Topic outline


    Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of myself and my community



    1.1. Talking about myself and describing the community


    Reading and text analysis

    • Text: My personal vision

    My personal vision is to be a woman of positive influence. I want to be able to share my experience and knowledge with people that I may come across. My vision is for people to be happy and thank God for bringing me their way. I am happy only when I help people find happiness. However, to be able to do this, I must have broad knowledge and be well informed about the happenings in my community and around the world. I must also develop and upgrade myself regularly. My vision is to have a peaceful community. My community should be one that will be free from abuses and oppressions, a community where everyone is considered important and treated as such. It should be a place where there will be freedom of expression and every member has equal access to basic facilities, such as access to health care, education, food, security and shelter; things that make life comfortable.

    I want to leave in a community where I can be free to go everywhere without fear. In such a community, all people are equal no matter their color, sex or language. In fact, a dream of a community without barriers. I want to be a voice of our future and be a woman that will bring changes to the community. I wish I had some groups where I could lecture about effective participation in all community-based activities such as: community work that takes place every Saturday of the month. I am sure that I need all the available information in education to be able to impact and impart positively in my sphere of influence.

    I will love to be chosen and trained as a voice of future correspondent and be able to achieve personal vision of making the world a better place to live in. I hope to learn how to use information as an instrument of enlightenment, entertainment, education and improvement for positive change.

    Adapted from New times articlesadumuganda)

    After reading the above passage, answer the following questions.

    a. What is the writer’s vision towards herself and the community?

    b. Describe the image of the community that she aspires to have.

    c. Why does she want to have talks with people?

    d. In your opinion, what would you do to have a better community? Explain.


    Vocabulary and essay writing

    1. Find the meaning of the following words and phrases as used in the above conversation. Use them in your own sentences.

    a. Oppressions

    b. Enlightenment

    c. sphere of influence

    d. shelter

    e. health care

    2. Write a 350 words composition describing community work in

    your home area and how it has contributed to the development of the country.

    1.2. Community work


    Reading and text analysis

    Read the following text, then answer the questions that follow:

    It is usual that on every last Saturday of the month, people in Rwanda get together to perform a type of community work known as “Umuganda”.They combine their efforts to do something for the good of the entire community, like cleaning an area, building some infrastructure or looking after the environment. Community work or “Umuganda” happens at least once a month.

    On Saturday, May 19, many Rwandans in different areas of the country got together for the purpose of fighting disasters. The rainy season this year has been so dangerous that floods have washed away crops, destroyed houses and some people lost their lives. As a result, it was decided that we needed to work even harder than the usual community work. In addition to the usual monthly community work, it was deemed necessary to carry out special community work. This was performed twice during the week of 14-20 May, the first on Wednesday, May 16th and the other on Saturday, May 19th.

    That Saturday was special because staff from both state and private institutions was instructed to go and take part to community work at the hilliest parts of the countryside near Kigali. On Mount Jali, in Gasabo District, officials from the ministries of Finance, Defense, National police, Internal security, Energy, Water and Sanitation gathered with National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda staff in a mountain forest. There, everyone helped build trenches to divert rainwater and overcome soil erosion which had previously caused the flooding of the Nyabugogo river in the suburbs of Kigali city. Community work is a good opportunity for local leaders to bring all community members together.

    It mobilizes them to take part in the development of the country. In this way, people were able to overcome future disasters which might destroy existing infrastructure like housing and roads.

    Adapted from New Times Article (Umuganda in Kigali)

    •  Comprehension questions

    a. What is the role of the community work known as “Umuganda” in Rwanda?

    b. Explain from the text, the reason why special community work was organized in May?

    c. What kind of work was performed by the community in partnership with government officials?

    d. Discuss the outcomes of community work in Rwanda.

    1.2.2. Application activities: Vocabulary, summary and composition writing

    1. Give the meaning of each word in the table below by closely referring to the passage.


         2. Summarize the above passage in not more than 60 words.

        3. Write a 350-word composition on the topic:

        “The role of community work in the development of Rwanda”

    1.3. Recounting past activities


    Reading and text analysis


    •  Text: My visit to Rubavu District

    Read the following passage carefully and answer given questions on it.

    Last August, I went to Lake Kivu with my family. I was so excited because it was my first time to visit lake Kivu. We spent five days there. When I stepped out from the bus and breathed, I sniffed the smell of lake water. It made me more excited to start my exploration.

    My family and I visited many interesting places in Rubavu. We went to a hot spring; it was my first time to taste and bathe with natural warm and salty water from the ground. My visit to Bralirwa breweries and the international market made my stay wonderful. I spent a great part of my time at the beach where I met lovely people. Even though there were so many lovely but noisy places in Rubavu, I was not bored with them because each one was unique. Kivu beach lies at the shores of the lake. From that place we could have an attractive view of the lake which was the most gorgeous scenery I have ever seen.

    There were both local and foreign tourists surfing or just sunbathing. The best time to come to Kivu beach is in the evening to see the sunset. It was so romantic. It is really a very nice beach to visit. The wind and waves were just right for enjoyable water sport. I did not want to miss this chance and tried to do parasailing.

    At first, I was so afraid to approach the lake because I feared that the wind would blow me into thewater. When the sailor took us in a boat, I turned around to see how long we had travelled. I could see the view of Rubavu city from the water.

    Finally, we came to the end of my trip. I felt that time run so fast. I was so sad because I had to leave that beautiful place. In Rubavu, I did not only enjoy my stay, but I also visited and learned about its different beautiful places which are part of its touristic attraction. I will always remember my beautiful trip to Rubavu, and I promise I will go back at least one more time.

    Adapted from African Child, by Camara Laye.

    • Comprehension questions

    a. Why did the speaker and his family visit Rubavu?

    b. Which attractive places did they visit?

    c. According to you, why were they happy after visiting those places?

    d. Where did the speaker spend most of his time during his stay in Rubavu?

    e. Why is the evening the best time to visit Kivu beach?

    f. Explain the reason why the speaker was afraid of parasailing?

    g. According to the passage, does the speaker keep good memories about his visit to Rubavu? How do you know?



    1. Match the words in the table below with their respective meanings


    2. Suppose that you have a friend who lives abroad and wishes to visit Rwanda. Write a letter to him describing another touristic

    place that he should visit during his stay inRwanda.

    3. Write a 300-word essay about “The contribution oftourism to the development ofthe Rwandan community”

    1.4. Language structure: The present simple tense, reflexive adjectives and possessive adjectives

    1. The present simple tense

    Read the following summary about the use of present simple tense and carry out the task that follows.

    The present simple tense is the most basic tense in the English language. There are 7 uses of this tense in direct speech:

    a. Facts, generalizations and universal truths

    b. Habits and routines

    c. Permanent situations

    d. Events that are certain to happen

    e. Arrangements that we can’t change (timetables, official meetings)

    f. State verbs (be, have, suppose, know etc.)

    g. Narrations, instructions or commentaries

    A. Facts, generalizations and universal truths

    The present simple tense is used when talking about universal truths such as laws of nature or things we believe are, or are not, true. It’s also used to generalize about something or somebody.


    • Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. Universal(Truth)
    •  It is a big house. (Fact)
    •  The Earth goes around the Sun. (Universal truth, fact)
    •  Dogs are better than cats. (Generalization)
    •  Berlin is the capital city of Germany. (Fact)
    •  The Elephant doesn’t fly. (Fact)
    •  London is the capital city of France. (Fact)
    •  Kivu is in the west of Rwanda.(fact)

    B. Habits and routines

    We also use this tense to describe actions that happen frequently. For example:

    habits, routines, tendencies.


    •  We leave for work at 7:30 am every morning. (Routine)
    •  My husband watches TV in the evening. (Habit, Routine)
    •  Susan often meets with her friends after school. (Habit, Routine)
    • They usually play football on Sunday. (Habit, Routine)
    •  Mark rarely visits his sick grandmother.(Tendency)
    •  James usually tells lies. (Tendency)
    •  Every last Saturday of the month, people in Rwanda get together to perform community work. (Routine)

    Adverbs of Frequency

    The Present Simple is often used with frequency adverbs including the following:

    Always, frequently/often, usually, seldom/rarely, nowadays, never, every week/ year, sometimes/occasionally, from time to time, every now and then, ...


    •  I always go to church on Sundays.
    •  I never eat anything after 10 PM.

    C. Permanent situations

    The present simple tense applies for actions that last a relatively long time.


    •  I live in Musanze district
    •  He works as a receptionist.
    • Margaret drives a Volkswagen.
    •  Jane teaches Mathematics at high school.
    •  Summer follows Spring,
    • The best time to come to Kivu beach is in the evening to see the sunset

    D. Events certain to happen

    The present simple tense is also used when an event is expected to happen in the future.


    •  My grandmother turns 100 years old this July.
    •  Winter starts on 21 December.
    •  Theconcert begins at 7.30 next Friday evening.

    E. State verbs

    Some verbs such as like, love...are called “state verbs” when they refer to “states”.

    A state action has no beginning nor ending. It can’t be controlled and that’s why it’s not normally expressed in present progressive tense.


    •  I like swimming.
    •  We know this man.
    •  She loves her baby more than anything (not is loving)

    N.B. Some of the state verbs used in the present simple tense can also appear in the present continuous tense. This is typically when they have an active meaning or emphasize change.


    •  I’m thinking of moving to San Francisco.
    •  Jane is understanding the concept.
    •  Denis is growing so tall.

    There are five groups of state verbs. They refer to: feelings (like, love, etc) ; thoughts/belief (think, understand, etc); wants(want, prefer, etc); perception (see, hear, etc); being/having/owning (appear, seem, belong, etc).

    F. Future Arrangements

    The present simple tense is used when talking about events whose schedule can’t be changed (for example, an official meeting or a train departure).


    • The meeting starts at 4 PM.
    •  The train leaves at noon.


    Write a paragraph about daily habits in your community with adverbs of frequency.

    2. Reflexive pronouns


    The reflexive pronoun is used to refer to the subject of a sentence. In this case the “doer” and the recipient of the action are one and the same. They include: myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves.

    It is formed by adding –self or –selves to personal pronouns.


    •  Reflexive pronouns are often used:

    a. As objects when the subject and object are the same person/thing/animal.

    Example: I told myself not to worry.

    They are commonly used as the objects of the verbs such as burn, hurt, cut, enjoy, teach,introduce, and look at. There are also common phrases with reflexive pronouns, such as enjoy yourself (have a good time), help yourself (take something if you want), and behave yourself (be good)).

    b. To emphasise that a specific person/thing/animal is being referred to.


    •  I organized this event myself.
    •  I’m sure he is aware of the changes. He himself spoke to me about it.


    Complete the sentences with the appropriate reflexive pronouns

    1. Tommy told a lie. He was ashamed of …………………….

    2. Masako cut …………………………. while he was chopping vegetables.

    3. People surround …………. with friends and family during holidays.

    4. Omar thinks Oscar is telling the truth. So does Ricardo. I…. don’t believe

    Oscar’s story for a minute.

    5. Now that their children are grown, Mr. and Mrs. Grayson live by………………

    6. A: should I marry Steve?

    B: no one can make decision for you, Ann. Only you……. can make such an

    important decision about your own life.

    7. Emily and Ryan,be careful! You are going to hurt…………………

    8. A: I hate my job.

    B: I envy Jacob. He is self-employed.

    9. Yeah. I would like to work for….……too.

    10. You should pay more attention to people who take good care


    3. Possessive adjective

    • Note:

    A possessive adjective specifies the owner of somebody, something or object.

    These adjectives are my, your, her, his, its, our, their.



    I. Complete each sentence below using a word or expression from the box and an appropriate reflexive adjective. The words should be used once.


    a. Williams never took lessons. She………………how to play the piano.

    b. Did Sandra have a good time at Rubavu? Did she……………...?

    c. All of you did a good job. You should be……….

    d. A man down the street committed suicide. We were all shocked by the news that he had………..

    e. I had always wanted to meet David. when I saw him at the beach,I walked over and ……. to him.

    f. Nothing good ever comes from self-pity. You should stop……………

    George and start doing something to solve your problems.

    g. People might think you are a little crazy,but…………….is one way of doing practice using English.

    II. Fill in the blank space with the correct form of the verb.

    Before I visited Australia, an Australian friend in London (1)………….

    (tell) me I would learn the Australian salute.What is that? I asked. You will find out when you get there, he said. I (2)………….(arrive) in Perth last week. Since then, I(3)………..(stay) at a nice hotel near a beautiful beach. I (4)……… (never visit) Australia before and I am enjoying my stay. I(5)……. (Swim) every day from the time I(6)…………(arrive). Yesterday, an Australian friend suggested that we should go for a tour in “the bush”. I (7)………….(not agree) at once, but later on I accompanied him.The first thing I noticed when we were in the bush was the flies. After a while, I(8) ……….(remember) the conversation I had had in London before I(9)……….(come) here. “What is the Australian salute?” I asked suddenly, as I waved my right arm to keep the flies away. “That’s it” My friend said as he (10)…………. (Wave) back.

    III. Choose the possessive pronoun or possessive adjective that best completes the sentence.

    1. Claudine finished (hers/her) assignment early but had to wait for Nahla who hadn’t done (hers/her).

    2. His dad trimmed the branches off the trees asand it looked so bare without all. (it/its) branches.

    3. They bought a new car for(their/theirs) son who had just wrecked his old car. (their/theirs)

    4. The CD over there is (him/his) but this one right here is (my/mine).

    5. You can never convince anyone that (your/yours) child isn’t (your/ yours).

    VI. Write a 350-wordcomposition describing the past activities that you carried out with people in your community and how they contributed to the country’s development.

    File: 1

    Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of leadership and famous people.



    2.1. Talking about a famous leader in modern Rwanda


    Learning activities: Reading and text analysis

    • Text. A Visionary leader

    A visionary leader is one that strives for the well-being of his people. This implies putting forth the dignity of the people. The president of Rwanda, his Excellency Paul Kagame, is a role model to many. In most of his speeches, he emphasizes the importance of dignity and self-reliance as a way of defining the sense of human life.Dignity means receiving respect from people and an individual’s belief in his ability to do what is good. Self-reliance means making personal choices, rather than allowing other people to decide for you. It also means being independent. People must avoid expecting foreign assistance from developed countries.

    Dignity and self-reliance are the two ways suggested by thegovernment in order to address socio-economic and political problems. This does not mean opposing international cooperation. Rwandans just do not want to be dependent on foreign aid. Self-reliance provides assurance and pride. This leads to sustainable and durable development.With the concept of dignity and

    self-reliance, Rwandans can make individual choices. This means that Rwanda is on the right courseof development.

    Adapted from History book for Rwanda Secondary schools (S5 learner’s book p.g 2019)

    •  Comprehension questions:

    a. Who is being talked about in the passage?

    b. Why is he being talked about?

    c. What are the ways of addressing the socio-economic and political problems suggested in the passage?

    d. How does the passage define dignity?


    Composition writing

    Write a composition about 2 famous people describing what they did. They may be or may have been politicians, innovators, educators, scientists etc.

    2.2. Talking about leadership styles


    Learning activities: Reading and text analysis

    Read the following passage about leadership styles and answer the questions that follow:

    • Text: Democracy

    Democracy is a system of government in which the people exercise power directly or through elected representatives who form a governing body such as a parliament. In a democratic government, power belongs to the people.

    Democracy in Rwanda has played a quite big contribution in the unity of Rwanda such as: promoting good international relationships between Rwanda and other countries, working with diverse people which provides more exposure and makes you a better person, leading to economic benefits for example through taxes paid by foreigners who live and work in Rwanda.

    These foreigners also come with different and new ideas which are important in economic development; promoting peace and stability in Rwanda because Rwandans look at themselves as one.The cultural, political and economic practices in Rwanda is what is used to describe the people of Rwanda. It has promoted tourism which has had a significant contribution to the country.

    People from other countries come to Rwanda to see its culture which they find unique, for example, the diverse traditional dances. Direct democracy is where all eligible citizens have direct participation in the decision making of the government. In Representative democracy, citizens exercise their power through elected representatives. The latter propose, develop and enact laws for the citizens to abide by.

    Authoritarianism is a form of government in which a single power holder, a 'dictator’ or small group of political leaders monopolize political power. The people have no participation. The characteristicsof authoritarianism include:

    Absolute obedience to an authority by the people, strong central power and limited freedoms, informally defined as executive power which changes very often.

    Adapted from History book for Rwanda Secondary Schools (S2 learner’s book p.205 and 191)

    •  Comprehension questions:

    a. What is democracy?

    b. Which role has democracy played in the unity in Rwanda?

    c. Choose your favorite leadership style from those discussed above.


    Vocabulary, sentence and essay writing

    1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the meaning of the

    words below. Use each of them in a sentence.

    a. Parliament

    b. Enact

    c. Dictator

    d. Monopolize

    e. Diverse

    2. Write a 250 word essay about the leadership style in your country

    2.3. Talking about famous people


    Learning activities: Reading and text analysis

    Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

    LouiseMushikiwabo is a famous Rwandan woman politician. She was born on May 22nd, 1961 in Kigali, Rwanda. She is the fourth and current Secretary General of “Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie”. She previously served as the minister of foreign affairs and cooperation of Rwanda from 2009 to2018. She also served as Government spokesperson. She had previously been Minister of information. On October 12, 2018 she was elected for a four-year term for the position of secretary General of Organization international de la Francophonie (OIF) at the summit of “Francophonie” in Yerevan, Armenia.

    Disi was born in 1980 in Nyanza district, southern Rwanda. After witnessing the murder of his mother and other members of his family in the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, he escaped to Burundi. On return from exile, he joined the army and took up athletics seriously. The numerous victories he has achieved include the 3,000 meters in Bydgoszcz, Poland, the 5,000 meters in Solihull, England, and the Rostock and Chemnitz 10-kilometer races.

    In addition, he won the 10,000-meter race at the 2005 Francophone Games and came fourth at the 2007 All Africa Games half marathon. Unimpressed that the organizers of Francophone Games did not have his Rwanda National Anthem, he took the microphone and sang it himself.

    Catherine is one of Kenya’s leading marathon runners. She was born in 1972 in Nyeri, Kenya. She started running at school where she had to train before and after class. After leaving school, she joined the prison service which allowed her to continue training, and running races, and it was there thatshe met her husband. She began her international career in 1995 and the following year, she won eight out of her 13 international races. In 1997 she took time off to have a baby, but she has been running ever since and has achieved even greater international success. In 2000 and 2001, she won both the Boston and Chicago marathons and set a new world marathon record. In the 2004 Olympics, she won a silver medal and in the World Championships, she won gold in 2003 and silver two years later. Ndereba says she owes much of her success to her husband who has supported her throughout her career and has taken much of the responsibility for looking after their daughter.

