Topic outline


    LEARNING AREA: ORAL AND WRITTEN COMMUNICATION Key Competence: To use language learnt in the context of myself and my community


    While interpreting these pictures, answer the following questions:

    1. Why do you think mutual support is needed in the community? 

    Describe the role of local government authorities in your community using present simple tense.

    2. Explain the role of community leaders as observed in the pictures  above.

    3. Compare and contrast urban life and life in rural areas.

    4. If you were a community leader, what suggestions would you give to 

    improve community members’ welfare?

    1.1. Describing the community


    Reading and text analysis 

    Text: New ways for an old village

    The more I try to recall the earliest impressions of my childhood, the more surprising the result becomes. I can see myself as a new-born baby, barely a day old, possibly a few hours old, receiving the vigorous attentions of my maternal grandmother. Who could imagine that I would become an eminent surgeon? 

     She sits on a stool in the middle of an airy bedroom, a proud contented look on her face. On the floor, beside her is a broad metal basin, more than two feet in diameter, and about eight inches deep. This is half-filled with warm soapy water. Across her knees is spread a waterproof sheeting. On this she supports me with her left hand, while with the other she anoints me from head to foot with a rich lather of native soap. 

    My eyes are tightly shut, my mouth wide open in a yell of protest. As she vigorously rubs away, the yelling continues, and the roomful of women looks on approvingly. Unto us a son is born! They cry. Having thoroughly lathered me, my grandmother dips me into the basin of water, and scoops the contents all over me. As the water runs into my mouth, I shut up sharp. 

    Half choking, I gulp, swallow, and let out a yell of even louder protest. My grandmother ignores me, and carries on with her task. Then she lifts on to her lap, and towels me briskly. The assembled ladies take a look at my fat little face with its squashed nose and puffy little eyes, and say admiringly. ‘Just like his daddy!’

     There is a coal pot, that is an open charcoal brazier, burning brightly near at hand. From it, someone lifts out a small oval stone about six inches long, worn and smooth. Normally, it is the “daughter stone” which is used to grind pepper, spices, ground nuts and other cooking ingredients on a large flat mother stone. Now it has been washed and brought to a red heat, and then so thoroughly sterilized. Some water is poured on it, causing a fierce sizzle: but it still remains dull red-hot. 

     A little piece of clean cotton cloth is dipped in a glass of water, squeezed out, and pressed on the stone. It is then lifted up, allowed to cool a bit, and then applied

    firmly to the end of the birth cord dangling from my navel. Thus sterilized, the cord is folded and bandaged into position. This will be repeated daily until it drops off. 

    The medicine, don’t forget the medicine!” They remind her, as the door opens, and somebody comes in with a small half-gourd full of a special kind of herbal tea. My grandmother tastes it to check its temperature, and lifting me up gently she pulls her skirt well up her plump left thigh. She lays me along this limb, with my head over her knee, her left arm supporting my back and head and holding the gourd, some of the contents of which she pours into her right hand held cupped against my mouth.

     She heaves in a quantity of the liquid smartly as I open my mouth to cry. I choke, swallow instinctively, take a good breath and open my mouth wide for a tremendous yell. 

    But she is ready, and immediately I receive another dose into the back of my throat. I splutter, shut my eyes tight, kick out, go stiff with anger and open my mouth wide for a truly nasty yell of protest: but again she is ready and heaves in the right quantity of medicine with practised aim. So the duel continues, each yell stopped by a dose of tea, followed by a swallow, a holding of the breath, and an attempt at an even louder yell, which meets with the same fate, until the gourd is empty. So I have my first drink in this world...

    • Comprehensive questions

    1. Who is talking in this passage?

    2. From your own experience, do you think it is likely for anyone to remember 

    as far back as the day she or he was born? What other explanation can 

    you think of for the “memory” described in this passage?

    3. Half-choking: What is making the baby choke? Why is half used here? 

    4. In the text above, My grandmother ignores me means:

    a. She puts me to one side

    b. She pays no attention to me

    c. She pays no attention to my yelling

    5. Explain towels me briskly in your own words.

    6. What was the purpose of heating the “daughter-stone” and what was it 

    used for?

    7. To check the temperature means to:

    a. stop the temperature from going high

    b. see if the temperature is right

    c. stop the temperature from going too low.

    8. So the duel continues. What is called a duel, here?


    Vocabulary and sentence writing 

    1. Explain the following words as used in the passage above.

    a. ingredients

    b. splutter

    c. charcoal brazier

    d. Heave

    e. sterilized

    f. sizzle

    2. Make a sentence with each of the above words

    1.3. Recounting past activities 

     1.3.1. LEARNING ACTIVITY Reading and text analysis

    • Text: My visit to Rubavu District 

    Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

    Last August, I went to Lake Kivu with my family. I was so excited because it was my first time to visit lake Kivu. We spent five days there. The first thing which came to my mind at the first time I arrived there was beach. When I stepped out from the bus and breathed, I sniffed the smell of lake water. 

    It made me more excited to start my exploration. My family and I visited many interesting places in Rubavu. We went to the hot spring in that area and it was my first time to taste and bathe with natural warm and salty water from the ground. My visit to BRALIRWA breweries and the international market made my stay wonderful.

     I spent a great part of my time at the beach where I met lovely people. Even though there are so many lovely but noisy places in Rubavu, I was not bored with them because each one was unique. Kivu beach lies above the surface of water. From that place we could have an attractive view of the lake which was the most gorgeous scenery I have ever seen. There were both local and foreign tourists surfing or just sunbathing. 

    The best time to come to Kivu beach is in the evening to see the sunset. It was so romantic. It is really a very nice beach to visit. The wind and waves were just right to do water sport. I did not want to miss this chance and tried to do parasailing. At first, I was so afraid to approach the lake because I feared that the wind would blow me into water.

     When the sailor took us in a boat I turned around to see how long we had travelled. I could see the view of Rubavu city from the water. Finally, we came to the end of my trip in Rubavu. I felt that time run so fast.

     I was so sad because I had to leave that beautiful place. In Rubavu, I did not only enjoy my stay but I also visited and learned about its different beautiful places which are part of its touristic attraction. I would always remember my beautiful trip to Rubavu and I promise myself to go back there again at least one more time.

    Adapted from African Child, by Camara Laye 

    • Comprehension questions

    1. Why did the speaker and his family visit Rubavu?

    2. Which attractive places did they visit?

    3. According to you, why were they happy after visiting those places?

    4. Where did the speaker spend most of his time during his stay in Rubavu?

    5. Why is the evening the best time to visit Kivu beach?

    6. Explain the reason why the speaker was afraid of parasailing?

    7. According to the passage, does the speaker keep good memories about his visit to Rubavu? How do you know?


     Vocabulary, essay and informal letter writing 

    1. Match the words in the table below with their respective meanings

    2. Suppose that you have a friend who lives abroad and wishes to visit Rwanda. Write a letter to him describing another touristic place that he should visit during his stay in Rwanda.

    3. Write a 300 word essay about “the contribution of tourism to the development of the Rwandan community”

    1.4. Language structure: The present simple tense, reflexive 

    pronouns and possessive adjectives

    1. The present simple tense

    Read the following summary about the use of present simple tense and carry out the task that follows. 

    The present simple tense is the most basic tense in the English language. There are 7 uses of this tense in direct speech:

    a. Facts, generalizations and universal truths

    b. Habits and routines

    c. Permanent situations

    d. Events that are certain to happen

    e. Arrangements that we can’t change (timetables, official meetings) 

    f. State verbs (be, have, suppose, know etc.) 

    g. Narrations, instructions or commentaries

    A. Facts, generalizations and universal truths

    The present simple tense is used when talking about universal truths such as laws of nature or things we believe are, or are not, true. It’s also used to generalize about something or somebody.


    • Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. Universal( Truth)

    • It is a big house. (Fact)

    • The Earth goes around the Sun. (Universal truth, fact)

    • Dogs are better than cats. (Generalization)

    • Berlin is the capital city of Germany. (Fact)

    • The elephant doesn’t fly. (Fact)

    • London is the capital city of France. (Fact)

    • Kivu lake is located in the west of Rwanda.(fact)

    B. Habits and routines

    We also used this tense to describe actions that happen frequently. For example: habits, routines, tendencies.


    • We leave for work at 7:30 AM every morning. (Routine)

    • My husband watches the TV in the evening. (Habit, Routine)

    • Susan often meets with her friends after school. (Habit, Routine)

    • They usually play football on Sunday. (Habit, Routine)

    • Mark rarely visits his sick grandmother.(Tendency)

    • James usually tells lies. (Tendency)

    • Every last Saturday of the month people in Rwanda get together to 

    perform a type of community work known as “Umuganda”.(Routine)

    Adverbs of Frequency 

    The Present Simple is often used with frequency adverbs including the following:

    Here are a few examples on how to use these frequency adverbs in sentences:

    • I always go to church on Sundays.

    • I never eat anything after 10 PM.

    C. Permanent situations

    The present simple tense applies for actions that last a relatively long time.


    • I live in Musanze district 

    • He works as a receptionist.

    • Margaret drives a Volkswagen.

    • Jane teaches Mathematics at high school.

    • Summer follows Spring,

    • The best time to come to Kivu beach is in the evening to see the sunset

    D. Events certain to happen

    The present simple tense is also used when an event is certain to happen in the future.


    • My grandmother turns 100 years old this July.

    • Winter starts on 21 December.

    • The concert begins at 7.30 next Friday evening.

    E. State Verbs

    Some verbs such as like, love... are called “state verbs” when they refer to 

    “states”. A state action has neither a beginning nor end. It can’t be controlled 

    and that’s why it’s not normally expressed in present progressive tense.


    • I like swimming.

    • We know this man.

    • She loves her baby more than anything (not is loving)

    N.B. Some of the state verbs used in the present simple tense can also appear 

    in the present continuous tense. This is typically when they have an active meaning or emphasize change.


    • I’m thinking of moving to San Francisco.

    • I start loving your new haircut!

    There are five groups of state verbs. They refer to : feelings ( like, love, etc) ; 

    thoughts/belief (think, understand, etc); wants (want, prefer, etc); perception ( see, hear, etc); being/having/owning (appear, seem, belong, etc). 

    F. Future Arrangements

    The present simple tense is used when talking about events whose schedule 

    can’t be changed (for example, an official meeting or a train departure).


    • The meeting starts at 4 PM.

    • The train leaves at noon.

    • First you weigh the ingredients.

    Write a paragraph about daily habits in your community with adverbs of frequency. 

    2. Reflexive pronouns

    Read the following summary about the use of reflexive pronouns and carry out the task that follows. 

    The reflexive pronoun is used to refer back to the subject of a sentence. In this case the “doer” and the recipient of the action are one and the same. They include: myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves.

    It is formed by adding –self or –selves to personal pronouns.

    Reflexive pronouns are often used:

    1. As objects when the subject and object are the same person/thing/animal. 

    Example: I told myself not to worry. 

    They are commonly used as the objects of the verbs such as burn, hurt, cut, 

    enjoy, teach, introduce, and look at. There are also common phrases with 

    reflexive pronouns, such as enjoy yourself (have a good time), help yourself 

    (take something if you want), and behave yourself (be good). 

    2. To emphasise that a specific person/thing/animal is being referred to 

    and nobody/nothing else. 


    • I organised this event myself.

    • I’m sure he is aware of the changes. He himself spoke to me about it. 


    Put in the black spaces reflexive pronouns

    Complete the sentences with the appropriate reflexive pronouns

    1. Tommy told a lie. He was ashamed of ……………………..

    2. Masako cut ………………………….while he was chopping vegetables. 

    3. People surround ………….with friends and family during holidays.

    4. Omar thinks Oscar is telling the truth. So does Ricardo. I…..don’t believe Oscar’s story for a minute. 

    5. Now that their children are grown, Mr. and Mrs. Grayson live by………………

    6. A: should I marry Steve?

    B: no one can make decision for you, Ann. Only you…….can make such an important decision about your own life.

    7. Emily and Ryan, be careful! You are going to hurt……………………..

    8. A: I hate my job. 

    B: I envy Jackob. He is self-employed. Yeah. I would like to work for ……too

    9. Jason, you need to eat better and do exercise. You should take better care of………

    10. People who take care of…………have better chance of staying healthy than those who don’t. 

    3. Possessive adjective

    Read the following summary about the use of possessive adjectives and carry out the task that follows. 

    A possessive adjective specifies the owner of a particular person or object. 

    These adjectives are: my, your, her, his, its, our, and their

    Who was the first black president to lead South Africa?

    What are the characteristics of a good leader?

    Who is the president of the republic of Rwanda?

    Which prominent leaders inspire you in Rwanda?

    Where is my computer? 

    b. Note: Wh-words are used to ask about specific qualities, times, places, people and so on. The question word is used at the beginning. If there is a helping (auxiliary) verb that precedes the main verb (for example: can, is, are, was, were, will, would...), we add the question word and invert the subject and the helping (auxiliary) verb. Below is table showing a list of question words and example sentences:

    1.5. Spelling and pronunciation with some verbs in present simple tense

    File: 1


    Key unit competence: to use language learnt in the context of leadership and famous people



    Reading and text analysis • 


    Speech by President Paul Kagame at the opening of the 10th extraordinary 

    Summit of the African Union. 

    It gives me great pleasure to welcome you to Kigali for the Tenth Extra-Ordinary 

    Session of the Assembly of the African Union.

    May I also extend a special welcome to our brother, His Excellency Cyril 

    Ramaphosa, attending his first Summit as President of the Republic of South Africa.

    I thank the leaders of fellow Member States for once again according Rwanda the honour to serve you as your host.

    I also thank the Chairperson, Moussa Faki Mahamat, and the entire staff of the African Union Commission, for preparing this Summit with diligence and commitment.

    Today’s agenda is to adopt the Agreement establishing the African Continental Free Movement of Persons, and the Kigali Declaration, which expresses our unity moving our continent forward.

    Taken together, these are surely to be counted among the most consequential actions that this Assembly has ever taken.

    I commend our brother, His Excellency President Mahamadou Issoufou, for so ably leading the Continental Free Trade Area process.

    I wish to acknowledge all the leaders, past and present, involved in bringing us 

    to this point. We are reaping the rewards of their foresight.

    The Continental Free Trade Area is the culmination of a vision set forth nearly 

    40 years ago in the Lagos Plan of Action, adopted by Heads of States in 1980. 

    That undertaking led directly to the Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community in 1991.

    We continue to be guided by the foundational principals and detailed implementation roadmap that were laid down in those instruments.

    Among the most important guidelines is the pre-eminent role of our Regional Economic communities. They have been the model and the engine for Africa’s economic integration and they will continue to be. 

    Trade agreements cover many complex details. Behind the scenes, Commission staff, ministers, and technical experts put in countless days and nights of hard work. 

    This effort has paid off and we thank you. What is at stake is the dignity and well-being of Africa’s farmers, workers, and entrepreneurs, particularly women and youth.

     The promise of free trade and free movement is prosperity for all Africans, because we are prioritizing the production off value-added goods and services that are “Made in Africa”. The advantages we gain by creating one African market will also benefit our trading partners around the world, and that is a good thing.

     At the same time, we will be in a better position to leverage our growing strength and unity to secure Africa’s rightful interests in the international arena. This is not just a signing ceremony.

     Today’s deliberations are critically important as we chart the next steps on our journey towards the Africa we want. Once again, Excellencies, I welcome you and wish you all a very productive Summit. Thank you very much

    Text extracted from “The New Times”, March 21, 2018.

    • Comprehension questions:

    1. Who delivered this speech?

    2. At which event was this speech delivered? Where was it delivered?

    3. According to the passage, who was the very new president at such a 


    4. What was the agenda of the summit on that day?

    5. Is the idea in the summit’s agenda very new or some people had conceived it before? 

    Explain basing on what you have read in the text?

    6. Read the following sentence and choose the right answer from those suggested below.

    When the President delivered this speech, he wanted to emphasise that Africans 

    should strive to preserve their dignity and well-being by:

    a. Relying on foreign aids

    b. Visiting European countries.

    c. Producing value-added goods and services that are made in Africa d. Helping one another. • 

    Text 2. Towards a better «Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie». 

    Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. 

    Ms. Louise Mushikiwabo has promised to dedicate her time and leverage her experience as a diplomat to make Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie(OIF) a better organisation following her election as its Secretary General. 

    The election took place Friday during the OIF Summit in Yerevan the capital of Armenia. Her win follows months on the campaign trail that took her to different countries across the world. 

    Heads of State and Government of the organisation’s member countries unanimously endorsed Mushikiwabo on the last day of the Summit. In her acceptance speech Mushikiwabo thanked those who supported and guided her throughout her campaigns.

     She said that over the last two and a half months, she toured almost all the parts of the world campaigning, and managed to gather the views and expectations of member states of La Francophonie. 

    She thanked the heads of African states, particularly President Paul Kagame, who is the Chairperson of the African Union, for their support. 

    Mushikiwabo said that during the last nine years as Rwanda’s Minister for Foreign Affairs, she has managed to acquire experience, which enabled her to build a strong relationship with various countries across all continents, something she will draw from her new role. 

    She added:”I equally thank you for the opportunity you offered to me, this La Francophonie family has an enormous potential,”she said, adding: “That is the reason why I would like to introduce myself to this post, the potential to serve our population with truth, good reputation and in a transparent way. 

    Reflecting on her meetings during the campaigns, she said she listened to people’s ideas and expectations. “Some expressed their desire to be more involved in the organisation’s functioning”, she said.

     While some wanted more presentation, others talked about a La Francophonie that promotes and caters for the interests of all members, she added.

     As a Secretary General, I take into account the importance of French language because I am convinced that French has its place around our other languages and for the good of our global world.

    “For those who don’t know me, I would like to tell you that I am a very pragmatic lady, (during the nine years that I spend at the top position of diplomacy, I have learnt to find concrete solutions to the well-defined problems.

     She added: “I intend to ensure the Francophonie plays a great role as a forum for mediation, dialogue, negotiation and reconstruction.

    ” She noted that la Francophonie should support each member country in a very particular context towards a common interest. 

     Mushikiwabo takes over from Canadian Michaёlle Jean, who has held the position for the last four years. 

    The Organisation was created in 1970 to promote the French language, peace, and sustainable development in member countries.

    Text extracted from “The New Times”, October 13, 2018. 

    • Comprehension questions

    1. Who is the newly elected OIF Secretary General? Which country does this person come from?

    2. What occupation had the new Secretary General been occupying?

    3. What strategies did the new Secretary General use to win elections?

    4. What kind of person is the new OIF Secretary General?

    5. What are the goals and vision of OIF?

    6. What does the new OIF Secretary General intend to do at La Francophonie Office?

    Text 3: King Rwabugiri 

    Text: A famous traditional Rwanda Leader

    Kigeli IV Rwabugiri was the king of the Kingdom of Rwanda in the late 19th century. He was among the last Nyiginya kings in a ruling dynasty that had traced their lineage back four centuries to Gihanga, the first ‘historical’ king of Rwanda whose exploits are celebrated in oral chronicles. He was the first king in Rwanda’s history to come into contact with Europeans. 

