following melodies into tonic sol-fa. Observe the sol-fa punctuation.

      n

      Exercise 15

      Sight sing the following melodies to tonic sol-fa.

      n

      LESSON 11
      Activity 2.27

      Form pairs and perform the dialogue below.

      n

      n

      m

      n

      d

      n

      n

      n

      n

      Exercise 16
      1(a) What is the Motto of Rwanda?
      (b) What is the rank of the government officer who addressed the students’
      conference?
      (c) What is patriotism?
      (d) Mention two qualities of a patriot.

      2. Transcribe the following melodies into tonic sol-fa.

      n

      n

      3. Ear tests
      Form groups. Let one person hum the following exercises. You can listen to
      the exercises from a recording. Write them down in staff.

      Note this: Doh must be sounded before the singing or play through.

      n

      4. Sing the following exercises at sight.

      b

      LESSON 12
      Activity 2.28
      Form groups and:
      (a) Brainstorm the lyrics of the song The staff.
      (b) Recite the rhythm names of the song.
      (c) Clap the rhythm as you recite the rhythm names.
      (d) Sing the song to syllables like la, pa, ma, ca.
      (e) Sing the song to tonic sol-fa.

      (f) Sing the song to words.

      n

      Activity 2.29

      (a) Study this illustration as you sing the song The Staff.

      v

      (b) Recite the formular below. It will help you to remember the positions of notes. The lines from below: Every Good Boy Deserves Favour
      (c) Notice the spaces which form the word FACE.

      (d) Remember that the treble clef

      n

      circles round the second line. That line is G.
      (e) Notice that these seven letters of the English Alphabet do not change

      positions. They are fixed pitch names.

      f. Also notice that the sol-fa names d r m f s l t n can change
      positions on the staff. They are therefore called relative pitch names.

      They change positions depending on the key of a song.

      Activity 2.30

      In your groups, practise:

      n

      Ž The leader points at a staff note and calls it doh. He/she announces a
      sol-fa note.

      Ž The members suggest the fixed pitch position of the sol-fa note.

      Example
      Leader: If doh is C, what sol-fa note will G sound?
      Answer: soh
      Leader: If doh is F, what sol-fa note will A sound?
      Answer: me
      SOL-FA WRITING
      The song you have sung is in 4/4
      time. Look at bar 1. The sol-fa rhythm is punctuated as

      n

      The second beat has a beat division {: d . r ||}
      The third beat is sustained {| d : - ||}

      Activity 2.31

      Ž Copy down the music of bars 3 and 4.

      Ž Do not leave out the punctuation marks.

      Exercise 17

      1. Transcribe the following melodies into tonic sol-fa.

      n

      2. Ear tests
      Get a friend to hum (or sing to la) the following tunes to you. Write them down

      from dictation. Mark the answers together.

      n

      n

      n

              Figure 2.33: Groups of students singing from their books.

      3. Sight singing
      Sing the following tunes in 4/4

      time.

      n

      We have come to the close of unit 2.
      Sing this song to always keep you alert.

      Take care of your life.

      n

      Links to other subjects
      This unit has been linked to Fine Art. It has been done by drawing shapes of the
      musical notes. Based on the song Let us draw.

      It has been linked to Physical Education. Students dance to the song. Hop step
      song as they celebrate their discovery of the word bars in music.
      It has been linked to Science. The study of sound based on the song Sound the drum.

      It has been linked to Mathematics. The study of Geometry based on the song

      Circumference.


      It has been linked to Elementary Technology based on the song Visit our class.

      Unit summary

      In this unit, all the knowledge and understanding, all the skills, attitudes and
      values and learning activities are approached through the music aspects of
      singing, reading and writing and listening.
      The coverage of the music language involved includes the following items:
      ledger lines, measure or bar, bar lines, simple time signatures; namely two
      four 2/4, three four 3/4, four four 4/4; musical rests and beats.

      Units Assessment

      1. What does the treble clef help us to do?
      2. How many quavers make a semibreve?
      3. Add bar lines to the following exercises:

      n

      4. Translate the following melody into tonic sol-fa.

      n

      5. Write the following melody on the staff” Doh = G
      {d : -.r :m |r :m :f |s .m :r., d :t |d :- :- ||
      6 (a) Mention two ways we should protect the environment.
      (b) In the song Sound the drum, why do we tighten the skin?
      (c) What is the main message in the song We belong to the global
      village?

      7. Song study Study the song Daughter’s song ad answer the questions which
      follow it.

      n

      (a) How many bars are there in Daughter’s song?
      (b) What does the 2/4 symbol stand for?
      (c) Define the word rest.
      (d). Using bar numbers, locate all the bars where the rests appear.
      (e). In Daughter’s song, the girl is actually sobbing. How does the music

      suit the sobbing mood?