    Filbert Bayi is Tanzania’s most successful athlete. He was born in 1953 in Karatu, Tanzania. His first international competition was the 3,000 meters steeplechase at the Munich Olympics in 1972. In 1973, he grabbed people’s attention when he beat Kenya’s legendary Kip Keino to gain the gold medal in 1,500 meters at Lagos Africa Games. A year later at the Commonwealth Games in New Zealand, he won the 1,500 meters in world record time in what many people have called the most exciting 1,500 meters race ever. He was unable to repeat his success at Montreal four years later because of the African boycott of the Games. In 1980, though, he won the Silver at the Moscow Olympics in 3,000 meters steeplechase. His health was not good and never repeated these successes. In later life, however, he has devoted himself to the Filbert Bayi Institute which helps young Tanzanian athletes and also educates young people about HIV and AIDS.

    Adapted from English in Use book 2, p.33

    •  Comprehension questions

    a. Describe Louise Mushikiwabo and show how she has been useful for Rwandan leadership.

    b. Trace Disi’s way to success.

    c. How did Ndereba become a famous woman?

    d. Explain how Bayi rose to international fame.

    e. In your opinion, what would you do to become famous in your college and community?


    Vocabulary, sentence, paragraph and essay writing

    1. Find the meaning of the words below as they are used in the passage

    a. Spokesperson

    b. Witnessing

    c. Career

    d. Steeplechase

    e. Boycott

    f. Devoted

    2. Use the words listed above to construct meaningful sentences following the context of the text.

    3. In a 70-word paragraph, describe any famous person you know in Rwanda modern community

    4. Write a 300-wordessay on the topic: “The contribution of good leadership to the development of Rwanda”

    2.4.Language structure: Relative pronouns and simple past

    1. Relative pronouns

    A relative pronoun links one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause.

    Relative pronouns are mainly who,whom,that, and which. Compound pronouns include whoever and whichever. They are also considered as relative pronouns.

    The relative pronouns: who and whoever often refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, while whomand whomever refer to the objects of averb or a preposition. In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun.

    a. I invited James, is that ok? Whoever you invited is welcome.

    The relative pronoun whoever replaces the direct object of the verb is.

    b. Whoever stole the machinery will be arrested when caught.

    Here, whoever is the subject of the verb stole.

    The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected.

    In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb wins and introduces the subordinate clause who wins the greatest popular vote. This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying candidate.

    c. In time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual.

    In this sentence whom is the direct object of the verb believes and introduces the subordinate clause whom she believes to be the most efficient. This subordinate clause modifies the noun workers.

    d. Whoever broke the window will have to replace it.

    Here,whoever functions as the subject of the verb broke.

    e. The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet.

    In this example, which that acts as the subject of the compound verb was left and introduces the subordinate clause which was left in the corridor. The subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun crate.

    f. I will read whichever manuscript arrives first.

    Here, whichever modifies the noun manuscript and introduces the subordinate clause whichever manuscript arrives first. The subordinate clause functions as the direct object of the compound verb will read.

    2. Simple past tense

    • We use the simple past to talk about events, actions or situations which happened in the past and are now finished. We always have to say when the action happened, so we often use time references like yesterday, ago, last, etc.

    Example: We waited for an hour yesterday.

    • To describe actions which happened in the recent or distant past.

    Example: Sam phoned a moment ago.

    •  To describe past habits.

    Example: I smoked forty cigarettes a day till I gave up.

            3. Pronunciation of –ed endings

    Final –ed is pronounced –t- after voiceless sounds. Voiceless sounds are made

    by pushing air through your mouth, no sound comes from your throat.


    Final –ed is pronounced /d/after voiced sounds. Voiced sounds come from the throat. If you touch when you make a voiced, you can feel your voice box vibrate.

    Example of voiced sounds: “l”, “v”, “n”, “b” and all vowel sounds.



    Final –ed is pronounced /Əd/ after “t”, and “d” sounds. The second /Əd/adds a whole syllable to a word.




    1. Complete sentences. Use the simple past or the past progressive of the verbs in parentheses.

    a. I am sitting in class right now. I (sit)……….in class at this exact same time yesterday.

    b. I (call) ………Roger at nine last night, but he(be/not) ……….at home. He (study)…….at the library.

    c. I (hear/not) ………. the thunder during the storm last night because (I/sleep) ……….

    d. It was beautiful yesterday when we went for a walk in the park. The sun (shine)………a cool breeze (blow)………the bird (sing)……….

    e. My brother and sister(argue)……. about something when I (walk) ……. into the room.

    f. I got a package in the mail. When I (open)…….it, I (find)……. a surprise.

    2. Combine the two sentences. Use second sentences as an adjective clause

    a. I saw the man. He closed the door.

    b. The girl is happy. She won the race.

    c. The students are from china. They sit in the front row.

    d. We are studying sentences. They contain adjective clauses.

    e. I am using a sentence. It contains a relative clause acting as adjective.

    3. Find out from your local leaders, elders and parents who are the most famous in the history of your community. List the reasons that made them famous.

    4. Research the biography of a famous leader of your choice and outline the milestones of his/her life.


    Key UnitCompetence: To use language learnt in the context of living in a foreign country.



    3.1. Describing personal recent activities


    Learning activity: Reading and text analysis

    •  Text 1: Diane’s diary

    Read the diary below and carry out the tasks given:

    Diane October 10,1990: Just I can’t believe it! After seven years working there. Chuck has lost his job at the car factory. They are going to close the factory because they have decided to move it to a foreign country. It is so unfair. What are we going to do?

    December 27, 1995: What a sad Christmas! Only one present each under the tree. I wanted so much to get new clothes for Ben. And Chuck is really depressed. He has tried so hard to find another job, but he’s had no luck. It was a wrong time of the year, I guess.

    January 22, 1996: Ben has just turned two. He is growing up so fast! We celebrated his birthday with pizza and chocolate cake, but we couldn’t afford any nice presents. If Chuck doesn’t get work soon, I might start looking for a job myself, but I am not qualified for anything.

    February 14, 1996: I’ve found a job! I start on Monday. I am going to work as a saleswoman in a department store. They said I didn’t need any qualification, because they would train me. Chuck is going to stay home and take care of Ben, but he is not too happy about it. … He thinks he is going to be bored! Somehow, I didn’t think he will be!

    February 19, 1996: I have just finished my first day at work. It was fun and the people were kind and helpful. “But I am exhausted,” Ben is screaming, and Chuck is complaining that she has too much housework to doand he hasn’t even made dinner yet!

    July 4, 1996: Chuck and Ben have become so close. I think I am a little bit jealous of Chuck, but I am really enjoying my job. I truly think Chuck likes being at home now. He is keeping the house much cleaner, and his cooking is getting a little better.

    October 28, 1996: I’ve just been promoted. The manager said I am one of the best workers she has. This means more pay, but also longer hours! I really miss Ben and Chuck when I am at work.

    January 21, 1997: I can’t believe it! Ben is going to be three tomorrow! So much has happened in the past year. We have bought him a great train set, but I think Chuck is more excited to play with it than Ben!

    1. Put the verbs underlined into the present simple or present continuous tense and make the necessary changes in the sentences they are in.

    2. Read the above extracts from Diane’s diary and using information gotten from them put in the right order the following events:

    Ben has just turned two. We celebrated his birthday with pizza and chocolate cake, but we couldn’t afford any nice presents.

    Chuck and Ben have become so close. I think I am a little bit jealous of Chuck, but I am really enjoying my job. And I really think Chuck likes being at home now

    I’ve found a job! I start on Monday. I am going to work as a saleswoman in a department store

    Chuck is going to stay home and take care of Ben, but he is not too happy about it. He thinks he is going to be bored!

    what a sad Christmas! Chuck is really depressed. He’s tried so hard to find another job, but he’s had no luck.

    I can’t believe it! Ben is going to be three tomorrow. We have bought him a great train set, but I think Chuck is more excited to play with it than Ben!

    Chuck has lost his job at the car factory. They are going to close the factory because they have decided to move it to a foreign country. It is so unfair. What are we going to do?

    I have just finished my first day at work Ben is screaming, and Chuck is complaining that she has too much housework to do and he hasn’t even made dinner yet!

    3.2.Describing one’s plans


    Reading and text analysis and picture interpretation

    Picture observation and interpretation


    Observe the picture above and discuss the student’s ambition.

    • Text: A poem

    Read the poem that follows and carry out the tasks below.

    Let no-one steal your dreams

    Let no-one steal your dreams

    Let no-one tear apart

    The burning of ambition

    That fires the drive inside your heart

    Let no-one steal your dreams

    Let no-one tell you that you can’t

    Let no-one hold you back

    Let no-one tell you that you won’t

    Set your sights and keep them fixed

    Set your sights on high

    Let no-one steal your dreams

    Your only limit is the sky

    Let no-one steal your dreams

    Follow your heart

    Follow your soul

    For only when you follow them

    Will you feel truly whole

    Set your sights and keep them fixed

    Set your sights on high

    Let no-one steal your dreams

    Your only limit is the sky.

    ByPaul Cookman

    Comprehension questions

    Why is the poet repeating the phrase “let no-one”?

    Which attention can this poem draw especially in youth?

    Relate this poem to your future ambitions.


    Vocabulary and sentence writing

    I. Give the meaning of the following expressions and use them in sentences as they are used in the poem

        a. Tear apart

        b. Hold someone back

        c. Set your sights and keep them fixed

        d. Steal somebody’s dream

    II. Look at the words in the following table and make sentences that relate to your future. Organize them in a logical order.


    III. Imagine that one of your friends is living in a foreign country. Write a letter to him/her updating them about the recent activities you have done.

    3.3. Describing future activities



    Reading and text analysis

    Read the following extract from Martin Luther King and carry out the tasks that follow.

    I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

    I have a dream that one day this nation will rise and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.”

    I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

    I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

    I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

    I have a dream today.

    I have a dream that one day down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, that one day right down in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

    I have a dream today.

    I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.

    This is our hope. This is the faith that I will go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood.

    With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

    This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning, “My country ‘tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my father died, land of the Pilgrims’ pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring.”

    Extract from Martin Luther King’ speech “I have a dream”

    •  Comprehension questions

    I. Choose the right answer for each of the following questions:

    1. Dr. King stated that the dream he was sharing in his speech came from the...

    a. American dream

    b. Bible

    c. Constitution

    d. Still-living dreams of former slaves

    2. Dr. King said that someday all of America’s “rough places” will be made...

    a. Smooth

    b. Equal

    c. Straight

    d. Plain

    II. Answer the following questions about the above text:

    a. What is King’s dream for the children of Alabama?

    b. Which repeated phrase in King’s speech carries additional power? Why?

    c. Choose one phrase of your choice from the text and explain its meaning.

    d. Discuss the ‘dreams’ you would have for your country Rwanda.


    I. Match the words in the table below with their respective meanings


    II. In not more than (50)fifty words, summarize the above speech

    explaining the best dreams as expressed by Martin Luther King.

    3.4. Comparing Culture


    Reading and text analysis


    •  Text 1: A dialogue

    Read the dialogue between Jane and Garry and answer the questions that follow.

    Jane: Tell me Gary, is it true that in the United State you never speak to people

    you don’t know? What about your neighbors? Do you talk to them? Does it depend on whether you know them or not?

    Gary: Neighbors are different. They are a little bit too close, and maybe it is just safer not to talk to them.

    Jane: Ok. How about when you greet people you know. Do you kiss them?

    Gary: Well, some people I know do, but I generally don’t. No, I don’t feel comfortable kissing my friends.

    Jane: I think people are often surprised by the way Americans use people’s first names a lot. What do you think is the rule of this? For example, do you think we use first names as soon as we meet people for the first time? Or do we wait until 

    we get to know them a little better?

    Gary: I think you are right. – in America we do tend to be friendly and, if I

    meet someone for the first time, depending on the situation, I will use their first name.

    Jane: Hmm. Ok. I have another question. Do you think Americans smile when

    they are embarrassed or when you don’t want to hurt someone’s feeling?

    Gary: Smile? um. No, I don’t think so. I think we pretty much show our feeling, just how we are feeling it.

    Jane: ok. Now would you say that American men stand up when a woman enters the room? Or is that old-fashioned now?

    Gary: it depends on how old you are. Um….

    Jane: Fair enough. Well, what about when a man and a woman are both entering

    room. Does the man still let the woman go into the room first?

    Gary: I do. I want her to see what is going on before I come in.

    Jane: ok. Now suppose you are out shopping. Do you say hello and goodbye to store clerks?

    Gary: No,no,not, unless I shop there a lot.

    Jane: ok. Now is there a difference between what you would do in a small store and a large store?

    Gary: well, if it is a small store, maybe a little more friendly, I might say hello and

    Goodbye, even have a short conversation. In a big store, it is a little colder, and 

    um, you just go in, get what you want and leave.

    Jane: ok. Well. Gary thank you very much.

    Greenall, (1997) Move up pre-intermediate student’s book B;OXFORD, Macmillan

    Heinemann English language teaching.

    •  Comprehension questions

    a. Which cultural behavior do you have in common with Gary?

    b. Which ones do you disapprove? Why?

    c. Which ones do you approve?

    •  Text 2: Rwandan Culture

    Rwandans have a rich and slightly varied culture. Unlike many other countries in Africa, Rwanda has been aunified state since pre-colonialtimes, populated by Rwandans who share a single language and cultural heritage. For example, the harvest festival, is one amongst the ancient festivals that are still celebrated at the national level. Community service has also been maintained and today, it is performed on the last Saturday of each month which has been set aside as a national day.

    Music and dance are an integral part of Rwandan ceremonies, festivals, social gatherings, and storytelling. Themost famous traditional dance is “Intore”, a highly choreographed routine consisting of three components: the ballet, performed by women; the dance of heroes, performed by men, and the drums.

    Traditionally, music is transmitted orally with styles varying between the social groups. Drums are of great importance. Royal drummers enjoyed high status at the court of the King. Drummers usually play together in groups of seven or nine.

    Traditional arts and crafts are produced throughout the country, although most originated as functional items rather than purely for decoration. Woven baskets and bowls are especially common. The south east of Rwanda is known for a unique cow dung art, whose history dates back to the time when the region was part of the independent Gisaka kingdom. The dung is mixed with natural soils of various colors and painted into patterned ridges, forming geometric shapes.

    Other crafts include pottery and wood carving.

    Regarding the literature, it is worth noting that Rwanda does not have a long history of written literature, but there is a strong oral tradition ranging from poetry to folktales. In particular, the pre-colonial royal court developed traditions of ideas (epic musical poetry),the royal genealogies typically recited at coronation ceremonies), and royal poems. Many of the country’s moral values and details of history have beenpassed down through generations.

    The most famous Rwandan literary figure was Alexis Kagame (1912–1981), who carried out and published research in oral tradition as well as writing his own poetry. The genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda resulted in the production of a literature of witness accounts, essays and fiction by a new generation of writers while several films have also been produced on the same theme as well as other topics like love, death, famine, etc.

    Extract from History and Citizenship for Rwanda Schools Book 3 (p.g225)

    • Comprehension questions:

    1. Discuss the main cultural practices mentioned in the passage.

    2. Explain how those cultural practices have contributed to unifying Rwandans.

    3. Mention some of the traditional arts and crafts that have been produced in the country according to the passage.

    4. In your opinion, why is it important to preserve the Rwandan culture? Picture observation and interpretation


    Study the above pictures and discuss the cultural activities taking place.

    • Text 3: Cultural Diversity

    Read the following passage and carry out the tasks that follow:

    Why is cultural diversity a good thing? Culture is the lens with which we evaluate everything around us; we evaluate what is proper or improper, normal or abnormal. If we are immersed in a culture that is different from ours, we can experience culture shock and become disoriented when we encounter a fundamentally different culture. People naturally use their own culture as a

    yard stick to judge other cultures. Such judgment could reach to a level whereby people tend to discriminate against others whose ways of living are different from theirs.

    People fear essentially what they don’t understand. Cultural diversity is inevitable since in our country, at our workplaces, and schools, there exist increasingly various cultural, racial, and ethnic groups. We can learn from one another, but first we should have a level of understanding about each other in order to facilitate collaboration and cooperation. Learning about other cultures helps us understand different perspectives within the world in which we live and helps dispel negative stereotypes and personal biases about different groups.

    In addition, cultural diversity can help us recognize and respect “ways of being” that are not necessarily our own, so that as we interact with others, we can build bridges of trust, respect, and have more understanding across cultures. Furthermore, this diversity makes our country a more interesting place to live in. Indeed, people from diverse cultures contribute to the development of language skills, new ways of thinking, new knowledge, and different experiences.

    How can you support cultural diversity? You ought to increase your level of understanding about other cultures by interacting with people outside your own culture. Meaningful relationships may never develop simply due to a lack of appreciation of others’ cultural values. You should avoid imposing your own values on others as that may conflict or be inconsistent with their beliefs. You ought to recognize and understand that concepts such as family ties, gender roles, spirituality, and emotional well-being, vary significantly among cultures and impact on behavior.

    Within the workplace, educational setting, and clinical setting, advocate for the use of materials that are representative of the various cultural groups in the local community and the society in general. You should intervene in an appropriate manner when you observe others engaging in behaviors that show cultural insensitivity, bias, or prejudice.

    You ought to be proactive in listening, accepting, and welcoming people and ideas that are different from your own.

    Cultural diversity supports the idea that every person can make a unique and positive contribution to the larger society despite their differences. Imagine a place where diversity is recognized and respected; various cultural ideas are acknowledged and valued; contributions from all groups are encouraged; people are empowered to achieve their full potential; and differences are celebrated!

    Extract from English language book for secondary schools. S6 (p.65)

    • Comprehension questions

    1. Discuss the dangers of judging other people’s culture while comparing them to yours.

    2. Basing on the above text, tell how cultural diversity can improve someone’s life perspectives.

    3. Explain how best we can promote cultural diversity.

    4. Explain the meaning of the following phrases.

    a. “People naturally use their own culture as a yard stick to judge othercultures.”

    b. “…helps dispel negative stereotypes and personal biases about different groups.”