    He established an army equipped with guns he obtained from Germans and prohibited most foreigners, especially Arabs, from entering his kingdom. Rwabugiri held authority from 1853–1895. He died in September 1895, during an expedition in modern day Congo, shortly after the arrival of the German explorer Count Gustav Adolf von Götzen. His adopted son, Mibambwe IV Rutarindwa, was proclaimed the next king. By the end of Rwabugiri’s rule, Rwanda was divided into a standardized structure of provinces, districts, hills, and neighborhoods, administered by a hierarchy of chiefs. He defended the borders of the Rwandan kingdom against invading neighboring kingdoms, slave traders, and Europeans. 

    Rwabugiri was a warrior king and is regarded as one of Rwanda’s most powerful kings. Some Rwandans see him as the last true King of Rwanda due to the tragic assassination of his successor Rutarindwa and coup by his stepmother Kanjogera who installed her son Musinga. By the beginning of the 20th century, Rwanda was a unified state with a centralized military structure.

     For his legacy, plans are underway to revamp an expanse of land on a hill known as Kageyo in Ngororero district, on which a palace of King Kigeri IV Rwabugiri was built in the 19 Century.

     Kageyo is known as a historical monument since was the venue where Count Von Götzen met King Kigeri IV Rwabugiri towards the end of the 19 Century. Adopted from : Musée Royal de l’Afrique (1964). Annalen - Koninklijke Museum voor Midden-Afrika, Tervuren, België. Reeks in-80. Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale. p. 473.

    Comprehension questions

    a. In which century did King Kigeli IV Rwabugiri lead Rwandan Kingdom?

    b. Which dynasty was he from as described by the writer?

    c. Explain what really made Kigeli IV Rwabugiri a famous leader during his kingdom.

    d. Why is it important to leave a legacy as far as leaders are concerned?

    e. Which place did the king Kigeli IV Rwabugiri meet Count Von Götzen and when?

    There are different kinds of leadership that include the following:

     1. Democratic leadership style Also known as participative or shared leadership, is a type of leadership style in which members of the group take a more participative role in the decision making process. It can apply to any organisation from private and public institution to the government. 

    2. Coaching leadership A coaching leader is someone who can quickly recognise their team members ‘strengths, weaknesses and motivations to help each individual improve. This type of leader often assists team members in setting smart goals and then provides regular feedback with challenging projects to promote growth. They are skilled in setting clear expectations and creating a positive and motivating environment. 

    3. Visionary leadership Visionary leaders have a powerful ability to drive progress and usher in periods of change by inspiring employees and earning trust for new ideas. A visionary leader is also able to establish a strong organizational bond. They strive to foster confidence among direct reports and colleagues alike. This type of leadership is especially helpful for small, fast-growing organizations experiencing transformations or corporate restructuring.

     4. Servant leadership Servant leaders live by a people’s-first mindset and believe that when members feel personally fulfilled, they’re more effective and more likely to produce great work regularly. Because of their emphasis on employee satisfaction and collaboration, they tend to achieve higher levels of respect. 

    5. Autocratic leadership Also called the “authoritarian style of leadership”. In this type of leadership, a leader is someone who is focused almost entirely on results and efficiency. They often make decisions alone or with a small trusted group and expect employees to do exactly what they’re asked. It can be helpful in military commanding.

     6. Hands off leadership This leadership style is the opposite of the autocratic leadership type, focusing mostly on delegating many tasks to team members and providing little to no supervision. Because a laissez-faire leader does not spend their time intensely managing employees, they have more time to dedicate to other projects. This kind of leadership can apply when all team members are highly experienced, well trained and require little oversight. 

    7. Transformational leadership style The transformational leadership style is similar to the coach style in that it focuses on clear communication, goal setting and employee motivation. However, instead of placing the majority of the energy into each employee’s individual goals, the transformational leader is driven by a commitment to organization objectives. Because these types of leaders spend much time on the big picture, this type of leadership is best for teams that that can handle many delegated tasks without constant supervision.

     8. Pacesetter leadership Pacesetting leaders are found most effective for driving fast results. These leaders are primarily focused on performance. They often set high standards and hold their team members accountable for hitting their goals.

    9. Transactional leadership A transactional leader is someone who is focused on performance, similar to a pacesetter. Under this leadership style, the manager establishes predetermined incentives – usually in the form of monetary reward for success and disciplinary action for failure. Unlike the pacesetter leadership style, though transactional leaders are also focused on mentorship, instruction and training employees to achieve goals, transactional leadership motivates employees through rewards.

     10. Bureaucratic leadership Bureaucratic leaders are similar to autocratic leaders in that they expect their team members to follow the rules and procedures precisely as written. This style focuses on fixed duties within hierarchy where each employee has a set list of response. 

     11. Tolerant leadership style Tolerant leaders think that through their words and actions, their employees overcome their anxieties about making mistakes and, in the process, create a culture of intelligent risk-taking that leads to sustained innovation. Adapted from development/10-common-leadership-styles.

    There are different character traits in people including leaders, they can be classified as:

    Simple: as the name suggests, a simple person is the one who lives an ordinary 

    life in terms of clothing, interacting with others and even eating.

    Unpretentious: this means not attempting to impress others with an appearance 

    of greater importance, talent, or culture than is actually possessed.






    Loving, role model, inspiring, talented


    2.4. Language structure: Past simple and Wh- clauses

    1. Past simple

    • The simple past is used when talking about events, actions or situations 

    which happened in the past and are now finished. We always have to 

    say when the action happened , so we often use time references like yesterday, ago, last, etc

    Example: We waited for an hour yesterday.

    • To describe actions which happened in the recent or distant past.

    Example: Sam phoned a moment ago.

    • To describe past habit

    Example: I smoked forty cigarettes a day till I gave up. 

    2. Wh- clauses

    Some verbs can be followed by a clause beginning with a wh-word (what, 

    when, where, which, how, who, or why). Those verbs include: arrange, 

    calculate, check, choose, debate, determine, discover, discuss, establish, 

    find out, forget, guess, imagine, know, learn, notice, plan, realize, 

    remember, say, see, talk about, think (about), understand, wonder…


    1. That might explain why he’s looking unhappy.

    2. Let’s consider how we can solve the problem.

    3. I couldn’t decide which train I ought to catch.

    • Note:

    These verbs can also be followed by a wh-word (except ‘why’) + to-infinitive.


    1. I don’t know what to do.

    2. She calculated how much to pay on the back of an envelope.

    But notice that if we change the subject in the wh-clause we can’t use a toinfinitive.


    I can’t imagine what you like about jazz. (but not I can’t imagine what to…)

    Some verbs must have an object before the wh-clause. Those verbs include: 

    advise, inform, instruct, teach, warn, remind, tell…


    1. She reminded me where I had to leave the papers

    2. We told Derek and Linda how to get to our new house.

    • Note:

    The verbs ask and show often have an object before a wh-clause, but not always.


    - I asked (him) how I could get to the station, and he told me.

    - These verbs can also be followed by an object + wh-word + to-infinitive.


    - She taught me how to play chess.

    - I showed him what to look for when he was buying a second-hand car. 

    - We can use the way instead of how.


    - Have you noticed the way he spins the ball. (or …how he spins the ball.)

    3. Whether

    • Note:

    We can use whether as the wh-word in a wh-clause when we want to indicate 

    that something is possible, but other things are also possible. Whether can have 

    a similar meaning to that of ‘if’.


    1. He couldn’t remember whether he had turned the computer off.

    2. Can you find out whether she’s coming to the party or not.

    Whether can be followed by an infinitive, but ‘if’ is never used before an 

    infinitive. Verbs that are often followed by whether + infinitive include choose, 

    consider, debate, decide, determine, discuss, know, wonder…

    Example: They have 14 days to decide whether to keep it or to send it back.


    The difference between the pairs of sentences below. The first has a wh-clause 

    with whether and the second has a that-clause.



    a. I didn’t know whether the university was shut down. (= if the university 

    was shut down or not)

    b. I didn’t know that the university was shut down. (suggests that the 

    university was shut down)

    c. We couldn’t see whether he was injured. (= if he was injured or not)

    d. We couldn’t se that he was injured. (suggests that he was injured)

    Exercise: Find wh-clauses in the sentences below.

    1. I wonder why she said that.

    2. They don’t know what they’re doing.

    3. We don’t remember where the house is.

    4. I’m not sure when we’re going to arrive.

    5. Let’s find out what time the show starts.

    6. She’s thinking about how she’s going to do it. 

    7. I’ve forgotten why I started this.



    Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of living in a foreign country.

    Reading and exploitation of text

    • Text 1. The Dogs and the Hunter Read the passage below and answer the questions. Then, much to the hunter’s surprise, the oldest dog spoke, ‘you sons of men are difficult to help,’ said the dog. 

    ‘We could easily help you solve your problem.’ ‘If there is any way in which you can help me, I promise that you will not regret it,’ said the hunter. ‘You know you can trust me. 

    But I don’t see how you can help.’ ‘Well, if you promise to keep it a secret, we can change into human shapes and help you carry the meat as far as the town gates. Then you can fetch your wives to carry it home from there before dark.’ 

    The hunter promised, and the dogs took human shapes and helped him with the meat. Now, you all know how curious women are? The very first thing the hunter’s wives wanted to know was how he alone had managed to get all that meat from the forest to the town gates. He refused to tell them, and of course that made them more interested than ever. 

    They continued to ask him, and the more he refused, the more curious they became, until they could hardly eat or sleep. So the youngest wife thought of a plan. One day she made a very tasty meal of pounded yam for the hunter, and gave him strong fresh palm-wine with it. She went on pouring him more and more palm- wine until he became rather drunk and sleepy.

     Just as he was falling asleep, she tapped him gently on the shoulder, and asked how he had got all that meat to the gates. And the drunken and sleepy hunter told her. 

    Later that same evening, when she was sweeping, she came to where the eldest dog was lying. She hit him with the broom. ‘Lazy animals!’ she said angrily.

     ‘They only sleep and eat and lie around all day, whereas if they wished they could take a better shape and help us with our housework! Get out of my way!’ The dog immediately knew what had happened. 

    He called the other two, and they went away from the hunter’s house. And although dogs have remained in men’s houses until today, they have decided never again to change their shape to help any human being. Adapted from practical English by P.A Ogundipe • 

    • Comprehension questions

    1. What was the hunter’s problem?

    2. Had the dogs ever spoken to the hunter before? How do you know?

    3. What did the hunter promise to do before the dogs agreed to help him?

    4. Why were the hunter’s wives puzzled?

    5. How did the youngest wife succeed in learning the hunter’s secret? 

    6. Why was she angry with the dogs?

    Text 2. A letter from a friend

    Read carefully the friendly letter below describing life in a foreign country and 

    answer the questions that follow. 

    • Comprehension questions

    1. Who is the writer of the above letter? 

    2. Where does he come from?

    3. Where does he live?

    4. Why is he in a foreign country?

    5. Is he happy? Explain your answer.

    • Text: A poem 

    Read the poem that follows and carry out the tasks below.

    Let no-one steal your dreams! 

    Let no-one steal your dreams 

    Let no-one tear apart 

    The burning of ambition 

    That fires the drive inside your heart

     Let no-one steal your dreams

     Let no-one tell you that you can’t

     Let no-one hold you back 

     Let no-one tell you that you won’t. 

    Set your sights and keep them fixed 

    Set your sights on high 

    Let no-one steal your dreams

    Your only limit is the sky.

    Let no-one steal your dreams

    Follow your heart 

    Follow your soul 

    For only when you follow them 

    Will you feel truly whole

    Set your sights and keep them fixed 

    Set your sights on high 

    Let no-one steal your dreams

    Your only limit is the sky.

     By Paul Cookson

    • Comprehension questions

    a. Why is the poet repeating the phrase “let no-one”?

    b. Which lesson can youth learn from this poem?

    c. Relate this poem to your future ambitions. 

    Read the following speech by Martin Luther King, JR. 

    I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of difficulties and frustrations of the moment, I still have a dream. 

    It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.’ 

    I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. 

    I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but the content of their character. I have a dream today.

    I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plains, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. This is our hope. 

    This is the faith with which I return to the south. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountains of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood.

     With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. 

    This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning, ‘My country, ‘tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my father died, land of the pilgrim’s pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring.’

     And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. 

    Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous peaks of California!

    Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!

    Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi.

    From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

    • Comprehension questions:

    1. Martin Luther King, uses many images to depict his dream, including ‘a 

    beautiful symphony of brotherhood.’ Which images most appeal to you and why?

    2. Based on King Martine Luther personal plans, think of who you are and future ahead of you. What is your personal plan?

    3. Give your personal opinion about the speech.

    3.4. Language structure: Present perfect, present perfect continuous, adjectives

    1. Present perfect

    It is formed by:

    Subject + has/have + verb past participle It is used:

    a. to express an action which began at some time in the past and has been 

    completed in the past but connected to the present,

    b. when we want to look back from the present to the past.


    a. I have broken my watch so I don’t know what time it is.

    b. David has just succeeded the president election.

    c. It has rained a lot lately.

    d. She has painted many portraits.

    e. I have just played basketball.

    f. I have worked as a teacher since 2011

    g. She has already watched this movie three times.

    h. She has been in England for six months.

    i. I have taken lunch.

    j. The kids have played for two hours.

    2. Present perfect continuous. 

    It is formed by:

    Subject + have/has + been +verb-in

    It is used for:

    a. ongoing actions

    b. temporary actions

    c. Indication of how long something has been happening.


    a. This kid has been playing since morning.

    b. I have been teaching this class for one hour.

    c. He has been repairing the car for two hours.

    d. He has been studying English for two months.


    Change the following sentences from the present perfect to present perfect continuous.

    a. I have worked here since April.

    b. Football teams have scored a lot of goals this season

    c. I have worked in China since 2017.

    d. She has watched this movie since morning.

    e. A lot of earthquakes have occurred in California.

    f. I have had a cold for two weeks.

    g. You have slept since 7 O’clock.

    h. Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.

    3. Adjectives

    • Note

    - An adjective describes a noun, or pronoun. It tells what kind, how many, or which one.

    - Adjectives that end ‘-ed’ describe emotions. They tell how people feel about something.

    - Example: I was very bored in the maths lesson. I almost fell asleep.

    - An adjective that end in ‘ing’ describe the things that causes the emotions

    Example: Have you seen that film? It’s absolutely terrifying.

    The table below shows some adjectives with their comparative and superlative forms.


    1. To what extent has the previous work experience of Mkami helped her to 

    get and do her current job?

    2. Identify some good advice in this passage for young people about how to 

    succeed as an employee or in your own business.

    3. On the basis of what you have read in the above passage, what are 

    advantages of running your own business? 

    4. Why do you think Mkami has become a successful entrepreneur?LEARNING AREA: ORAL AND WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

     Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of business and money.

    Someone once described the age we live in as that of a vanishing world, one in which the familiar is constantly disappearing forever and technological change is often difficult to cope with.

     So it should come as no surprise to most of us to hear that yet another part of everyday life is about to go forever. Still, when I read recently that in the next decade money as we know will probably cease to exist in technologically advanced countries, I had to read the article twice to make sure it wasn’t April 1st. 

     According to Professor Gerry Montague, of the Institute of economic reform, the familiar coins and banknotes will soon be replaced entirely by credit cards of various kinds. And the shop of the future (the ‘retail outlet’-as Professor Montague puts it) will be linked to the network of banking computers.

     The assistant will only key in your bank account code number and the amount you have spent, and thank you politely. You won’t have to dig deep in your pocket or wallet for change or pretend at the pub that you have left your money at home. You may not even have a number for your account as such, as the computer may by the end be able to read your handprint.

     So, no more credit card frauds either. But I am afraid that I shall waste money. I have felt strongly attached to it, ever since I received my first pocket money when I was five and kept it in a moneybox. 

    Even if my credit card of the future will be able to tell me exactly how much spending power, I have left in the computer file, even if it lights up and plays a happy or sad tune at the same time, nothing will be able to replace the sheer pleasure I gained from rattling the coins in my moneybox. 

    Not to mention the other obvious problems which will be caused by a shortage of real money – like how to start a football match for example!

    Extracted from Advanced Language Practice by Michael Vice, p.196

    • Comprehension questions

    a. Examine the impact of current technological advancement on our concept 

    of money according to the first and second paragraphs.

    b. Why did the narrator think it was April 1st when he read that in the next 

    decade money as we know it will probably cease to exist? 

    c. Do you think the progress made in bank system will end credit card frauds? Justify your answer.

    d. Why do you think that the technological advancement in banking will lead to wastage of money.

    Text: Functions of Money

    Text: Functions of Money Good money should be acceptable by everyone as a medium of exchange. 

    This is the prime requirement for money. 

    The use of money is based on confidence. One is prepared to accept money provided that they are confident that others will also accept it. All transactions are made through the use of money. Previously in the old ages, there was use of commodity and barter system as medium of exchange. 

    The introduction of money eased the system of exchange because of its good qualities such as portability and divisibility, among others. Good money should be easily divisible in small units. 

    Whatever physical commodity is being used as money, it must be easy to divide it into smaller amounts to make smaller transactions possible. One should also be able to carry good money from one place to another. It must not be so heavy in relation to its value. It must be transportable in terms of bulk and weight. 

    Modern money consists of coins, bank notes, cheques and bank drafts. All these must be carried without attracting attention. Good money should be scarce because if it is common, it would lose value due to increase in demand. Its supply must be less than its demand but it must be available. 

    The value of goods and services and factors of production are expressed in terms of money. Determining the value of a commodity is based on how much an individual is prepared to pay for it. The higher the amount paid for a commodity, the more valuable it is; the lower the amount paid, the less the value, other factors remaining constant. Good money should be similar and difficult to forge. 

    The features on the same denominations must be the same as on another denomination. Varying degrees of quality will lead to confusion and uncertainty in the public and eventually there will be loss of confidence. Good money must be made of features and quality that cannot be easily forged. Otherwise, forged money will increase money in the economic system which leads to inflation and in turn money will lose value. Money which is forged is called counterfeit money. Wealth or goods can be easily stored for future use in form of money than assets.

     It is easy for James is Musanze district to sell Irish potatoes and store millions of Rwandan francs for a period of one year or more than storing one hundred sacks of potatoes. It is easier to store one million Rwandan francs than storing a cow. Many transactions are conducted on the basis of credit where goods and services are sometimes given out on credit. When paying for the goods, it is more convenient to express these future obligations in terms of money. 

    In a modern society, money is a mechanism through which most goods and services are distributed by use of what is known as the pricing mechanism. Goods can be moved from one place to another mainly from areas of low price to those of high price through a process called arbitrage. All this can be done through price mechanism which uses money. 

    51 Money can facilitate the physical transfer of property. For example, it may be impossible to move a building from Nyamasheke to Nyagatare but the owner can sell it and easily move with his money to the new area of location. 

     All business transactions and accounting are made possible by use of money. When computing business transactions, statistics of national income, to mention but a few, money is the most suitable medium. It may be easy to record the amount got after selling a commodity than recording the actual commodity. Adapted from Economics for Rwanda secondary Schools, book five, p.158-159.