      GLOSSARY
      Accent marks: Punctuation marks in sol-fa writing, indicating the strong and
      weak accents.
      Audiovisual aids: Gadgets which use both sound and pictures (especially for
      the classroom).
      Aural work: Connected with hearing and listening.
      Bar/measure: One of the short sections of equal length that a piece of music is
      divided into and the notes that are in it.
      Beam: A line that joins the stems of two or more notes.
      Beat (pulse): The main rhythm or a unit of rhythm in a piece of music, a poem etc.
      Beat: To produce rhythm by hitting something many times.
      Brainstorming: A way of making a group of people all think about something
      at the same time, often in order to solve a problem or to create
      good ideas.
      Celebrate: To mark an event that is important by doing something special.
      Circumference: A line that goes round a circle or any other curved shape. The
      length of this line.
      Crotchet: (quarter note): a note that lasts half as long as a minim.
      Dotted note: A note followed by a dot. A dot after a note increases the values
      of that note by half its value.
      Double bar: A pair of vertical lines at the end of a piece of music.
      Environment protection: Taking care of the place where we live and make it
      easy to live in.
      Equally: Far from two or more places.
      Geometrical parallel (of line): the same distance apart at every point.
      Global village: The concept of having ideas, materials, etc affecting the whole world.
      Guest speaker: A speaker at a function who gives the main speech (or key note
      address.
      Lyrics: The words of a song.
      Marching: Walking with stiff regular steps like a soldier.
      Minim (half note): A note that lasts as long as two crotchets.
      Motto: A short sentence or phrase of a person, a group, an institution, a country

      etc and is used as a rule of behaviour.

      Octave mark: Figures in sol-fa writing indicating the notes outside the first
      octave e.g d
      Patriot: A person who loves their country and who is ready to defend it against
      an enemy.
      Quaver: A note that lasts half as long as a crotchet.
      Rest (in music): A period of silence. The symbol indicating silence is also called a rest.
      Rhythm pattern: A meaningful arrangement of musical notes in a line.
      Semibreve (whole note): A note that lasts as long as four crotchets.
      Semiquaver (sixteenth note): A note that lasts half as long as a quaver.
      Sight sing: To sing a piece of music at first sight without prior preparation.
      Simple Duple Time: Rhythm in music with two crotchet beats in a bar.
      Simple Quadruple Time: Rhythm in music with four crotchet beats in a bar.
      Simple Triple Time: Rhythm in music with three crotchet beats in a bar.
      Standardization: The making of objects or activities of the same type have the
      same features or qualities.
      Stave (a staff in music): A set of five lines on which music is written.
      Sustain: To make a musical note continue for some time.
      Syncopation: Rhythm in which the strong beats are made weak and the weak
      beats are made strong.
      Tie/bind: An arc in staff notation that joins two or more notes of the same
      Time signature: A sign at the start of a piece of music, usually in the form of
      numbers, showing the number of beats in each bar/measure.
      Tune: Melody a series of musical notes that are sung or played in a particular
      order to form a piece of music.
      Waltz: A dance in triple time. Music composed to accompany a waltz is also

      called a waltz.

      • INTRODUCTION
        In this unit, you are going to be introduced to drama. You will be able to know/
        learn the following:
        Ž drama.
        Ž structure of a play.
        Ž types of drama such as tragedy, comedy, tragicomedy and development theatre play.
        Ž elements of drama such as plot, theme, characters and spectacle.
        Ž staging in drama.

        Unit Competence

        By the end of this unit:
        you will be able to describe the different types of drama.

        Learner’s outcome

        By the end of this unit you will have achieved the following:

        (a) Knowledge and Understanding

        Ž Knowing concepts in drama.
        Ž Distinguishing different types of drama.
        Ž Knowing the different participants in a dramatic presentation.

        (b) Skills

        Ž Researching the concept used in drama to create a play so that you can
        perform a role.
        Ž Observing a performance to develop the ability to judge what is good and bad.

        (c) Attitude and Values

        Ž Appreciating drama as a means of expression.

        Ž Showing respect for the performance of the plays.

        DRAMA
        In this unit, we shall be introduced to drama. We shall also describe the different
        types of drama.

        Activity 3.1

        (a) Where do you go to watch drama?
        (b) How much do you pay to watch a piece of drama?
        (c) List any four plays you have ever watched.

        What is drama?

        Drama is the representation of real life on stage. However, there is what we call
        fiction in drama which is a representation of the nonexistent.

        Why do we do drama?

        These are some of the reasons why drama is important?

        It is a source of income

         Many people earn their living through drama. When drama is staged, people
        pay money to watch a piece of drama.
        n
        It is for entertainment

        People go to theatres or other halls to be entertained.

        n

        It is a tool of communication
         Drama or plays are used to pass on information to the community.
         In case of any problem in the community, a play can be used to communicate
        to the people, for example:
        If there was a serious disease in a community:
        A play can be used to inform people to be aware of the disease.

        It is used as a tool of changing behaviour.

        Drama can be used to change people behaviour.
        For example, Drama can be used to inform communities:
         The dangers of HIV/Aids.

         That HIV/Aids kills and it has no cure.

        Activity 3.2
        (a) How can you avoid HIV/Aids?

        (b) How can you advise your friend to avoid HIV/Aids?

        b

        There are so many other reasons why drama is important.

        Activity 3.3

        List other reasons why drama is important.

        STRUCTURE OF A PLAY

        What is a structure?
        This is the way a play is organised.
        Each type of drama has a different structure.