    5. Explain the reasons why diverse cultures make a society unique.


    I. Find the meaning of the following words taken from text 2

    a. Festivals

    b. Choreographed

    c. Dung

    d. Fiction

    e. the ballet

    II. Give the meaning of the following words as used in the text 3

    a. ...... immersed ... (paragraph one)

    b. ...... culture shock ... (paragraph one)

    c. facilitate collaboration ... (paragraph two)

    d. .. ... different perspectives ... (paragraph two)

    e. ... prejudice ... (paragraph four)

    III. Match the words or phrases in Column A with their corresponding meanings in Column B of the table below in your exercise book, present your answers in complete sentences.


    The word ‘Prejudice’ refers to the practice or tendency of judging or making

    conclusions without a fair reason.


    VI. Summarize the aspects of multiculturalism as analyzed in the above passage

    3.5: Language Structure: Present Perfect, Present perfect

    progressive tense and Adjectives

    1. Present Perfect

    •  Notes

    In brief, the present perfect is used for:

    a. Actions which happened at an indefinite (unknown) time before now.


    •  I have already had breakfast.
    •  He has been to England.

    b. Actions in the past which have an influence on the present moments.


    •  He has finished his work. (so, he can now rest)
    •  I have already eaten the dinner. (so, I’m not hungry)
    •  He has had a car accident. (that’s why he is in the hospital)

    c. Actions which began in the past and continue in the present


    • Mary has worked as a teacher for over 25 years.
    • Patrick has achieved a lot in his life.

    d. Actions that give new information or announce a recent happening.


    •  The road is closed. there has been an accident.
    • He is not eating. He has lost appetite.


    •  The present perfect tense does not require adverbs of time like yesterday, a week ago, last year, etc.
    •  When talking about a starting point of an action, the present perfect is used with since and for.


    •  I have lived here for 20 years.
    •  I have lived here since 1960.

    2. Present perfect progressive tense

    The present perfect progressive tense is formed as follows:

    Auxiliary verb to have in present tense + Auxiliary verb to be in the past

    participle + Main verb in present participle. It is used for:

    a. Actions that started in the past and continue in the present


    •  He has been painting the house for 5 hours. He’s still painting it.
    •  I have been working as a fireman since 1973. I still work as a fireman.

    b. Actions that have recently stopped


    •  I have been waiting for you for half an hour! I›m not waiting anymore because you have come.
    •  Look at her eyes! I’m sure she has been crying. She stopped crying when she saw them.

    c. Temporary actions and situations


    • I have been living in Boston for two months.
    • I have been working as a waitress for the past week.


    a. Adverb of time for is used with the present perfect continuous tense to determine the period in which the action took place.

    Example: I have been living here for 20 years.

    b. Adverb of time since is used with the present perfect continuous tense to specify a starting point in time.

    Example: I have been living here since 1960.

    3. Adjectives


    a. Like nouns, adjectives are formed using affixes (suffix/prefix). For

    adjectives, some suffixes are used, and include:

    - -able/-ible (meaning capable of being). Example: manageable; visible, permissible

    -- ful (meaning full of). Example: boastful, beautiful, bountiful.

    - -ic. Example: magic, energetic, terrific, fantastic

    - -(i)an. Example: Christian, American, Rwandan, Iranian

    - -ish. Example: foolish, reddish, British

    - -ly. Example: friendly, lovely, visibly, calmly

    - -ous. Example: humorous, disastrous, poisonous

    -- ese. Example: Japanese, Senegalese,

    - -ive. Example: Impressive, Educative, argumentative, active

    b. Apart from suffixes, adjectives can also be formed by using prefixes. A

    prefix added to an adjective generally has a negative effect.

    E.g. I think it’s possible to solve the problem. I think it’s impossible to solve the


    Some other prefixes include the following un-: e.g. uncooked, unimaginable;

    in-: e.g. incapable, inhuman; il- : e.g. illegal, illegible; im-: immoral, impractical;

    dis-: e.g. dishonest, disagreeable; ir-: irresponsible, irregular


    a. Pre- (pre-war) and hyper- (hyperactive) do not create opposites but modify the meaning of the word in some way.

    b. We can also form compound adjectives by combining numbers with nouns.

    For instance, instead of saying a man of twenty years we can say a twentyyear-

    old man. We can notice that nouns are in singular and hyphens are therefore needed.


    I. Complete the sentences with present perfect and present perfect continuous.

    1. Tom is studying chapter 2. He (already/finish) chapter 1.

    2. Today Tom began studying at 8 o clock. Now it is 10 o’clock. Tom …. (study) for 2 hours.

    3. I am in class right now. I arrived in class today and sat down at 8 o’clock.

    Right now, the time is 10:00 am. That means that I ……(sit) in this seat

    for 2 hours.

    4. Since classes began, I (have/not) ………. much free time. My classes keep me busy.

    5. Mr and Mrs Jones are sitting outside on their porch right now. They(sit)…. there since after dinner.

    6. The test begins at 8:00. Right now, it’s 11:00. Sara is at the library. She is reviewing her notes right now. She (review)…. her notes all morning.

    II. Refer to the words in brackets and put in the right adjectives in this text:

    It is (legal) 1…………………… to drive under the age of seventeen in Britain, but

    a (boy of seventeen years old) 2…………………………. Managed to pass his driving

    test on the day of his seventeenth birthday. Most people would consider this

    (possible) 3……..........................because you need a lot of lessons to pass the test.

    David Livesley arranged to have (a lesson of five hours)4……………………………….

    Beginning at dawn on his birthday. At first, he was very (care) 5……………………

    and (hesitate) 6……………. but he had a (wonder) 7…………………. teacher and

    his driving improved amazingly during the day. By four in the afternoon, still

    feeling (energy) 8……………………., he was ready to take his test and he passed

    first time! He was almost in a state of shock after the test, and he drove home

    very slowly in the (red) 9………………. Light of the (set) 10…….………………. sun.

    David’s driving attracted the attention of two policemen, but they broke into

    smiles and congratulated him warmly when he showed them his certificate and told them his story.


    I. Suppose you experienced a situation involving ‘culture shock’. Write

    an essay of about 350 words showing the right way of behaving in

    such a situation.

    II. Put verbs in the following sentences either in the present perfect or

    present perfect continuous tense.

    1. Marc is in a store. He is standing at a checkout counter right now.

    He(stand)…. there for over 5 minutes. He wishes he could find a

    salesperson. He wants to buy a pair of jeans.

    2. The little girl is dirty from head to foot because she(play)…….in

    the mud.

    3. The children are excited about the concert. They(practice)… a lot

    in the last few weeks.

    4. My back hurts. So, I …. (sleep) on a pad on the floor lately. The bed

    is too soft.

    5. Toshi is waiting his friend. He …. (wait) for her since 5 o clock. She

    is late for cinema.

    6. Alexi …. (own) his motorcycle for 20 years.

    III. Debate on this motion: Life abroad is good.

    IV. Write a letter to a friend living in a foreign country or in Rwanda

    describing to him/her your past, current and future activities



    Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of business and money



    4.1. Describing business and money


    Reading and text analysis

    • Text 1:Business and money

    Someone once described the age we live in as that of a vanishing world, one in

    which the familiar is constantly disappearing forever and technological change

    is often difficult to cope with. So, it should come as a no surprise to most of us

    to hear that, yet another part of everyday life is about to go forever. Still, when I

    read recently that in the next decade, money as we know it, will probably cease

    to exist in technologically advanced countries. I had to read the article twice to

    make sure it wasn’t April 1st.

    According to Professor Gerry Montague, of the Institute of economic reform,

    the familiar coins and banknotes will soon be replaced entirely by credit cards

    of various kinds. And the shop of the future (the ‘retail outlet’) as Professor

    Montague puts it, will be linked to the network of banking computers. The

    assistant will only be key in your bank account code number and the amount you

    have spent and thank you politely. You won’t have to dig deep in your pocket or

    wallet for change or pretend at the pub that you have left your money at home.

    You may not even have a number for your account as such, as the computer may

    by the end be able to read your handprint. So, no more credit card frauds either.

    But I am afraid that I shall waste money. I have felt strongly attached to it,

    ever since I received my first pocket money when I was five and kept it in a

    moneybox. Even if my credit card of the future will be able to tell me exactly

    how much spending power I have left in the computer file, even if it lights up

    and plays a happy or sad tune at the same time, nothing will be able to replace

    the sheer pleasure I gained from rattling the coins in my money-box. Not to

    mention the other obvious problems which will be caused by a shortage of real

    money- like how to start a football match for example.

    Extracted from Advanced Language Practice by Michael Vice, p.196.

    •  Comprehension questions

    a. Examine the impact of current technological advancement on our concept

    of money according to the first and second paragraphs.

    b. Why did the narrator think it was April 1st when he read that “in the next

    decade, money as we know it, will probably cease to exist in technologically advanced countries?

    c. Do you think the progress made in bank systems will end credit card frauds? Justify your answer.

    d. Why do you think that the technological advancement in banking will lead to wastage of money?


    Vocabulary and sentence construction.

    Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up for the missing meanings of the words or phrases in the table below.


    b. Using the words in the above table, write meaningful sentences related to the use of money.

    2. Write a short composition describing the future use of money based on the current technological progress.

    4.2. Describing the role of money


    Reading and text analysis

    •  Text: Functions of Money

    Good money should be acceptable by everyone as a medium of exchange. This is the prime requirement for money. The use of money is based on confidence.

    One is prepared to accept money if he is confident that others will also accept it.

    All transactions are made using money. Previously in the old age, there was use of commodity and barter system as a medium of exchange.

    The introduction of money eased the system of exchange because of its good qualities such as portability and divisibility, among others. Good money should be easily divisible in small units. Whatever physical commodity is being used as money, it must be easy to divide it into smaller amounts to make smaller transactions possible. One should also be able to carry good money from one place to another. It must not be so heavy in relation to its value. It must be transportable in terms of bulk and weight. Modern money consists of coins, bank notes, cheques and bank drafts. All these must be carried without attracting attention.

    Good money should be scarce because if it is common, it would lose value due to increase in demand. Its supply must be less than its demand, but it must be available. The value of goods and services and factors of production are expressed in terms of money. Determining the value of a commodity is based on how much an individual is prepared to pay for it. The higher the amount paid for a commodity, the more valuable it is; the lower the amount paid, the less the value, other factors remaining constant.

    Good money should be similar and difficult to forge. The features on the same denominations must be the same as on another denomination. Varying degrees of quality will lead to confusion and uncertainty in the public and eventually there will be loss of confidence. It must be made of features and quality that cannot be easily forged. Otherwise, forged money will increase money in the economic system which leads to inflation and in turn money will lose value.

    Money which is forged is called counterfeit money.

    Wealth or goods can be stored for future use in form of money than assets. It is easy for James in Musanze district to sell Irish potatoes and store millions of Rwandan francs for a period of one year or more than storing one hundred sacks of potatoes. It is easier to store one million Rwandan francs than storing a cow.

    Many transactions are conducted based on credit where goods and services are sometimes given out on credit. When paying for the goods, it is more convenient to express these future obligations in terms of money. In a modern society, money is a mechanism through which most goods and services are distributed by use of what is known as the pricing mechanism. Goods can be moved from one place to another mainly from areas of low price to those of high price through a process called arbitrage. All this can be done through price mechanism which uses money.

    Money can facilitate the physical transfer of property. For example, it may be impossible to move a building from Nyamasheke to Nyagatare, but the owner can sell it and easily move with his money to a new area.

    All business transactions and accounting are made possible by use of money.

    When computing business transactions, statistics of national income, to mention but a few, money is the most suitable medium. It may be easy to record the amount got after selling a commodity than recording the actual commodity.

    Adapted from Economics for Rwanda secondary Schools, book five, p.158-159

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. Assess five functions of money as expressed in the above passage.

    2. What do you understand by terms portability and divisibility as qualities of money?

    3. Why is it important to make it difficult to forge money? Closely refer to the passage.

    4. What should be done to prevent people from forging money?

    5. Examine the role of money in business transactions.


    1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to find the meanings of the words

    or phrases below asused in the text.

    a. …prime… (paragraph 1)

    b. … eased… (paragraph 1)

    c. …bulk… (paragraph 1)

    d. …bank draft… (paragraph 1)

    e. …scarce… (paragraph 2)

    f. …forge… (paragraph 3)

    g. …features… (paragraph 3)

    h. …price mechanism… (paragraph 5)

    i. …arbitrage… (paragraph 5)

    2. In not more than 80 words, summarize the above passage

    emphasizing the role of money.

    4.3. Describing marketing


    Reading and text analysis

    • Text: Mkami the Entrepreneur

    I always thought I would work for someone else, I never imagined I would be the boss! But that’s how things have turned out for me. I left school with quite a good certificate of secondary education and as I had done well in Mathematics, I managed to get a job in the accounts department of a tourist hotel. I did this for about four years.

    Meanwhile, my cousin Jimmy, who didn’t go to secondary school, had trained as a carpenter. He got a grant from SIDO, which is the Small-scale Industries Development Organization, to set up a workshop and started employing a few untrained workers, who he trained up. Jimmy came to the hotel one day and saw that they had a very poor selection of crafts for sale to guests. He suggested asking the hotel if we could take over the tourist shop. He would provide the goods and I would run the shop. We managed to get a loan from an investment bank to set up the shop. The bank also gave us a lot of advice and helped us put together a business plan. Eventually, it was agreed that we would pay rent to the hotel and a percentage of the earnings. That was ten years ago.

    Since then I have done some courses in running a business and that has helped us to expand. We now have a chain of 20 tourist shops in different hotels. The workshop still supplies a lot of our goods, but I also travel around the country to find other suppliers. We have come a long way, and I think the reason for this is that we have asked for advice from the people who know, and we listen to our customers. Tourists want to see a variety of high-quality crafts and that’s what we give them.

    Running a business is hard work and at the beginning, you can’t expect to make any money for yourself; all the profit goes into building up the business. So, you must have a cool head and be prepared to take risks. We employ 40 people now and have made reasonable livings for our own families, so I am satisfied. I am married and I’ve got one daughter. I haven’t had time to have another.

    Extract from English in use Book 3 by Longman publishers

    • Comprehension questions

    1. To what extent has the previous work experience of Mkami helped her to get and do her current job?

    2. Identify some strategies from the passage that young people may adopt in order to succeed as employees and entrepreneurs in business. Based on of what you have read from the above passage, what are advantages of running your own business?

    3. Why do you think Mkami has become a successful entrepreneur?


    1. 1. Construct a meaningful sentence with each of the following words and phrases as used in the passage.

    a. …grant… (paragraph 2)

    b. …small-scale industry… (paragraph 2)

    c. …earnings… (paragraph 2)

    d. …running a business… (paragraph 4)

    e. …reasonable living… (paragraph 4)

    2. Debate the importance of a cashless economy over a cash economy

    4.4. Language structure: Phrasal Verbs


    Phrasal verbs are multiple-word verbs. They are made up of the verb and one or two particles. A particle can be either be an adverb or a preposition. Most phrasal verbs have a fixed meaning; they are idiomatic expressions. Often, the meaning of a phrasal verb is not a sum of the meanings of the words in the phrase. You cannot derive the meaning from the meaning of each individual word. For example, keep up does not mean ‘keep in a high place’.


    1. The assistant will only key in your bank account code number and the transaction will be over.

    2. Jimmy trained up most of his workers.

    3. A successful businessman is one who pays off all his debts.

    4. The loan from the bank helped us set up the shop.

    5. Jimmy and I built up a joint business for five years.

    6. We were advised to pay back our loan on time.

    7. Mkami cashed out part of her earnings for personal use.

    8. My brother and I set up a good business plan before starting our commercial activities


    Fill in the blank spaces with the correct word:

    1. We have decided ………. pursuing this course of action.

    i) Against ii).Out iii). Off

    2. If we……… this option, our business will certainly fail.

    i). writes up ii). Rule out iii). Sort out

    3. It will take a long time for the board to ………. this mess.

    i). Turn around ii). Put in iii). Sort out

    4. Barack has a plan to ………. out the automotive industry.

    i) Give ii). Bail iii). Make

    5. Why didn’t Tracy ………. up at the meeting

    i). Turn ii). Come iii). Set

    6. Our suppliers have ………. new offices outside the capital in a very ugly industrial estate

    i). Get up ii). Set up iii). Got up

    7. Last month’s sales results ………. much better than expected.

    i). Turned out ii). Turned on iii). Turned in

    8. Don’t ………. till tomorrow what you can do today.

    i). Put off ii). Put on iii). Put out

    9. We had to ………. off the meeting because of the bad weather

    i). Put ii). Call iii). Take

    10. It’snot such a terrible thing! Don’t worry! ……….

    i). Cheer out ii). Laugh out iii) Cheer up


    1. Write a 250-word composition about strategies to starting a successful business.

    2. Construct one meaningful sentence with each of these phrasal verbs.

    a. Count on b) Sell off c) Pay back d) Set up e) Cash out

    b. Carry out

    c. Pay off

    d. Cash in

    e. Rule out

    f. Step in

    3. Put in the correct phrasal verb in accordance with the meanings shown in brackets.

    a. Can you ………. (think of an idea) a better idea.

    b. I wish I hadn’t ……… (become responsible for) so much working this industry.

    c. She ………. (showed/mentioned) that all the shops would be closed.

    d. I ………. (went to an event) for a dinner with my business partners.

    e. Where did you ………. (become adult)?

    f. I’d love to………. (arrange/create) my own business.

    g. I thought the conference was going to be boring as the operations

    manager was absent, but it ………. (in the end we discovered) to be quite useful for each of us.

    h. Would anybody like to ………. (become responsible for) this new client?

    i. What’s ………. (is happening) in the conference hall?

    j. Can we ………. (arrange/create) another business meeting next week?

    4. Give the phonetic transcription of each word in the table below. Put the stress



    Key unit competence: Using the language learnt in the context of early childhood welfare



    5.1. Talking about early childhood education in Rwanda


    Reading and text analysis

    •  Text 1: Early Childhood education

    Towards the end of the MDGs in 2015, it was and is still clear that the government of Rwanda had done extremely well in meeting or making significant progress on various MDG targets. Some major achievements included economic growth, expanded basic social services – particularly in health), poverty reduction and gender empowerment among others. There is a great expectation not only in the region but also globally that Rwanda will continue to be a pace setter in the implementation of Agenda 2030 for sustainable development.

    As the government continues to focus on achieving Vision 2020 aspirations, due attention will need to be placed on Early Childhood Education for a better Rwanda.