    Comprehension questions

    1. Assess five functions of money as expressed in the above passage.

    2. What do you understand by portability and divisibility as qualities of money?

    3. According to the passage, why is it important to make it difficult to forge money?

    4. What should be done to prevent people from forging money?

    5. Examine the role of money in business transactions.

    Text: Mkami-The Entrepreneur I always thought I would work for someone else, I never imagined I would be the boss! But that’s how things have turned out for me. I left school with quite a good certificate of secondary education and as I had done well in Mathematics. I managed to get a job in the accounts department of a tourist hotel. 

    I did this for about four years. Meanwhile, my cousin Jimmy, who didn’t go to secondary school, had trained as a carpenter. He got a grant from SIDO, which is the Small-scale Industries Development Organisation, to set up a workshop and started employing a few untrained workers, who he trained up. Jimmy came to the hotel one day and saw that they had a very poor selection of crafts for sale to guests. He suggested asking the hotel if we could take over the tourist shop. 

    He would provide the goods and I would run the shop. We managed to get a loan from an investment bank to set up the shop. The bank also gave us a lot of advice and helped us put together a business plan. Eventually, it was agreed that we would pay rent to the hotel and a percentage of the earnings. That was ten years ago. Since then I have done some courses in running a business and that has helped us to expand. We now have a chain of 20 tourist shops in different hotels. The workshop still supplies a lot of our goods but I also travel around the country to find other suppliers. 

    We have come a long way, and I think the reason for this is that we have asked for advice from the people who know and we listen to our customers. Tourists want to see a good variety of high quality crafts and that’s what we give them. Running a business is hard work and at the beginning you can’t expect to make any money for yourself; all the profit goes into building up the business. 

    So, you have to have a cool head and be prepared to take risks. We employ 40 people now and have made reasonable livings for our own families, so I am satisfied. I am married and I’ve got one daughter. I haven’t had time to have another. Extract from English in use Book 3 by Longman publishers

    Extract from English in use Book 3 by Longman publishers •

     Comprehension questions 

     Answer these questions in complete sentences.

    1.  To what extent has the previous work experience of Mkami helped her to get and do her current job?
    2. Identify some good advice in this passage for young people about how to succeed as an employee or in your own business.
    3. .On the basis of what you have read in the above passage, what are advantages of running your own business? 
    4.  Why do you think Mkami has become a successful entrepreneur?

    4.4. Language structure: Phrasal Verbs.

     • Notes Phrasal verbs are multiple-word verbs. 

    They are made up of the verb and one or two particles. A particle can be either an adverb or a preposition. The majority of phrasal verbs have a fixed meaning; they are idiomatic expressions. Often, the meaning of a phrasal verb is not a sum of the meanings of the words in the phrase. You cannot draw the meaning of a phrasal verb by taking each word’s meaning that makes it. For example, keep up does not mean ‘keep in a high place’. 



    1. The assistant will only key in your bank account code number and the transaction is over.

    2. Jimmy trained up most of his workers.

    3. A successful business man is one who pays off all his debts.

    4. The loan from the bank helped us set up the shop.

    5. Jimmy and I built up a joint business for five years.

    6. We were advised to pay back our loan on time. 

    7. Mikami cashed out part of her earnings for personal use. 

    8. My brother and I set up a good business plan before starting our commercial activities.


    Key Unit Competence: 

    To use language learnt in the context of early childhood welfare.

    5.1. Talking about early childhood education in Rwanda


     Reading and Text analysis

    • Text: Early childhood education 

     Early Childhood Education is a term that refers to educational programs and strategies geared toward children from birth to the age of six. This time period is widely considered the most vulnerable and crucial stage of a person›s life. Early childhood education often focuses on guiding children to learn through play. The term commonly refers to preschool or infant/childcare programs. 

     These early years of development are critical for providing a firm foundation in cognitive, language, and motor development, as well as social, emotional, regulatory, and moral development.

     Stimulating, nurturing, and stable relationships with parents and other caregivers are of prime importance to children’s healthy development, and the absence of these factors can compromise children’s development. 

    The individuals who comprise the early childhood care and education workforce are important providers of these early experiences. They form meaningful.

    bonds with the children in their care, and their interactions, behaviors, and teaching practices all influence children’s development, as well as their later school readiness. (NRC, 2001; Peisner-Feinberg et al., 2001; Pianta and Stuhlman, 2004). 

     The evolution of pre-primary education in Rwanda dates from independence. This education went through different reforms aiming at improving its services across the years. However, the situation declined with 1994 genocide against Tutsi. After the genocide, the government put efforts in reconstruction of various sectors but pre-primary education did not receive attention as all efforts were concentrated in primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education. The awareness of the importance of pre-primary education can be noted around 2000/2001 with an increase in number of pre-primary education centers from 138 to 257. This number was still too little as it was in the whole country.

     So far, a good number of preschools (2,757) have been established by individual people or parents’ associations, communities and religious organizations. This was due to the government initiatives and collaboration with different partners who invested in pre-primary education sector. Therefore, the government has to establish standards so as to effectively monitor the massive involvement of people and organizations offering pre-primary education services to young children. Failure to do so would allow service providers to compromise the quality of education services offered in the pre-primary education centers. 

     In the process of ensuring quality pre-primary education, some achievements can be noted such as the ECD policy with ECE components, integrated ECD strategic plan and pre-primary education competence based curriculum. There were also quality standards in education for nursery, primary and secondary schools in Rwanda produced by General Inspectorate of Education at REB in 2009. Since the document combines standards for all the three cycles, little room is given to pre-primary education such that many areas are not covered. These standards need to be updated and be expanded to cover all the learning areas as they are described in the play-based curriculum in line with school readiness preparation. 

     The delivery of pre-primary services needs to be monitored to make sure the quality is not compromised. In 2011, the Ministry of Education has drafted an ECD policy which will serve as a guiding document because pre-primary education service providers are partners in the implementation of policy recommendations. The policy was finalized and approved in 2016 by the Ministry of Gender and Family Promotion (MIGEPROF) which has now ECD in its mandate. The policy made clear the role of each Ministry for effective implementation. The role of MINEDUC in the implementation of the policy includes regulating and supervising ECDE Programs and maintaining standards and quality assurance. The policy has five pillars for the implementation which local and international organizations refer to: Education, health, nutrition, child protection, hygiene and sanitation.

    For the implementation, MIGEPROF published, in 2016, the ECD minimum standards highlighting ECD services from 0-6 years. With these standards, the ECE section is not fully elaborated to prepare children for school readiness. 

     To monitor the quality of pre-primary education services delivered in preschools, pre-primary education standards are pivotal for emphasis on services given to children 3-6 especially on school readiness. This is in line with the ECD policy where one of its objectives is “to ensure that all children are ready to begin school at the right age and this may entail the special provision of rapid school readiness programmers.”

    • Comprehension questions 

    1. How would you define the term early childhood education?

    2. Assess the importance of early childhood education as discussed in the 


    3. Examine the challenges early childhood education faced before and after genocide against Tutsi. 

    4. Predict what would happen if the government does not put efforts in early childhood education.

    5. Explain the role each ministry mentioned in the passage play early child education.

    6. What are the ECD pillars that are mentioned in the passage?

    7. Based on the text above, identify the objectives of ECD?

    Every weekday children are dropped off at early childhood centers to be cared for and assisted in their development for anywhere from one hour to 12 hours. Children spend a significant number of their 24-hour day in the care of early childcare professional, yet as educators we tend not to think too deeply about their life outside of the centre. When they are misbehaving, we tend to blame it on a child’s natural demeanour, rather than think systematically about their familial, social, and community life outside of the center and how those factors may be influencing their actions.

     This article focuses on conveying how childcare providers can more successfully assist in a child’s development by viewing children in their care in the context of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. 

    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a psychological theory developed by Abraham Maslow in 1943 which argues that humans have different levels of needs. The needs are tiered as displayed in the image above. At the base of the pyramid are

    basic human needs (food, water, clothing, etc.), and at the top is self-actualization (the finding of purpose). Each intermediary level builds upon the level below it. In other words, in order for a child’s safety and security needs to be met, their basic human needs need to first have been met. Once basic human needs are met, then relationship needs can be met, then once relationship needs are met, than achievement needs can be met, and finally once all other needs are met, then the need for self-actualization can be met. 

     As educators we need a comprehensive understanding of Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, because it provides us with a larger context to relate their behaviors and actions. 

    We often view the way a child behaves as singular rather than as a part of their broader life. Are they hungry? Is their home safe? Have they had access to water in the last few hours? By thinking about these questions it forces us as educators to ponder whether or not there may be other reasons for a child’s behaviour than the events that have just occurred. 

     When more immediate needs are not met such as one’s needs for food and safety, it becomes increasingly unlikely that a child will be able to behave, learn, and listen to the best of their ability. Maslow has classified needs in five essential categories. The first category is Basic Human Needs. These needs are at the core of what is needed to function as a human being. 

    They are essential to our survival. They include but are not limited too: food, water, shelter, and clothing. Once basic Human Needs are met, the next need that arises is Safety and Security. According to him, to thrive and live healthy lives, humans need a sense of safety and security. Safety and security can be summarized as “consistency and predictability.” Humans, especially kids thrive in routine, and in an environment in which they are comfortable. 

    After feeling safe and secure the next need in the hierarchy is Healthy Relationships. A life without healthy relationships is not a healthy life. Children rapidly develop, and a caring adult can make all the difference. Healthy relationships can be defined as relationships that are emotionally, physically, psychologically or spiritually appropriated. As soon as one has Healthy Relationships, the next need is achievement. We sometimes think of achievement as something that adults seek out, but not kids. 

    This is not true. Kids need to achieve just as much as adults do, but their achievements are different and developmentally appropriate. For example an achievement for a five year old may be coloring a picture “within the lines,” which often provides a feeling best characterized by the phrase, “I did it!” 

    Lastly, Self Actualization comes as the last need on Maslow’s classification of needs. The phrase Self Actualization is sometimes confusing and can be

    thought of as a child’s ability to rise, to act creatively, to dream, to act without fear, and to find purpose. Essentially, self-actualization means feeling that we are doing what we feel we are meant to do. In conclusion, as far as the learning environment is concerned, it should reflect the importance of children by including examples of their work in progress, finished products, and by displaying images of children. 

    Every child in the program must see examples of themselves and their family throughout the center, not just in the classroom. Visual images are an important part of developing a feeling of belonging in all children, so it is important to display pictures of single parent families, grandparent families, and homes of every kind of people, as well as adoptive families.

     Comprehension questions 

    1. What is the focus discussed in the above article?

    2. Identify different needs described by Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs.

    3. Why is it important to understand children’s needs as an educator? 

    4. Evaluate different needs described in the text according to Maslow and relate them to early childhood education.

    5. How would you describe the environment in terms of early childhood needs?

    6. Suggest different pieces of advice to caregivers on how to handle a child with special needs. Choose any type of special needs. 

    • A text: Parental involvement in child education 

    Children’s development of the cognitive and social skills needed for later success in school may be best supported by a parenting style known as responsive parenting. Responsiveness is an aspect of supportive parenting described across different theories and research frameworks (e.g. attachment, socio-cultural) as playing an important role in providing a strong foundation for children to develop optimally. 

    Parenting that provides positive affection and high levels of warmth and is responsive in ways that are contingently linked to a young child’s signals (“contingent responsiveness”) are the affective-emotional aspects of a responsive style. These aspects, in combination with behaviour that are cognitively responsive to the child’s needs, including the provision of rich verbal input and maintaining and expanding on the child’s interests, provide the range of support necessary for multiple aspects of a child’s learning. 

    Acceptance of the child’s interests with responses that are prompt and contingent to what the child signals supports learning, in part, by facilitating the child’s development of mechanisms for coping with stress and novelty in his or her environment.

     With repeated positive experiences, trust and bond develop between the child and parent, this allows the child to ultimately internalize the trust and then generalize their learning to new experiences. This sensitive support promotes the child’s continued engagement in learning activities with his or her parent.

     Thus, these affective-emotional behaviours communicate the parent’s interest and acceptance, fostering self-regulation and cooperation, critically important behaviours for effective learning to occur. From a socio-cultural viewpoint, cognitively responsive behaviours (e.g. maintaining versus redirecting interests, rich verbal input) are thought to facilitate higher levels of learning because they provide a structure or scaffold for the young child’s immature skills, such as developing attention and cognitive capacities. 

    Responsive behaviours in this framework promote joint engagement and reciprocity in the parent-child interaction and help a child learn to assume a more active and ultimately independent role in the learning process.

     Responsive support for the child to become actively engaged in solving problems is often referred to as parental scaffolding, and is also thought to be key for facilitating children’s development of self-regulation and executive function skills, behaviours that allow the child to ultimately assume responsibility for their well-being. 

    Throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region, more and more emphasis is being placed on early education and care in recent years. From ensuring primary education for all and updating curricula of primary schools to ensure the right environment at home for early childhood development, the aforementioned emphasis is both widespread and diverse. Despite a lot of investment in education by governments in the region, children in these

    countries are not learning enough and their academic results or outcomes do not match those of children in other countries outside the region. 

    As school systems reach massive levels of participation with the youth bulge growing in the MENA region, concerns about the relevance and quality of education has intensified with the primary school curriculum being in the spotlight. When children experience quality early education and care, their short-term cognitive, social and emotional development take a boost. Similarly, early education and care facilitates their long-term success in academics and even later life.

     Parents have a crucial part to play to ensure early childhood development in their children. Involved parents can make a positive and lasting impact on their children’s learning ability.

     Children who are properly stimulated from birth to age five by their parents tend to perform better than other children in the long run. What this means is that these children are more likely to complete their schooling, perform better academically, and lead healthier and more productive lives as adults. On the ground, this stimulation takes the form of being ready to, attending preschool, and having parents who are aware of the school curriculum. During the first five years, the brain’s synaptic networks are still in the process of forming. This is when children’s development is particularly receptive to human contact. How parents interact with their children and engage them in cognitive, social, and emotional developmental activities in these years defines their future selves. 

    Children’s development of the cognitive and social skills needed for success later in school is supported by responsive parenting. Responsiveness plays an important role in providing a strong foundation for children to develop optimally. This includes positive affection and high levels of warmth in combination with behaviors that are cognitively responsive to the child’s needs. Parent involvement in early childhood education can extend the experiences that a child has inside the classroom to actual activities that happen in the home.

     Parents who are in tune with the primary school curriculum and keep themselves updated with what is happening in their children’s classroom are better able to establish a connection between home and school. This connection is a key component of a child’s development and supporting further learning creates a positive experience for them. This, in turn, helps them perform better academically. 

     Thus, young children’s acquisition of problem-solving, language, and socialemotional skills are facilitated by interactions with their parents. Parents becoming more involved during the early childhood development period also promotes school-readiness, which ensure they stay in school and with a lower grade repetition rates. 67 Early interventions are not only long-lasting but also much more economical when compared to repairing problems that develop as a result of delayed or damaged development. Access to quality early childhood education and care can strengthen the foundations of lifelong learning for all children. It is thus crucial to develop strategies to empower and educate parents on how to provide a stimulating, loving and protective environment at home.

     A good example of a state that’s incorporated parents into the education system brilliantly is Jordan. The state runs a Parental Involvement Initiative set out to introduce parents into kindergartens, making them aware of the primary school curriculum, acquainting them with the teaching methods used, and the philosophy explaining the routines followed. 

    It aims also at enriching the classroom environment through tapping into the experiences and expertise of parents in facilitating children’s learning. A parent who understands what their child is working on at preschool has a better sense of their child’s competency and which areas they need to work on to improve. 

    They can then facilitate this improvement. Policies which set out to improve early child development must also take care of complementary strategies linked to the different environments that surround a child. This is a challenging task but very much possible by ensuring that there is consistency in both philosophy and strategy between government policies and actual action.

     In the midst of conflicts in the MENA region, perhaps a commitment to early childhood development would be one thing the various factions, all of whom want the best for their children, could come together and make progress on. 

     Children are every parent’s greatest joy and every country’s greatest resource. Investing in them during their critical early years is one of the greatest gifts parents, educators, and the government can give them and one of the smartest moves to make for the future of the world.

    • Comprehension questions

    1. How can we maximize child’s learning opportunities according to the passage?

    2. Explain the following term as used in the passage, “parental scaffolding?”

    3. Identify different areas of development that children should be supported on.

    4. To what extent do you think parental involvement can help early child hood education development? explain

    5. How would you draw the conclusion of the above text if you were in the position of the author?

    6. What would be your recommendations to parents and caregivers about early childhood education?

    5.4. Spelling and pronunciation 

    Use dictionaries and thesaurus to find the missing pronunciation and meaning of the given words in the following table.

    5.5. Language structure: Modal verbs(should, dare, need) and degree of adjectives 

    1. Modal verbs: should, dare, need

    A. Should 

    • Note:

    “Should” is a modal verb most commonly used to make recommendations or 

    give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation.


    • When you go to Kenya, you should visit pre-primary schools in Nairobi.


    • You should focus on your children’s education in their early childhood. 


    • I really should be in the office by 7:00 am. (Expectation/Obligation)

    • By now, they should already be in Musanze ECD centers. (Expectation)

    N. B: in past context, we use should+ have+ p. participle to mean that something was necessary but it wasn’t done.


    a. Pamela should have brought her child to school last week. (She didn’t bring the child)

    b. Peter should have learnt how to teach young children (he didn’t learn it)

    c. You shouldn’t have eaten too much. (you ate too much: criticism)

    B. Dare


    a. If there is a lizard in the room, our children who are in early childhood period do not dare to sleep there alone.

    b. Even nursery children do not dare to enter into his office without permission.

    c. She dared not ask her mother for more toys.

    • Notes 

    ‘Dare’ can be used both as a modal auxiliary verb as well as main verb. It is also 

    known as semi modal verb. 

    • Use of ‘dare’ as a main verb

    As a main verb ‘dare’ is used as an ordinary verb and has the same three forms 

    of verb and used as per the rules of different tenses. 


    a. He dares to stand in front of you.

    b. Sandra did not dare to disobey her parents.

    c. I do not dare to say a single word against my pre-primary kid.

    d. He will not dare to resign from teaching in early childhood school.

    e. Will you dare to complain against your boss?

    • Use of ‘Dare’ as a modal verb

    ‘Dare’ as a Modal is used to express courage to do something or to challenge. It is normally used in Negative and Interrogative sentences only. As Modal Verb, ‘Dare’ has no past tense.


    a. Dare she say so in front of me?

    b. Parents dare not do anything wrong in front of the children.

    • Expressions with the verb dare

    1. I dare say

    ‹I dare say› has almost the same meaning as ‹probably› or ‹I expect›, ‹I suppose›, 

    ‹I think it is likely›.

    a. I dare say you are right.

    b. I dare say he will come later.

    c. It’ll rain tomorrow, I dare say.

    2. How dare you (he, she, etc.) do something = How can you (he, she, etc.)

    be so rude and bold = I am very surprised and shocked by what you are doing.

    a. How dare he speak to you like that? (I wonder at such impudence.)

    b. How dare he accuse me of lying!

    c. How dare you listen to a private conversation?

    4. You dare! / Don’t you dare! These expressions are used to discourage people from doing things they shouldn’t (for example by mothers):

    a. Mother, can I draw a picture on the wall?’ – ‘You dare!’

    b. I’ll tell her about it. - Don’t you dare!