        You can determine any type of drama according to its structure.

        For example:
         The play begins in suffering and ends in sufferings.
         The play begins in sadness, then happiness and ends in suffering.
         The play begins in happiness, then suffering and ends in happiness.

         The play begins in happiness and ends in happiness.

        Exercise 1
        1. What is a drama?
        2. List any three reasons why drama is important.

        3. What is a structure?

        Activity 3.4

        Ž Listen to and watch look at a recorded play and determine its structure.

        TYPES OF DRAMA
        We are going to look at the different types of drama.

        Activity 3.5

        Think of any difficult situation full of suffering.
        Discuss it with your friends.

        Tragedy

         In this type of drama, we see a lot of sufferings.
         It shows what a person goes through in life.
         It always ends in sadness.
         The structure of a tragedy begins and ends in suffering.

        Activity 3.6

        (a) Read and spell the word tragedy.
        (b) Watch a recorded play about tragedy.
        (c) With the guidance of your teacher, discuss the structure of the tragedy.

        (d) Compose a simple dialogue and act it out.

        n

                    Figure 3.4: A scene which shows sadness.

        Exercise 2
        1. What do you know about tragic plays?
        2. How is a tragedy structured or organised.
        Comedy drama

        Activity 3.7

        (a) Think of any moment full of fun.
        (b) Discuss it with your friend.
        In this type of drama, we find a lot of amusing statements.
        It is full of jokes and laughing moments.
        It always ends in happiness.

        The structure of this drama begins and ends in happiness.

        b

        Activity 3.8
        (a) Read and spell the word comedy.
        (b) Form a comedy with the guidance of your teacher.
        (c) Watch a recorded comedy.
        (d) Discuss the structure of the comedy.

        (e) Compose a simple dialogue and act it out.

        Exercise 3
        1. What is a comedy?
        2. How is a comic play structured?
        Tragicomedy drama

        Activity 3.9

        (a) Imagine a situation with both happiness and sadness.

        (b) Discuss it with your friends.

         This play has both the exciting and sad moments.
         It has the combination of both comedy and tragedy.
         It can end either in good or bad moments.
         The structure of this drama either begins in sadness then happiness and ends
        in suffering; or begins in happiness then suffering and ends in happiness.

        Activity 3.10

        (a) Read and spell the word tragicomedy.
        (b) Watch a recorded drama which is a tragicomedy.
        (c) Discuss the structure of the tragicomedy.

        (d) Think of a simple dialogue and act it out.

        Exercise 4
        1. What is a tragicomedy?
        2. What is the structure of a tragicomedy?
        Plays for development Theatre

        Activity 3.11

        (a) Think of some development issues with in your community.
        (b) Find a way of how you can involve members of the community. Discuss this issue.

        What is development theatre?

        Development theatre is a drama written for developmental issues within society.
        This is also another type of drama.
        It is not very common in our theatres.
        This type of drama is mainly used to solve issues of development.
        The plays contain a participatory technique. Therefore, it is an interactive type of drama.

        Look at this dialogue
        Jane: (In sad mood) My brother Tom, Am not happy with the way you lead
        your life.
        Tom: Why? Any problem my sister?
        Jane: I always see you jumping around with so many girls.
        Tom: What’s wrong with that? I have to enjoy myself.
        Jane: Are you aware of HIV/Aids?
        Tom: (Reluctantly) Am aware but .......................
        Jane: Do you know that HIV/Aids kills and it has no cure?
        Tom: (Laughs) So what?
        Jane: Don’t laugh, Am serious.
        Tom: (Turns to audience) Is it true people?
        Audience: (Individually) Yes, it is true, Aids has no cure. Please abstain.........
        Jane: You see?
        In this dialogue, Tom calls the audience to participate.
        Any member of the audience airs out his or her feelings.
        Then, the play becomes interactive.
        Therefore, developmental theatre plays are used:
        (a) as tools in solving problems in the society.
        (b) In empowering communities in changing behaviours and attitude for better
        development.
        For example
        Ž HIV/Aids awareness
        Ž Eradication of poverty
        Ž Fighting against malaria
        Ž Fighting domestic violence

        Activity 3.12

        (a) Read and spell the word Development Theatre.
        (b) Discuss any topic, form a play and present it.
        (c) Act the dialogue on page 132.

        Exercise 5

        1. What is Development Theatre?
        2. Mention any two types of drama.

        3. Describe the difference between comedy and development theatre plays.

        n

        ELEMENTS OF DRAMA
        What are the elements of drama?
        These are the different parts or aspects which make a good drama?

        Activity 3.13

        (a) Read the dialogue below.
        (b) Choose any role you will act.

        Dialogue: Kayonza Village Council

        Selle
        : (In a happy mood) My people of Kayonza village, you are most

                  welcome I called this meeting so that we discuss the issue of our
                  environment.
        Village 1:(Look surprised) What is the problem with our environment?
        Selle:That is a very good question. You are aware that this village had
                   a lot of trees. It was almost a forest. This was our beauty! But
                   where are the trees. Look around and see.
        Village II:It is true! We used to get firewood and the village was cool. (Some
                       people clap their hands).
        Selle: That is why I have called you. We need to find a way of planting
                   more trees and protect our environment.
        Village III:Chief! This is going to waste a lot of our time. We have to plant

                         crops and do other things.