    Significant progress has been experienced in the education sector in Rwanda in various ways-increase in access to education- as reflected in enrolment and attendance rates and gender parity. Indeed, UNESCO ranked Rwanda among the top three performing countries in the world for its efforts to achieve universal primary educational goals.

    Whereas Rwanda has made tremendous progress in increasing access to education and achieving gender parity in enrolment and attendance rates, the government will now need to focus on providing quality education that meets the needs of all children, including ensuring that the poorest children are able to overcome inherent disadvantages.

    Early childhood education in Rwanda is not fee free and this poses serious challenges to children from poor families who cannot afford the costs. This inadvertently leads to exclusion of the poorest children.

    Inadequate investment in Early childhood education provision is partially a reflection of an already over-stretched budget.

    The expansion of pre-primary classrooms in schools across Rwanda and the existence of the Early Childhood Development Policy and the associated strategic plan that aims at ensuring access to integrated health, nutritional, early stimulation, and learning for all children in Rwanda are critical indicators that the Government of Rwanda recognizes the need for early childhood services.

    Text adapted from The New Times, May 18, 2016

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. Rwanda has done its best to meet the MDGs’goals. What does MDGs stand for?

    2. In the writer’s view, what should the Rwandan Government do to better early childhood education?

    3. What tremendous progress has Rwanda made so far?

    4. What elements are included in the Early Childhood policy and Strategic plan?

    5. After reading this passage, are you optimistic that Early Childhood

    Education will meet the needs of all Rwandan children? Explain.

    • Text 2: Early learning

    Read the following text thoroughly and answer the questions that follow.

    Many children enter primary school with varying levels of preparedness to actually cope with the new school environment. Usually, school readiness is understood, to mean equipping children with a specific set of basic skills and abilities.

    The school or places where these basic skills and abilities are got, are given different names: pre-school, kindergarten, nursery school. There are some schools or private centers which decide to provide little children with all basic needs and cares, and some parents trust them with their kids, from two years and above, although it is also possible for the under- two year babies ( Just for very busy mothers). These centers are called day care centers.

    In order to act in accordance with education for all and gender balance policies, the Rwandan Government has made the early childhood education prevalent and compulsory and each public primary school should have a pre-school location and room/rooms.

    Nonetheless, parenting education and support programs are prioritized on the conviction that the family is the primary institution through which quality optimal care and early stimulation can be provided to children.

    The Government of Rwanda is committed to placing the family at the center of development, and as a prerequisite to achieve equitable and sustainable education.

    •  Comprehension questions

    a. What is school readiness going to help according to the passage?

    b. What is the meaning of kindergarten?

    c. How do child-day care centers function? Do you have any objection to such centers? If yes explain.

    d. Why has the Rwandan Government made Early Childhood prevalent and compulsory in all primary schools?

    e. In Early Childhood Education policies, parents or guardians:

    f. Must be indifferent towards a child’s education and development.

    g. Parents or guardians should look for someone to always cater for their children.

    h. Are required to give optimal care and stimulation to children.

    i. Should only resort to child-care centers.


    Vocabulary, paragraph and composition writing

    1. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus to find the meaning of these words and expressions:

    (a) School readiness, (b) Prioritized, (c) Prerequisites,

    (d) Child-care centers, (e) Optimal (f) Early childhood Education,

    (g) Inherent, heart Inadvertently, (i) Prevalent

    2. Using the above vocabulary items, write one paragraph explaining the reasons for early childhood education in Rwanda. “Necessity of Early childhood emphasis in Rwanda.”

    5.2. Describe early childhood basic needs


    Reading and text analysis

    Read the following passage and answer questions that follow:

    • Text1: Basic needs of Early childhood Education

    For children, the basic needs include warm, caring and responsive adults. There should be a sense of importance and significance; a way to relate to the world around them; opportunities to move and play and people to help structure and support their learning.

    In other words, Early education ensures free, integral and harmonious development of the child’s personality, according to their rhythm and needs.

    The education provided has to ensure the differentiated stimulation of children, aiming at the intellectual, emotional, social and physical development of each child and targeting to achieve different results of early education.

    The little children need free, integral and harmonious development of their personality supporting their autonomous and creative training. They need interaction with other children, with adults and with the environment to acquire new knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors; encouraging exploration, exercises, tests and experiments as autonomous learning experiences. By doing so, children will dare to carry out new activities and researches.

    The feeding in early childhood education needs punctuality and meeting the child’s appetite expectation. General cleanliness around and surveying personal hygiene is very necessary.

    Text adopted from, accessed on October 19,2019

    • Comprehension questions:

    1. Why is it necessary to cater for the children’s needs?

    2. Is it necessary to cope with the child’s personality in early childhood education? Explain.

    3. How should adults deal with children’s stimulation?

    4. Under what circumstances should children be allowed autonomy?

    5. State at least five basic needs in early childhood education.

    6. What lesson is learnt from this text?

    5.2.2. Application activities: Vocabulary and debate


    Vocabulary and debate

    1. Use a dictionary or thesaurus to check the spelling and pronunciation of these words:

    (a) Stimulation, (b) Autonomous, (c) behaviors, (d) Experiments

    2. Debate challenges related to “Early childhood education is the foundation of education.”

    5.3. Duties and responsibilities of parents and caregivers


    Reading and text analysis

    •  Text: Childcare givers

    Read the following text and answer the questions after it.

    Child caregivers plan, supervise and implement a structured learning environment that allows young children to explore their interests. For example, they may read and play with toddlers tointroduce social skills such as manners.

    They help young children learn through creative group activity. A caregiver must plan, facilitate, observe, be a good role model, supervise.

    As far as the parents are concerned, the child-parent relationship has a major influence on most aspects of a child’s development. When optimal, parenting skills and behaviors have a positive impact on children’s self-esteem, school achievement, cognitive development and behavior.

    Parents should accept the child’s interests with responses that are prompt and contingent to what the child signals to supports learning, in part, by facilitating the child’s development of mechanisms for coping with stress and novelty in his or her environment. With repeated positive experiences, a trust and bond develop between the child and parent that in turn allows the child to ultimately internalize this trust and then generalize their learning to new experiences.

    From a socio-cultural perspective, parents should display cognitively responsive behaviors, which will later help the child to assume a more active and ultimately independent role in learning.

    Parents should also help in research context because the acquisition of problem solving, language and social-emotional skills are facilitated by them. Their duty of providing meals and extra-care is inborn.

    Text adopted from

    •  Comprehension questions

    a. Why should caregivers plan in early childhood education?

    b. How should caregivers help young children?

    c. Why should the parents accept the child’s interests?

    d. What should parents do in the socio-cultural point of view?

    e. What have you learnt from this text?


    Vocabulary and discussion

    1. Use a dictionary or thesaurus and find the meaning of the following words:

    (a) Toddlers, (b) Self-esteem, (c) Prompt, (d) Contingent, (e) Ultimately

    2. While including the new words above, debate the duties and responsibilities of parents and caregivers.

    5.4.Language structure: Modal verbs and adjective’s degrees of comparison

    I. Modal verbs: Should, need, dare

    There are many modal verbs In English including should, need, dare etc.

    • Using should, need, dare in sentences:


    a. Teachers should get acquainted with competences in early childhood education.

    b. Some years back, parents daren’t take their kids to school.

    c. We all need to learn about early childhood education.


    A. Uses of should

    i. Modal verb should, is used to express a moral obligation as seen in examples below:

    a. We should love one another.

    b. Children should obey their parents, teachers and neighbours.

    c. You should not do such a mistake.

    ii. Should is also used in criticism.

    Example: You shouldn’t eat too much.

    N.B: In past context, we use should+ have+ past participle to mean that something was necessary but was not done.


    a. Elijah should have brought the child to school last week. (he didn’t bring the child)

    b. Margaret should have learnt how to teach young children. (she didn’t learn it)

    c. You shouldn’t have eaten too much.(you ate too much: criticism)

    B. Uses of need

    i. Need is used to express necessity.


    a. They needn’t come today. There aren’t many things to do.

    b. This kid needs to sleep.


    In past context, we use need+ have+ past participle to mean that something

    was not necessary but it was done.


    Why did you go to Kigali? You needn’t have gone there because you had his phone number.

    Tom wasted his money. He needn’t have bought another pair of shoes. The child has many pairs.

    ii. Need can also behave like a normal verb and take an auxiliary.


    a. Do children need care in early childhood education?

    b. Brian doesn’t need a toy. He has many.

    C. Use of ‘dare’

    Dare is used when the action is taken bravely or in abnormal situations.


    a. How dare you treat the kids like this?

    b. I Dare say that you are our hero!

    N.B: Dare can be used as other normal verbs and take an auxiliary.

    Example: She didn’t dare talk to them.

    D. Application activities on the uses of should, needn’t and dare

    1. Complete the sentences with should, needn’t, dare

    a. Why ……rich people help the poor?

    b. How …. you insult others?

    c. She ……. have come here. It was not necessary.

    d. You ………… ask the teacher to help you if you do not understand the questions.

    e. We have enough material for the daycare section. You.……. buy more.

    f. How…………. you suggest she was weak!

    2. Using need, should and dare, write one paragraph about teaching in Early childhood education

    II. Adjective degrees of comparison


    a. Adult people are interested in games.

    b. Adolescents are more interested in games than adults.

    c. Young children are the most interested in games of all.

    In sentence one, the adjective “interested” is used with adult people only. It is a positive degree.

    In sentence two, adolescents are compared with adults. More interested… comparative degree.

    In sentence three, young children are compared with adolescents and adults, 

    (the most interested ..of..). it is superlative degree.


    In English language, there are three degrees of comparison:

    1. Positive degree: e.g. Jack is tall.

    2. Comparative degree

    In comparative degree, there are three levels of comparison:

    •  Equality: as + adj. + as

    a. Jack is as tall as Mary or Jack is tall, so is Mary.

    b. A girl child is as important as a boy child or

    c. A girl child is important and so is a boy child.

    •  Inferiority:

    Not as +adj.+ as; less+ adjective + than; adjective of minor value+ than or not so

    +adjective +as


    a. Adults are not as interested in games as kids.

    b. Bruce is not so tall as Jack.

    c. Charles is less intelligent than Assia.

    d. Thierry is shorter than his sister.

    •  Superiority

    Adjective (of major value) + er+ than, more+ polysyllabic or verbal adjective. + than

    a. Fabiola was quicker than Alpha

    b. This machine is more expensive than that one.

    c. Enock is more tired than Teddy.

    III. Superlative degree

    The+ adjective +est + of/in or the + most + polysyllabic or verbal adjective+ of/ in

    a. Who is the quickest learner of your class?

    b. The most difficult thing in life is to manage oneself.

    c. Constance was the most excited of all.


    Irregular comparison




    1. complete the sentences with the correct comparison form

    a. Both Kelly and Kenia are intelligent, but Kenia is the………. of the two. (intelligent)

    b. My results in exams are………than I expected.(good)

    c. Who is the……man in the world? (rich)

    d. Innocent is my …. brother. Of course, he is ……than I.(old)

    2. Discuss the duties and responsibilities of educational stakeholders using

    modal verbs and adjective degrees of comparison.\

    5.5. Word pronunciation

    Add five more words to the following containing the sounds[ϱ∂]or [ɛ∂] verse



    1. What are the main roles of parents and caregivers in early childhood education?

    2. Why is it important to study early childhood education?

    3. What are young children’s five basic needs?

    4. Explain the following words and expressions

    a. Early Childhood Education

    b. Inadvertently

    c. Day care centers

    d. Stimulation


    Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of Cultural diversity and African development



    6.1. Describing Being in a Foreign Country


    Reading and text analysis.

    Pre- reading activity


    Imagine that you are in a foreign country where everybody behaves in a way you are not familiar with. They cannot speak your language; their beliefs, foods and ways of dressing are different from yours. How would you react in such a situation?

    •  Text: Living in a foreign country: How to adapt?

    Living in a foreign country is hard enough as it is, with all the cultural and administrative issues you must deal with. However, if you don’t want to get stuck in the expatriate bubble, you’ll need to learn to adjust to life in a foreign country.

    While living in a foreign country sounds exciting and romantic, it does have a catch. When foreigners tread on unfamiliar ground, they tend to stick to what is familiar to them. Thus, many expatriates never make the transition from expatriates to compatriots. After all, becoming a part of the local culture is probably the hardest part of life abroad.

    It is tempting to share your experiences of living in a foreign country exclusively with other expatriates. Nobody else will understand your hesitation to try the local food, your problems with adjusting to the pace of life and your ambivalence towards social customs as well as those who are in the same boat. However, in order to get the most out of your expatriate experience, you need to break out of your comfortable little cocoon after a while and try to immerse yourself in the local culture. If you let go of false impressions and stereotypes, then you have already taken the first major step. Living in a foreign country can then become a truly life-altering experience.

    It is not as easy as it seems to adjust to life abroad.

    The process of making the transition from living like an expatriate to a more local lifestyle takes time. Culture shock is part and parcel of living abroad and hits all of us eventually. The trick is not to let it get the better of you. After all, it takes some time for all international travelers and expatriates to get used to their new environment.

    For most people who live in a foreign country, many aspects of the local culture seem strange at first. This might appear exciting at first. The initial reason for moving abroad is after all often the wish to explore foreign cultures.

    However, after living in a foreign country for a while, little things that you initially considered charming may begin to annoy you. You will remember how everything ran on schedule back home, how clean your former hometown was, or how much more relaxed and friendly everyone seemed.

    Everybody who decides on living in a foreign country needs some time to adjust to their new environment. Lina (32) felt that way when she moved from Sweden to Ecuador. Everything seemed different from her hometown Gothenburg, and after the burst of initial excitement, those differences started to get to her.

    However, after a while, she began to accept that things were simply not the same in Quito. Until you get to this point, try to be respectful, patient, and humble.

    After all, you are a guest living in a foreign country, at least until you have made the transition from being expatriate to compatriot.

    Adapted from ;to adapt 15281 retrieved on March 19th, 2018

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. Which obstacles is an immigrant likely to face in the host country?

    2. Explain why people move to different countries and places.

    3. Explain the right attitude that an immigrant should adopt and say why.

    4. Based on the above passage, discuss at least five reasons why you would

    adapt to new cultures if you moved to a different country or city.

    5. Why does the transition from living as an expatriate to adapting to the local lifestyle take time?


    Vocabulary, word pronunciation, sentence and essay writing

    1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the missing meanings of the words/phrases and pronunciation in the table below. Copy the table into your book and fill in the blank spaces.


    2. Construct different sentences using the following words and phrases. Closely refer to the passage.

    a. adjust

    b. unfamiliar ground

    c. ambivalence

    d. life altering

    e. transition

    f. expatriates

    g. Culture shock

    h. compatriot

    3. Write 150 words essay discussing the importance of adapting to new cultures.

    6.2. Comparing cultures

    •  Text: My new home

    “An American is anyone who lives in the United States of America. Whether it is an immigrant or a natural born citizen, they are an American.” My secondgrade teacher used to say this to us when we were in our Social Science class.

    When I heard these words, I felt an unusual joy. But this joy was not for me, it was for my parents. As I am a natural born citizen, my parents are immigrants.

    At a young age, I could not quite make out if I was an American or an Asian Indian. My life would always go two ways. When I was at school, I felt like an American. I spoke, dressed, and acted like my classmates. But at home, it was a different story. We spoke a different language and my grandparents always wore different clothes.

    At school, I always got along with the other students and as far as I can remember, they liked me. I was treated just like everyone else and everyone, including my teachers, was nice to me. Sometimes I am put in the ‘spotlight’ when someone asks about my culture and traditions. It is no big deal because it does not bother me. If I am from a different nationality, I will get questions asked about my culture. Sometimes I like it when others ask me about my culture. It shows individuality in me. I do not think there is anything wrong with being different or individual. I am glad that school is not a problem for me because education is important to my family and me.

    I often ask my father many times why he came to America. He always says the same thing;for better education and more opportunities. Whatever he has done till today and will ever do is for my siblings and me. Because of that, I do not ask him anything else. This way I do not feel guilty of reminding him of his homeland, India. After a hard life in India, my father came here so he can give his children a good education and not give them hardship. I know there is no way I can pay him back for all he does. That is why I want to fulfill his dreams. He wishes to see all his children happy and well settled after we start our careers.

    And, I know I can make him happy in many other ways, but I want to make him very happy by becoming a doctor. After he knows we are successful, he will be relived, and I will be too.

    Education is just one area in which America has opened its doors. America is full of different kinds of people and nationalities. I feel as if I am not the only one from a different culture. Along with me, there are millions of other people who live in two worlds. That is the good thing about America. This country gives chances to people to find their spot in this world. I am just one out of a million.

    In America people can practice their traditions as individuals, rather than just one nationality practicing the same tradition.

    In my family, we have many traditions that are not like the traditions of other people. A common tradition is taking off our shoes when entering our homes.

    When I go to my friends’ homes, I sometimes forget they leave their shoes on, and so I start to take off mine. Then I remember, so I just follow them into their homes, like everything’s okay, nothing went wrong. But when they come to my home, they always take their shoes off, because it is our tradition. And, for that, I respect them. Also, every night we sit together at the dinner table where homemade Indian food is served. We are vegetarians, so there is no meat in the house. Every night, after dinner, we sit in front of God and pray to him for safety, happiness, and for him to always be with us.

    Then there are those special days, the holidays. Unfortunately, our holidays do not consist of Thanksgiving or Christmas, but consist of the holidays celebrated in India. Such holidays include Navrati, where we dress up in our cultural costumes and dance a cultural dance all night long at a community gathering. A holiday that follows Navrati is Diwali. This is a five-day celebration for the New Year. Then there are colorful holidays, like Holi. This is when everyone dresses in white and throws around forty different colored powders or colored water at each other to show the absence of darkness.

    Here in America, we celebrate Navrati only on weekends. We call up friends and relatives on Diwali to wish them a prosperous New Year. On Holi, if we get lucky, we get to go to a temple close by to celebrate for an hour or two. This is because we do not have off for such holidays here. It is usually on weekdays, some people must go to work, and others have to go to school. When I was young, I did not know why we got off for holidays such as Thanksgiving and Christmas, but not for holidays like Navrati and Diwali. As I grew older, I came to realize the differences and learned to adjust to the circumstances.

    Although there are so many differences in my two cultures, I never let myself mix them up. I leave my American culture outside my home and I leave my Indian culture inside my home. Sometimes I find it hard when I am stuck in the doorway. I remember what my father said once at the dinner table. He said, “Yes, I grew up in India, and all my childhood memories are there. If something happens in India, it will upset me. But I am also living in America. America has also given me a home, so now I must worry about America more than India, as I live here.” So, just as my father has accepted America, I must accept my American way of life, but I will never forget my Indian customs.