    C. Need


    a. She needed some money to buy dolls.

    b. My pre-school teachers do not need my guidance. 

    c. They do not need to act upon my advice.

    • Notes 

    ‘Need’ can be used both as a modal auxiliary verb as well as main verb. It is also 

    known as semi modal verb.

    • Use of ‘Need’ as a main verb


    a. Does my pre-primary kid need my attention?

    b. I will need to stay in a hotel during early childhood training.

    • Use of ‘Need’ as modal verb

    ’Need’ as a modal verb is used to express necessity. It is used in negative and 

    interrogative sentences only. As a modal verb, ‘need’ has no past tense. 


    a. Parents need learn about early childhood education

    b. ECD centers in Rwanda need more qualified teachers.

    ‘Need’ in Perfect Tense is used to express that it would have been correct if the 

    work was not done or the manner in which the work done didn’t need to be done in that manner.


    a. She need not have gone with her kid.

    b. Those pre-primary children need not have entered in the prohibited area.

    c. You need not have disclosed the secret to little children.

    2. Degrees of comparisons for adjectives

    In English there are three degrees of comparison: inferiority, equality, and superlative.

    1. Inferiority : 

    The inferiority is expressed by : not as +adj.+ as; not so +adj.+as; less+adj.+than; adjective of minor value+ than


    a. Adults people are not as interested in games as kids.

    b. Nadine is not so tall as James.

    c. Louis is less intelligent than Divine

    d. Sarah is shorter than her sister.

    2. Equality


    • Early Childhood Education should be as useful as any other education level.

    • Ivan is as tall as Jane. 

    • Kabeza nursery school isn’t as good as Itetero nursery school


    • Who is the quickest learner of your class?

    • The most difficult thing in life is to manage different personalities.

    • Rachel was the most excited of all


    I. Write comparative sentences using the verbs in brackets 

    1. My nursery class is (big) _____________than yours. 

    2. This flower is (beautiful) _________________than that one. 

    3. A holiday by the sea is (good) ____________than a holiday in the mountains. 

    4. The weather this summer is even (bad) __________than last summer. 

    5. I think early childhood course is (difficult) _____________than English. 

    II. Complete the sentences using comparatives.

    1. Joe’s car isn’t very fast. He wants a __________ one. 

    2. My job isn’t very interesting. I want to do something ___________________ 

    3. The weather isn’t very warm today. Yesterday it was ___________________ 

    4. People aren’t very polite today. In the past they were ___________________ 

    5. This sofa isn’t very comfortable. That one is _____________________

    6. This coat is nice, but I think the other one is ______________ Write three 

    sentences using comparative adjectives

    III. Discuss the role of the religions in running pre-schools in Rwanda. Pay 

    attention to the use of degree of comparison and modal verbs (should, need, dare).

    IV. Write a composition about duties and responsibilities of parents and caregivers.

    6.9. Key Rwandan Values

    Reading and analysis of the text

    • Text: Celebrating Rwanda’s Cultural Values

    The national harvest day was an event that came second to the enthronization
    of a new king. “Umuganura”-literally “Thanks Giving day” was performed by
    Rwandans at the beginning of every harvest. It was a very big event in the
    kingdom as Rwandans celebrated the achievements in terms of harvest both at
    the kingdom and family level.

    The trace for this event, when exactly it was first celebrated remains evasive;
    no exact date is pronounced as to when this event could have been introduced
    in Rwanda. But research in this field connects it with the introduction of
    agriculture in Rwanda during the 3rd century.

    In the beginning of the celebration of ‘Umuganura’ Rwandans focused mainly
    on staple foods like sorghum and finger millet. From history, the celebration
    of ‘Umuganura’ used to be a unifying factor for all Rwandans through acts of
    sharing what they had produced either at the family level, in the village or
    as a kingdom. The rich and the poor, the higher and middle families all came
    together and shared what they had without exclusion as a form of promoting
    Rwandan cultural values.

    As a form of preserving Rwandan Culture, the celebration of ‘Umuganura’ educates
    the young generation on the value and power of safeguarding the past legacy
    for edutainment purposes. At the heart of every Rwandan in and outside the
    country, the event helps raise awareness among Rwandans, friends of Rwanda
    and policy makers on how the ‘Umuganura’ celebration was a very significant
    part in creating unity in diversity. This kind of tradition in Rwanda always brings
    to view the past with the positive cultural values that we can use to build, unite

    and reconcile Rwanda as a nation.

    Adapted from TheNewTimes

    • Comprehension questions
    1. Describe the national harvest day in the history of Rwanda.
    2. Explain how the harvest day plays a unifying role for all Rwandans.
    3. Assess the contribution of the harvest day for preserving the Rwandan


    4. How can cultural values brought in your mind by the harvest day be used

    to build Rwanda as a nation?

    6.10. Language structure: Adverbs of time and adverbs of place
    • Notes
    I. Adverbs of time
    Adverbs of time modify the meaning of a sentence by telling us when, for how
    long, an action happens. Many adverbs of time are the same as adverbs of
    frequency. There is quite a bit of overlap between these two types of adverbs.

    Here are some examples of adverbs of time:
    • yesterday
    • today
    • tomorrow
    • later
    • now
    • last year
    • since 1999/Monday/3 o’clock etc.,
    • all day/month/week etc.,
    • for a week/a year/a 100 years etc.,
    Adverbs of time tell us when an action happened, but also for how long, and how often.
    Some adverbs tell us how often express the exact number of times an action
    happens or happened. These adverbs are usually placed at the end of the
    sentence. Many adverbs that express frequency can also be placed at either the
    beginning or the end of the sentence.

    Yet is used in questions and in negative sentences to indicate that something
    that has not happened or may not have happened but is expected to happen.
    It is placed at the end of the sentence or after not. Still expresses continuity. In
    positive sentences it is placed before the main verb and after auxiliary verbs
    such as be, have, might, will. If the main verb is to be, then place still after it
    rather than before. In questions, still goes before the main verb.

    a. We are going to church on Sunday for prayer but we fear that we don’t know their culture.
    b. She is going to have a baby soon being in a foreign country.
    c. My father went to Chile last year for a vacation.
    d. We eventually went to a pub after eating.
    e. He has already been to Canada three times but he does not know their
    II. Adverbs of place
    Adverbs of place tell us about an aspect of location associated with the action of
    a verb, specifying the direction, distance, movement, or position involved in the
    action. They are specific to actions of verbs and they cannot be used to modify
    adverbs or adjectives.

    Simple rules for adverbs of place:
    • An adverb of place always expresses about the location where the
    action of the verb is being carried out.
    • Adverbs of place can be directional. For example: Up, down, north,
    around, southwest, away
    • Adverbs of place can denote distances. For example: Nearby, far away,
    miles apart
    • Many adverbs of place specify movement in a specific direction and
    end in the letters “-ward or -wards”. For example: Toward, forward,

    backward, homeward, westward, eastwards onwards

    • An adverb of place can point out an object’s position in relation to
    another object. For example: Below, between, above, behind, through,
    around and so forth.

    As far as the position of adverbs of place in a sentence is concerned, adverbs
    of place generally appear immediately after the main verb in a sentence if it
    is intransitive, or else after the verb’s object if it is transitive.

    a. We were walking north. (intransitive—adverb follows the verb)
    b. He kicked the ball into the field. (transitive—adverb follows the object)

    N.B. We can use prepositions to talk about:
    1. Places or locations.
    a. He was standing by the pool.
    b. You’ll find it in the lobby.
    c. Sign your name here, at the end of the page.
    d. The compartment door is very small so it’s difficult to get into it.
    2. Direction

    a. Walk past the bank and keep going to the end of the highway.
    b. We were in London. Birmingham was 250 kilometers away.
    3. Distance
    a. Birmingham is 250 kilometers from London.
    b. He is sitting at a hundred meters from his house.

    I. Put the right word to complete each of these sentences.
    1. Close the door when you go ___________.
    2. The baby is hiding down there under the table.
    3. The cat is hiding_______________ the couch.
    4. Will you be starting your plants ________________ or in a greenhouse?
    5. The ship sailed ________________, encountering heavy weather along the

    6. When she saw me waiting, she ran __________________ me.

    7. __________________ you live, I will come to that place to live.
    8. He led the caravan, __________________ he wanted to go.
    9. What are you doing _________there?
    10. ________________we went, people greeted us warmly as they do it in their
    II. Write a paragraph using adverbs of time, place and comparison of

    adjectives talking about cultural diversity.

    6.11. End unit assessment


    Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of Cultural diversity and African development.

    6.1. Describing Being in a Foreign Country

     6.1.1. LEARNING ACTIVITY Reading and analysis of the text

    • Text: Stages of culture shock Culture shock! You are lost, standing confused in a new place, unable to tell left from right, up from down, phone booths from waste bins or con-artists from friends. But this image of sudden shock isn’t quite right.
     In reality, culture shock is a phenomenon that can take months to develop. Culture shock tends to move through four different phases: wonder, frustration, depression, and acceptance.  The first stage is the wonder phase, also known as the “honeymoon” phase. It’s often very positive. You’re fascinated with the language, the people, and the food.

     The trip seems like the greatest thing you’ve ever done. It’s an adventure and you enjoy everything! The second is a difficult stage of culture shock called frustration, familiar to anyone who has lived abroad or travelled for a long time. You don’t understand gestures. You get laughed at or you offend a little old lady without knowing why. You feel angry often and miss your own culture. The worst stage of culture shock is depression. 

    You are homesick and sad all of the time. It’s hard to be so far away, especially if you’re all by yourself. It feels like nothing will ever be fine again until you return home.

     The forth is acceptance and comes after weeks and months of struggling through a thousand different emotions, acceptance finally arrives like a warm bath at the end of a hard day. Acceptance does not mean total understanding-it’s almost impossible to ever completely understand another culture-but involves the realization that you don’t have to “get” it all. You find what makes you happy and content in your new surroundings.
    Extracted from English for Rwanda Schools by SDB Publishers

    • Comprehension questions
    1. State the phases that culture shock moves through.
    2. Describe the feeling that a person has in the wonder phase.
    3. How does a person feel during the frustration phase?
    4. What is the feeling of a person who goes through the phase of depression?

    5. Prove that acceptance does not mean total understanding in the context of cultural diversity.

    6.2. Comparing cultures 
    6.2.1. LEARNING ACTIVITY Reading and analysis of the text
    Text: Comparing Cultures 
    In trying to compare cultures one has first to establish some working definition of culture. There is a Chinese proverb which says that “the fish did not discover water.” Similarly no one discovers culture by staying at home. 
    It so intimately shapes our lives that we only become aware of it under special circumstances, when we encounter difference. Experiencing culture happens in the pluralism of cultures. We are not aware of the first until we have experienced the second. Culture begins to lose its invisibility when we become aware that there are many other ways of fulfilling the basic needs of human lives and of interpreting human. Not only are there different cultures but some are more different than others.

     The profounder the differences encountered in another culture are, the deeper the perspective one can gain on his own culture will be. My experience in China revealed ways in which my own resembled the European ones I had previously found so different. For example, in my own experience I encountered an interesting case of cultural differences when I was working on a women’s studies project.

     In the United States feminists were complaining that the marriage ceremony discriminated against women because the new couple was pronounced man and woman. The women was thereby “denatured” in some way by being shifted into a social role whereas the man retained his essential and primary identity.

     In France feminists were having similar complaints even though the French marriage ceremony pronounces the couple husband and wife. Complaints were still abundant, however, this time that the man was being given a full and more differentiated social identity whereas the woman was stuck in her original natural identity. 
    The obvious point to be made from this comparison was that the idea of “nature” is itself not only subject to definition but to value judgments. Looking back at this after a year in China, I am impressed not only with the differences between the French and American women but also with what they share when compared to Chinese women. American and French women reveal different cultural orientations within western civilization. 

    Both, however, have had to fight for their rights whereas in China social legislation of the fifties immediately established equality between the sexes. When jobs were distributed by the government there was never a question of discrimination
    in employment. In an attempt to overcompensate for past discrimination, the government provided maternity benefits for new mothers which are very generous with leaves ranging from six months to six years.

     With such a background Chinese women were shocked at certain consequences of those recent economic reforms. When obliged to make a profit, work units resisted becoming responsible for the cost of having women among their employees. Both language and culture claim special reality for what they carve out as significant, as “natural” even. We become aware of our language when we step out of habitual uses for a time, for example, when we study the way others use their language.

    Similarly to become aware of our own culture most readily we need to encounter that of someone else. To become aware of what related western cultures have in common it is useful to move into radically different ones arising in the East. Adapted from: The Languages of China, Robert Ramsey, Princeton University Press, 1987.

    Comprehension questions
    Approve and explain the saying “no one discovers culture by staying at home.”
    Explain how feminists in the United States perceived women discrimination?
    What did feminists in France complain about?
    How did French and American women come together against Chinese legislation?

    Do you agree that encountering other cultures makes us aware of our own culture? Justify your answer.

    6.3. Describing customs 
    6.3.1. LEARNING ACTIVITY Reading and analysis of the text
    • Text: Origin and importance of customs 
    A custom is defined as a cultural idea that describes a regular, patterned way of behaving that is considered characteristic of life in a social system. Shaking hands, bowing and kissing are all customs: they›re ways of greeting people that help to distinguish one society from another. They help maintain social harmony and unity within a group. Societal customs often start out of habit. A man clasps the hand of another upon first greeting him. 
    They later meet someone on the street, they extend a hand. After a while, the
    handshaking action becomes habit and takes on a life of its own. It becomes the
    norm to adhere to the custom, and customs are often followed without any real
    understanding of why they exist or how they got started. Customs persist for
    generations, as new members of a society learn about existing customs through
    a process of socialization.
    Importantly, different cultures often have different customs: something
    that is an established custom in one society may not be a custom in another
    society. For example, while one of the traditional breakfast foods in the United
    States is cereal, breakfast in other societies might include dishes such as soup
    or vegetables.

    Customs exist among all types of societies, including both more industrialized
    and less industrialized societies. Interestingly, their nature doesn’t change
    based on literacy, industrialization or other external factors. They are what
    they are, and they can impact the society they are a part of. They tend to be
    more powerful in less industrialized societies, however. Over time, customs
    become the law of social life. They create and maintain harmony in a society.
    For example, after handshaking becomes a norm, an individual who declines to
    offer his hand upon meeting another may be looked down upon and perceived

    Consider what might happen if a whole segment of a population suddenly
    decided to stop shaking hands, assuming that handshaking was a very important
    custom in that society. Animosity might grow between the hand shakers and
    the non-shakers, spreading into other areas. Hand shakers might assume that,
    if the non-shakers won’t shake hands, maybe it’s because they’re unwashed or
    dirty. Or maybe the non-shakers feel that they’re superior and don’t want to
    sully themselves by touching the hands of an inferior person.

    Because customs are so important to social harmony, the breaking of a custom
    could theoretically result in an upheaval that has little or nothing to do with the
    custom itself, particularly when the reasons perceived for breaking it have no
    bearing in fact.

    Adapted from Customs: Their Importance in Society, by Ashley Crossman, Dec,


    • Comprehension questions
    1. Using suitable examples from the text, define the term custom.
    2. Determine the importance of customs in a society.
    3. Explain how customs often start and become a law of social life.

    4. Show how customs differ from culture to another.

    5. Discuss the power of customs in industrialized and less industrialized societies.

    6. Assess the impact of breaking a well-established custom in a society.

    6.4. Describing traditional Rwandan Culture

    Reading and analysis of the text

    • Text: Rwandan Traditions and Culture
    In the Rwandan culture, it is considered extremely rude to eat in public. People
    are not supposed to eat on the street, in public transportation, and sometimes
    even during big parties in the presence of strangers. In addition, traditionally
    adults don’t eat in front of their in-laws. In the past, adults could not even eat in
    front of their own children and would often take their food into their bedroom.
    Some men would only eat food cooked by their wives and refuse to eat any food
    cooked by a housekeeper. It was said in the past that women were not supposed
    to eat goat meat, for two reasons: it would make them grow beard, and become
    stubborn. However, it is now believed such assumptions were invented by

    greedy men who wanted all the good meat for themselves.

    Going out to eat at restaurants is actually a fairly new concept that has only
    taken hold with the influence of foreigners. In the recent past, if a man or a
    couple went out to eat, it meant that the wife was a bad cook or that the man
    did not have a wife at all. Even today, there are many Rwandans who generally
    do not dine out. In the past, it was considered a taboo for in-laws to eat at a
    married couple’s house. It was also taboo for them to stay the night and they
    would have to find another place in the neighborhood to stay. Rwandans say
    that drinking milk makes women beautiful.

    When there is a beautiful woman, Rwandans might say that she must have
    drunk a lot of milk. If you invite someone or even multiple people out to dinner
    or drinks, it is expected that you will pay for them. When Rwandans are served
    a bottle of beer with a glass, they will sometimes pour a few drops into the
    glass, swish the liquid around, and then pour it on the ground behind them.
    This serves two functions: it symbolizes sharing the drink with ancestors and
    also helps clean out the glass. When a guest stops by for a visit to a friend or
    family member, it is expected that the host will offer him or her something to
    drink. The most common drink is Fanta or beer. It is considered very rude to
    offer water, at least not until the guest has finished the first drink.

    When a married couple has children, their names essentially change to reflect
    the identity of their first-born child. For example, if parents are named Joshua
    and Gloria, as soon as they get their first baby-girl and call her Simbi, everyone
    who knows them (friends, family members, community members, neighbours,
    perhaps even colleagues) would start to call them Papa Simbi and Mama Simbi.
    People hence start considering them as having enriched their identity and
    recognition with a family and address. However this practice was borrowed
    from other African Countries such as the Democratic Repuplic of Congo (DRC)
    When a couple is planning a wedding, the man and the woman separately hold
    numerous “planning meetings” at which they meet with their friends and family
    to organize and finalize the details for the marriage.

    One of the ways that the family of a bride prepares for a wedding is to plant
    a few banana trees along the road leading to their house. In the past this was
    done to show that the family was relatively wealthy, because it was implied that
    they could also supply their guests with banana beer from their banana trees.
    When a man and a woman share the bed, the man always sleeps on the side of
    door so that he may protect his wife in the case of an intruder or a problem.
    It is considered a serious taboo for an unmarried man to spend the night at
    an unmarried woman’s home. This is part of a larger discussion about gender
    and double standards/disparate access and opportunities: it is not acceptable
    for women to go out dancing without men. If they do so, they will be taken for

    It is forbidden for a married person to pronounce the name of his or her motherin-
    law or father-in-law. When greeting them or even describing them to others,
    people cannot say their name and have to describe them instead. They cannot
    even share meals.

    If a woman sews at night or in the dark, people will discourage her by saying that
    she is sewing her parents’ eyes shut. This is most likely to prevent women from
    straining their eyes by sewing under faint light. Whistling at night is considered
    a taboo as it is believed to be a way of summoning snakes. It is also a taboo for a
    woman to whistle at any time of the day for she would be considered as male. If
    you have the hiccups, people say that someone is talking about you. When you

    have a twitch on your eye or face, people believe it is a good omen.

    Extracted from English language, senior 6, by REB
    • Comprehension questions
    a. Explain five aspects of the Rwandan culture as discussed in the above
    b. Describe the wedding process in the Rwandan culture as portrayed in the

    above passage.