        Woman: It is true, may be we live this to men. And let women go for gardening.
        Other women: yes, your are right.
        Selle: No! This has to be a collective effort for both men and women.
        We are even going to all schools around. All schools will have to
        participate in this exercise.
        Drunkard: Have you already bought a piece of land? Where are we going to
        plant the trees you are talking about?
        Selle: Good question! We shall plant trees in our homes and on the
        public land.
        School boy: Which type of trees are we going to plant?
        Selle: All types of trees but most especially fruit trees.
        School girl: (Looks very happy) I will plant mango trees!!
        Woman: This will help us to solve the burden of looking for firewood.
        Selle: Not only firewood, but it will help us to improve our climate. We
        shall be enjoying fresh air, get rainfall and other things. (A big
        applause from the crowd).
        Village II: This is a very good idea. Let us start the campaign with effect
        from next week. Members of this village, is it okay?
        Members: It is ok!
        Selle: I, with my executive members, shall be visiting your homes and
        schools. Please make sure that this exercise begins and it is well
        done. My people, we need to conserve and save our environment.
        Let us together protect and save our country and be patriotic. (An applause from the audience)
        Drunkard: Our man! We need to exercise Patriotism!

         PLOT

        Activity 3.14

        (a) Read and spell the word elements.
        (b) In the dialogue above, tell the plot of the play.

        (c) Look at the recorded play and discuss the different events.

        What is plot?
        This is the relationship of a series of events which make up a story.
        The storylines should be clearly followed by the audience from the beginning to
        the end.
        When the storyline is not clear, it means that the message in the drama will not

        be well-delivered to the audience.

        THEME
        Activity 3.15
        What does the play on page 134 talk about?
        What is theme?
        A theme is a subject or a topic you wish to talk about.
        Any piece of drama has a subject or topic on which it is composed.
        The plotting is done according to what you wish to bring out of a theme.
        The theme helps the writer or composer to develop a good storyline.

        Look at these examples of theme.

        Ž A malaria free environment for better learning.
        Ž Stop early marriage and poor feeding for better learning.
        Therefore a good piece of drama or play must have a theme.

        Activity 3.16

        (a) Read and spell the word theme.
        (b) Think of any two themes and write them down.
        (c) What is the theme of the play on page 124.

        (d) Listen to a recorded play and identify the theme.

        CHARACTERS
        Activity 3.17
        (a) List the different roles you saw in the plays on page 124.

        (b) Name any three roles in that play.

        What are characters?
        These are the different roles in a piece of drama.
        These roles are assigned to different people.
        The characters help to bring out the message in a piece of drama.

        Look at these characters or roles
        .

        Selle
        Village I
        Village II
        Village III
        Woman
        School boy
        School girl
        Drunkard
        If you are given any character, ensure that it is properly brought out.
        To bring out a character you need to have a good study of that character.
        Characters can also be developed.

        For example

        If you are given a character of an elderly man, study the behaviour of that character. For example:
        ŽŽ How he walks.
        ŽŽ How he talks.
        ŽŽ How he looks.
        This will help you to develop that character of an elderly man.
        n


        A character can also be developed using props and costumes.
         Props are the things we use in a play.
         Costumes are things we wear in a play.

        CAST

        These are the names of people taking different roles in a play.

        In the table below, fill in your name against a character you will wish to act.

        n

        Activity 3.18
        1. Look at the play on 134 and list all the characters.
        2. Which character has the biggest role in the play on page 134?
        3. Which character has the least role in the play on page 134?
        4. Listen to a recorded play and;
        - list all the characters in the play.

        5. Act the play on page 134.

        Exercise 6
        1. List any two elements of drama.
        2. What is a plot in drama?
        3. What do you understand by the word character?
        4. What is a theme?
        5. What do you understand by the word cast?
        6. What is a spectacle?
        7. List the types of drama you know.
         SPECTACLE
        What is spectacle?
        Anything presented on stage to be seen by the audience.
        In drama, what we see on stage is a spectacle.

        Whatever is presented should be good to look at.

        n

        Activity 3.19
        (a). Read and spell the word spectacle.
        (b). Look at the recorded drama.
        (c). In small groups, discuss and observe the spectacle.

        STAGING IN DRAMA

        This is the performance of a play on stage. Before you stage a play do the following:

        Step I

        Activity 3.20
        (a). Choose the play you wish to present.
        (b). Discuss the different characters in the play.
        (c). Choose the character you want to act.
        (d). Read through your lines.
        (e). Rehearse the play with your colleagues.

        Step II

        Activity 3.21
        (a). Organise the stage.
        (b). Make a dress rehearsal.
        Step Ill

        Activity 3.22

        Stage the play
        After staging a play, discuss/evaluate the performance.

        Evaluation guide

         Who has been the best actor/actress?
         Who said his/her dialogues well?
         Did you use the right prop and costumes.
         Which character did not come out well?

        This will help to improve the next performance.

        n

        Links to other subjects

        This unit has been linked to body fitness in Physical Education. This can be done when a student is acting when staging drama or a play.