    Extracted from:

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. What could the teacher of the writer always tell students about an American person?

    2. Explain why the writer felt unusual joy whenever someone talked about nationality?

    3. Explain the challenges faced by the writer due to cultural diversity.

    4. Give reasons why the family of the author left their homeland to America. Closely refer to the passage.

    5. Compare Indian culture and American culture as discussed in the passage.

    6. Which pieces of advice did the father give to his family about both cultures?

    7. Recommend some pieces of advice to the people who struggle with new cultures.


    Vocabulary, sentence construction

    1. Find the meaning of the following words as used in the passage using dictionaries and internet

    a. Spotlight

    b. Customs

    c. Stuck

    d. Immigrant

    e. Homeland

    2. Construct meaningful sentences using the following words:

    a. Spotlight

    b. Customs

    c. Stuck

    d. Immigrant

    e. Homeland

    3. Write a paragraph comparing the culture of your community with that of community different from yours.

    6.3. Cultural Diversity


    Read and explain the following quotes

    1. “Perhaps travel cannot prevent bigotry, but by demonstrating that all peoples cry, laugh, eat, worry, and die, it can introduce the idea that if we try and understand each other, we may even become friends.” -- Maya Angelou (African American Poet, Civil Rights Leader, National Women’s Hall of Fame; b. 1928)

    2. “A blessed deed is saying hello with a smile to someone you meet on the street, in the shop, in the bus, in the office, in the church, in the holy places, in the mosque, at the park, at the school, at the university…..’ This is the greatest action of belonging to one another.”

    Lailah Gifty Akita, Think Great: Be Great!

    • Text: Importance of culture diversity

    Why is cultural diversity a good thing? Culture is the lens with which we evaluate everything around us; we evaluate what is proper or improper, normal or abnormal.

    If we are immersed in a culture that is different from ours, we can experience culture shock and become disoriented when encounter a fundamentally different culture. People naturally use their own culture as a yard stick to judge other cultures. Such judgment could reach to a level whereby people tend to discriminate against others whose ways of living are different from theirs.

    People fear essentially what they don’t understand. Cultural diversity is inevitable since in our country, at our workplaces, and schools there exist increasingly various cultural, racial, and ethnic groups. We can learn from one another, but first we should have a level of understanding about each other in order to facilitate collaboration and cooperation.

    Learning about other cultures helps us understand different perspectives within the world in which we live and helps dispel negative stereotypes and personal biases about different groups.

    In addition, cultural diversity can help us recognize and respect “ways of being” that are not necessarily our own, so that as we interact with others, we can build bridges toward trust, respect, and have more understanding across cultures.

    Furthermore, this diversity makes our country a more interesting place to live in.

    Indeed, people from diverse cultures contribute to the development of language skills, new ways of thinking, new knowledge, and different experiences.

    How can you support cultural diversity? You ought to increase your level of understanding about other cultures by interacting with people outside your own culture. Meaningful relationships may never develop simply due to a lack of appreciation of others’ cultural values. You should avoid imposing your own values on others as that may conflict or be inconsistent with their beliefs. You ought to recognize and understand that concepts such as family ties, gender roles, spirituality, and emotional well-being, vary significantly among cultures and impact on behavior.

    Within the workplace, educational setting, and clinical setting, it is paramount to advocate for the use of materials that are representative of the various cultural groups in the local community and the society in general. You should intervene in an appropriate manner when you observe others engaging in behaviors that show cultural insensitivity, bias, or prejudice. You ought to be proactive in listening, accepting, and welcoming people and ideas that are different from your own.

    Cultural diversity supports the idea that every person can make a unique and positive contribution to the larger society despite their differences. Imagine a place where diversity is recognized and respected; various cultural ideas are acknowledged and valued; contributions from all groups are encouraged; people are empowered to achieve their full potential; and differences are celebrated.

    Extracted from: Senior six student book, Rwanda Education Board

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. Discuss the dangers of judging other people based on your own culture.

    2. Basing on the above text, explain how cultural diversity can improve someone’s perception about life.

    3. Explain how cultural diversity can be promoted.

    4. What is the shortcoming of using your own culture to judge other cultures?

    5. How can individuals fight against cultural insensitivity?


    Vocabulary, debate, sentence and essay writing

    1. Find the meaning of the following words as used in the passage using dictionaries and internet.

    a. yard stick

    b. diversity

    c. family ties

    d. proactive

    e. bias

    f. f. prejudice

    2. Construct different meaningful sentences using the following words and expressions from the passage.

    a. yard stick

    b. diversity

    c. family ties

    d. proactive

    e. bias

    f. prejudice

    3. Debate on this motion “Cultural Diversity is a blessing, not a loss of one’s identity”.

    4. Write an essay talking about the importance of cultural diversity.

    6.4. Describing customs


    Based on your society, explain why people should have knowledge of different customs.

    •  Text: A universal language

    People love to compare. In most parts of England, you buy your bus ticket on the bus. In France, you buy it at a metro station. In Australia, you can buy it from a newsagent. We all find this kind of comparison entertaining. Books on cross-cultural communication exploit our curiosity by focusing on differences between people across the world: in social behavior, the roles they adopt in society, their attitudes to money, the significance of their body language, etc.

    Proxemics, the study of different standards of personal space, is one example. How close I stand to someone when I am speaking to them depends not only on my relationship with them, but also on my culture.

    This is important because if the person I am with is not used to standing as near as I do when we are talking to each other, they might feel uncomfortable. Statistics tell us that the average distance at which two people stand in a social context neighbors chatting for example is anything between 1.2 meters and 3.5 meters. In Latin cultures (South America, Italy, etc.) and in China, this distance tends to be smaller, while in Nordic cultures (Sweden, Denmark, etc.) people usually stand further apart.

    The message sent by your posture and gestures is another case in point. For example, it is quite common in European countries to sit with your legs crossed and the top foot outstretched. But, as I know from personal experience, people in Arab countries hardly ever sit in this way because they might show you the bottom of their shoe, which is a serious insult. It is said that in the Philippines, people often greet each other by raising their eyebrows quickly.

    In the USA, this is a sign of surprise. Such information fills the pages of guides for travelers and international businesspeople. But I would really question the usefulness of what are presented as ‘essential’ or ‘must know’ facts. Clearly it is important to know a little about eating customs, tipping and the rules concerning basic greetings whether you should bow or shake someone’s hand. But beneath the surface, we are not so different.

    There are many signs that are universal in the emotions that they communicate. Focusing on these similarities the things that we all have in common is a much more profitable route than focusing on the differences. Smiling is the best known of these, but not the only one. Behaviorists have proven that all over the world, people show sadness in a similar way. The face ‘falls’: the mouth becomes downturned and the eyes begin to look glassy. The person will probably look down or away and seem distracted. There are also common factors when people are bored. They will look at other things in a distracted way their watches, for example.

    Their feet will begin to move restlessly indicating that they want to escape; they tap their fingers or scratch their heads. Anger can also be read quite easily: the facial muscles tense up, oft en causing people to frown; the eyes stare, fixing themselves on the target of their anger; blood rushes to the face causing it to become red. If the anger is great, the body will also tense up as if preparing itself for a physical fight. Understanding these universal signals and reacting appropriately is the real key to cross-cultural communication.

    If we all apply just a little sensitivity and common sense, it is unlikely that we will cause lasting offence by making the wrong gesture or invading a stranger’s personal space. Of course some cultures show their emotions more openly and others prefer to keep them more hidden. Isn’t that also the case within cultures, from one individual to another? ;upper_intermediate.pdf.

    • comprehension questions

    1. Compare England, France and Australia in terms of transport related activities.

    2. Explain some customs for European countries and Arab countries as discussed in the passage.

    3. Based on the above text, identify customs that people in the world have in common.

    4. Justify why people need to have basic skills on different cultures’ customs.

    5. “Focusing on the similarities of things that we all have in common is much more profitable than the differences”. Explain the statement as used in the passage.


    1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the missing meanings of the words/phrases and pronunciation in the table below. Copy the table into your book and fill in the blank space


    2. Write an essay comparing your custom with that of other people..

    Pay attention to the use of comparison of adjectives.

    6.5. Describing Traditional Rwandan culture



    • Text: Rwandan Traditions and Culture

    In the Rwandan culture, it is considered extremely rude to eat in public. People are not supposed to eat on the street, in public transportation, and sometimes even during big parties in the presence of strangers. In addition, traditionally adults don’t eat in front of their in-laws. In the past, adults could not even eat in front of their own children and would often take their food into their bedroom. Some men would only eat food cooked by their wives and refuse to eat any food cooked by a housekeeper. It was said in the past that women were not supposed to eat goat meat, for two reasons: it would make them grow beard and become stubborn. However, it is now believed such assumptions were invented by greedy men who wanted all the good meat for themselves.

    Going out to eat in restaurants is a fairly new concept that has only taken hold with the influence of foreigners. In the recent past, if a man or a couple went out to eat, it meant that the wife was a bad cook or that the man did not have a wife at all.

    Even today, there are many Rwandans who generally do not dine out. In the past, it was considered a taboo for in-laws to eat at a married couple’s house. It was also taboo for them to stay the night and they would have to find another place in the neighborhood to stay. Rwandans say that drinking milk makes women beautiful.

    When there is a beautiful woman, Rwandans might say that she must have drunk a lot of milk. If you invite someone or even multiple people out to dinner or drinks, it is expected that you will pay for them. When Rwandans are served a bottle of beer with a glass, they will sometimes pour a few drops into the glass, swish the liquid around, and then pour it on the ground behind them. This serves two functions: it symbolizes sharing the drink with ancestors and helps clean out the glass. When a guest stops by for a visit to a friend or family member, it is expected that the host will offer him or her something to drink.

    The most common drink is Fanta or beer. It is considered very rude to offer water, at least not until the guest has finished the first drink. When a married couple has children, their names essentially change to reflect the identity of their first-born child. For example, if parents are named Joshua and Gloria. As soon as they get their first baby-girl and call her Simbi, everyone who knows them (friends, family members, community members, neighbors, perhaps even colleagues) would start to call them Papa Simbi and Mama Simbi.

    People hence start considering them as having enriched their identity and recognition with a family and address. However, this practice was borrowed from other African Countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

    When a couple is planning a wedding, the man and the woman separately hold numerous “planning meetings” at which they meet their friends and family to organize and finalize the details for the marriage.

    One of the ways that the family of a bride prepares for a wedding is to plant a few banana trees along the road leading to their house. In the past this was done to show that the family was relatively wealthy, because it was implied that they could also supply their guests with banana beer from their banana trees.

    When a man and a woman share the bed, the man always sleeps on the side of door so that he may protect his wife in the case of an intruder or a problem.

    It is considered a serious taboo for an unmarried man to spend the night at an unmarried woman’s home. This is part of a larger discussion about gender and double standards/disparate access and opportunities: it is not acceptable for women to go out dancing without men. If they do so, they will be taken for prostitutes.

    It is forbidden for a married person to pronounce the name of his or her motherin- law or father-in-law. When greeting them or even describing them to others, people cannot say their names and must describe them instead. They cannot even share meals.

    If a woman sews at night or in the dark, people will discourage her by saying that she is sewing her parents’ eyes. This is most likely to prevent women from straining their eyes by sewing under faint light. Whistling at night is considered a taboo as it is believed to be a way of summoning snakes. It is also a taboo for a woman to whistle at any time of the day for she would be considered as male. If you have the hiccups, people say that someone is talking about you. When you have a twitch on your eye or face, people believe it is a good omen.

    Adapted from taboosand- superstitions/ retrieved on March 18th, 2018

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. Explain five aspects of the Rwandan culture as discussed in the above passage.

    2. Describe the wedding process in the Rwandan culture as portrayed in the above passage.

    3. Why is the beauty of a woman believed to be a result of over consumption of milk?

    4. In your opinion, do you think it is right for Rwandans to be superstitious?

    5. Do you like/dislike the passage? Give 3 reasons to support your view.


    Vocabulary, sentence, paragraph and letter writing

    1. Give the meaning of the following words and expressions as used in the above passage

    a. extremely rude

    b. invented by greedy men

    c. considered taboo

    d. to pour

    e. symbolizes

    f. to reflect

    g. a bride

    h. double standards

    i. faint light

    j. a twitch

    2. Use the above words and phrases to construct your own meaningful sentences.

    3. Write an eighty-word paragraph about any other aspect of the Rwandan culture that you know.

    4. Imagine that you have a friend from another community where they are not aware of your culture and he would like to come and work for a project in your community. Write a detailed letter to him/her describing your traditional culture.

    6.6. Describing the causes of migration


    Reading, text analysis and picture observation


    Study the above pictures and answer the questions below:

    a. What is happening to the people and why?

    b. What would cause someone to leave his or her country or city for a foreign one?

    • Text: Factors of migration

    People migrate for several reasons. These reasons may fall under four areas that are environmental, economic, cultural and socio-political reasons. Within all these, there are some that may be seen as ‘Push’ or ‘Pull’ factors. Push factors force individuals to move out voluntarily, and in many cases, they are forced because they are risking something if they stay.

    Push factors may include conflict, drought, famine, or religious based discrimination. Poor economic activity and lack of job opportunities.

    Other strong push factors include race and discriminating cultures, political intolerance and persecution. Pull factors are those factors in the destination country that attract the individuals or groups to leave their home. Those factors are known as place utility, which is the desirability of a place that attracts people.

    Better economic opportunities, more jobs, and the promise of a better life often pull people into new locations. Sometimes, individuals have ideas and perceptions about places that are not necessarily correct but are strong pull factors for them. As people grow older and retire, many look for places with warm weather, peaceful and comfortable locations in order to spend their retirement after a lifetime of hard work and savings.

    Such ideal places are pull factors too. Very often, People consider and prefer opportunities closer to their locations than similar opportunities further away.

    In the same spirit, people often like to move to places with better cultural, political, climatic and general terrain in closer locations than locations further away. It is rare to find people move over very long distances in order to settle in places that they have little knowledge of.

    Adapted from retrieved on March 18th, 2018.

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. State and explain the reasons why people migrate.

    2. Assume there are migrants who come to your home area. Explain how you would treat them.

    3. Imagine that you are an influential leader in a country, what polices

    would you put in place to limit the movement of people?

    4. Explain the impacts of immigrants to their host countries or communities.


    Vocabulary, sentence and essay writing

    1. Find the meaning of the following words while referring the passage above.

    a. Migrate

    b. Push factor

    c. Political intolerance

    d. Vein

    e. Peaceful and comfortable

    2. Construct meaningful sentences with each of the following words and phrases:

    a. Migrate

    b. Push factor

    c. Political intolerance

    d. Vein

    e. Peaceful and comfortable

    3. Suppose you experienced a situation involving ‘culture shock’.

    Write an essay of about 350 words showing the right way of behaving in such a situation.

    6.7.Language structure: Adverbs of time and place


    I. Adverbs of time


    Adverbs of time modify the meaning of a sentence by telling us when, for how

    long, an action happens. Many adverbs of time are the same as adverbs of

    frequency. There is quite a bit of overlap between these two types of adverbs.

    Here are some examples of adverbs of time:

    •  yesterday
    •  today
    •  tomorrow
    •  later
    •  now
    •  last year
    •  since 1999/Monday/3 o’clock etc.,
    •  all day/month/week etc.,
    •  for a week/a year/a 100 years etc.,

    Adverbs of time focus on when an action happened, but also for how long, and how often.

    Some adverbs tell the exact number of times an action happens or happened. These adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence. Many adverbs that express frequency can also be placed at either the beginning or the end of the sentence.


    a. We are going to church on Sunday for prayer, but we fear that we don’t know their culture.

    b. She is going to have a baby soon being in a foreign country.

    c. My father went to Chile last year for a vacation.

    d. We eventually went to a pub after eating.

    e. He has already been to Canada three times, but he does not know their customs

    Yet is used in questions and in negative sentences to indicate that something

    that has not happened or may not have happened but is expected to happen. It

    is placed at the end of the sentence or after not.

    Examples of questions:

    1. Have you washed your clothes yet?

    2. Have you fixed the car yet?

    Examples of Yet in negative sentences:

    1. It was late, but they hadn’t arrived yet.

    2. Angela has not yet finished her morning chores.

    Still expresses continuity. In positive sentences it is placed before the main verb and after auxiliary verbs such as be, have, might, will. If the main verb is to be, then place still after it rather than before. In questions, still goes before the main verb.


    1. Before the main verb

    b. Even when my mother was 70, she still enjoyed dancing to traditional music.

    c. Jane will not be available next week. She will still be for the cultural festival in Nigeria.

    2. After the present simple or past simple of be:

    a. The teacher tried to advise them, but they were still late.

    b. Their grandparents are still alive.

    II. Adverbs of place

    We can use prepositions to talk about:

    1. Places or locations.


    b. He was standing by the pool.

    c. You’ll find it in the entrance.

    d. Sign your name here, at the end of the page.

    The compartment door is very small so it’s difficult to get into it.

    2. Direction


    a. Walk past the bank and keep going to the end of the highway.

    b. We were in London. Birmingham was 250 kilometers away.

    3. Distance


    a. Birmingham is 250 kilometers from London.

    b. He is sitting at a hundred meters from his house.

    Simple rules for adverbs of place:

    • An adverb of place always expresses about the location where the action of the verb is being carried out.
    •  Adverbs of place can be directional. For example: Up, down, north, around, southwest, away
    •  Adverbs of place can denote distances. For example: Nearby, far away, miles apart
    •  Adverbs of place are usually placed after a sentence’s object or main verb.
    •  Many adverbs of place specify movement in a specific direction and end in the letters “-ward or -wards”.  For example: Toward, forward, backward, homeward, westward, eastwards onwards

    An adverb of place can point out an object’s position in relation to another object. For example: Below, between, above, behind, though, around and so forth.


    I. Choose the best answer to complete each of these sentences.

    1. Close the door when you go ___________.

    2. The baby is hiding down there under the table.

    3. The cat is hiding_______________ the couch.

    4. Will you be starting your plants ________________ or in a greenhouse?

    5. The ship sailed _______________, encountering heavy weather along the way.

    6. When she saw me waiting, she ran __________________ me.

    7. __________________ you live, I will come to that place to live.

