Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of national

    8.1.Talking about national assets
    Reading and exploitation of the text
    • Text 1: Environmental protection and socio-economic development.
    All human activities that are designed and implemented for the economic
    growth of a country and the social needs may impact on the environment either
    directly or indirectly. However, in as much as human beings strive to achieve
    social development, environmental conservation should be observed. Economic
    development is associated with technological and industrial advancement. If
    people are not sensitive to the environment, so much can go wrong in matters
    of the environment while pursuing economic growth.

    Some economic activities can be destructive to the environment even though
    they are income generating. For example, in commercial agriculture, farmers
    may have to use fertilisers and pesticides in order to have higher produce that
    maximises profits. The practice can lead to economic growth but at the same
    time the chemicals are likely to destroy the natural resources such as the soil
    and water.

    Other human activities that can have adverse effects on the environment
    include: diversion of water courses, the extraction of minerals, emission of heat
    and gases into the atmosphere due to industrial processes, deforestation as a
    result of people using trees as raw materials to make commercial products and
    genetic manipulation of natural plants to have more produce at lower costs.

    It is also important to note that environmental degradation can be quite costly
    to a country. The cost of land reclamation is high. These may involve restoration
    of green cover, cleaning up of landfills and protection of endangered species.
    The economic impact can also be in terms of loss of tourism industry. When
    the natural resources that serve as tourists’ attraction sites are polluted and
    diminished, this impacts negatively on the tourism sector. When there are 125
    fewer tourists visiting a country, the revenue also goes down and as a result the
    socio-economic development of that country is affected.

    Another way in which environmental protection is related to socio-economic
    development is that pollution can cause diseases on the population. Disease is
    an economic aspect in the society because it means incurring costs in medical
    procedures and incapacitating a part of the population since when people get
    sick, they are less productive.

    Therefore, even as we strive for economic growth and social development,
    we should avoid over-exploitation of natural resources to avoid depletion. We
    should pursue development that encourages environmental sustainability.

    Adapted from General studies and communication skills, senior 4, p. 105-107

    • Comprehension questions
    1. Assess the linkage between environment protection and economic
    growth based on paragraph one.
    2. Determine the extent to which economic activities can be destructive to
    the environment.
    3. Identify other economic activities that can have negative effects on the
    4. Justify how environment degradation can be costly to the country.
    5. Examine the negative impact of economic growth on the tourism industry.
    6. Prove that environment protection is related to socio-economic

    development as shown in the sixth paragraph.


    8.2. Talking about the role of national assets


    Reading and text analysis

    • Text: Environment and Natural Resources
    The ministry of natural resources was established to ensure sustainable
    management and rational use of natural resources. The imbalance between
    population and natural resources is the biggest challenge that Rwanda has
    with regard to the management and protection of the environment and natural
    resources such as land, water resources, forests, minerals, etc. Degradation
    has occurred over the decades causing serious ecological and socio-economic
    problems that, if no adequate recovery measures are undertaken, would lead
    to an irreversible damage.

    Rwanda has an area of 26,338 km2 with a population of 10,762,085 million
    (2012 Census). Rwanda is known as the most densely populated sub-Saharan
    African country with its population density of 407 inhabitants per km. Land as
    a valuable resource and part of the national assets has been stated as one of
    the important pillars for sustainable development of Rwanda. It is therefore a
    priority area for agricultural development and a springboard in the fight against
    poverty. The Land sub-sector is one of the five sub-sectors that constitute the
    environment and natural resources sector. The objective of this sub-sector is to
    develop appropriate policies for land use and to ensure that all land resources
    are recorded and classified adequately and, that laws and appropriate land
    tenure systems are applied. A considerable proportion of Rwanda’s economy is 127
    delivered directly and indirectly from environmental resources. More than 80%
    of the Rwandan population derive their livelihoods directly from the country’s
    nature. All these factors and many others make this sub-sector significant to
    the nation’s development.