        Unit summary

        In this unit, you have learnt how to describe the different types of drama.
        The types of drama are tragedy, comedy, tragicomedy and development
        theatre.

        You have also learnt some elements of drama. These are : theme, character

        and spectacle. Also you have learnt how to stage drama.

        Units Assessment
        1. List any three important reasons of drama.
        2. How can you describe drama?
        3. List three types of drama.
        4. List the elements of drama.
        5. What is staging in drama?
        6. Describe a plot in a piece of drama.
        7. Give definitions of the following:

        (a) Tragedy (b) comedy (c) tragicomedy

        GLOSSARY
        Amuse: To make somebody laugh or smile.
        Approach: A way of dealing with something or somebody.
        Attitude: Is an expression of favour or disfavour to a person, a place or something.
        Audience: The group of people who have gathered to watch or listen to something.
        Behaviour: The way in which a person acts in response to a particular situation.
        Character: The different roles in a piece of drama.
        Development: The process of producing or creating something more advanced.
        Dialogue: Conversation in a book, play or film.
        Drama: Is the art of forming or writing and presenting a play.
        Elements: A part or aspect of something.
        Empowering: To give someone power to do something.
        Entertainment: To interest or amuse somebody.
        Eradication: This is to put something to an end.
        Happiness: The feeling of being happy.
        Interactive: That involves people working together.
        Joke: Something that you say or do to make people laugh.
        Participate: To take part in doing something.
        Participatory: Something which makes people work together.
        Poverty: The state of being extremely poor.
        Rehearsal: Time that is spent practising a play.
        Sadness: The feeling of being sad.
        Society: People living together.
        Spectacle: Anything presented on stage to be seen by the audience.
        Suffering: Physical or mental pain.

        Theme: The subject or main idea in a talk, piece or work of art.

        • What are we going to learn in this unit?
          By the end of this unit, we shall have learnt:
          (a) how to compose sketches in Kinyarwanda.
          (b) how to perform sketches in Kinyarwanda with emotions.

          What are we going to do?

          Through this unit, we are going to:
          (a) Compose sketches on the following topics: love, faith, education, peace
          building, juvenile delinquency.
          (b) Perform the sketches we have composed.

          How are we going to do it?

          We are going to do it by:
          (a) Developing our own storylines in small groups.
          (b) Developing sketches from the storylines created.
          (c) Writing plays.
          (d) Developing our own costumes and props.
          (e) Acting the plays we have composed.

          How shall we be able to achieve it?

          As we practise all the above, we should:
          Ž be creative
          Ž be confident
          Ž be aware of our characters
          Ž clearly express ourselves through talking and acting.
          Ž be determined
          Ž be good decision-makers
          Ž be friendly to each other.

          Ž have self-control

          DRAMA
          Activity 4.1
          List down any drama groups you know in Rwanda.

          What is drama?

          Drama refers to the expression of one’s feelings through acting.
          We have two types of drama:
          (i) Formal drama
          (ii) Informal drama

          Formal drama

          This is drama which is written down. Written drama is called a script. Each word
          in the script must be followed strictly.

          Informal drama

          This is drama which is not written down. The actor or actress uses his or her own
          words. There are no rules governing choice of words to use.
          In this topic, we shall learn about performing formal drama in our local language
          Kinyarwanda.

          Exercise 1

          1. What is drama?
          2. What are the forms of drama?

          COMPOSING

          In this unit, we are going to compose sketches in Kinyarwanda relating to
          different topics.

          What is a sketch?

          A sketch is a simple picture that is drawn quickly and does not have many
          details.
          In drama, we can also compose simple sketches of pieces of drama.
          The sketch helps you to develop our skills in composing and performing.
          Sketches are structured in dialogues. The dialogues have characters which
          bring out the desired message in a piece of drama.

          What is a dialogue?

          A dialogue is a conversation of two people or more. This can be in a book, a play or a film.
          Read the sketch below.

          Isengesho ry’Imana

          Reverandi: Nimureke duhumirize maze dusenge
          Mana yacu…………………….
          Abakristo: Data uri mu ijuru…………….
          Dusenge (Avuge mu ijwi riranguruye ku buryo abakrisito batega amatwi).
          Reverandi: Ubaye iki Dusenge?
          Dusenge: Data yarapfuye, ari mu gitaka.

          Activity 4.2

          (a) Read the sketch above.
          (b) Choose a role and act it out.

          SKETCHES CAN BE DEVELOPED FROM A STORY

          What is a story?
          A story is a series of events.
          The story can either be written or told.

          Read the story below:

          Mukandoli is looking for employment after completing her studies. She fails to
          find one. She even visits the shrine. She does not get help from there . She joins
          a group of prostitutes. They also get involved in taking alcohol.

          One day, villagers want to burn them to death. They claim that the prostitutes will
          spoil their children. The villagers also claim that the prostitutes will spread Aids
          to their families. Other villagers, however, suggest that they are taken to prison
          instead of burning them. There is a strong debate on what should be done to the
          prostitutes. In the end, the police takes them to prison for a period of five years.