    8. He led the caravan, __________________ he wanted to go.

    9. What are you doing _________there?

    10. ___________we went, people greeted us warmly as they do it in their culture.

    II. Write a paragraph using adverbs of time, place and comparison of adjectives talking about cultural diversity.


    I. Complete the sentences, using the positive, comparative and

    superlative of the adjectives in brackets.

    1. Jane’s culture is……………than mine. (good)

    2. I think living in your country’s ………………. than living in foreign

    countries. (happy)

    3. He thinks this test was…………. than the last one. (difficult)

    4. They live in a really ……. house. (beautiful)

    5. She is the………………. tennis player of the world. (good)

    6. Susan is a………. girl. She’s much…… than her sister. (nice / nice)

    7. My aunt’s customs are…………… than ours. (adaptable)

    8. Hotels in London are…………. than in Vienna. (expensive)

    9. Bob is……………. than Keith but Philip is the…………. (tall / tall)

    10. Doris reads..… books than Peter but Frank reads the……. (many /many)

    11. They live in a……. house but Fred lives in a…………. one. (big / big))

    12. My sister is three years…………… than me. (young)

    13. This was the………… cultural oriented film I have ever seen. (bad)

    14. I talked to Claire from Kenya and she is a really………… girl. (smart)

    II. Write an essay describing the importance of cultural diversity.


    Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of Human rights and Ethics



    7.1.Describing human rights

    7.1.1. Learning activities: Reading and text analysis


    Reading and text analysis

    • Text 1. Universal declaration of human rights

    Human rights are those rights which should be given to all persons irrespective of their religion, race, caste, gender, nationality, or any of them. The UN General Assembly adopted the universal declaration of human rights on 10thDecember 1948. This date is celebrated as the Human Rights Day. These rights include civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights that every person is entitled to.

    Of all the thirty rights, article one and two are very important and these are: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in the declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, gender, language, religion, political, or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or social status.

    These articles are very important because they give emphasis to the equality of all human beings and without these rights, there will be violence and conflict within and between societies and nations.

    Human rights have a great impact on the constitutions of countries across the globe. Many countries in the world including Rwanda have used in their constitution many of the rights found in the universal declaration of human rights.

    There are many advantages of human rights such as stopping discrimination, because they are for everyone including marginalized groups like children and women, maintain the minimum standard of living, stopping violence and related crimes like genocide. Human rights also bring peace and unity in society as well as promoting cultures of different people.

    Despite the advantages of human rights, many of them are violated which means individuals are denied basic rights. A few examples of human rights violation according to the universal declaration of human rights are; the genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda in 1994, the policy of ‘apartheid’ in South Africa under which the blacks were ill-treated, human trafficking and child labour.

    Extracted from: Legal and policy framework for children’s Rights in Rwanda by Pamela Abbot and Francesca Sapsford.

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. State any specific examples of human rights violations according to the universal declaration of human rights.

    2. Based on the above text, what are some of the advantages of having human rights respected in society?

    3. Based on the passage, what are the consequences of human rights abuse. Explain.

    4. Discuss the following statement: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights”.

    Application activities: Vocabulary and speech, summary and composition writing

    1. Match words with their meaning:


    2. Imagine that you have been selected to deliver a speech during a Human Rights Summit to be held in Kigali conference hall.      

          Prepare your speech on violation of children’s rights and present it.

    2. Write a summary of not more than 80 words about human rights as described in the passage.

    3. Write a narrative composition with the title ‘Violation of Human Rights.’

    • Text 2. Right to good health and wellbeing

    Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

    ‘Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself/ herself and his/her family, including food, clothing, housing, and medical care, and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age, or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.’-UDHR, Article 25.1

    One of the greatest hopes of humanity today lies in realising Article 25 of the universal declaration of human rights for every man, woman and children across the world, since these modest provisions hold the key to resolving so many of our intractable problems. As repeatedly asserted in this series of studies, [i] it is imperative that Article 25 becomes a foundational law and guiding principle within each country, which is far from the current reality in both the richest and poorest nations.

    The youth are engaged to adopt Article 25 as their slogan, goal and vision, for its basic requirements have undreamt of implications for the future direction of international relations and global developments. Now is the time for huge, demonstrations that uphold the long-agreed rights of Article 25- for adequate food, housing, healthcare, and social security for all-until governments reorder their distorted priorities and finally implement the principle of sharing into world affairs.

    Extract from “What is the right thing to do by Michael J. Sandel, 2005

    •  Comprehension questions

    a. Discuss the main points in UDHR, Article 25.1 according to the above passage

    b. Outline the rights of everyone as mentioned in the text above.

    c. Suggest any human right that the Article did not mention, and you wish it could be included in the Article 25.1 and why?


    Summary, report and essay writing

    1. Write a summary about the human rights as written in the passage above.

    2. Observe the pictures and write an essay on how human rights are violated.

    3. One of the families in your area has locked their young child inside the house. 

    The child starves to death. Write a report to the police with evidence to what you have seen.

    7.2. Describing children’s Rights


    Reading and analysis of the text and pictures

    Picture observation and interpretation

    Observe the pictures about children’s rights and answer the questions that follow:


    a. Talk about the rights of children violated in the above pictures.

    b. How would you protect rights of children in your community?

    c. The police have invited you as a witness in the severe beating of your neighbour’s child, write a police statement on the violation of the child’s right.

    • Text: Children’s rights

    Parents, communities, and governments need to learn how to set goals for children, create a positive discipline and create a conductive home climate for children, understand how children think and feel and learn how they can be problem solvers in challenging situations.

    Children have the right to be protected from abuse, neglect and other mistreatment in homes. They should have the right to adequate food, clothing and shelter, regular medical and health services, educational, permanent homes.

    They shouldn’t be discriminated and forced into labour. The UN convention has provided a detailed list on the rights of children. They include the following:

    Article 1: Everyone under 18 years of age has all the right in this convention.

    Article 2: The convention applies to everyone whatever their race, religion, abilities, whatever they think or say, whatever type of family they come from.

    Article 3: All organizations concerned with children should work towards what is best for each child.

    Article 4: Government should make these right available to children.

    Article 5: Government should respect the rights and responsibilities of family to guide their children so that, as they grow up, they learn to use their rights properly.

    Article 6: Children have the right to live a full life. Government should ensure that children survive and develop healthily.

    Article 7: Children have the right to a legally registered name and nationality.

    Children also have the right to know their parents, as far as possible, to be cared for by them.

    Article 8: Government should respect a child’s right to a name, nationality and family ties.

    Article 9: Children should not be separated from their parents, unless it is for their own good, for example, if a parent is mistreating or neglecting a child. Children whose parents have separated have the right to stay in contact with both parents, unless this may harm the child.

    Article 10: Families who live in different countries should be allowed to move between those countries so that parents and children can stay in contact or get back together as family.

    Article 11: Government should take steps to stop children being taken out of their own country illegally.

    Article 12: Children have the right to say what they think should happen when adults are making decision that affect them and to have their opinions taken into account.

    Article 13: Children have the right to get and share information, if the information is not damaging to them or to others.

    Article 14: Children have the right to think and believe what they want and to practice their religion, if they are not stopping other people from enjoying their rights. Parents should guide children on these matters.

    Article 15: Children have the right to meet with other children and young people and join groups and organizations, as long as this cannot stop other people from enjoying their rights

    Article 16: Children have the right to privacy; the law should protect them from attacks against their way of life, their good name, their family and their home.

    Article 17: Children have the right to reliable information from the media. Mass media such as television, radio and newspaper should provide information that children can understand and should not promote materials that could harm children.

    Article 18: Both parents share responsibility for bringing up their children and should always consider what is best for each child. Governments should help parents by providing services to support them, especially if both parents work.

    Article 19: Government should ensure that children are properly cared for and protect them from violence, abuse and neglect by their parents, or anyone else who looks after them.

    Article 20: Children who cannot be looked after by their own family must be looked after properly by people who respect their religion, culture and language.

    Article 21: When children are adopted the first concern must be what is best for them. The same rules should apply whether children are adopted in the country of their birth or if they are taken to live in another country.

    Article 22: Children who come into country as refugees should have the same rights as children who are born in that country.

    Article 23: Children who have any kind of disability should receive special care and support so that they can live a full and independent life.

    Article 24: Children have the right to good quality health care, clean water, nutritious food and a clean environment so that they will healthy. Richer countries should help poorer countries achieve this.

    Article 25: Children who are looked after by their local authorities rather than their parents should have their situation reviewed regularly.

    Article 26: The government should provide extra money for the children of families in need.

    Article 27: Children have the right to standard living that is good enough to meet their physical and mental needs. The government should help families who cannot afford to provide this.

    Article 28: Children have a right to an education. Discipline in schools should respect children’s human dignity. Primary education should be free. Wealthier countries should help poorer countries achieve this.

    Article 29: Education should develop each child’s personality and talents to the full. It should encourage children to respect their parents, their cultures and other cultures.

    Article 30: Children have a right to learn and use the language and customs of their families, whether or not these are shared by most of the people in the country where they live, as long as this does not harm others.

    Article 31: Children have a right to relax, play and join in a wide range of leisure activities.

    Article 32: Government should protect children from work that is dangerous or that might harm their health or education.

    Article 33: Government should provide ways of protecting children from dangerous drugs.

    Article 34: Government should protect children from sexual abuse.

    Article 35: Government should make sure that children are not abducted or sold.

    Article 36: Children should be protected from any activity that could harm their development.

    Article 37: Children who break the law should not be treated cruelly. They should not be put in prison with adults and should be able to keep in contact with their family.

    Article 38: Government should not allow children under 15 to join the army. Children in war zones should receive special protection.

    Article 39: Children who have been neglected or abused should receive special help to restore their self-respect.

    Article 40: Children who are accused of breaking the law should receive legal help. Prison sentences for children should only be used for the most serious offences.

    Article 41: If the law of a country protects children better than the articles of the convention, then those laws should override the convention.

    Article 42: Government should make the convention known to all parents and children.

    Extracted from: Legal and policy framework for children’s Rights in Rwanda by Pamela Abbot and Francesca Sapsford.

    •  Comprehension questions:

    1. What do you understand by children’s rights?

    2. Basing on the short text above, describe the rights of children using your own words.

    3. Suggest possible advice to people who violate children’s rights in your community.

    4. Discuss the importance of protecting children.


    Essay and speech writing; and presentation

    1. Write an essay of three paragraphs describing how children’s rights can be protected.

    2. Suppose you have been invited by ‘Save The Children’ in one of the workshops to talk about rights of children, write a speech that you would deliver during the occasion.

    7.3. Talking about ethics


    Reading and text analysis

    • Text: Ethics

    Read the following text and answer the questions that follow:

    The word ‘ethics’ is derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ethikos’, meaning ‘relating to one’s character’, which itself comes from the root word ‘ethos’ meaning character, moral nature.

    Ethics or moral philosophy involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of rights and wrong conducts. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concerns matters of value, and thus comprises the branch of philosophy called axiology.

    Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. As a field of intellectual inquiry, moral philosophy also is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics and value theory.

    Three major areas of study within ethics recognized today are; [1] meta-ethics, concerning the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions, and how their truth values can be determined, [2] normative ethics, concerning the practical means of determining a moral course of actions, [3] applied ethics, concerning what a person is obligated or permitted to do in specific situations or particular domains of action.

    Therefore, some ethics of a teacher include; a teacher shall place premium upon self-discipline as the primary principles of personal behaviour in all relationships with others and in all situations, a teacher shall maintain at all times a dignified personality which could serve as a model worthy of emulation by learners, peers and all others.

    Extract from: A short introduction to ethics by Simon Black Burn, 2001.

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. Define ethics and relate it to the ethics required for a teacher as described in the above text.

    2. Based on this text, how can you foster ethics among peers, students and members in your community?

    3. Why are ethics important in a teacher’s profession and in his/her day to day life?

    4. According to the passage, which ethical behaviour should teachers always portray?


    Summary and composition writing

    1. Summarize the meaning of ethics as described in the text above. 

       Use words between 150 to 250 words.Debate on teachers’  ethics in relation to the learning / classroom environment.

    2. Write a descriptive composition describing your personal ethics or morals.

    7.4. Describing child abuse


    Observe the above picture and read the story below then answer the questions that follow.

    •  Text. Child abuse

    When we were young, no one ever told us about our rights. Most children were badly beaten, denied food, and education which every child should have. It didn’t matter which offence you committed to be given such brutal and harsh punishments.

    I remember the countless number of offences we were beaten for. One could be beaten for crying when you are beaten, they would beat you if you were punished and never cried. They would say you were a bad boy or a bad girl.

    You could be punished if you stood when elders were sitting; beaten for sitting when elders were standing.

    They would punish you if you ate with visitors. Refusing to eat with visitors would lead to being punished too. We were beaten for almost everything and nothing we did.

    During those days, the child belonged to the community. Everyone in the community had the right to punish you. I remember one day as we came from school; I was in primary five, when boys drew a line across the road and challenged me with another boy that whoever crossed the line would be a ‘man.’

    We stood on opposite sides and waited to see who would cross first. Because the other boy was older and bigger, he decided to cross first. No sooner had the fight begun than an old man we didn’t know arrived. What he did to us I have not forgotten till now.

    The worst part is that when I reached home, I found out that they were already aware of what had happened. All was set to have me beaten thoroughly. Today as an adult, I feel I was sometimes punished unfairly yet did nothing to stop it.

    Now that you know your rights, always remind whoever wants to punish you that you have rights and they should be respected. This does not mean you misbehave. You should also fulfil your responsibilities as a child.

    Extract from: English for Rwandan schools (SBD publishers)

    • Comprehension questions.

    1. List at least three children’s rights that have been abused not respected in the passage.

    2. Which offences would children be beaten for?

    3. What caused the two boys in the story to fight?

    4. What were the consequences of their fight?

    5. What is your opinion of this community?

    6. Using the picture above, suggest appropriate disciplinary measures that parents with undisciplined children would adopt. Why do you think your suggestions are suitable?


    Report and composition writing

    1. Write a report to the human rights commission about cases of child abuse in your community.

    2. As a teacher, one of the students in your class has misbehaved, how would you impose positive discipline on that student.

    3. Write an argumentative composition with the title ‘fighting abuses.’

    4. Write a newspaper article entitled, ‘abuses against children.’ 

    Use adjectives and adverbs to describe certain incidents of child abuse.

    7.5. Fighting abuses

    Read the passage below and answer questions that follow. ‘Non-violence in civil rights struggles has meant not relying on arms and weapons. It has meant non-cooperation with customs and laws which are institutional aspects of the regime of discrimination and enslavement’, said Martin Luther King in his 1965 speech.

    He added saying ‘Non-violence has also meant we do not want to instil fear to others or into the society of which we are part. It has meant that we don’t seek to win victory over anyone.

    We seek to liberate our society and share in the self-liberation of all the people’.

    Violence often brings momentary results. Nations have frequently won their independence in battle. But despite temporary victories, violence never brings permanent peace. It solves no social problems: it merely creates new and more complicated ones. ‘Violence is immoral,’ he said, ‘It destroys community and makes brotherhood impossible.’

    According to Martin Luther King, practicing non-violence shows that we have reached a superior level, that we have escaped the blind fear that arouses panic and violence. Non-violence, for him, requires courage and self-denial. Martin

    Luther King exposes how useless and harmful violence is. It is impractical and immoral because it develops hatred and ends in destruction for all.

    He pointed out that violence has been ignored as a means of solving problems.

    There are issues of looting, pillaging, killing and setting free criminals everywhere. 

    They might feel happy and victorious. But this violence which engenders violence might bring permanent peace. He also declared that we must exchange ideas and opinions in peaceful dialogues. We must set an atmosphere of understanding and tolerance, an atmosphere of goodwill and love.

    Extract from: Children in family by Jane Tibbs.

    •  Comprehension questions:

    1. Did Martin Luther King believe in non-violence to get one’s rights? Give evidence.

    2. Why is violence useless and harmful?

    3. What are the effects of using violent means to get one’s rights?

    4. Give two examples from your community of how people used non peaceful ways to solve problems.

    5. What should be done to ensure harmony in society? Speech writing and word pronunciation

    1. Using information from the comprehension text above, write a speech encouraging people in your community to use     

        peaceful means to solve problems.

    2. Classify the following words according to the pronunciation of their final’s’

    3. Victories, results, exposes, reaches, customs, brings, solves, creates, makes, destroys, shows, ensues, engenders, has, arms,

    aspects, others, arouses, requires, develops.


    7.6. Discussing gender equality


    Reading and text analysis

    • Text: Gender equality

    Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

    My mother does not eat eggs, pork, fish, goat meat and chicken or any other bird. She believes these are ‘dirty’ food not meant to be eaten by women. She always discouraged my sisters from sitting with legs stretched when peeling bananas. My sisters were often sung songs to discouraged them from climbing trees, sitting on the pounding mortar and not allowing anyone to jump over a pregnant woman.

    My sisters being educated have refused to accept everything my mother tells them. They eat all the foods my mother considers to be ‘dirty’. However, they have retained some of the taboos like not climbing trees, stretching their legs and sitting on the pounding mortar and grinding stones.

    In contrast, the boys could eat all the above. My mother knows how to cook them very well without any complaint. As a boy, I was taught not to sleep away from home because I had to protect my sisters. I would be seriously punished if I fought with my sisters, but it was not the same case for my brother. When he was involved, they would give us sticks to cane each other.

    In terms of work, my mother didn’t discriminate anybody. Sometimes my sisters went to pray on Sunday and the boys would cook; that was when my father was not around. My father never allowed girls to do any work that required physical energy. He also never punished girls seriously. I don’t know why but that is how it was.

    Extract from: English for Rwandan schools (SBD publishers)

    •  Comprehension questions:

    1. In your opinion, do you think it was right to prohibit certain things from women? Give reasons for your answer.

    2. Give four activities women were prohibited from doing in the Rwandan culture.

    3. Which statement shows that the mother of the speaker has accepted her position created by society?

    4. Do you think the mother of the speaker knew her rights as a woman? Give reasons.


    Composition writing

    Write a composition on gender equality at school. include the following.

           - Availability of girls and boys in the classroom

          - Number of female and male teachers

    7.7. Minority rights and inclusiveness


    Reading and text analysis

    Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

    •  Text: Different colour-one people.

    When I was young, I had never heard of any other language except my mother tongue. I used to think all black people in the world spoke Kinyarwanda except whites. One day while walking to school, I met a man and woman speaking a language which up to today I do not know.