    Rwanda’s environment keeps changing as is evident in the extent of land
    degradation, declining water quality and quantity, increasingly unreliable
    climate, slums and a growing population of urban poor, and a shortage of
    wood and biomass resources. All these have affected the quality of life and
    the national economy. Environment and climate change programmes play an
    important role in increasing the productivity and sustainability of key sectors
    including land, forest management and agriculture. Rwanda environment
    management authority was established as an institution mandated to deal
    with environmental planning and regulation. This institution coordinates
    and reports on the implementation of the environment sub-sector activities.
    It also advises the government on all matters pertaining to environment and
    climate change. Through decentralised structures, this institution promotes
    and ensures that the environment is protected and natural resources, as part of
    the national assets, are sustainably managed.

    Mining is one of the sub-sectors that constitute the environment and natural
    resources sector. It has a mission to build a strong geology and mines sector
    in order to increase national revenues through proper management of
    the country’s mineral resources and with the capacity to monitor natural
    hazards. Mining sub-sector is one of the key priority areas that could trigger
    the economic growth of the country. This is possible if sufficient investment
    is made and the challenges that hinder the development of the sub-sector are
    removed. Mining is identified as one of the sectors that should be developed to
    expand the economic base, especially exports. It was recognised that there was
    need to know the mineral potential to strengthen investment and identify other
    minerals beyond the traditional ones-like tin.

    Forestry and nature conservation is one of the five sub-sectors that constitute
    the environment and natural resources sector. The objective of this sub-sector is
    to sustainably manage forest and biomass resources. Concerning environment
    issues, the forestry and nature conservation helps to map, assess and rehabilitate
    critically degraded ecosystems as part of the integrated management of critical

    Adapted from http://www.gov.rw/about-the-government/environment-andnatural-


    • Comprehension questions
    1. Discuss the main challenges that Rwanda has with regard to the
    management and protection of the environment and natural resources.
    2. Rephrase the objective of land sector as one of the pillars for sustainable
    development of Rwanda.
    3. Assess the mandate of Rwanda environment management authority.
    4. Examine the mission of the mining sector in relation with economic
    growth and environment protection.
    5. Explain the contribution of forestry and nature conservation to the

    management of ecosystems.


    • Text: Effects of Poaching

    Wild animals are being poached on a massive scale, with millions of individual
    animals of thousands of species worldwide killed or captured from their
    native habitats. Poaching poses a growing threat to elephants, rhinos, and
    other charismatic animals, as well as to smaller and more obscure creatures,
    like certain lizards and monkeys. Poachers sometimes kill or capture animals
    to sell them locally or for the global trade in wildlife. Wildlife trading is a
    major black market that has increased alongside rising wealth in Asia-a major
    consumer of wildlife-and the advent of e-commerce and social media websites.
    Some animals, such as birds, reptiles, and primates, are captured live so that
    they can be kept or sold as exotic pets. Slaughtered animals, on the other
    hand, have commercial value as food, jewellery, decor, or traditional medicine.

    The ivory tusks of African elephants, for example, are carved into trinkets or
    display pieces. The scales of pangolins, small animals that eat ants, are ground
    into powder and consumed for their purported healing powers. The meat of
    apes, snakes, and other bush animals is considered a delicacy in some parts of
    Africa. In addition to killing for direct profit, poachers target animals to prevent
    them from destroying crops or attacking livestock. This happens to lions and
    elephants in Africa, as well as to wolves, coyotes, and other predators in North
    America and beyond.

    Poaching has devastating consequences for wildlife. In some instances, it’s the
    primary reason why an animal faces a risk of extinction. This is the case with
    the African elephant, more than 100,000 of which were killed between 2014
    and 2017 for ivory. Poaching has also had a catastrophic impact on rhinos, with
    more than a thousand slaughtered a year for their horns.

    Poaching for the exotic pet trade affects an animal’s welfare in addition to its
    numbers in the wild. Most wild animals eat specialized diets found in nature,
    and they need space to fly, roam, and swing from branches. Captured animals are
    stuffed into boxes, suitcases, or sacks, and even if they survive transport, they
    often suffer in their new, unnatural situations.

    Then there’s the tragic ways poaching affects people. In Africa, nearly 600
    rangers charged with protecting wildlife were gunned down by poachers
    between 2009 and 2016 while in the line of duty. In the Democratic Republic
    of the Congo’s Virunga National Park, one of the continent’s most dangerous
    parks, at least 170 rangers have been killed during the past two decades. What’s
    more, poaching has been linked to armed militia groups in Africa suspected of
    trafficking ivory to fund their operations, and it often occurs alongside other crimes
    including corruption and money laundering. And poached animals can spread
    disease, such as Ebola.