          During the five years in prison, the prostitutes (now prisoners) learn vocational

          skills including knitting and tailoring. On release from the prison, each one is
          given a knitting and tailoring toolkit.

          Mukandoli opens a knitting workshop in her locality (village). She gets contracts

          from many schools around. She realises the need to employ others to help her
          with the work. She becomes the wealthiest lady in the area. She ends up building a hospital for the community. This is because the community helped her when
          they saved her and other prostitutes from being burnt to death.

          Tips on writing a good story

          Ask yourself the questions below as you are writing your story:
          Ž Is my story clear?
          Ž Why am I writing this story?
          Ž When or what time is the story set?
          Ž Who is in the story? Why is he or she there? (These are what we call characters).
          Ž How are the characters? Who is the inner man that shapes the characters’ behaviour?

          Activity 4.3

          (a) Look at the sketch below, developed out of the above story.
          (b) Read the dialogue of the developed sketch.
          (c) Choose the role and act the sketch.

          AGAKINO: Ajya mu rugo

          Mukandoli: Ahuye n’inshuti ze ajya mu rugo, yari avuye mu biro yasabagamo akazi, kandi akabuze yataye icyizere!
          Mutesi : (Yishimye). Eh! Mukandoli, ni wowe?
          Mukandoli (Ohhh!); Mutesi, ni wowe?
          Mutesi: Iminsi myinshi disi. Iminsi ishize yose wabaga he?
          Mukandori: Hm! Nshuti yanjye, ubuzima buragoranye (arira)! Ariko buragoye ku ruhande rwanjye.
          Mutesi: Mbwira nshuti yanjye! Byagenze bite? Reka twicare (bicara
          Iruhande rw’umuhanda) mukandori arebana na Mutesi, amuha
          ikiganza cy’iburyo, begeranya intugu. Ngaho mbwira.
          Mukandoli: (Bacyegeranije intungu): Na…… Na…… Na… bu ... z’akazi.
          Mutesi : Nshuti yanjye! (amwiyegamije umutwe mu gituza cye) kuva
          twarangiza amashuri koko?
          Mukandoli: Yego Mute!!!
          Mutesi: Ibyo ni bibi! None se wagashakiye hehe ?
          Mukandoli : Nagashakiye ahantu harenze icumi (arira cyane)
          Mutesi : Ntabwo byumvikana (afungura isakoshi avanamo umuswara, ahanagura amarira ye Mukandoli). None se nshuti yanjye, wigeze ugerageza kubaza ngo umenye aho ikibazo kiri?
          Mukandoli: Sha! (areba cyane) ntabwo nabyigeze, mu buzima byanjye,
          ntabwo nigeze njya mu bapfumu ! risubize Aho urikuye, narize bihagije Mu bapfumu ni ahantu h’abatajijutse. Sigaho !! ubwo se nashobora nte……… !
          Mutesi: Uriho urareba abagabo n’abagore b’iwanyu bamerewe neza se ?
          Mukandoli: Yego, nibyo ndimo.
          Mutesi: None se utekereza ko ubwo bukire babuvanye he ?
          Mukandoli: (Aratekereza cyane kugira ngo abone igisubizo)
          Mutesi: Reka gutekereza cyane; niba utabizi, reka nkubwire amafaranga aboneka. 
          Mukandoli: Ngo aho amafaranga aboneka? (asimbukana ibyishimo) aho ni hehe?
          Mutesi: Nibyo koko, aho amafaranga aboneka; uzaba umuherwe kuruta abo uzi bose.
          Mukandoli: (Yivugisha) aho amafaranga aboneka?
          None se ubwo nzafata igitebo, ijerekani, indobo? Oya igitebo ntabwo
          cyakoreshwa mu mafaranga. Ubwo se nzajyana na nde kuzana
          ayo mafaranga? Ngo aho amafaranga aboneka? (asimbukana ibyishimo).
          Mutesi: Reka kwivugisha, nshuti yanjye! Reka ahubwo tujye kureba aho
          ayo mafaranga twayabona; nta mwanya wo gutakaza.
          Mukandoli: (Asimbukana ibyishimo), (ahita asaba ababumva bose

          kumuherekeza kureba aho yabona amafaranga).

          Exercise 2
          1. What do you understand by the word character?
          2. What is a dialogue?

          Lets now compose sketches relating to different topics.

          LOVE AND FAITH
          What is love?
          This is the strong feeling towards something or somebody.
          You need to love your self and your friends.
          Even the bible says “love your neighbours as you love yourself”.
          We need to love our country as well.

          What is faith?

          This is when you trust in somebody’s ability or knowledge.

          When you have faith in somebody, you know that he or she will do anything well.

          Look at the sketch

          “UMUBYEYI UGIRA URUKUNDO

          Mama: (Ahamagara abana be) Ritah! Norah! na Paul.
          Rita: Karame, Mama!
          Mama: Bwira basaza na bashiki bawe baze hano.
          Abana bose: Twitabye Mama!
          Mama: Ejo rero muzasubira ku ishuri!
          Abana bose: (Bishimye) yego Mama!
          Paul: None se Mama, wabonye amafaranga y’ishuri yacu twese?
          Mama: Bana ba! narayabonye kandi ndabakunda sinshobora kandi
          sinshaka kubabona hano mutari mu ishuri!
          Norah: None se Mama! ayo mafaranga warayagujije?
          Mama: Yego, narayagujije, kuko nagombaga………….
          Abana bose: Warakoze Mama! turagushimiye cyane kandi turagukunda Mubyeyi!
          Mama: Bana banjye,mbafitiye icyizere ko nimurangiza kwiga muzanyitaho.