    At first when I heard them, they sounded like they were calling my name. This drew my attention to them, only to realise they were talking to each other. When I listened further, they sounded like they were going to fight. To my surprise, they started laughing happily which made me laugh too. They came close to me and I ran very fast to tell my parents because they had always told us that some strangers were cannibals.

    After reaching home, I told my parents that I had met two strange people who ran after me. My parents asked what the people I had met looked like and I described them. They told me those were our neighbours and were very nice people.

    Today, it is not surprising to meet people from all walks of life in my village Ugandans, Kenyans, Sudanese, Chinese, Americans; almost every country in the world is represented. Some people from the same country cannot speak and understand each other. There are many religions as well and some with just few people. I wonder if they pray to the same God.

    Despite all these differences, we are living together in peace. As the UN recommends, nations must create favourable conditions for minorities to practice their culture, religion, customs and language if it does not violate national laws. In fact, knowledge about the rights of those minorities in our villages have helped us to be united and respect each other.

    Extract from: English for Rwandan schools (SBD publishers)

    •  Comprehension questions.

    1. In which ways have minority rights been violated in society?

    2. If you were the writer, how would you make sure the rights of minorities in the story are protected?

    3. With clear examples from the passage, describe how the writer respected minority rights.

    4. From your point of view, why do you think coexistence is important in every community?


    Dialogue composition and report writing

    1. Imagine there are people who have run away from their countries because of war and your community wants to send them away, you are asked to speak on their behalf to the village leader. Prepare a dialogue of all that happened and present it to the class.

    2. Your village has called for a meeting to discuss problems faced by genocide survivors in Rwanda. You are asked to take minutes as the secretary.

    7.8. Language structures: model verbs (Should, could, can, may, be able to)



    Write a modal verb sentence for each of the following situations

    i. Persuade someone to eat a meal you have proposed.

    ii. Ask someone to return food he/she has taken.

    iii. Get a noisy neighbour’s child to keep quiet while eating.

    iv. Explain to your teacher why you don’t have your homework.

    v. Convince your friend to go to the movie you have chosen.

    vi. Ask for directions to a table in a restaurant.


    1. Use a dictionary to find the meaning of the following words

    a. Indigenous people

    b. Marginalized minorities

    c. Linguistic minorities

    2. Give a synonym and opposite of the words below

    i. Committed

    ii. Punishments

    iii. Misbehave

    iv. Responsibilities

    v. Offences

    3. Discuss the Rwanda National policy about rights of children.

    4. What is the difference between Human Rights and Children’s Rights?

    5. The National policy of children in Rwandan is guided by the 

    following principles. Choose one of the following topics and write a argumentative composition.

    a. Every child matters.

    b. Children can and should participate in decision making.

    c. Abuse, exploitation and violence against children are intolerable.


    Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of National assets.



    8.1. Talking about national assets



    •  Text 1: Resources in Rwanda

    Read the passage below and attempt questions that follow.

    Overview of resources in Rwanda’s chief natural resources includes tin ore, gold, methane and tungsten ore. The significant export commodities in 2010 included tin ore, columbite, tantalite and tungsten ore. In 2010, the country’s tantalum production accounted for 15% of the global tantalum production.

    Peat increased by 10%, and tin increased by 46%. The country’s quarrying and mining sector accounted for only 0.7% of the GDP.

    For industrial minerals, about 100,000 tons of cement were produced by Cimerwa in 2010. The company planned to construct a new cement plant by the end of 2011. It was expected to produce 700,000 tons of cement per year. The company planned to export cement to eastern Congo and Burundi.

    In 2010, however, the demand for cement in Rwanda increased to almost 460,000 tonnes. Therefore, cement had to be imported to meet this growing demand. Demand for cement was expected to reach 680,000 tons by 2015.

    Metals In 2008, Trans Afrika Resources Limited carried out gold exploration activities in Gicumbi District.

    This site had resources that amounted to 5.55 million metric tons of gold. In 2010, Central Multi-Services SARL mined cassiterite at the rate of almost 300 tons/year. In the same year, Wolfram Mining and Processing produced 120 tons/year of tungsten. Euro trade International produced about 480 tons/year.

    Equally, Natural Resources Development Rwanda Ltd produced between 12 and 36 tons/year. of tungsten.

    For fossil fuels, Rwanda’s Lake Kivu was estimated to contain 60 billion m3 of natural gas. In 2010, KibuyePower1 Limited extracted natural gas from Lake Kivu. Kivuwatt Limited planned to construct a gas-fired power station to extract natural gas from Lake Kivu. Mining activities surrounding River Sebeya in the Western Province were suspended due to pollution. These activities were polluting River Sebeya, which is a source of livelihood for the local people.

    Mining in this area will continue only after the execution of proper environment protection measures.

    Adopted from Geography for Rwandan schools, Senior 4, student book.(REB)

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. According to the passage, what are the main resources in Rwanda?

    2. How much has the quarrying and mining sectors contribute towards the GDP?

    3. Why do you think the demand for cement increased at a high rate?

    4. Where, according to the passage were gold exploration activities carried out?

    5. What did Kivuwatt Limited plan in 2010?

    6. Explain the consequences of polluting River Sebeya.

    • Text 2: Thirteen held for felling trees

    Read the newspaper article provided below and answer the questions that follow:

    Nyagatare – Thirteen people have been arrested for illegally transporting a rare type of an indigenous tree that is found in the natural forests located in Nyagatare and Gatsibo districts. The tree known by its scientific name as, Euclea schimperi is also locally referred to as imishikiri.

    According to the police, the tree, which is a raw material for manufacturing of perfumes and other cosmetics, is smuggled through Uganda to India, Philippines and Singapore, among other destinations. Police spokesman Superintendent Theos Badege confirmed the arrests, adding that illegal exploitation of trees was unacceptable.

    He warned those involved in the illegal act that they would face the full force of the law. “We work closely with the Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA). So, when such cases appear, we enforce the law,” said police spokesman. “Illegal cutting of trees is punishable by the law ... we don’t mind the reasons. Suspects are held by the police and will appear before the court to answer charges.”

    Phoebe Mukamana, an official of the Rwanda National Forest Authority in the province, said the tree species were endangered. Mukamana noted that the evergreen Euclea schimperi is close to its ecological limit and very rare. She said the felling of this tree species had been silently on-going for a while. “The tree’s habitat is found in the isolated, scattered woodland in the districts of Gatsibo, Nyagatare and Kayonza. The cutting of the tree infringes law no. 47/1988 of 5/12/1988 on the protection of forests,” she explained. Fred Atuhe Sabiti, the Mayor of Nyagatare, the most affected district, said authorities were determined to curb the illegal acts.

    He said at least 90 percent of those involved in cutting the trees had been nabbed. “Courts at first handled it as a mere crime of cutting trees ... but this is now known as an organized crime of smuggling a special tree from Rwanda.

    They now hand down maximum punishments that range from six months to three years,” he said. All the 13 suspects are expected to appear in court today.

    By: Stephen Rwembeho Published: July 12, 2012(New times)

    •  Comprehension questions

    a. From the newspaper extract, point out the measures put in place by the government of Rwanda to prevent illegal exploitation of trees and to conserve forests.

    b. Apart from the legal actions taken against those who cause deforestation, suggest other measures that the leaders in the above district should take to solve the problem.

    c. Do you think forest conservation and management is important in Rwanda?

    d. Write down your findings and present them in a class discussion.


    Vocabulary, sentence and summary writing

    1. Explain the following words as used in the passage.

    a. natural resources

    b. demand

    c. investments

    d. production

    e. species

    f. cosmetics

    g. Suspects

    h. infringe

    i. nab

    j. woodland

    2. Construct grammatically correct sentences with each of the above terms.

    3. Write a summary of the above article in not more than 20 lines.

    8.2. Talking about the role of national assets



    Reading and text analysis.


    Vocabulary, sentence and composition writing

    1. 1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look for the missing meanings of the words in the table below.


    1. Use each of the above words or phrases in your own sentence.

    2. Write a 150 composition about what to be done to preserve public places and assets.

    8.3. Talking about problems related to the national assets


    Reading and text analysis.

    Text: Volcanoes National Park

    Read the text below and attempt the questions that follow:

    The Volcanoes National Park is located in the Northwestern region of Rwanda.

    The park is also known as the Volcanoes National Park. It is connected to the Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Gahinga Gorilla National Park in Uganda. The establishment of Virunga National Park dates to 1925 under King Albert I of Belgium.

    This was part of the first African national parks known as the Volcanoes National Park. The Volcanoes National Park is known for its mountain gorillas which are an endangered species. The Rwandan government has conserved and protected this habitat to ensure that the population of these endangered animals increases. This has been achieved through intervention measures such as the mountain gorilla naming locally known as “Kwita-Izina”

    The Volcanoes National Park sits on five of the eight volcanoes. They are the Karisimbi, Bisoke, Muhabura, Gahinga and Sabyinyo Mountains. The mountains have rain and bamboo forests. The Volcanoes National Park is naturally endowed with tourist attractions that have placed it on the world map as the most well conserved and protected environment and homeland to the mountain gorillas.

    The park also has the forest giraffe, African elephants and buffaloes. The park is threatened by poaching and encroachment from neighboring communities. Poachers from neighboring countries especially the Democratic Republic of Congo kill elephants for their ivory and kidnap the young mountain gorillas for trafficking.

    The government together with other international partners has created a team of professional game rangers to ensure that poaching and other human related threats are minimized in the park. This park is the major source of foreign exchange in the country. It contributes the greatest percentage of the tourism earnings in Rwanda. 

    Text adapted from geography for Rwandan schools senior 4 student’s book p376.

    • Comprehension questions:

    a. Where is Volcanoes National Park located?

    b. With the above text, give the reasons why Virunga national park is regarded as a national asset.

    c. Mention some animals which are found in the Virunga national park.

    d. What according to the passage is threatening the existence of the Volcanoes national park? Explain in detail.


    Vocabulary, sentence and essay writing

    I. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the missing meanings of

    the words.

    1. endangered

    2. species

    3. endowed

    4. threatened

    5. encroachment

    II. Use each of the above words or phrases in your own sentence.

    III. Write a 300-word essay discussing measures to be taken to protect Virunga national park.

    8.4. Describing a visit to a national park


    Reading and text analysis.

    •  Text. A memorable visit to Rwanda

    Read the article below and answer the questions that follow.

    David Luiz’s memorable visit to Rwanda.


    David, accompanied by his mother and fiancée, began his trip by visiting the Kigali Genocide Memorial, where he paid respects to the victims of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi. He learned about the causes of the genocide and how Rwandans have built anew nation on a foundation of dignity and togetherness. David and his family honoured the victims by laying a wreath and observing a moment of silence.

    He went on to meet the president of Rwanda, H.E. Paul Kagame, before heading to SingitaKwitonda Lodge in the Northern Province. There, David planted an indigenous tree as part of efforts to reforest areas surrounding the stunning Volcanoes National Park-home to the endangered mountain gorillas.

    Kicking off day two, David and his family trekked through the volcanoes to see Rwanda’s mountain gorillas. During the incredible wildlife experience, they learnt about the country’s successful efforts to conserve and protect the gorillas and their habitat.

    David then attended a national league football match at Kigali Regional Stadium where he met players, young Rwandans from the Irebero Goalkeeper Training Centre and enthusiastic fans.

    David concluded his trip by meeting hundreds of Arsenal fans at the Kigali Convention Centre where he answered questions on his experience in Rwanda, his life and football career.

    David’s trip was part of Visit Rwanda’s groundbreaking partnership with us, which also includes a focus on football development through a unique partnership between the club, the Rwandan Football Federation and the National Ministry of Sports and Culture to develop and nurture local football talent at the grassroots level for girls and boys.

    David Luiz said: “It has been incredible to learn about this wonderful country and experience the welcoming spirit of the Rwandan people. I came with the curiosity to learn about the country, considering what it went through 25 years ago. I have to say I was inspired by how fast it has moved forward and how it has become a progressive, fast-growing nation with so many amazing things to see and do.

    “My family and I are so thankful for the opportunity to come here and see the passion of football fans, experience Rwanda’s culture and witness breath-taking scenery. From trekking to see mountain gorillas to watching local football and mixing with fans of all ages, it has been a humbling and wonderful experience. We can’t wait to come back and see even more of this beautiful country. I’m going to recommend all my friends to spend their holidays in Rwanda.”The Arsenal Football Club article.

    •  Comprehension questions:

    1. What attracted David Luiz when he arrived in Virunga national park?

    2. Why was David’s trip to Rwanda very significant? Provide details.

    3. Explain the importance of preserving tourism sites in Rwanda.

    4. What did David like most about Rwanda during his visit?

    5. From reading the text above, what advice would you give to a person visiting Rwanda for the first time?


    Vocabulary, sentence and summary writing

    1. 1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the missing meanings of the words or phrases in the table below.


    2. Use the words provided on the table above to construct correct sentences.

    3. Summarize the article “David Luiz’s memorable visit to Rwanda”

    8.5. Language structure: Adverbs of frequency, determiners, a few and very few, definite and indefinite articles

    I. Adverbs of frequency

    Adverbs of frequency tell how often an action takes place. Examples of such adverbs include; rarely, often, sometimes seldom, usually, always etc. They all answer the question “how often”. If the verb is a form of are, is, was or were ,then the adverb occurs after the verb.

    Adverbs of frequency usually occur in the middle position, as in the examples below:

    2. The old man is always in such a hurry.

    3. I sometimes go to visit the national park.

    4. Tourists often stay at Singita hotel when they come to visit the Virunga national park.

    5. Tom is always happy.

    6. I was often nervous when I was living with him.


    Put the verb in the correct tense with the adverb of frequency provided in the brackets.

    1. Our teacher, Mrs. Jones, (never/be) late for her lessons.

    2. I (often/clean) my bedroom at the weekend.

    3. My brother (hardly ever/help) me with my homework.

    4. I (sometimes/be) bored in the math lessons.

    5. We (rarely/watch) football on TV.

    6. You and Tony(never/play) computer games with me.

    II. Quantifiers


    A quantifier is a word or a phrase which is used before a noun to indicate the amount or quantity. “some”, “many”, “a lot of” and “a few “are examples of quantifiers. Quantifiers can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns

    • Affirmative statements: I would like some tea and bread please.
    •  Offers: Would you be interested in some advice?

    It is used with both countable and uncountable nouns.

    I. A great deal

    This expression is all synonymous with large quantity quantifiers or numbers

    (when referring to countable things)


    When the national assets are well treated, the country benefits a great deal of money.

    II. A few and (very) few

    Both are used for the countable nouns.

    The difference in meaning is subtle, but usually (very) few puts a little more attention on the negative—that there is not a large number (of people or things). A few puts a little more attention on the positive—that there is a small number (of people or things).


    a. Most of his books are boring, but there are a few that I like. [=I like a small number of them]

    b. Most of his books are boring. There are (very) few that I like. [=there are not many that I like]

    III. Determiners


    Determiners are all those words that precede and show how a noun is being used in a sentence.

     It precedes and modifies nouns.

    1. The definite article the

    This article usually precedes a specific noun or a noun that was previously mentioned in speech or writing.

    It is required when the noun being referred to represents something that is one of a kind rather than the generic.


    The piece of music I heard was cool.

    The as used here implies reference to a specific or identifiable piece of music rather than all types of music. It is required when the noun it refers to represents something named earlier in the text.

    The definite article is also used with certain kinds of proper nouns such as:

    Geographical places: The River Nile, The West, The national park, The Museum. Public institutions/facilities/groups: The Sheraton, The Catholic Church

    Newspapers: The New Times, The New Vision, The Monitor, The LA Times,The New York Times

    2. Indefinite article - “a/an”

    The two indefinite articles, a and an are used to refer to an unspecified count noun in a less specified manner. 

    For instance: a cat. This refers to an unspecified cat.

    ‘a’ is used before singular count-nouns that begin with consonant sounds.

    Examples: a phone, a basket, a stick, a university.

    ‘an’ is used before singular count-nouns that begin with vowels or vowel-like sounds.


    an orange, an hour, an army, an armed group of people, an ostrich, etc.


    I. Complete the dialogues with a,an and the. Capitalize as necessary.

    1. A: I have …………. idea. let’s go on……. picnic Saturday.

    B: ok

    2. A: Did you have fun at………picnic yesterday?

    B: Sure, I did. And you?

    3. A: You’d better have ………. good reason for being late.

    B: I do

    4. A: Did you think…………reason Mike gave for being late was believable?

    B: Not really

    5. A: Where is my blue shirt?

    B: It is……. washing machine.

    II. Complete the sentences with a great deal and a few

    1. I have visited …………. cities in the United State. So, I still need to visit more places.

    2. There isn’t ……. money in my bank account.

    3. I haven’t gotten ………. mails lately, and I can’t manage yours very easily.

    4. I can’t go with you because I have got ……. tasks to do.


    I. Write the following sentences by inserting the adverbs of frequency provided in the brackets.

    1. They go swimming in the lake. (sometimes)

    2. The weather is bad in November. (always)

    3. Peggy and Frank are late. (usually)

    4. I have met him before. (never)

    5. John watches TV. (seldom)

    6. I was in contact with my sister. (often)

    7. She will love him. (always)

    II. Complete the sentences with (very) few, a few,

    1. ……………. students paid for the trip, so it was cancelled. (few/a few)

    2. I heard the cheers…………………. minutes before midnight. (few/a few)

    3. Many people were invited, but …………. came, so the meeting did not take place. (few/a few)

    III. Analyse the following case study by answering the questions that follow.

    Factors influencing forest exploitation

    John Richards is a European who decided to spend his summer holidays in Rwanda. While in the country, he visited various areas. He was very pleased by what he saw. He wrote this down in his notebook: Rwanda is a country that is so rich with flora and fauna. The country’s geography is well-balanced. Its climate is good. The drainage is good, and the infrastructure is well developed. The Eastern Province is made up of savanna grasslands with beautiful bushes and thickets in Akagera National Park. The northern region beautifully rolls with hills and mountains that are covered by evergreen trees. The forests offer a home to the endangered mountain gorillas. The Nyungwe Forest has tall trees that almost reach the heavens. The wonderful canopy walk was a great experience. Rwanda’s people are warm and very hardworking. There is a lot of potential for exploitation in the forests of this green land of a thousand hills. I will definitely come back here.

    a. Account for the variation of the plant cover of Rwanda witnessed by John.

    b. Identify the forested areas that are mentioned in the story.

    c. Name the forest resources that are available for exploitation.

    d. Explain the factors that influence the exploitation of forests that have been mentioned by Mr. Richards.

    e. Evaluate the importance of forest resources to Rwanda.