    In addition to providing on-the-ground protection for animals, many countries
    make poaching an offense punishable by prison or monetary fees. Because
    poachers in Africa and Asia are often impoverished, penalties for poaching
    wildlife are generally less severe than those for trafficking wildlife. There are
    also numerous non-profit groups around the world working to end wildlife
    poaching. Another way people are working to end poaching is by trying to
    decrease demand for illegal wildlife products. If no one is buying the products,
    there will be no need to kill the animals.

    Adapted from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reference/


    • Comprehension questions
    1. Discuss the effect of poaching as explained in the first paragraph.
    2. Identify reasons behind wildlife poaching.
    3. Explain how poaching affects animals’ welfare.
    4. Assess the impact that poaching has on people’s life.

    5. Appreciate the measures taken to end wildlife poaching.

    • Text: A visit to Nyungwe national park
    Last week, I had a chance to visit Nyungwe rainforest, popularly known as
    Nyungwe National Park, which lies in the south west corner of Rwanda. What
    an evergreen and thick forest! It covers a vast area. I traversed the forest from
    one entry point to exit point. The journey takes approximately an hour. The
    forest covers an area of over 1000sq kilometres and it extends into Burundi in
    Kibira national park. It’s believed to be one of Africa’s most evergreen forests,
    which illustrates its rich biodiversity.

    The forest weather is quite chilly but friendly. It is truly an awesome experience
    for nature lovers. It has a well tarmac road traversing the forest, intended for
    long-term use. History reveals that Nyungwe forest has been in existence for
    thousands of years. For the purposes of ecotourism, trees are determinants of a
    forest ecosystem as they considerably influence forest micro-climate-available
    light, wetness, and temperatures. Therefore, the diversity and vastness of a
    forest strongly depend on the richness of tree species. In fact, Nyungwe forest
    hosts multi-tree-species rather than one-tree-species. No matter what your
    interests are, you will never run out of ways to enjoy the beautiful forest. Some
    of these species can only be found in Nyungwe forest and nowhere else. It is
    truly an awesome experience for nature lovers. What a memorable adventure!
    More interestingly, Nyungwe forest hosts canopy, a loveliest man-made touristic
    feature. As likely as not visitors can’t afford to leave the forest without enjoying
    a canopy walk. Canopy walk is a window of opportunity to view the panoramic
    forest view. Visitors can be able to correlate and learn about the role of forests in
    maintaining air quality, regulating precipitation and mitigating climate change.

    Finally, visitors’ security in the forest is effectively guaranteed by park rangers
    in collaboration with the security organs. Equally, the park rangers protect the
    forest from any encroachment or menace of every kind. There are hundreds of
    species of animals throughout the world which are fast disappearing because
    of human interference in their natural habitat. The more flora and fauna we
    lose, the fewer there are to contribute to individual ecosystems. Responsible
    travel to natural areas may conserve the environment and bring huge benefits
    to humans.

    Thanks, relevant authorities, for putting in place policy and legal frameworks
    for the conservation of forests.

    Adapted from https://www.newtimes.co.rw/opinions/nyungwe-forestmagnificent-


    • Comprehension Questions
    1. Describe the physical feature of Nyungwe national park.
    2. Appreciate the contribution of the multi-tree-species to the beauty of
    Nyungwe national park.
    3. Assess the role of the Nyungwe canopy as a touristic feature.

    4. Determine the role played by rangers in Nyungwe national park.

    8.5. Language structure: Adverbs of frequency, determiners
    and quantifiers
    I. Adverbs of frequency
    2. I have often visited the Huye national museum.
    3. Rwandans seldom visit their national forests.
    4. Foreign tourists are always present in Nyungwe national forest.
    5. Poachers should never be hidden because they destroy the national assets.
    6. Rwanda natural resources are taken care of daily.