          Abana bose: Yego Mama! tuzabikora!

          Activity 4.4
          1. Read and spell the words love and faith.
          2. Read the sketch above.
          3. Choose a role in the sketch.
          4. Rehearse the dialogue in small groups.

          5. Act out the sketch

          n

          Figure 4.1: Mother seated with her children explaining something interesting.

          Activity 4.5
          1. Think and compose a story in Kinyarwanda relating to love and faith.
          2. Discuss it in small groups.
          3. Compose and write a sketch out of the story.
          4. Choose a role, rehearse the dialogue.

          5. Act out the sketch.

          Reba iyi nkuru
          “Umunsi wanjye wa mbere ku ishuri”
          Hari ku wa mbere mu gitondo ubwo papa (data) yanjyanaga ku ishuri. Ni
          ubwa mbere byari bimbayeho ku buryo ntazabyibagirwa. Twageze ku ishuri,
          dukomereza mu biro. Byari ibiro by’Umuyobozi w’ishuri.
          Yaduhaye ikaze nuko twicarana iminota mike. Yahamagaye umwarimu atujyana
          hanze. Twagiye mu ishuri ryari ryuzuye abanyeshuri. Abana bose barahagurutse
          bati “Murakaza neza! Hano ni mu mwaka wa mbere w’amashuri y’isumbuye.”
          Nuko bampa umwanya wo kwicaramo. Abanyeshuri babiri baje kunsuhuza. Abo

          ni Ngabirano na Mahoro. Banyeretse buri wese na buri kintu ku ishuri.

           EDUCATION

          What is Education?

          This is a process of teaching, training and learning especially in schools.
          We all come to school to be taught and learn new things.
          When you are at school, listen to your teacher.
          At school, we get new friends we love and share with.
          Our country cannot develop if there is no education.
          Remember; education is the key to success and no country is successful without

          education

          Activity 4.6
          1. Read and spell the word Education.
          2. Read the above story in small groups.
          3. Develop sketches out of the story.
          4. Choose a role and rehearse the dialogue.

          5. Act out the sketch.

          m

          Figure 4.2: A boy standing before the Headteacher. His father is seated on a chair besides

          the headmaster’s table.

          Activity 4.7
          1. Compose a story in Kinyarwanda related to Education.
          2. Compose and write a sketch from the story.
          3. Choose a role and rehearse the dialogue.

          4. Act out the sketch.

          PEACE BUILDING
          What is peace?
          A period of time in which there is no war or violence in a country or area.

          What is to build?

          This is to become gradually stronger.

          In Rwanda, after going through the bad times, we need to build peace in our
          country. This is of concern to all citizens of Rwanda.
          Therefore, all people of Rwanda must participate in the peace building process.
          This will help us to bring glory to our country.
          We should have the love of our country and avoid conflicts. We need to be good

          citizens and protect our country.

          Activity 4.8
          With the guidance of your teacher:
          1. Read and spell words “peace building”.
          2. Read or listen to a story about peace building in Kinyarwanda.
          3. Compose and develop a sketch out of the story.
          4. Choose a role in the sketch and rehearse it.

          5. Act out the sketch.

          n          Figure 4.3: Students reading a story while the teacher is listening.

          Activity 4.9
          1. Think and compose a story in Kinyarwanda.
          2. Discuss the story with your friends.
          3. Develop and write a sketch of your story.
          4. Choose a role in the sketch and rehearse it.

          5. Act it out to the classmates

          n

          DRUG ABUSE
          What is drug abuse?

          This is the taking of illegal drugs.

          Illegal drugs or substances are taken by people. The people smoke, inhale or
          inject such substances into their bodies.
          Drug abuse is harmful to our health and it causes violence.
          Drug abuse can lead to:
          - domestic violence - committing crimes
          - mental illness - many other bad acts.
          If someone is addicted to these drugs, he/she loses senses. This affects the
          development of individuals. It also affects the national development of our

          country.

          Look at this story
          WHO IS YOUR FRIEND?”
          In Kibuye village, there lived a rich family. The family was a model in the whole village. In
          this family, there were 5 children, four girls and one boy. The name of the boy was Tom.
          The parents loved Tom so much. He was even studying in a very good school compared
          to the girls. When Tom was in S.4 vacation, he joined a group of boys who used to take
          illegal drugs.
          The village members approached his parents to report what was happening. The parents
          thought it was envy to their loved boy.
          The boy started misbehaving and he even ran away from home. This is when the parents
          started panicking but it was too late.
          He had performed well in his examinations. But his success was of no use. He was
          already a drug addict. He was living in slums, he was senseless and was feeding from

          garbage heaps.

          n       Figure 4.4: Abusing drugs can make one look terrible.

          n                Figure 4.5: Abusing drugs can lead one to eat from garbage cans.