    6.5. Reporting a migration story

    Reading and analysis of the text

    • Text: A Clash of Cultures
    Ms Yusuf is a young Somali woman aged 19 who left Somaliland in late 2017
    following the death of her father. “After my father died I could not find anyone
    who could cater for my needs. In fact, nobody could provide the same support
    to me; so I decided to leave the area.” She travelled on her own to Yemen and
    experienced a very new culture from the time of her arrival. “The culture was
    different from the Somaliland culture I was used to. Someone had to accompany
    me when I wanted to go to the market.”

    After a difficult year in Yemen, Ms Yusuf decided to return to Somaliland in
    November 2018. “It is very difficult to start a small business in Yemen as the
    nationals will tell you that they are unemployed, hence how can a foreigner
    make a business in their country? The security also got worse and resulted in
    explosions in Sana, Yemen. You live in fear.”

    “IOM (International organization for migration) provided me with health
    support and transportation from Yemen and to our final destination in
    Somaliland.” In the future Ms Yusuf hopes to specialize in health and or
    technical skills. She wants other Somalis especially women to know that “life
    in Yemen is very difficult and only housemaid work is available. For women it’s
    very difficult to get out as you risk your life. It’s also difficult to use public taxis
    without anyone accompanying you as they could kidnap you; and you may end

    up being raped-who knows?”

    Adapted from
    • Comprehension questions
    1. How did Ms. Yusuf find herself in Yemen?
    2. Describe the cultural shock that Ms. Yussuf experienced in Yemen
    3. Why is it difficult for foreigners to start a business in Yemen?
    4. How did the international organization for migration help MsYussuf?
    5. What does Yussuf’s plan for the future?

    6. What is Yussuf’s advice to her fellow Somalis?

    6.6. Describing causes of migration

    Reading and analysis of the text

    • Text: Factors of migration
    People migrate for a number of reasons. These reasons may fall under four
    areas that are environmental, economic, cultural and socio-political reasons.

    Within all these, there are some that may be seen as ‘Push’ or ‘Pull’ factors. Push

    factors force individuals to move out voluntarily, and in many cases, they are
    forced because they are risking something if they stay.

    Push factors may include conflict, drought, famine, or religious based
    discrimination. Poor economic activity and lack of job opportunities.
    Other strong push factors include race and discriminating cultures, political
    intolerance and persecution. Pull factors are those factors in the destination
    country that attract the individuals or groups to leave their home. Those factors
    are known as place utility, which is the desirability of a place that attracts people.

    Better economic opportunities, more jobs, and the promise of a better life
    often pull people into new locations. Sometimes, individuals have ideas and
    perceptions about places that are not necessarily correct, but are strong pull
    factors for them. As people grow older and retire, many look for places with
    warm weather, peaceful and comfortable locations in order to spend their
    retirement after a lifetime of hard work and savings.

    Such ideal places are pull factors too. Very often, People consider and prefer
    opportunities closer to their locations than similar opportunities farther away.
    In the same spirit, people often like to move to places with better cultural,
    political, climatic and general terrain in closer locations than locations farther
    away. It is rare to find people move over very long distances in order to settle in

    places that they have little knowledge of.

    Extracted from English Language, senior 6, by REB

    • Comprehension questions
    1. State and explain the reasons why people migrate.
    2. Assume there are migrants who come to your home area. Explain how

    you would treat them.

    6.7. Describing cultural diversity

    Reading and analysis of the text

    • Text: Importance of culture diversity

    Why is cultural diversity a good thing? Culture is the lens with which we
    evaluate everything around us; we evaluate what is proper or improper, normal
    or abnormal.

    If we are immersed in a culture that is different from ours, we can experience
    culture shock and become disoriented when we come into contact with a
    fundamentally different culture. People naturally use their own culture as a
    yard stick to judge other cultures. Such judgment could reach a level whereby
    people tend to discriminate against others whose ways of living are different
    from theirs.

    People fear essentially what they don’t understand. Cultural diversity is
    inevitable since in our country, at our workplaces, and schools there exist
    increasingly various cultural, racial, and ethnic groups. We can learn from one
    another, but first we should have a level of understanding about each other in
    order to facilitate collaboration and cooperation.

    Learning about other cultures helps us understand different perspectives
    within the world in which we live, and helps dispel negative stereotypes and
    personal biases about different groups.

    In addition, cultural diversity can help us recognize and respect “ways of being”
    that are not necessarily our own, so that as we interact with others we can
    build bridges to trust, respect, and have more understanding across cultures.
    Furthermore, this diversity makes our country a more interesting place to live in.
    Indeed, people from diverse cultures contribute to the development of language
    skills, new ways of thinking, new knowledge, and different experiences.

    How can you support cultural diversity? You ought to increase your level of
    understanding about other cultures by interacting with people outside your
    own culture. Meaningful relationships may never develop simply due to a lack
    of appreciation of others’ cultural values. You should avoid imposing your own
    values on others as that may conflict or be inconsistent with their beliefs. You
    ought to recognize and understand that concepts such as family ties, gender
    roles, spirituality, and emotional well-being, vary significantly among cultures
    and impact on behavior.

    Within the workplace, educational setting, and clinical setting, advocate for
    the use of materials that are representative of the various cultural groups in
    the local community and the society in general. You should intervene in an
    appropriate manner when you observe others engaging in behaviors that show
    cultural insensitivity, bias, or prejudice. You ought to be proactive in listening,
    accepting, and welcoming people and ideas that are different from your own.

    Cultural diversity supports the idea that every person can make a unique and
    positive contribution to the larger society in spite of their differences. Imagine
    a place where diversity is recognized and respected; various cultural ideas
    are acknowledged and valued; contributions from all groups are encouraged;
    people are empowered to achieve their full potential; and differences are

    Extracted from English language, Senior six student book, by Rwanda Education


    • Comprehension questions
    1. Discuss the dangers of judging other people on the basis of your own culture.
    2. Basing on the above text, tell how cultural diversity can improve someone’s life perspectives?
    3. How did the writer advise people who do different activities (restaurant,

    hotels,) in terms of cultural diversity?

    6.8. Describing cultural general challenges

    Reading and analysis of the text

    • Text: Cultural clash in expectations
    Gabriela worked for a multinational company as a successful project manager
    in Brazil and was transferred to manage a team in Sweden. She was excited
    about her new role but soon realized that managing her new team would be a

    Despite their friendliness, Gabriela didn’t feel respected as a leader. Her new
    staff would question her proposals openly in meetings, and when she gave
    them instructions on how to carry out a task, they would often go about it in
    their own way without checking with her. When she announced her decisions
    on the project, they would continue giving their opinions as if it was still up for

    After weeks of frustration, Gabriela emailed her Swedish manager about the
    issues she was facing with her team. Her manager simply asked her if she felt
    her team was still performing, and what she thought would help her better
    collaborate with her team members. Gabriela found her manager vague and
    didn’t feel as if he was managing the situation satisfactorily.

    What Gabriela was experiencing was a cultural clash in expectations. She was
    used to a more hierarchical framework where the team leader and manager
    took control and gave specific instructions on how things were to be done. This
    more directive management style worked well for her and her team in Brazil
    but did not transfer well to her new team in Sweden, who were more used to a
    flatter hierarchy where decision making was more democratic. When Gabriela
    took the issue to her Swedish manager, rather than stepping in with directions
    about what to do, her manager took on the role of coach and focused on getting
    her to come up with her own solutions instead.

    Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede uses the concept of ‘power distance’ to
    describe how power is distributed and how hierarchy is perceived in different
    cultures. In her previous work environment, Gabriela was used to a high power
    distance culture where power and authority are respected and everyone has
    their rightful place. In such a culture, leaders make the big decisions and are
    not often challenged. Her Swedish team, however, were used to working in a
    low power distance culture where subordinates often work together with their
    bosses to find solutions and make decisions. Here, leaders act as coaches or
    mentors who encourage independent thought and expect to be challenged.
    When Gabriela became aware of the cultural differences between her and her
    team, she took the initiative to have an open conversation with them about their
    feelings about her leadership. Pleased to be asked for their thoughts, Gabriela’s
    team openly expressed that they were not used to being told what to do. They
    enjoyed having more room for initiative and creative freedom. When she told
    her team exactly what she needed them to do, they felt that she didn’t trust
    them to do their job well. They realised that Gabriela was taking it personally
    when they tried to challenge or make changes to her decisions, and were able
    to explain that it was how they’d always worked.

    With a better understanding of the underlying reasons behind each other’s
    behaviour, Gabriela and her team were able to adapt their way of working.
    Gabriela was then able to make adjustments to her management style so as to
    better fit the expectations of her team and more effectively motivate her team

    to achieve their goals.

    Extracted from


    Comprehension questions

    1. Why did Gabriella feel disrespected?
    2. How did Gabriella’s Swedish manager react when she informed him
    about her frustration?
    3. Explain how Gabriella experienced culture clash in expectations.
    4. Contrast Gabriella’s work environment in Brazil and Sweden.
    5. What did Gabriella do when she became aware of the cultural differences
    between her and her new team?
    6. Assess Gabriella’s initiative result.
    7. Examine the positive effect of the better understanding of underlying

    reasons behind each other’s behavior.


    Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of Human rights

    and Ethics

    7.1. Describing rights
    Reading and exploitation of the texts

    Read the following passages and carry out the following tasks

    • Text 1. I am the first accused

    Government policy, violence by the African people had become inevitable, and
    that unless responsible leadership was given to canalize and control the feelings
    of our people, there would be outbreaks of terrorism which would produce an
    intensity of bitterness and hostility between the various races of this country
    which is not produced even by war. Secondly, we felt that without violence there
    would be no way open to the African people to succeed in their struggle against
    the principle of white supremacy. All lawful modes of expressing opposition to
    this principle had been closed by legislation, and we were placed in a position
    in which we had either to accept a permanent state of inferiority, or to defy the
    Government. We chose to defy the law. We first broke the law in a way which
    avoided any recourse to violence; when this form was legislated against, and
    then the Government resorted to a show of force to crush opposition to its
    policies, only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.

    But the violence which we chose to adopt was not terrorism. We who formed
    Umkhonto were all members of the African National Congress, and had behind
    us the ANC tradition of non-violence and negotiation as a means of solving
    political disputes. We believe that South Africa belongs to all the people
    who live in it, and not to one group, be it black or white. We did not want an
    interracial war, and tried to avoid it to the last minute. If the Court is in doubt
    about this, it will be seen that the whole history of our organization bears out
    what I have said, and what I will subsequently say, when I describe the tactics
    which Umkhonto decided to adopt. I want, therefore, to say something about
    the African National Congress.

    The African National Congress was formed in 1912 to defend the rights of the
    African people which had been seriously curtailed by the South Africa Act, and
    which were then being threatened by the Native Land Act. For thirty-seven years
    - that is until 1949 - it adhered strictly to a constitutional struggle. It put forward
    demands and resolutions; it sent delegations to the Government in the belief
    that African grievances could be settled through peaceful discussion and that
    Africans could advance gradually to full political rights. But White Governments
    remained unmoved, and the rights of Africans became less instead of becoming
    greater. In the words of my leader, Chief Lutuli, who became President of the
    ANC in 1952, and who was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize:100 100

    “Who will deny that thirty years of my life have been spent knocking in vain,
    patiently, moderately, and modestly at a closed and barred door? What have
    been the fruits of moderation? The past thirty years have seen the greatest
    number of laws restricting our rights and progress, until today we have reached
    a stage where we have almost no rights at all.”

    Even after 1949, the ANC remained determined to avoid violence. At this time,
    however, there was a change from the strictly constitutional means of protest
    which had been employed in the past. The change was embodied in a decision
    which was taken to protest against apartheid legislation by peaceful, but
    unlawful, demonstrations against certain laws. Pursuant to this policy the ANC
    launched the Defiance Campaign, in which I was placed in charge of volunteers.
    This campaign was based on the principles of passive resistance. More than
    8,500 people defied apartheid laws and went to jail. Yet there was not a single
    instance of violence in the course of this campaign on the part of any defiance.

    I and nineteen colleagues were convicted for the role which we played in
    organizing the campaign, but our sentences were suspended mainly because
    the Judge found that discipline and non-violence had been stressed throughout.

    Extract from Nelson Mandela’s speech “ I am the first accused”

    • Comprehension questions
    1. Explain the extent to which Mandela was a civil right activist in the first
    2. Discuss the positive deeds of ANC during the civil right struggle
    3. What, according to the passage, shows that ANC’s struggle was peaceful?
    4. What really makes Nelson Mandela a civil right hero in the last paragraph?
    5. Which disappointment did ANC members face in the fight for their full
    political rights?
    6. South Africa belongs to all the people who live in it, and not to one group,

    be it black or white. Justify this statement in not more than 15 lines

    • Text 2: Right to media

    Several international organizations have recognized the fundamental Human
    Right to access information held by public organs and private bodies. These
    include the United Nations, the African Union and the Commonwealth. In 1980,
    the Commonwealth recognized the fact that; ‘Public participation in the democratic
    and government processes was at its most significant when citizens had
    adequate access to information’. Similarly, the African Union has also upheld
    the right of every individual to access information.

    All citizens, therefore, have a right to know. Realization of the right to know
    cannot take place without a free, independent, ethical and professional media.
    The media plays an important role in advancing the right to know. The secrecy
    and withholding of information by the government and private firms corrodes
    democracy, facilitates corruption and undermines public policy making.

    Individuals working on a building and construction site or in an industry have
    the right to know of dangers they are likely to encounter as they carry out their
    duties. This enables them to take precautions for their own safety. This also
    applies to people who live near factories, mining sites or industries. They need
    access to information regarding the environment they live in and dangers they
    may be predisposed to, depending on their location. Processed products, chemicals,
    pharmaceutical drugs, machinery and electronics should be labelled with
    information that guides users on their usage, dangers and methods of operating
    and how such items can be disposed of. Such information is critical to
    people; therefore, individuals have a right to know. The Constitution of Rwanda
    grants citizens the right to know.

    Extract from General Studies and Communication Skills for Rwandan schools,

    Student Book Senior 4(REB)

    • Discuss and answer the following questions.
    1. Explain how the media in Rwanda has promoted the right to know in the
    2. Analyze the importance of the right to know and access to information.
    3. Draw health hazard symbols found in buildings, construction sites or

    product labels and give their meanings

    7.2. Describing children’s Rights
    Reading and text analysis
    Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow

    • Text: Children’s rights

    Parents, communities, and governments need to learn how to set goals for
    children, create a positive discipline and create a conducive home climate for
    children, understand how children think and feel and learn how they can be
    problem solvers in challenging situations.

    Children have the right to be protected from abuse, neglect and other
    mistreatment in homes. They should have the right to adequate food, clothing
    and shelter, regular medical and health services, educational, permanent homes.
    They shouldn’t be discriminated and forced into labour. The UN convention has
    provided a detailed list on the rights of children. They include the following:
    Article 1: Everyone under 18 years of age has all the right in this convention.
    Article 2: The convention applies to everyone whatever their race, religion,
    abilities, whatever they think or say, whatever type of family they
    come from.

    Article 3: All organizations concerned with children should work towards what
    is best for each child.

    Article 4: Government should make these right available to children.
    Article 5: Government should respect the rights and responsibilities of family
    to guide their children so that, as they grow up, they learn to use their
    rights properly.

    Article 6: Children have the right to live a full life. Government should ensure
    that children survive and develop healthily.

    Article 7: Children have the right to a legally registered name and nationality.
    Children also have the right to know their parents, as far as possible,
    to be cared for by them.

    Article 8: Government should respect a child’s right to a name, nationality and
    family ties.

    Article 9: Children should not be separated from their parents, unless it is for
    their own good, for example, if a parent is mistreating or neglecting a
    child. Children whose parents have separated have the right to stay in
    contact with both parents, unless this may harm the child.

    Article 10: Families who live in different countries should be allowed to move
    between those countries so that parents and children can stay in
    contact or get back together as family.

    Article 11: Government should take steps to stop children being taken out of
    their own country illegally.

    Article 12: Children have the right to say what they think should happen
    when adults are making decision that affect them and to have their
    opinions taken into account.

    Article 13: Children have the right to get and share information, if the information
    is not damaging to them or to others.

    Article 14: Children have the right to think and believe what they want and
    to practice their religion, if they are not stopping other people
    from enjoying their rights. Parents should guide children on these

    Article 15: Children have the right to meet with other children and young people
    and join groups and organizations, as long as this cannot stop other
    people from enjoying their rights

    Article 16: Children have the right to privacy; the law should protect them from
    attacks against their way of life, their good name, their family and their home.

    Article 17: Children have the right to reliable information from the media.

    Article 18: Both parents share responsibility for bringing up their children and
    should always consider what is best for each child. Governments
    should help parents by providing services to support them, especially
    if both parents work.

    Article 19: Government should ensure that children are properly cared for and
    protect them from violence, abuse and neglect by their parents, or
    anyone else who looks after them.

    Article 20: Children who cannot be looked after by their own family must be
    looked after properly by people who respect their religion, culture
    and language.

    Article 21: When children are adopted the first concern must be what is best for
    them. The same rules should apply whether children are adopted
    in the country of their birth or if they are taken to live in another

    Article 22: Children who come into country as refugees should have the same
    rights as children who are born in that country.

    Article 23: Children who have any kind of disability should receive special care
    and support so that they can live a full and independent life.

    Article 24: Children have the right to good quality health care, clean water,
    nutritious food and a clean environment so that they will stay
    healthy. Richer countries should help poorer countries achieve this.

    Article 25: Children who are looked after by their local authorities rather than
    their parents should have their situation reviewed regularly.
    Article 26: The government should provide extra money for the children of
    families in need.

    Article 27: Children have the right to standard living that is good enough to
    meet their physical and mental needs. The government should help
    families who cannot afford to provide this.

    Article 28: Children have a right to an education. Discipline in schools should
    respect children’s human dignity. Primary education should be
    free. Wealthier countries should help poorer countries achieve this.
    106 106

    Article 29: Education should develop each child’s personality and talents to
    the full. It should encourage children to respect their parents, their
    cultures and other cultures.

    Article 30: Children have a right to learn and use the language and customs
    of their families, whether or not these are shared by most of the
    people in the country where they live, as long as this does not harm

    Article 31: Children have a right to relax, play and join in a wide range of leisure

    Article 32: Government should protect children from work that is dangerous or
    that might harm their health or education.

    Article 33: Government should provide ways of protecting children from
    dangerous drugs.

    Article 34: Government should protect children from sexual abuse.

    Article 35: Government should make sure that children are not abducted or

    Article 36: Children should be protected from any activity that could harm their

    Article 37: Children who break the law should not be treated cruelly. They
    should not be put in prison with adults and should be able to keep
    in contact with their family.

    Article 38: Government should not allow children under 15 to join the army.
    Children in war zones should receive special protection.

    Article 39: Children who have been neglected or abused should receive special
    help to restore their self-respect.

    Article 40: Children who are accused of breaking the law should receive legal
    help. Prison sentences for children should only be used for the most
    serious offences.

    Article 41: If the law of a country protects children better than the articles of
    the convention, then those laws should override the convention.