    • Note:

    Adverbs of frequency are used to describe how often something is done, occurs
    or happens, either in definite or indefinite terms. An adverb that describes
    definite frequency is one such as weekly, daily, or yearly. An adverb describing
    indefinite frequency doesn’t specify an exact time frame. We generally place
    the adverb of frequency between the subject and the verb but it usually comes
    after the verb “be”. If the sentence has more than one verb in it(e.g. an auxiliary
    or a modal verb), we usually put the adverb after the first part of the verb.
    Examples of adverbs of frequency are sometimes, often, rarely, etc.

    Below is a table of those adverbs and their frequency.

    I. Use the adverb and the correct form of the verbs in brackets to complete
    the sentences.
    1. Our teacher, Mrs Jones, …………. (never / be) late for lessons.
    2. I …………. (often / clean) my bedroom at the weekend.
    3. My brother …………. (hardly ever / help) me with my homework.
    4. I …………… (sometimes / be) bored in the maths lessons.
    5. We ……………. (rarely / watch) football on TV.
    6. You and Tony …………. (never / play) computer games with me.
    7. You …………. (usually / be) at the sports centre on Sunday.
    8. The school bus …………. (always / arrive) at half past eight.
    9. Poachers …………….. (always/be) punished by the law.
    10. He …………… (seldom/remember) that natural resources are part of
    national assets.
    II. Determiners
    1. The Rwandan government cares for the national assets.
    2. A national park is part of the national assets.
    3. The Huye national museum is Rwanda’s historical richness.
    4. James has never been at the national stadium.
    5. An Asian tourist has praised Rwanda officials for natural resources conservation

    6. Nyungwe national forest is a valuable touristic site.

    • Note:
    Determiners are important to proper sentence structure and comprehension.
    They are important because they work to clarify nouns and make a sentence
    as precise and focused as possible. Determiners are words that come before a
    noun and serve to modify the noun. They modify nouns by providing context and
    specificity to the noun.

    Articles are the most popular types of determiners. The main articles are ‘the,’
    ‘a,’ and ‘an.’ ‘The’ is a definite article, which means it refers to a specific person,
    place, or thing. When we use the word ‘the’ as a determiner, it increases the
    exactness of the subject in a sentence. On the other hand, the indefinite articles’a’
    and ‘an’ are indefinite articles, which means that the noun they precede isn’t an
    exact person, place or thing; rather, the article creates a more generalized noun.
    ‘A’ is used in front of nouns starting with a consonant sound while ‘an’ is used
    before a noun starting with a vowel sound.

    Complete the following sentences using a, an or the. In some cases, no articles

    are needed.

    1. If you are really hungry, you can eat ……………… apple.
    2. She went on to become ………………….. successful playback singer.
    3. ………………… library on the corner has an amazing collection of story
    4. I don’t speak ………………… French very well, but I can make myself understood.
    5. She is ………………… prettiest girl I have ever seen.
    6. ‘Where is ………………… cheese?’ ‘I ate it.’
    7. Move ………………… books off that chair and sit down.
    8. . ………………… . Spanish have their own language.
    9. ………………. life is complicated.

    10. I am writing ………………… book on Indian mythology.

    III. Quantifiers
    1. We see many tourists in our home town.
    2. Some people destroy national assets like animal killings.
    3. Much work should be done for environment conservation.
    4. Few Rwandans are not aware that natural resources are part of the
    national assets.
    5. Governments invest a lot of its income from national assets to put up
    new infrastructures.

    • Note:
    A quantifier is a word or phrase which is used before a noun to indicate the
    amount or quantity. Some, many, a lot of and a few, are examples of quantifiers.
    Some quantifiers, like a few, few, many are used only before countable nouns.
    Others, like a little, little, much are used only before uncountable nouns. And a
    few quantifiers can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns. Some,
    most, plenty of, all and any are examples of quantifiers that can go with both
    countable and uncountable nouns.

    Choose much, some, many, any, few, little or most to complete the sentences
    1. How …………… time do you need to finish the work?
    2. There are too ……………. students in the library.
    3. Have you visited ……………….. foreign countries?
    4. Although he’s very ill, he didn’t take …………….. medicine.
    5. …………… people know as much about linguistics as John does.
    6. They say ……………. knowledge is a dangerous thing.
    7. He’s having ……………. of trouble passing his driving test.
    8. I spend …………….. of my time reading novels.
    9. We spent …………… money on our last vacation.

    10. Did you have ………….. friend coming to your party ?