          Activity 4.10
          1. Read and spell the word drug abuse.
          2. Read the story about drug abuse.
          3. With the guidance of your teacher,
          Ž Develop and write a sketch out of the story.
          Ž Choose a role and rehearse it.

          Ž Act out the sketch.

          Activity 4.11
          With the guidance of your teacher;
          1. Think and compose a story about drug abuse in Kinyarwanda.
          2. Compose and develop a sketch out of the story.
          3. Choose a role and rehearse it.

          4. Act out the sketch to your friends.

          SEXUALITY
          What is sexuality?
          The feelings and activities connected with a person’s sexual desires.
          You should avoid sexual activities when you are still young.
          Sexual activities may lead you to the following:
          Ž early marriages.
          Ž unwanted pregnancy.
          Ž acquiring of STDs and HIV/Aids
          Ž dropping out of school.
          If you love your country, avoid sexual activities. Always report sexual abuse to the authorities.

          Look at this sketch
          nn
          Activity 4.12
          1. Read and spell the word sexuality.
          2. Read the sketch above about sexuality.
          3. Choose a role and rehearse it.

          4. Act out of the sketch.

          n

                                           Figure 4.6: An old man befriending a schoolgirl.
          Activity 4.13
          1. Think and compose a story about sexuality in Kinyarwanda.
          2. Compose and develop a sketch out of it.
          3. Choose a role and rehearse it.

          4. Act out the sketch.

          ALCOHOLISM AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
          What is alcoholism?
          This is the medical condition caused by drinking too much alcohol.
          What is delinquency?
          This is a bad or criminal behaviour usually of young people.
          What is Juvenile?
          This is connected with young people who are not yet adults.
          Young people should avoid taking alcohol.
          When you take alcohol, it can harm your life.

          Therefore, alcohol is bad.

          Look at this story

          “BUTERA’S LIFE

          Butera was a young boy who grew up in a humble family. He was quite a clever

          boy who was liked by his teachers. At the age of 9 years, his parents died and
          his aunt decided to take responsibility of him.
          The aunt was leaving in a nearby slum area. The main occupation was of
          brewing and selling of local brew called Urwagwa. This was also the main job
          for Butera’s aunt.
          During Butera’s holidays in the evening, he would assist his aunt in serving
          clients. As time went on, Butera started testing the drink and eventually he
          seriously started drinking.
          This affected Butera’s study as he could not go to school. He used to sleep late
          and at times he would be drunk all the time.
          In a period of one year, Butera was a useless young boy. All the time you would

          find him drunk. Butera’s future got wasted and that was the end of his hopes for a better life.

          Activity 4.14
          1. Read and spell the words, alcoholism, delinquency and juvenile.
          2. Read the above story about alcoholism and juvenile delinquency.
          3. Create and develop a sketch out of the story.
          4. Write the sketch and choose a role to play.

          5. Act the sketch.

          n

          Activity 4.15
          1. Think and compose a story about alcoholism and juvenile delinquency
          in Kinyarwanda.
          2. In small groups, compose and develop sketches out of the story.
          3. Choose a role and rehearse it.

          4. Act the group sketch to your classmates.

          Links to other subjects

          This unit has been linked to introduction of new vocabulary in language. This

          can be seen in the glossary.

          It has been linked to self control in citizenship. This can be seen when composing

          and performing sketches related to love, faith, peace building, drug abuse,
          sexuality, alcoholism and juvenile delinquency.

          Unit summary

          In this unit, you have learnt composing and performing sketches in
          Kinyarwanda related to different units like love, faith, education, peace
          building, alcoholism and juvenile delinquency.

          You have also learnt that you can develop a sketch from a story. This will

          help you to develop skills in composing and performing.

          Unit Assessment
          1. Define drama.
          2. Name the forms of drama.
          3. Explain the difference between a story and a sketch.
          4. What is a dialogue?
          5. Suggest how drama can help in peace building.
          6. List the stories and sketches you have developed.

          7. What is the difference between formal and informal drama?

          Glossary
          Approach: To come near somebody or something from a distance.
          Audience: A group of people who have gathered to watch or listen.
          Avoid: Preventing something bad from happening.
          Behaviour: The way that somebody behaves especially towards other people.
          Choose: To decide which thing or person you want out of the ones that are available.
          Compose: To write something new for example music, play and so on.
          Crime: Activities that involve breaking the law.
          Criminal: Morally wrong.
          Develop: To think of or produce a new idea.
          Envy: The feeling of wanting to be in the same situation of somebody else.
          Faith: Trust in somebody’s ability or knowledge.
          Harmful: Causing damage or injury to somebody.
          Illegal: Not allowed by the law.
          Love: A strong feeling of deep affection for somebody or something.
          Model: A person or thing that is considered excellent or an example.
          Panic: A sudden feeling of great fear.
          Perform: To entertain an audience by playing a piece of music or acting a play.
          Prostitute: A person who has sex for money.
          Rehearse: To practise a play or a piece of music.
          Role: An actor’s part in a play.

          Violence: Violent behaviour that is intended to hurt or kill somebody.