    Article 42: Government should make the convention known to all parents and

    Extracted from: Legal and policy framework for children’s Rights in Rwanda by

    Pamela Abbot and Francesca Sapsford.

    • Comprehension questions :

    1. What do you understand by children’s rights?
    2. Basing on the short text above, describe the rights of children without
    reproducing the passage.
    3. Suggest possible advice to people who violate children’s rights in your

    4. Discuss the importance of protecting children.

    • Text: The concepts of ethics
    The word ethics etymologically is from the Greek word “ ethos” which means
    “customs”. Ethics is defined as science of good and bad. The modern ethics
    substitutes notions of good and bad to those of morality, values and anti-value.
    Ethics can also be defined as the part of human reflection which searches to
    determine the sense of human life, and means to come to this end. This definition
    is also applied to philosophy and ethical philosophy.

    Ethics is the branch of philosophy. It is interested in moral and elaborates
    analysis and theories on nature, function and values of moral judgment. These
    judgments help us to evaluate our behavior and society organization and to
    guide our proper actions.

    It treats from the value of good and bad and constitutes then life orientation
    and engagement for it treats from one value of good and bad and constitutes
    the life orientation and engagement for wellbeing.

    Academically, ethics is classified among human sciences like philosophy of
    which it is the part. The society cannot exist if the members do not respect and
    help one another at least up to a given level. By this, in all societies the same
    phenomenon is produced. In every society and in every country, it statues and
    judges that some actions are good and have to be done, whereas others are bad,
    must be avoided and rejected. The ethics questions rise in moral practice.

    Ethics indicates the ideal to be reached. It shows the way to take and helps
    to discover positive human values to be cultivated. Its fundamental task is the
    success of human life, characterized by positive human values.


    • Comprehension questions

    1. What do you understand by ethics?
    2. In which way ethical judgments help in our day to day life?
    3. What do you think is the purpose of ethics?
    4. After reading the above passage about ethics, examine your community’s
    ethics and present the findings to the class.

    Reading and text analysis
    Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow
    • Text. An accident happens
    One day I was returning home with a heavy water gourd on my back. It had
    rained very heavily the day before. I made a wrong step, slipped and staggered
    badly. I lost balance and the gourd fell down and broke into many pieces.
    I went home trembling with fear and explained to Mukulu what happened. I
    should have known better. Mukulu snatched the strap with which I had been
    carrying the gourd and thrashed me with it heavily. I screamed, begging for
    mercy, but she wouldn’t stop whipping me. She yelled, “is it your mother’s
    gourd that you have broken, you worthless creature?”

    Despite my pleas, she wouldn’t listen to me. Then I realized that I should run
    for my life. I slipped out of her hands and ran out of the house, but she ran after
    me, whipping me furiously. I was saved by some strokes of good luck when she
    stumbled over something and fell down heavily. She cursed me heatedly, but by
    that time, I had run round the granary.

    That evening Mukulu didn’t give me food. I went to bed on an empty stomach. I
    couldn’t sleep as my stomach rumbled in hunger. They had eaten sweet potatoes
    for supper that evening.

    That night I felt so hungry that I thought I would starve to death. So I got up
    from my bed very quietly, fearing to wake Mukulu. I tiptoed to her bedroom
    door, pressed my ear against the door and listened. Yes, she was fast asleep,
    snoring soundly. So I tiptoed to the main door and opened. I went to the kitchen
    to see whether there were any potatoes left in the pot.

    I walked holding my breath and my teeth clenched, fearing I would be heard.
    I inserted the key into the keyhole and opened the door silently. Just as I was
    getting in, I accidently stepped on a chicken in the dark and it made a lot of
    noise! I nearly fainted. I heard Mukulu’s voice calling out for Muindu, asking him
    to go out and see what was disturbing the chicken. I stood there too terrified to
    know what to do until Muindu came out of the house running.

    An extract from the story “the poor child “by David G. Mailu

    • Comprehension questions
    1. Describe the mood of the speaker in the above passage
    2. Which child abuses have been applied to the narrator?
    3. What misfortune happened to the speaker when she went to the kitchen
    to find some food?
    4. What would you do in the position of the narrator?
    5. Has anything like this ever happened to you or to someone you know? If
    yes, what was your reaction?
    6. What are your friends and you doing to stop the child abuse?

    7.5. Fighting abuses
    Picture observation and interpretation

    1. After observing the figure and the picture above, discuss the child
    protection cycle in 150 words essay

    Reading and text analysis
    • Text. Religious bodies urged to join fight against child abuse

    The Secretary-General of Rwanda Investigation Bureau (RIB) Jeannot Ruhunga
    on Friday said that the campaign against child abuse is not the responsibility of a
    certain single institution but rather a collective effort if the vice was to be completely
    uprooted in the Rwandan socTiety.

    He made the observation while opening a one-day conference in Kigali aimed at
    evaluating the progress made in the fight against GBV and what new measures
    can be taken to ensure this is curtailed.

    “It’s a must for each and everyone who wants to make a meaningful
    contribution to the future of our nation, to take care of the young generation
    by shielding them from any form of abuse. Because what we sow in them
    today, is what we shall harvest in the future. The future of our country lies in
    the hands of young people,” Ruhunga said.

    The conference, titled “Stop abusing a child” was jointly organized by RIB
    in partnership with World Vision.

    The main purpose of the meeting was to rally religious organizations, civil
    society and non-governmental organizations to join the fight against all forms
    of child abuse.

    Prof Anastase Shyaka, the Minister for Local Government pointed out the
    particular importance of religious organizations in this fight.

    “Religious entities, which are able to reach out to a lot of people in a short time,
    are the right partners in advocating for children rights,” he said.

    Through their body, the Rwanda Interfaith Council, the religious entities vowed
    to support the efforts as stressed by the Mufti of Rwanda, Sheikh Salim Hitimana,
    who represented the council at the meeting.

    child-abuse by Bertrand Byishimo September 30, 2019
    • Comprehension questions
    1. What was the issue discussed in the conference?
    2. Why do you think child abuse is not a responsibility of certain single
    3. Discuss the message of RIB Secretary-General.
    4. Why do you think Religious entities are expected to be more productive
    in the fight against child abuse?

    7.6.1. Learning activity: Reading and text analysis

    Read the above passage and answer questions that follow

    • Text. The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination
    Against Women (CEDAW)
    This was adopted in 1979 by the UN. It aims at eliminating any form of political,
    economic, social, cultural and civil discrimination against women. States are
    required to enshrine gender equality into their national laws and eliminate
    customs that promote superiority of one sex or gender role stereotypes. In
    addition, states should establish tribunals and public institutions to protect
    women against discrimination.

    Article 1 of the treaty defines discrimination against women as any distinction,
    exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect
    or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or
    exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis
    of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental
    freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other

    Article 2 requires states to enshrine gender equality into their national
    laws and remove all discriminatory provisions in their laws. It
    also requires them to establish tribunals and public institutions to
    guarantee women of effective protection against discrimination and
    eliminate all forms of discrimination against women by individuals,
    organizations and enterprises.

    Article 3 stipulates that States Parties shall take in all fields, in particular in
    the political, social, economic and cultural fields, all appropriate
    measures, including legislation, to ensure the full development and
    advancement of women, for the purpose of guaranteeing them the
    exercise and enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms
    on a basis of equality with men.

    Article 4 Specifies that adoption by States Parties of temporary special
    measures aimed at accelerating de facto equality between men
    and women shall not be considered discrimination as defined in
    the present convention, but shall in no way entail as a consequence
    the maintenance of unequal or separate standards; these measures
    shall be discontinued when the objectives of equality of opportunity
    and treatment have been achieved.

    This article also instructs that adoption by States Parties of special
    measures, including those measures contained in the present
    Convention, aimed at protecting maternity shall not be considered

    Article 5 requires states to eliminate prejudices and customs that promote the
    idea of the inferiority or the superiority of one sex or stereotyped
    roles for men and women.

    Adapted from General Studies and Communication Skills for Rwandan schools
    Student Book S6(REB).
    • Comprehension questions:
    1. When was that convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination
    against women adopted?
    2. What did this convention require the government?
    3. What do you understand by ‘discrimination against women’?
    4. Discuss some prejudices attributed to women.
    5. Does this convention apply in your community? Support your answer.

    7.7. Minority rights and inclusiveness

    Reading and text analysis.
    • Text: From hyperactive to stardom

    Kalisa is a 13 young boy and was born in rural village. In his daily activities he
    had inattention to accomplish tasks and was not able to follow some instructions
    because of his hyperactivities. His parents had tried to take him to the nearest
    school in order to help him like other children but his condition did not become
    good for the classmates. In class, other students were not happy with him, due
    to the way he interrupted them during activities by talking, throwing things,
    among others.

    During break time, he could not be calm, he was always running, jumping and
    driving vehicles. Even though he was overactive, he was also interested in
    playing music with piano or guitar and singing. His teacher has discovered that
    Kalisa may be good at music and then oriented him to a new teacher who could
    help him. Thanks to the help of that teacher, Kalisa has become good at playing
    some musical instruments.

    The teacher advised parents to take him to the specialist. When Kalisa arrived
    there he was diagnosed with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive disorder).
    In three years later he was able to play piano and sing some songs. His parents
    were happy because of their child’s success and they promised to support him
    to make the album of his songs.


    • Comprehension questions
    1. What do you understand by ADHD
    2. Why do you think the first teacher took Kalisa to the second teacher?
    3. Can really children with ADHD study in the same class with other children
    (with or without) disabilities? Explain why?
    4. Is there any strategy to educate children with ADHD? Explain.


    7.8. Language structure: Modal Verbs and passive voice in
    present tense
    I. Modal verbs
    A Modal Verb is a type of auxiliary (helping) verb that is used to convey ideas
    like talking about ability, asking permission, making requests, talking about
    things which are desired and so on.

    How to use the Modal Verb “Can”.

    Can is used when talking about someone’s skill or general abilities. It is also
    used to
    make offers, ask and give permission.
    1. Rodgers is patient and humble, he can adapt to any situation. (Ability)
    2. If children’s rights are recognized, a child can follow a career he likes.
    3. I can play for you a nice piece of music about children’s rights if you like.

    How to use modal verb should
    Should is used when giving a piece of advice, a recommendation or a suggestion.
    Very often, should is used instead of Must to make rules, orders or instructions
    sound more polite.
    a. If we are to live peacefully with others, we should avoid prejudices.
    (Advice, recommendation, suggestion).
    b. We should experience a united community since people now respect each
    other’s beliefs. (Likely situation).

    c. As tolerance is encouraged in our communities, we should have a more
    peaceful generation in the future. (Prediction).

    How to use may and might
    Might is used to talk about possibilities in the present, past and future. It has
    the same meaning as may but may is used when one is a bit more sure, while
    might expresses some doubts. Therefore, may” and “might” can be used:

    a. To show possibility
    1. There might be life on Mars, we never know. (In this sentence, the degree
    of certainty is low)

    2. There may be life on Mars since they found there water and micro
    organisms. (In this sentence, the degree of certainty is a bit higher for
    water and micro organisms are signs of life)

    b. To ask for or give permission:
    You may go now.
    You may come at eleven if you wish.
    c. To express polite offers, request or suggestions.
    1. May I borrow the car tomorrow?
    2. May we come a bit later?
    How to use be able to
    We use was/ were able to, or managed to, to describe successful completion of
    a specific action while am/ is/ are able to, to express ability to do something
    1. ANC was able to fight against apartheid in South Africa.
    2. Even though I am a woman, I am able to drive
    Construct nine meaningful sentences related to human rights and ethics
    using each of the following model verbs: can, may and should. Then read your
    sentences to the class.
    II. Passive voice for present tense
    The passive voice is used mostly in three ways:
    1. When we don’t want to take responsibility for something.
    E.g. children’s rights are not respected in some countries
    2. When we want to focus on what happened but not the one who did the action.
    E.g. the laws of protecting a woman are broken every day. (We don’t know by who)
    3. When we want to avoid subjects which would make the meaning
    E.g. child abuse was talked about in the meeting.
    Note: we use “by” when we want to say who did the action with action verbs.
    Exercise: transform the following sentences into passive voice
    1. Waitress and waiters serve customers.
    2. The teacher is going to explain the lesson.
    3. Does Professor Samuel teach that course?
    4. Tell the class 10 things a child should be provided with because it is his/
    her right. Remember to use passive voice. ( example: a child should be
    given food)

    7.4. End unit assessment



    Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of national

    8.1.Talking about national assets
    Reading and exploitation of the text
    • Text 1: Environmental protection and socio-economic development.
    All human activities that are designed and implemented for the economic
    growth of a country and the social needs may impact on the environment either
    directly or indirectly. However, in as much as human beings strive to achieve
    social development, environmental conservation should be observed. Economic
    development is associated with technological and industrial advancement. If
    people are not sensitive to the environment, so much can go wrong in matters
    of the environment while pursuing economic growth.

    Some economic activities can be destructive to the environment even though
    they are income generating. For example, in commercial agriculture, farmers
    may have to use fertilisers and pesticides in order to have higher produce that
    maximises profits. The practice can lead to economic growth but at the same
    time the chemicals are likely to destroy the natural resources such as the soil
    and water.

    Other human activities that can have adverse effects on the environment
    include: diversion of water courses, the extraction of minerals, emission of heat
    and gases into the atmosphere due to industrial processes, deforestation as a
    result of people using trees as raw materials to make commercial products and
    genetic manipulation of natural plants to have more produce at lower costs.

    It is also important to note that environmental degradation can be quite costly
    to a country. The cost of land reclamation is high. These may involve restoration
    of green cover, cleaning up of landfills and protection of endangered species.
    The economic impact can also be in terms of loss of tourism industry. When
    the natural resources that serve as tourists’ attraction sites are polluted and
    diminished, this impacts negatively on the tourism sector. When there are 125
    fewer tourists visiting a country, the revenue also goes down and as a result the
    socio-economic development of that country is affected.

    Another way in which environmental protection is related to socio-economic
    development is that pollution can cause diseases on the population. Disease is
    an economic aspect in the society because it means incurring costs in medical
    procedures and incapacitating a part of the population since when people get
    sick, they are less productive.

    Therefore, even as we strive for economic growth and social development,
    we should avoid over-exploitation of natural resources to avoid depletion. We
    should pursue development that encourages environmental sustainability.

    Adapted from General studies and communication skills, senior 4, p. 105-107

    • Comprehension questions
    1. Assess the linkage between environment protection and economic
    growth based on paragraph one.
    2. Determine the extent to which economic activities can be destructive to
    the environment.
    3. Identify other economic activities that can have negative effects on the
    4. Justify how environment degradation can be costly to the country.
    5. Examine the negative impact of economic growth on the tourism industry.
    6. Prove that environment protection is related to socio-economic

    development as shown in the sixth paragraph.


    8.2. Talking about the role of national assets


    Reading and text analysis

    • Text: Environment and Natural Resources
    The ministry of natural resources was established to ensure sustainable
    management and rational use of natural resources. The imbalance between
    population and natural resources is the biggest challenge that Rwanda has
    with regard to the management and protection of the environment and natural
    resources such as land, water resources, forests, minerals, etc. Degradation
    has occurred over the decades causing serious ecological and socio-economic
    problems that, if no adequate recovery measures are undertaken, would lead
    to an irreversible damage.

    Rwanda has an area of 26,338 km2 with a population of 10,762,085 million
    (2012 Census). Rwanda is known as the most densely populated sub-Saharan
    African country with its population density of 407 inhabitants per km. Land as
    a valuable resource and part of the national assets has been stated as one of
    the important pillars for sustainable development of Rwanda. It is therefore a
    priority area for agricultural development and a springboard in the fight against
    poverty. The Land sub-sector is one of the five sub-sectors that constitute the
    environment and natural resources sector. The objective of this sub-sector is to
    develop appropriate policies for land use and to ensure that all land resources
    are recorded and classified adequately and, that laws and appropriate land
    tenure systems are applied. A considerable proportion of Rwanda’s economy is 127
    delivered directly and indirectly from environmental resources. More than 80%
    of the Rwandan population derive their livelihoods directly from the country’s
    nature. All these factors and many others make this sub-sector significant to
    the nation’s development.

    Rwanda’s environment keeps changing as is evident in the extent of land
    degradation, declining water quality and quantity, increasingly unreliable
    climate, slums and a growing population of urban poor, and a shortage of
    wood and biomass resources. All these have affected the quality of life and
    the national economy. Environment and climate change programmes play an
    important role in increasing the productivity and sustainability of key sectors
    including land, forest management and agriculture. Rwanda environment
    management authority was established as an institution mandated to deal
    with environmental planning and regulation. This institution coordinates
    and reports on the implementation of the environment sub-sector activities.
    It also advises the government on all matters pertaining to environment and
    climate change. Through decentralised structures, this institution promotes
    and ensures that the environment is protected and natural resources, as part of
    the national assets, are sustainably managed.

    Mining is one of the sub-sectors that constitute the environment and natural
    resources sector. It has a mission to build a strong geology and mines sector
    in order to increase national revenues through proper management of
    the country’s mineral resources and with the capacity to monitor natural
    hazards. Mining sub-sector is one of the key priority areas that could trigger
    the economic growth of the country. This is possible if sufficient investment
    is made and the challenges that hinder the development of the sub-sector are
    removed. Mining is identified as one of the sectors that should be developed to
    expand the economic base, especially exports. It was recognised that there was
    need to know the mineral potential to strengthen investment and identify other
    minerals beyond the traditional ones-like tin.

    Forestry and nature conservation is one of the five sub-sectors that constitute
    the environment and natural resources sector. The objective of this sub-sector is
    to sustainably manage forest and biomass resources. Concerning environment
    issues, the forestry and nature conservation helps to map, assess and rehabilitate
    critically degraded ecosystems as part of the integrated management of critical

    Adapted from


    • Comprehension questions
    1. Discuss the main challenges that Rwanda has with regard to the
    management and protection of the environment and natural resources.
    2. Rephrase the objective of land sector as one of the pillars for sustainable
    development of Rwanda.
    3. Assess the mandate of Rwanda environment management authority.
    4. Examine the mission of the mining sector in relation with economic
    growth and environment protection.
    5. Explain the contribution of forestry and nature conservation to the

    management of ecosystems.


    • Text: Effects of Poaching

    Wild animals are being poached on a massive scale, with millions of individual
    animals of thousands of species worldwide killed or captured from their
    native habitats. Poaching poses a growing threat to elephants, rhinos, and
    other charismatic animals, as well as to smaller and more obscure creatures,
    like certain lizards and monkeys. Poachers sometimes kill or capture animals
    to sell them locally or for the global trade in wildlife. Wildlife trading is a
    major black market that has increased alongside rising wealth in Asia-a major
    consumer of wildlife-and the advent of e-commerce and social media websites.
    Some animals, such as birds, reptiles, and primates, are captured live so that
    they can be kept or sold as exotic pets. Slaughtered animals, on the other
    hand, have commercial value as food, jewellery, decor, or traditional medicine.