    LEARNING AREA: Oral and written communication

    Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of media and reporting.



    9.1. Describing words and expressions used in media


    Reading and text analysis.

    •  Text: How to start a newspaper

    A smartly dressed young woman stood at the front of the school hall and addressed the senior students of the school. “Good morning, everyone,” she started. My name is Faida Muhoza. As you know, I am the chief editor of your newspaper, The Ladies Daybreak. But my career as journalist began a long time ago. I was one of the reporters of our school newspaper which we called ‘Our little daughter.’ Later, I trained as a journalist at college. But there is only one place to acquire experience, and that’s on the job; and it is never too early to start learning about being a reporter.

    I have come here today to tell you how you can run your own newspaper. Let us start by talking about the four steps towards starting a newspaper. First, you must consider the purpose of your newspaper. Second, you must form an editorial committee to produce the newspaper. Third, you must decide on the types of articles you want to include in the newspaper. Finally, you must decide on the size, shape and make up of your newspaper.

    The first duty of the editorial committee is to agree on the main purpose of the newspaper and therefore, the contents. The editorial committee is made of five members who perform different duties. The chief editor is to make sure that the committee works well as a team, to check the whole newspaper for quality and content, to write the editorial column in the newspaper, to chair most of the editorial meetings and report. The editor reviews the articles from the reporters to give any comment on articles presented. The chief editor and the committee proofread the articles; they work with the designer(s) on the arrangement of the articles. The Chief Editor also chairs editorial committee meetings.

    The Secretary has the duty of handling all correspondences, takes notes at the editorial meetings, receives articles from reporters and passes them on to the editors. He or she works with and helps the chief editor. The Designer organizes articles and advertisements by deciding on the space between them, etc. He or she organizes the illustrations and photographs; works with the editors to make sure that the articles have the right structure and the articles are ready on time. He or she should also ensure that the printing goes smoothly.

    The treasurer is to look after money and find ways of getting funds to pay for the printings. The treasurer contacts advertisers and informs the designer about all the advertisements on various issues. He/she organizes the sales and distribution of the newspapers and pays for printing expenditures. He or she also receives money from sales and advertisements.

    Adapted from English Language, book 6, p.51- REB.

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. Analyze the steps to start a newspaper as shown in paragraph two.

    2. Examine the duty of the editorial committee.

    3. Contrast the role of the chief editor with that of the secretary in the production of a newspaper.

    4. Assess the contribution of a designer to the writing of an effective newspaper.

    5. Determine the importance of a treasurer for the planning of a newspaper.


    vocabulary, summary and composition writing

    a) Use a dictionary or a thesaurus to find the meanings of the following words

    i. …reporters… (paragraph 1)

    ii. …proofread… (paragraph 3)

    iii. …chairs… (paragraph 3)

    iv. …editorial meeting… (paragraph 4)

    v. …treasurer… (paragraph 5)

    vi. …expenditures… (paragraph 5)

    b) In not more than 60 words, summarize the above passage

    C) Write a 300-word composition on “The role of media to the development of Rwanda.”

    9.2. Describing a scene


    Reading and text analysis.

    • Text: Un accident!

    Three decades ago, a fatal car crash shattered a small town and a group of friends. After all these years, Michael Paterniti finally tells the tale. The accident occurred on Wednesday night before Thanksgiving of my senior year in high school. It left one friend injured and one dead, and for a while afterward, the whole thing seemed so surreal and impossible that all we could do. Friends, family and anyone connected but not in the accident itself was trying to recreate the simultaneities of that evening. The first person at the scene, the shock of the couple at the nearby house from which the call was made for an ambulance, and then: who called whom, and who was where when they heard about it? All remained a mystery. Given our own shock, we couldn’t imagine the parents of the victims hearing those first words: There’s been an accident...

    When the news reached my family that night, in that orbit of calls, my parents, perhaps like other parents among our friends, presumed their child might have been in the car. That was not the case, though it might have been, had I made a different decision earlier that evening. For us seniors, it was a free night with no school the next day, a holiday from everything. I spent mine with my girlfriend, so I missed the pre-party and then the ride to the real party. And so, I missed the accident, too.

    There were two cars, belonging to Jax and Flynn, driving from the beach through the town to someone’s parentless house. Riding with Jax was Seger, and with Flynn, Xavier. On a stretch of road by one of the town’s country clubs, Jax lost control of his car, hit a telephone pole, and skidded a hundred feet into a tree. The crash drove the engine through the dashboard. To find the bodies, one had to cut through the wreckage. At that moment, the first siren sounded, the first numbers were dialed and the bodies were gathered and rushed away. I was watching a movie with my girlfriend; I can’t remember exactly. Lost in the oblivious haze of youth, I was certain, like millions of teenagers before me, that nothing would ever touch us there until, of course, it did.

    Extract from, The accident: A crash that shattered a group of friends by Michael Paterniti

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. Describe the effect of the accident as shown in the first paragraph.

    2. How did the speaker’s parents react when they heard about the accident?

    3. Explain the reason why the speaker escaped the accident.

    4. Discuss the cause of the accident as described in paragraph three.

    5. Label the damage caused by the accident.

    6. Discuss the ways in which accidents can be avoided.


    vocabulary, sentence and summary writing

    1. Match the words in the table below with their respective meaning.


    2. Write one grammatically correct sentence with each of the terms in the above table.

    3. In not more than 60 words, summarize the above text.

    9.3.Describing a report


    Reading and text analysis.

    • Text: The valley speech day

    The guest of honour was the regional commissioner Mr. Frank Mmbando. He praised Valley High School’s achievements in his address at the school’s annual speech day ceremony held last Friday in the school hall.

    The ceremony began with a lively song by the junior school choir. The headmaster, Mndeme, then welcomed staff, students, parents and the guests of honour regional commissioner, Frank Mmbando and regional education adviser, Mrs Maria Athmani. The headmaster next asked the commissioner to present prizes to the highest achieving students. There were 50 prizes in total awarded for achievement in academic subjects, sports and arts.

    After presentations, commissioner Mmbando gave his address. He said that, decade after decade, graduates of the school have gone on to do important work in the region and other parts of the nation as doctors, engineers, businesspeople, teachers and workers of many different kinds. “Valley has always stood for hard work and high achievement. There is no magic formula but a simple recipe: students and teachers turn up to their lessons on time, look smart, respect each other and work hard. When this is repeated day after day, over time everyone can look back and be proud. We too, in the community are proud of you. “The commissioner said that money would be available to increase the number of classrooms to meet the growing demand for admissions at the school. He told the staff and students to continue their good work.

    After other speeches by the regional education adviser and the head boy, there was a short musical production by members of the senior school entitled ‘The World Awaits’, which was very well received. Then, after the singing of the school song, the headmaster closed the ceremony.

    Extract from English in use Book 2 by Longman

    • Comprehension questions

    1. Explain the reason why some students were awarded as shown in paragraph one and two.

    2. Prove that Valley high school has always stood for hard work and high achievement.

    3. Analyse the reason why Valley high school has achieved high as shown in the third paragraph.

    4. What did the commissioner promise the staff and students?

    5. After reading this passage, what would you do if you wished to improve your academic performance?


    vocabulary, sentence and summary writing

    a. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to find synonyms for the words in the table below


    b. Construct one meaningful sentence with each of the terms in the above table.

    c. Debate the motion “Discipline and hard work are the pillars of success.”

    9.4. Describing the stages in reporting an event


    Reading and text analysis.

    • Text 1: News and feature articles

    A Newspaper is a printed publication usually issued daily, weekly or monthly. It consists of folded unstapled sheets and contains news, articles, opinions, advertisements and correspondence. It gives information and opinions about current events and news. On the other hand, a Magazine is a periodical  publication containing articles and illustrations, often on a subject or aimed at a particular readership or audience.

    Newspaper articles are in two categories: News articles and feature articles. News articles cover the basics of current events while feature articles are longer and more in depth than regular news articles. Feature articles are often research-based.

    The best way to structure a newspaper article is to first write an outline. Review your research and notes. Then jot down the ideas in a continuous flow. There are six structural aspects which can lead us to constructing a good article. They include headline, sub-heading, topic sentence, paragraphing, main body, and conclusion. Where necessary, one could use relevant quotations and sayings to contextualize the content of the article.

    A newspaper always contains many kinds of articles. Most of us do not read the whole newspaper. We choose articles we are most interested in. We find these articles by reading the headlines. A headline is a heading for an article. It is printed in large, bold letters. It gives you a short description of what the article is about. Headlines are not written in full sentences; they start with capital letters, but they do not end with a full stop.

    There are two types of newspapers: Tabloid and broadsheet. In newspapers or magazines some terms are commonly used, such as broadcast, brochure, bulletin, edition, gazette, magazine, journal, publication and print media. There is a multitude of different types of articles, including news stories, features, profiles, instructional articles, and so on.

    Extract from: English Language S6, Student Book, REB

    • Comprehension questions

    1. Distinguish a newspaper from a magazine.

    2. Contrast a news article with a feature article.

    3. Analyze the structure for writing a good newspaper article.

    4. Determine the importance of headlines in a newspaper.


    Vocabulary and sentence writing

    1. Using a dictionary or a thesaurus, find the meanings of the terms in the table below


    2. Write one grammatically correct sentence with each of the words in the above table.

    3. In not less than 70 words, summarize the above passage.

    9.5. Expressing probability on a past event


    Reading and text analysis.

    • Text: The experience of regret

    Humans have the need and the ability to make sense of their actions and behaviour. Such interpretations are not always pleasant; in fact, they can be very unpleasant. People can, for example, feel embarrassed, ashamed, or guilty. Here we concentrate on one potential response: regret.

    Regret is a negative experience concerning the cause and a desire to reverse the current situation. It is an emotion oriented toward the past, signaling an unfavorable evaluation of a past choice. Essentially, regret experiences involve thoughts about counterfactuals, that is, “what might have been” instead of “what is”. These are thoughts of one’s previous action or inaction and how things would have been different, had one behaved differently.

    Regret is an experience that is crucial in the lives of humans, which is reflected in the various areas where regret has been documented such as health and well-being, personality, and romance. Regrets can be very intense, with some people being more vulnerable to experiencing this emotion than others.

    Regrets can have a variety of consequences, such as self-blame, change of expectations, rumination about lost opportunities, as well as adjustments and behavior changes. When people regret something, they are likely to consider the opportunities that they did not take and the choices with better outcomes that they could have made. However, the consequences following regret don’t always need to be negative.

    Research shows some benefits of regret that are rooted in the counterfactual thoughts associated with this experience, at least when people perceive some level of personal responsibility for their actions or inactions. Regret involves an inconsistency between subjectively relevant goals regarding a situation or life in general and one’s action or inaction. Through this inconsistency, regret helps people to learn from the past. Humans recognize regret as a positive influence on future behavior. Regret signals that something has gone wrong and that something needs to change. It can trigger a behavioral response to improve circumstances and one’s life. Indeed, regret can lead to instrumental corrective actions and promote psychological adjustment and changes in life.

    The literature thus indicates that regret can lead to change. It plays a role in shaping learning processes from past experiences to the present and the future. The emotion itself is the negative sting that seems to motivate learning and change via inferences and expectations. The sting is an affective expression of the perceived inconsistency between one’s actions or inactions and onesidedly relevant goals, thus an inconsistency in people’s sense of meaning.

    Understanding and resolving such inconsistencies shapes these meaning frameworks and contributes to a general sense of meaning. The motivated process to learn from and resolve the inconsistencies associated with regret is essentially a search for meaning in life.

    Adapted from The Psychological Review Journal, Vol. 102(2), Apr 1995, p.379-395

    •  Comprehension questions

    1. Based on the above passage, assess the influence of regret on a human’s emotions as shown in paragraph one and two.

    2. Analyze the negative effect of regret on people’s behavior.

    3. Discuss the veracity of the saying “regrets don’t always need to be negative.”

    4. Examine the positive influence of regret on people’s future behavior.

    5. To which extent can regret lead to a search for meaning in life as shown in the last paragraph?


    Vocabulary, Sentence writing and Composition

    1. 1. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus to find the meanings of the words and phrases listed below.

    a. …reverse… (paragraph 2)

    b. …counterfactuals… (paragraph 2)

    c. …vulnerable… (paragraph 3)

    d. …self-blame… (paragraph 3)

    e. …rumination… (paragraph 3)

    f. …adjustments… (paragraph 3)

    g. …trigger… (paragraph 4)

    h. …inferences… (paragraph 5)

    i. …inconsistency… (paragraph 5)

    2. Construct grammatically correct sentences with each of the above terms.

    3. Write a 250-word composition on “the impact of regret on future humans’ behavior.”

    9.6. Language structure: Past perfect continuous, passive voice,

    1. Past perfect continuous


    1. The manager had been taking money from the company.

    2. They had been planning to write this report since last month.

    3. The witness said that the driver had been talking on his mobile phone.

    4. The car had been emerging into the main road when the accident took place.

    5. Janet had been preparing her news presentation for an hour when I arrived.

    6. Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.

    7. Reporters had been waiting there for more than two hours when the press conference finally started.


    The past perfect continuous is used to talk about actions or situations that were in progress before some other actions took place. Using the past perfect continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect. You can use time expressions like ‘for’ and ‘since’ with this tense. You have learnt about the use of ‘since’ and ‘for’ in unit 3 of this book.


    1. Put the verbs into the correct form of the past perfect continuous.

    2. We (sleep) ………. for 12 hours when he woke us up.

    3. They (wait) ………. at the station for 90 minutes when the train finally arrived.

    4. We (look for) ………… her ring for two hours and then we found it in the bathroom.

    5. I (not / walk) ………… for a long time, when it suddenly began to rain.

    6. How long (learn / she).………. English before she went to London?

    7. Frank caught the flu because he (sing)………… in the rain too long.

    8. He (drive) ………… less than an hour when he ran out of petrol.

    9. They were very tired in the evening because they (help) ………. on the farm all day.

    10. I (not / work).………… all day; so, I wasn’t tired and went to the disco at night.

    11. They (cycle) ………... all day so their legs were sore in the evening.

    2. Passive voice


    1. This article was written by a young journalist.

    2. All articles had been checked by the chief editor.

    3. The newspaper has been banned by the government recently.

    4. The news was presented late because of the football match.

    5. Reporters were advised on professional rules of ethics.


    The passive voice is marked by be+ the past participle form of the verb + by + noun (agent). The verb in a passive sentence contains the appropriate form of the auxiliary be and the past participle form of the main verb.

    We use the passive voice when we are interested in what is done rather than who does it. The phrase by + noun (agent) is left out when the doer of the action has been mentioned earlier, is obvious, is unknown or is considered unimportant.

    Below is a table showing the main verb forms.



    Put the following sentences in passive voice.

    1. The secretary received the article in the morning.

    2. The chief editor structured all the reports himself.

    3. Jimmy had carefully planned the writing of the report.

    4. The editor understood the purpose of the report.

    5. The reporters gathered and selected the information wisely.

    6. This made the writing much easier.

    7. The manager had taken the money from the company.

    8. A burglar broke into the house.

    9. Many journalists use cameras and reporters.

    10. A police officer rescued a seven-year-old boy.

    3. Reported speech

    a. Examples

    a. Direct speech: The senior editor said, “you wrote a good article.”

    Reported speech: The senior editor said (that) I had written a good article.

    b. Direct speech: The minister of infrastructure said, “new machines arrived yesterday.”

    Reported speech: The minister of infrastructure said (that) new machines had arrived the previous day.

    c.      Direct speech: “Thirty news journalists graduated yesterday,” the dean of faculty announced. Reported speech: The dean of  

               faculty announced (that) thirty news journalists had graduated the day before.

    d. Direct speech: “This girl wrote a very good article for Nyampinga Newspaper,” said the headmistress.

       Reported speech: The headmistress said (that) the girl had written a very good article for Nyampinga Newspaper.


    In newspapers, reporters need to repeat what other people have said. In this case, the mastery of reported speech is needed. Mostly in newspapers, the simple past is used to report events. This tense changes into past perfect if the event is reported indirectly. However, to report a progressive past event, the past perfect continuous tense is used. In reported speech, the word that is optional. That’s why it is put between brackets in the above sentence.

    The table below shows other important changes:



    Put the following sentences into reported speech.

    a. The newspaper reported, “The manager intended to take a big amount of money.”

    b. The policeman said, “The robbers broke into the house and stole money.”

    c. “Police officers rescued a seven-year-old boy,” the witnesses told ImvahoNshya.

    d. The driver reported, “There were many passengers at the scene.”

    e. Brown said, “We didn’t hear gunshots and the boy was out here fighting with somebody.”

    f. ‘The magazines were featuring various articles about women’s rights,’ the project manager told us.

    g. “The plane crashed en-route to Dubai,” The BBC reported.

    h. “Seventy per cent of the farmers used fertilizers last year,” the minister of agriculture told The New times.

    i. “Her article inspired young entrepreneurs in this region,” said the Chief Editor.

    j. “James was writing a report about the scene,” the police announced.


    I. Construct meaningful sentences with words below;

    a. Journalist

    b. Reporter

    c. Newspaper

    d. Advertisement

    e. Media

    f. Broadcasting

    g. Copyright

    h. Article

    i. Brochure

    j. Documentary

    II. Conduct a research on the role of the Rwandan media in the development of the country. 

    Thereafter, present your findings to rest of the class.

    III. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in brackets using the past perfect continuous.

    1. I ………………………… (work) all day, so I didn’t want to go out.

    2. She …………………. (sleep) for ten hours when I woke her.

    3. They ……………………. (live) in Beijing for three years when he lost his


    4. When we met, you …………………… (work) at that company for six months.

    5. We …………………. (eat) all day, so we felt a bit ill.

    6. He was red in the face because he ……………… (run).

    7. It ………………(rain), and the road was covered in water.

    8. I was really tired because I ……………………… (study).

    9. We ……………. (go) out for three years when we got married.

    10. It ….………. (snow) for three days.

    IV. Change these active sentences to passive ones. Choose if you need the agent or not.

    a. The Government is planning a new road near my house.

    b. My grandfather built this house in 1943.

    c. Picasso was painting Guernica at that time.

    d. The cleaner has cleaned the office.

    e. He had written three reports in 2017.

    f. John will tell you later.

    g. The traffic might have delayed Jimmy.

    h. They are building a new stadium near the station.

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