    The ivory tusks of African elephants, for example, are carved into trinkets or
    display pieces. The scales of pangolins, small animals that eat ants, are ground
    into powder and consumed for their purported healing powers. The meat of
    apes, snakes, and other bush animals is considered a delicacy in some parts of
    Africa. In addition to killing for direct profit, poachers target animals to prevent
    them from destroying crops or attacking livestock. This happens to lions and
    elephants in Africa, as well as to wolves, coyotes, and other predators in North
    America and beyond.

    Poaching has devastating consequences for wildlife. In some instances, it’s the
    primary reason why an animal faces a risk of extinction. This is the case with
    the African elephant, more than 100,000 of which were killed between 2014
    and 2017 for ivory. Poaching has also had a catastrophic impact on rhinos, with
    more than a thousand slaughtered a year for their horns.

    Poaching for the exotic pet trade affects an animal’s welfare in addition to its
    numbers in the wild. Most wild animals eat specialized diets found in nature,
    and they need space to fly, roam, and swing from branches. Captured animals are
    stuffed into boxes, suitcases, or sacks, and even if they survive transport, they
    often suffer in their new, unnatural situations.

    Then there’s the tragic ways poaching affects people. In Africa, nearly 600
    rangers charged with protecting wildlife were gunned down by poachers
    between 2009 and 2016 while in the line of duty. In the Democratic Republic
    of the Congo’s Virunga National Park, one of the continent’s most dangerous
    parks, at least 170 rangers have been killed during the past two decades. What’s
    more, poaching has been linked to armed militia groups in Africa suspected of
    trafficking ivory to fund their operations, and it often occurs alongside other crimes
    including corruption and money laundering. And poached animals can spread
    disease, such as Ebola.

    In addition to providing on-the-ground protection for animals, many countries
    make poaching an offense punishable by prison or monetary fees. Because
    poachers in Africa and Asia are often impoverished, penalties for poaching
    wildlife are generally less severe than those for trafficking wildlife. There are
    also numerous non-profit groups around the world working to end wildlife
    poaching. Another way people are working to end poaching is by trying to
    decrease demand for illegal wildlife products. If no one is buying the products,
    there will be no need to kill the animals.

    Adapted from


    • Comprehension questions
    1. Discuss the effect of poaching as explained in the first paragraph.
    2. Identify reasons behind wildlife poaching.
    3. Explain how poaching affects animals’ welfare.
    4. Assess the impact that poaching has on people’s life.

    5. Appreciate the measures taken to end wildlife poaching.

    • Text: A visit to Nyungwe national park
    Last week, I had a chance to visit Nyungwe rainforest, popularly known as
    Nyungwe National Park, which lies in the south west corner of Rwanda. What
    an evergreen and thick forest! It covers a vast area. I traversed the forest from
    one entry point to exit point. The journey takes approximately an hour. The
    forest covers an area of over 1000sq kilometres and it extends into Burundi in
    Kibira national park. It’s believed to be one of Africa’s most evergreen forests,
    which illustrates its rich biodiversity.

    The forest weather is quite chilly but friendly. It is truly an awesome experience
    for nature lovers. It has a well tarmac road traversing the forest, intended for
    long-term use. History reveals that Nyungwe forest has been in existence for
    thousands of years. For the purposes of ecotourism, trees are determinants of a
    forest ecosystem as they considerably influence forest micro-climate-available
    light, wetness, and temperatures. Therefore, the diversity and vastness of a
    forest strongly depend on the richness of tree species. In fact, Nyungwe forest
    hosts multi-tree-species rather than one-tree-species. No matter what your
    interests are, you will never run out of ways to enjoy the beautiful forest. Some
    of these species can only be found in Nyungwe forest and nowhere else. It is
    truly an awesome experience for nature lovers. What a memorable adventure!
    More interestingly, Nyungwe forest hosts canopy, a loveliest man-made touristic
    feature. As likely as not visitors can’t afford to leave the forest without enjoying
    a canopy walk. Canopy walk is a window of opportunity to view the panoramic
    forest view. Visitors can be able to correlate and learn about the role of forests in
    maintaining air quality, regulating precipitation and mitigating climate change.

    Finally, visitors’ security in the forest is effectively guaranteed by park rangers
    in collaboration with the security organs. Equally, the park rangers protect the
    forest from any encroachment or menace of every kind. There are hundreds of
    species of animals throughout the world which are fast disappearing because
    of human interference in their natural habitat. The more flora and fauna we
    lose, the fewer there are to contribute to individual ecosystems. Responsible
    travel to natural areas may conserve the environment and bring huge benefits
    to humans.

    Thanks, relevant authorities, for putting in place policy and legal frameworks
    for the conservation of forests.

    Adapted from


    • Comprehension Questions
    1. Describe the physical feature of Nyungwe national park.
    2. Appreciate the contribution of the multi-tree-species to the beauty of
    Nyungwe national park.
    3. Assess the role of the Nyungwe canopy as a touristic feature.

    4. Determine the role played by rangers in Nyungwe national park.

    8.5. Language structure: Adverbs of frequency, determiners
    and quantifiers
    I. Adverbs of frequency
    2. I have often visited the Huye national museum.
    3. Rwandans seldom visit their national forests.
    4. Foreign tourists are always present in Nyungwe national forest.
    5. Poachers should never be hidden because they destroy the national assets.
    6. Rwanda natural resources are taken care of daily.

    • Note:

    Adverbs of frequency are used to describe how often something is done, occurs
    or happens, either in definite or indefinite terms. An adverb that describes
    definite frequency is one such as weekly, daily, or yearly. An adverb describing
    indefinite frequency doesn’t specify an exact time frame. We generally place
    the adverb of frequency between the subject and the verb but it usually comes
    after the verb “be”. If the sentence has more than one verb in it(e.g. an auxiliary
    or a modal verb), we usually put the adverb after the first part of the verb.
    Examples of adverbs of frequency are sometimes, often, rarely, etc.

    Below is a table of those adverbs and their frequency.

    I. Use the adverb and the correct form of the verbs in brackets to complete
    the sentences.
    1. Our teacher, Mrs Jones, …………. (never / be) late for lessons.
    2. I …………. (often / clean) my bedroom at the weekend.
    3. My brother …………. (hardly ever / help) me with my homework.
    4. I …………… (sometimes / be) bored in the maths lessons.
    5. We ……………. (rarely / watch) football on TV.
    6. You and Tony …………. (never / play) computer games with me.
    7. You …………. (usually / be) at the sports centre on Sunday.
    8. The school bus …………. (always / arrive) at half past eight.
    9. Poachers …………….. (always/be) punished by the law.
    10. He …………… (seldom/remember) that natural resources are part of
    national assets.
    II. Determiners
    1. The Rwandan government cares for the national assets.
    2. A national park is part of the national assets.
    3. The Huye national museum is Rwanda’s historical richness.
    4. James has never been at the national stadium.
    5. An Asian tourist has praised Rwanda officials for natural resources conservation

    6. Nyungwe national forest is a valuable touristic site.

    • Note:
    Determiners are important to proper sentence structure and comprehension.
    They are important because they work to clarify nouns and make a sentence
    as precise and focused as possible. Determiners are words that come before a
    noun and serve to modify the noun. They modify nouns by providing context and
    specificity to the noun.

    Articles are the most popular types of determiners. The main articles are ‘the,’
    ‘a,’ and ‘an.’ ‘The’ is a definite article, which means it refers to a specific person,
    place, or thing. When we use the word ‘the’ as a determiner, it increases the
    exactness of the subject in a sentence. On the other hand, the indefinite articles’a’
    and ‘an’ are indefinite articles, which means that the noun they precede isn’t an
    exact person, place or thing; rather, the article creates a more generalized noun.
    ‘A’ is used in front of nouns starting with a consonant sound while ‘an’ is used
    before a noun starting with a vowel sound.

    Complete the following sentences using a, an or the. In some cases, no articles

    are needed.

    1. If you are really hungry, you can eat ……………… apple.
    2. She went on to become ………………….. successful playback singer.
    3. ………………… library on the corner has an amazing collection of story
    4. I don’t speak ………………… French very well, but I can make myself understood.
    5. She is ………………… prettiest girl I have ever seen.
    6. ‘Where is ………………… cheese?’ ‘I ate it.’
    7. Move ………………… books off that chair and sit down.
    8. . ………………… . Spanish have their own language.
    9. ………………. life is complicated.

    10. I am writing ………………… book on Indian mythology.

    III. Quantifiers
    1. We see many tourists in our home town.
    2. Some people destroy national assets like animal killings.
    3. Much work should be done for environment conservation.
    4. Few Rwandans are not aware that natural resources are part of the
    national assets.
    5. Governments invest a lot of its income from national assets to put up
    new infrastructures.

    • Note:
    A quantifier is a word or phrase which is used before a noun to indicate the
    amount or quantity. Some, many, a lot of and a few, are examples of quantifiers.
    Some quantifiers, like a few, few, many are used only before countable nouns.
    Others, like a little, little, much are used only before uncountable nouns. And a
    few quantifiers can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns. Some,
    most, plenty of, all and any are examples of quantifiers that can go with both
    countable and uncountable nouns.

    Choose much, some, many, any, few, little or most to complete the sentences
    1. How …………… time do you need to finish the work?
    2. There are too ……………. students in the library.
    3. Have you visited ……………….. foreign countries?
    4. Although he’s very ill, he didn’t take …………….. medicine.
    5. …………… people know as much about linguistics as John does.
    6. They say ……………. knowledge is a dangerous thing.
    7. He’s having ……………. of trouble passing his driving test.
    8. I spend …………….. of my time reading novels.
    9. We spent …………… money on our last vacation.

    10. Did you have ………….. friend coming to your party ?


    Key Unit competence: To use the language learnt in the context of media and



    9.1. Describing words and expressions used in media
    Reading and text analysis
    • Text: How to start a newspaper

    A smartly dressed young woman stood at the front of the school hall and
    addressed the senior students of the school. “Good morning, everyone,” she
    started. My name is Faida Muhoza. As you know, I am the chief editor of your
    newspaper, The Ladies Daybreak. But my career as journalist began a long time
    ago. I was one of the reporters of our school newspaper which we called ‘Our
    little daughter.’ Later, I trained as a journalist at college. But there is only one
    place to acquire experience, and that’s on the job; and it is never too early to
    start learning about being a reporter.

    I have come here today to tell you how you can run your own newspaper. Let
    us start by talking about the four steps towards starting a newspaper. First,
    you must consider the purpose of your newspaper. Second, you must form an
    editorial committee to produce the newspaper. Third, you must decide on the
    types of articles you want to include in the newspaper. Finally, you must decide
    on the size, shape and make up of your newspaper.

    The first duty of the editorial committee is to agree on the main purpose of
    the newspaper and therefore, the contents. The editorial committee is made
    of five members who perform different duties. The chief editor is to make sure
    that the committee works well as a team, to check the whole newspaper for
    quality and content, to write the editorial column in the newspaper, to chair
    most of the editorial meetings and report. The editor reviews the articles from
    the reporters to give any comment on articles presented. The chief editor and
    the committee proofread the articles; they work with the designer(s) on the
    arrangement of the articles. The Chief Editor also chairs editorial committee

    The Secretary has the duty of handling all correspondences, takes notes at the
    editorial meetings, receives articles from reporters and passes them on to the
    editors. He or she works with and helps the chief editor. The Designer organizes
    articles and advertisements by deciding on the space between them, etc. He
    or she organizes the illustrations and photographs; works with the editors to
    make sure that the articles have the right structure and the articles are ready on
    time. He or she should also ensure that the printing goes smoothly.

    The treasurer is to look after money and find ways of getting funds to pay for
    the printings. The treasurer contacts advertisers and informs the designer
    about all the advertisements on various issues. He/she organizes the sales and
    distribution of the newspapers and pays for printing expenditures. He or she
    also receives money from sales and advertisements.

    Adapted from English Language, book 6, p.51

    • Comprehension questions

    1. Analyze the steps to start a newspaper as shown in paragraph two.
    2. Examine the duty of the editorial committee.
    3. Contrast the role of the chief editor with that of the secretary in the
    production of a newspaper.
    4. Assess the contribution of a designer to the writing of an effective

    5. Determine the importance of a treasurer for the planning of a newspaper.

    9.2. Describing a scene

    Reading and text analysis

    • Text: A road accident
    On January 15, 2014, a cyclist died on the spot after being hit by a truck a few
    kilometres from Butare town in Huye District. The accident occurred when the
    truck failed to negotiate a bend on the road at the place called the beautiful girl,
    black spot and overturned, falling over the cyclist who was carrying tomatoes
    to Butare town, according to eyewitnesses. The truck, which was carrying
    bricks and other construction materials, was en route to Rusizi District from
    Mombasa, Kenya.

    The victim was identified as Anselm Harorimana, a resident of Save Sector in the
    neighboring Gisagara District. He is survived by a wife and one child. The truck
    driver and his co-driver survived the accident with minor injuries and were by
    press time admitted to the University Teaching Hospital of Butare. Sources at
    the hospital said the driver and his co. were out of danger. An eyewitness, who
    identified himself only as Ernest, told this paper that he was also riding a bicycle
    a few metres ahead of the victim. “I heard a huge bang,” he said, describing the
    moment the truck overturned. “When I looked back to see what was happening,
    I realised that it had overturned at the spot in which Harorimana was.”

    Police in Southern Province said they were yet to identify the cause of the
    accident but warned drivers to always respect traffic rules and road signs. The
    beautiful girl bend is a black spot that is often blamed for several accidents at
    the scene, especially those involving foreign truck drivers. Because the roadcurve,
    located at about three kilometres from Huye town on the highway to
    Kigali, has led to one too many accidents, theories keep coming up as locals
    attempt to explain why it is a black spot.

    The most told story is a superstitious tale of a ‘beautiful lady’ who is said to be
    behind the tragic accidents, a theory that has earned the corner the name of
    the beautiful girl (which literary translates as (“At the beautiful lady’s place”).
    However, others say the spot is just tricky to negotiate, especially for nonfamiliar

    • Comprehension questions

    1. Analyze the above text and label where the accident took place.
    2. Which report did the hospital put out after that accident and who was
    the victim in it?
    3. Explain what happened to the driver and co-driver.
    4. Examine what caused that accident as described in paragraph 1.
    5. After reading the above text, suggest different pieces of advice you would

    give to the truck drivers and drivers in general.

    9.3. Reporting a speech


    Reading and exploitation of text

    • Text: Third Youth Connekt Africa Summit
    Increasingly, integrating countries from across the continent and creating
    connections among citizens will make Africa an ideal home for all, President
    Paul Kagame said.

    President Kagame made the remarks at the opening of the 3rd YouthConnekt
    Africa Summit underway in Kigali convening over 8000 young people from
    across the continent. The President said that the summit is in the spirit of
    bringing together young people irrespective of gender, religion and borders,
    and this is what integration and connection mean.

    This, he said, would expand their context of ‘home’ from their individual
    countries and regions to the entire continent. “So to be able to connect people
    across the world, you should have a starting point. The starting point maybe
    home, home means home, whether in Rwanda, Mali or Cameroun, or from
    where you have all come from.

    “That word, connect, starts from home and then you go beyond home. You have
    initially someone you call a neighbour or a neighbouring country and that too
    becomes home as well and a neighbour feels like you’ve provided a home to
    him and that’s how people connect. Connect expands the definition, expands
    the home, home stops being Rwanda for me, and home becomes Africa for me,”
    Kagame said.

    Integration, he said, is not only important for geographically smaller countries
    such as Rwanda but for all nations’ survival and relevance in the current global
    state of affairs. “Those who are lucky to come from big countries, those you call
    big countries, I have a message for you, that you are better off, together with
    even smaller countries. Especially in this world full of sharks,” he said.

    Adding: “Alone, it doesn’t matter the size, the sharks will eat you up. Together,
    we constitute the size that those sharks cannot swallow. They can’t swallow us.”
    Together, African countries are bigger, can get further and can achieve much
    more faster. “When you want to go far, you come together, and walk together.
    When you want to move fast, then you better go alone. But why can’t we have
    both? Isn’t it possible? We can be together, move far, and still move fast. Moving
    fast now this time becomes an issue of ambition,” the head of state said. The
    President urged the youth not to sit waiting for governments to solve all their
    challenges and called them to be more involved and innovative in seeking the
    results they seek.

    “You don’t have to look to government and say government is not doing this,
    government is not good at doing this. But government is actually you,” he said.
    Among the ways young people can be involved in governance including taking
    part in elections and joining public service in different capacities. Fielding
    questions from the summit’s participants, Kagame said that Rwanda is a
    believer in facilitating free movement of people across the continent hence
    adopting a visa on arrival policy for citizens across the continent.

    He allayed fears that free movement of persons would increase crime rate
    noting that by Rwanda’s experience there had not been any impact on the
    levels of security. Assistant Secretary-General and Director of United Nations
    Development Programme Regional Bureau for Africa Ahunna Eziakonwa said
    that Africa remains the youngest continent in the world with a rapidly growing
    youth population that is expected to double by 2055 hence the need to tap
    into demographic dividend. The continental summit, first held in 2017, was
    conceptualized from the Rwandan version of the annual summit launched in

    The summit features over 100 speakers who include leading professionals
    from policy influencers, political and industry leaders, to public, private
    and development sector youth champions. The agenda will cover key issues
    affecting young people including creating jobs for Africa, turning passion into
    profit and bridging the gender divide.
    Other subjects on the agenda include the digital economy and opportunities
    therein and opportunities in the agriculture sector.

    • Comprehension question
    1. How many people attended the third youth connect summit as described
    in the passage?
    2. According to His excellence President of Rwanda, what is the meaning of
    the term connect?
    3. Based on the text, what was the message of His excellence Paul Kagame
    in the summit and one of the guests of honor, Director of United Nations
    Development Programme Regional Bureau for Africa.
    4. How would you explain the importance of this summit to the people of
    Rwanda, especially youth?

    5. Which conclusion would you draw based on the above text?

    9.4. Describing stages in reporting

    Reading and text analysis
    • Text: The relevance of a summary.
    Writing summary is an essential part of the organization of various events.
    The main reason for it is to give your client full and necessary insight into the
    effectiveness of your event. Besides, it is good for learning. The review of your
    event can help you to add some enhancements to your further planning of
    events in the future. The reports will help you to collect the necessary data
    about the event, such as the number of people who attended it, the expenses
    that went into it, and various other aspects. Collecting all this information
    will reveal trends about your event, which will help you to plan them more
    effectively from now on.

    However, learning how to write a good report on an event is not exactly easy.
    You will need some brief guidelines to learn this art. Here, we will give you
    some of them, and you will be able to plan your perfect report for your clients
    and yourself.

    First of all, you will have to determine the style of your presentation and its
    format. The reports of events can come in a different format they can be done
    as PDF files, PowerPoint presentations, stapled, bound or other. You should
    make sure that the report has been organized and divided into a number of
    clear sections. The purpose of writing the report is comparing the event results
    and the objectives for the event. The primary outcomes of the event have to
    be summarized. The report has to be tailored to the interests and needs of
    every audience and sponsor that have been affiliated with your event. Take the
    sponsor objectives into consideration. Keep in mind that the sponsors, to some
    degree, are the main audience for your event, and they would like to know if it
    was worth to be sponsored. The other audience for your event might include
    the financial managers and senior executives.

    Then, your next step will be tracking all the information needed for your report.
    For this, you will not only have to rely on memory, but you will also have to
    note down data. Taking notes is extremely important during the event because
    later you might forget things that happened, and during the event, you are sure
    that they are still fresh in mind. Pay attention to the important tidbits, like the
    number of people who attended the event, the environment, and the parts
    which were approved or disapproved by the audience.

    Shortly, during the event, you have to capture everything you can and write
    it down. This will greatly help you out later. Sometimes, you will have to take
    photos of the event since some clients may want them for the administrative
    purposes. They can also be used on the Internet for advertising your event. In
    some cases, the videotape of the event would also be relevant. If you track as
    much information as possible before the event, during it, and after the event,
    your event description will become more specific and effective. Continuously
    collect data, and use different people for it (for instance, interview them on their
    opinions). It can be useful to write down things from different perspectives.
    You should not be waiting to start working on your report until the very end of
    your event.

    Briefly, as far as stages of reporting an even are concerned, the following are
    different steps to be taken into consideration: executive summary of the event
    where you should write down the summary of your event. This is a short version
    of the full report, and it will play the introductory role in your review.

    Another smart move would be including the visuals in your report. Everything
    that has got visuals is more interesting for the public than things which have
    no visual presentation. Therefore, it will be effective to insert the chart which
    illustrates statistics of the event, instead of giving the audience just a bland
    list of numbers. The documentation of advertising exposure and social media
    audience can also be helpful. For this, completing the following steps would
    help: Focus on the ads which contain the names of sponsors. It will be useful in
    gathering the advertising rates and circulation figures. Document the advertising
    on television, ratings, news coverage, and public service announcements. Also,
    you should document the radio, advertising and promotional values, rate card
    advertisements, audited reports, and other things that can be helpful. Then, it
    would be good to include the statement where you list all the objectives of your
    event. It is significant to link the objectives with the results of the event. So,
    you need to make certain that you remind people of the original mission of the
    event, and the goals that were set by its organization.

    Finally, financial highlights, statistical data, quotes from actual people, and
    you will have to summarize your report by making it into a final product. This
    also requires a few steps that you will have to complete before handing in your
    • Comprehension
    1. To what extent the report can lead to the effective result achievement of
    a given institution. Explain
    2. Discuss different forms of the report as described in the passage.
    3. Explain different stages of reporting.
    4. Do you think data collection in reporting is important? Identify the
    method of collecting data in media reporting as mentioned in the text.
    5. How would we maintain huge information collected from the first hand?
    • A text 2: writing an article
    Steps for writing an article

    Research your topic. To begin writing a news article you need to research
    the topic you will be writing about extensively. In order to have a credible,
    well written, well-structured article, you have to know the topic well. Begin
    by asking yourself the “5 W’s” (sometimes “6 W’s”). Who - who was involved,
    what - what happened?, Where - where did it happen? why - why did it happen,
    when - when did it happen? And How - how did it happen?
    Compile all your facts.

    Once you can clearly answer the “5 W’s”, jot down a list of all the pertinent facts
    and information that needs to be included in the article.

    Create an article outline. Your outline, and subsequently your article, should
    be structured like an inverted triangle. The inverted triangle allows you to
    build your story so that the most important information is at the top.

    Know your audience. In order to write a great news article, you need to know
    exactly who you are writing for.

    Find an angle. Why is this article unique to you? What is your voice? These
    questions will help you to make your news article unique and something that
    only you could write. Do you have a personal experience that relates to your
    topic? Maybe you know someone who is an expert that you can interview.

    Interview people. When writing a news article, interviewing people and
    getting a firsthand source on your topic can be invaluable. And while reaching
    out to people and asking for an interview may seem daunting, it can greatly

    affect the credibility and authority of your article.

    Start with the lead. Begin with a strong leading sentence. News articles begin
    with a leading sentence that is meant to grab a reader›s attention and interest

    Give all the important details. The next important step to writing news
    articles is including all the relevant facts and details that relate to your lead

    Follow up main facts with additional information. After you›ve listed all
    the primary facts in your news article, include any additional information that
    might help the reader learn more.

    Conclude your article. Congratulate your readers for sticking with you to the
    end by giving the reader something to take away, like potential solutions to the
    problem or challenges expressed in your article.

    Lastly, Check facts before publishing, Ensure you have followed your outline
    and have been consistent with style, Follow the AP Style for formatting and
    citing sources and have your editor read your article.

    • Comprehension question

    1. Based on the text, identify different steps of reporting mentioned in the
    2. Justify the relevance of the identified steps in writing articles.

    3. Predict other important information forgotten when writing an article.

    9.5.Describing a report
    Reading and text analysis
    • Text:

    A Report may be defined as a statement or an account, either big or small,
    on some happenings, findings, observations or recommendations prepared
    either by an individual or by a group. A report may be oral or written. It may
    be prepared by a single individual (like a secretary or a departmental head or
    an investigator) or by a group of persons or a committee or a sub-committee.
    A report may be prepared at regular interval of time (like annual report of an
    organisation or a monthly report by a branch to the head office) or only once
    (like a report by an enquiry committee).

    Reports play a very big role in organizational life and for general administration
    is very great. Decisions are very often taken on many controversial and
    problematic issues based upon some reports. Members of an organisation or
    a committee or a department, etc., can know many relevant and material facts
    about the organisation or committee or group itself or of other organisations,
    committees or groups through reports thereon. General administration is
    guided very much by different kinds of internal and external reports.

    Sometimes reports have to be prepared, submitted, and circulated statutorily.
    For example, annual reports of a company. A report has a documentation value.
    It is a source of reference, evidence, and history. The secretary of an organisation
    or a committee or a sub-committee, etc. has great responsibility in connection
    with reports because he has to prepare them. Reports are of various types.

    They are classified on the basis of various principles. Such classification is also
    based on groups.

    First of all, a Routine Report is prepared and presented as a routine work and
    at a regular period of time. For example, the annual report of an association
    or a company which has to be prepared by the secretary or by the Board of
    Directors at the end of every financial year and copies have to be distributed
    among the members.

    Then, a general report is that which is for distribution among many, like the
    members of an organization- Such reports may be printed in large numbers
    or even published in newspapers for the public information. The Government
    publishes reports of different committees or commissions and places them on
    sale to the public. A Confidential Report is meant for some superior person or
    persons and is not for general information. Sometimes the report may be so
    confidential that the secretary or any other person preparing it. Writes it by
    hand or types it out him-self.

    In addition, a formal Report is that which is prepared according to some
    prescribed form and at a prescribed time and is presented according to a
    conventional procedure. For example, the annual report of a company or any
    association, a report of a branch to its head office, etc.

    Lastly, reports can be classified one-man report or group report. A report may
    be prepared by an individual only like any report by a secretary or it may be
    prepared by a group or a committee. Even in case of a committee, there is a
    secretary or convener to each committee who drafts the report on behalf of the
    committee and gets it confirmed by others, with or without modifications. A
    committee may be divided and two reports, one by the majority and the other
    by the minority, may be separately submitted. Therefore, reports may be of
    majority and minority types.

    Comprehension questions

    1. How would you define the term report?
    2. Examine the relevance of a report in different company’s services.
    3. Identify different types of report as discussed in the text.

    4. How would you differentiate formal report and confidential report.

    9.6.Expressing Probability on a Past Event

    Tense used when expressing probability on a past event

    • Notes
     When we want to express probability on a past event, we use must
    have or might have + past participle of a verb.

     We use must have + past participle to express that we think that
    something happened.

     We use might have + past participle to express the possibility for
    something to have happened, but with some degree of doubt.

    1. The Chief Editor must have thought no one knew what he was doing.
    2. He must have scanned the advertisement.

    3. According to some newspapers, the road might have been broken.

    9.7. Language structure: Past perfect continuous, passive
    voice and reported speech
    I. Past perfect continuous


    1. The manager had been taking money from the company.
    2. They had been planning to write this report since last month.
    3. The witness said that the driver had been talking on his mobile phone.
    4. The car had been emerging into the main road when the accident took
    5. Janet had been preparing her news presentation for an hour when I
    6. Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.
    7. Reporters had been waiting there for more than two hours when the

    press conference finally started.

    • Note:
    The past perfect continuous is used to talk about actions or situations that
    were in progress before some other actions took place.Using the past perfect
    continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and
    effect. You can use time expressions like ‹for› and ‹since› with this tense.You
    have learnt about the use of ‘since’ and ‘for’ in unit 3 of this book.

    I. Put the verbs into the correct form of the past perfect continuous.
    1. We (sleep) ……….. for 12 hours when he woke us up.
    2. They (wait) ……….. at the station for 90 minutes when the train finally
    3. We (look for) ………… her ring for two hours and then we found it in the
    4. I (not / walk) ………… for a long time, when it suddenly began to rain.
    5. How long (learn / she) ..………. English before she went to London?
    6. Frank caught the flu because he (sing)………… in the rain too long.
    7. He (drive) ………… less than an hour when he ran out of petrol.
    8. They were very tired in the evening because they (help) ……….. on the
    farm all day.
    9. I (not / work) ..………… all day; so I wasn’t tired and went to the disco at
    10. They (cycle) ………... all day so their legs were sore in the evening.
    II. Passive voice
    1. This article was written by a young journalist.
    2. All articles had been checked by the chief editor.
    3. The newspaper has been banned by the government recently.
    4. The news was presented late because of the football match.
    5. Reporters were advised on professional rules of ethics.

    • Note:

    The passive voice is marked by be+the past participle form of the verb + by +
    noun (agent). The verb in a passive sentence contains the appropriate form
    of the auxiliary be and the past participle form of the main verb. We use the

    passive voice when we are interested in what is done rather than who does it.

    The phrase by + noun (agent) is left out when the doer of the action has been
    mentioned earlier, is obvious, is unknown or is considered unimportant.

    Below is a table showing the main verb forms.


    I. Put the following sentences in passive voice.
    1. The secretary received the article in the morning.
    2. The chief editor structured all the reports himself.
    3. Jimmy had carefully planned the writing of the report.
    4. The editor understood the purpose of the report.
    5. The reporters gathered and selected the information wisely.
    6. This made the writing much easier.
    7. The manager had taken the money from the company.
    8. A burglar broke into the house.
    9. Many journalists use cameras and reporters.
    10. A police officer rescued a seven-year-old boy.
    II. Reported speech


    a. Direct speech: The senior editor said, “you wrote a good article.”

    Reported speech: The senior editor said (that) I had written a good article.

    b. Direct speech: The minister of infrastructure said, “new machines arrived

    Reported speech: The minister of infrastructure said (that) new machines
    had arrived the previous day.

    c. Direct speech: “Thirty news journalists graduated yesterday,” the dean of
    faculty announced.

    Reported speech: The dean of faculty announced (that ) thirty news
    journalists had graduated the day before.

    d. Direct speech: “This girl wrote a very good article for Nyampinga
    Newspaper,” said the headmistress.

    Reported speech: The headmistress said (that) that girl had written a
    very good article for Nyampinga Newspaper.

    • Note:

    In newspapers, reporters need to repeat what other people have said. In this
    case, the mastery of reported speech is needed. Mostly, in newspapers the
    simple past is used to report events. This tense changes into past perfect if
    the event is reported indirectly. However, to report a progressive past event,
    the past perfect continuous tense is used. In reported speech, the word that is
    optional. That’s why it is put between brackets in the above sentence.

    The table below shows other important changes:


    Put the following sentences into Reported speech.
    a. The newspaper reported, “The manager intended to take a big amount of
    b. The policeman said, “The robbers broke into the house and stole money.”
    c. “Police officers rescued a seven-year-old boy,” the witnesses told
    Imvaho Nshya.
    d. The driver reported, “There were many passengers at the scene.”
    e. Brown said, “We didn’t hear gunshots and the boy was out here fighting
    with somebody.”
    f. ‘The magazines were featuring various articles about women rights,’ the
    project manager told us.
    g. “The plane crashed en-route to Dubai,” The BBC reported.
    h. “Seventy per cent of the farmers used fertilisers last year,” minister of
    agriculture told The New times.
    i. “Her article inspired young entrepreneurs in this region,” said the Chief
    j. ‘James was writing a report about the scene,’ the police announced.

    9.8.Spelling and Pronunciation

    Use dictionaries and thesaurus to find the missing pronunciation and meaning

    of the given words in to complete the following table.

    9.9. End of unit assessment


    Key Unit Competence: To analyse literary texts based on their genres and



    I. Prose
    • Extract 1. “The Pearl” by John Steinbeck”

    Read the following extract below and then answer questions asked thereafter.
    Kino and Juana came slowly down to the beach and to Kino’s canoe, which was
    the one thing of value he owned in the world. It was very old. Kino’s grandfather
    had brought it from Nayarit, and he had given it to Kino’s father, and so it had
    come to Kino. It was at once property and source of food; for a man with a boat
    can guarantee a woman that she will eat something. It is the bulwark against
    starvation. And every year Kino refinished his canoe with the hard shell-like
    plaster by the secret method that had also come to him from his father. Now he
    came to the canoe and touched the bow tenderly as he always did. He laid his
    diving rock and his basket and the two ropes in the sand by the canoe. And he
    folded his blanket and laid it in the bow.

    Juana laid Coyotito on the blanket, and she placed her shawl over him so that
    the hot sun could not shine on him. He was quiet now, but the swelling on his
    shoulder had continued up his neck and under his ear and his face was puffed
    and feverish. Juana went to the water and waded in. She gathered some brown
    seaweed and made a flat damp poultice of it, and this she applied to the baby’s
    swollen shoulder, which was as good a remedy as any and probably better than
    the doctor could have done. But the remedy lacked his authority because it was
    simple and didn’t cost anything. The stomach cramps had not come to Coyotito.
    the canoe creased the water and hissed with speed. The other pearlers were
    gone out long since. In a few moments Kino could see them clustered in the
    haze, riding over the oyster bed.

    Light filtered down through the water to the bed where the frilly pearl oysters
    lay fastened to the rubbly bottom, a bottom strewn with shells of broken, opened
    oysters. This was the bed that had raised the King of Spain to be a great power
    in Europe in past years, had helped to pay for his wars, and had decorated the
    churches for his soul’s sake. The gray oysters with ruffles like skirts on the
    shells, the barnacle-crusted oysters with little bits of weed clinging to the skirts
    and small crabs climbing over them. An accident could happen to these oysters;
    a grain of sand could lie in the folds of muscle and irritate the flesh until in selfprotection
    the flesh coated the grain with a layer of smooth cement. But once
    started, the flesh continued to coat the foreign body until it fell free in some
    tidal flurry or until the oyster was destroyed. For centuries men had dived
    down and torn the oysters from the beds and ripped them open, looking for the
    coated grains of sand. Swarms of fish lived near the bed to live near the oysters
    thrown back by the searching men and to nibble at the shining inner shells. But
    the pearls were accidents, and the finding of one was luck, a little pat on the
    back by God or the gods or both.

    Kino had two ropes, one tied to a heavy stone and one to a basket. He stripped
    off his shirt and trousers and laid his hat in the bottom of the canoe. The water
    was oily smooth. He took his rock in one hand and his basket in the other, and
    he slipped feet first over the side and the rock carried him to the bottom. The
    bubbles rose behind him until the water cleared and he could see. Above, the
    surface of the water was an undulating mirror of brightness, and he could see
    the bottoms of the canoes sticking through it.

    Kino moved cautiously so that the water would not be obscured with mud or
    sand. He hooked his foot in the loop on his rock and his hands worked quickly,
    tearing the oysters loose, some singly, others in clusters. He laid them in his
    basket. In some places the oysters clung to one another so that they came free
    in lumps.

    Now, Kino’s people had sung of everything that happened or existed. They had
    made songs to the fishes, to the sea in anger and to the sea in calm, to the light
    and the dark and the sun and the moon, and the songs were all in Kino and in
    his people - every song that had ever been made, even the ones forgotten. And
    as he filled his basket the song was in Kino, and the beat of the song was his
    pounding heart as it ate the oxygen from his held breath, and the melody of the
    song was the gray-green water and the little scuttling animals and the clouds
    of fish that flitted by and were gone. But in the song there was a secret little
    inner song, hardly perceptible, but always there, sweet and secret and clinging,
    Perhaps Juana had sucked out the poison in time, but she had not sucked out
    her worry over her first-born. She had not prayed directly for the recovery of
    the baby - she had prayed that they might find a pearl with which to hire the
    doctor to cure the baby, for the minds of people are as unsubstantial as the
    mirage of the Gulf.

    Now Kino and Juana slid the canoe down the beach to the water, and when the
    bow floated, Juana climbed in, while Kino pushed the stern in and waded beside
    it until it floated lightly and trembled on the little breaking waves. Then in coordination
    Juana and Kino drove their double-bladed paddles into the sea, and
    almost hiding in the counter-melody, and this was the Song of the Pearl That
    Might Be, for every shell thrown in the basket might contain a pearl.

    The Pearl by John Steinbeck
    • Answer these questions.

    1. After reading this extract, explore the organization of its plot development
    2. What did Coyotito’s mother do to prevent him from hot sunshine?
    3. Why did Kino and Juana go to the beech? Explain the main reasons that
    prodded them to go.
    4. Find the meaning of the following phrases and words as used in the text.
    a. Stripped off
    b. Moved cautiously
    c. Obscured with
    d. Clung.
    5. With reference to the above extract, explain the term Prose.
    6. Explain the following literary terms: plot, character, theme and setting
    7. Examine the plot development in prose.

    • Notes
    1.Definition of prose
    Prose is a form of language that has no formal metrical structure. It applies
    a natural flow of speech and ordinary grammatical structure, rather than
    rhythmic structure. Prose comprises of full grammatical sentences, which
    consists of paragraphs and forgoes aesthetic appeal in favour of clear, straight
    forward language.

    The term prose is used simply as a contrast to verse. It is what linguists call the
    “unmarked” form of language. Literary critics divide prose into fictional and

    Examples: of prose include novels, novellas, short stories, essays, letters,
    editorials, articles and journals.

    2. Characteristics of prose
    • Prose is written in paragraphs
    • It tells the story rather than describing an image or metaphor
    • Generally, it has characters and a plot.

    3. Types of prose:
    Narrative, Descriptive, Expository and Persuasive
    • Extract 2

    Read the following extract from animal farm and answer questions.

    When the animals had assembled in the big barn, Snowball stood

    Up and, though occasionally interrupted by bleating from the sheep, set forth his
    reasons for advocating the building of the windmill. Then Napoleon stood up to
    reply. He said very quietly that the windmill was nonsense and that he advised
    nobody to vote for it, and promptly sat down again; he had spoken for barely
    thirty seconds, and seemed almost indifferent as to the effect he produced.

    At this Snowball sprang to his feet, and shouting down the sheep, which had
    begun bleating again, broke into a passionate appeal in favour of the windmill.
    Until now the animals had been about equally divided in their sympathies, but in
    a moment Snowball’s eloquence had carried them away. In glowing sentences,
    he painted a picture of Animal Farm as it might be when sordid labour was
    lifted from the animals’ backs. His imagination had now run far beyond chaffcutters
    and turnip-slicers. Electricity, he said, could operate threshing machines,
    ploughs, harrows, rollers, and reapers and binders, besides supplying every
    stall with its own electric light, hot and cold water, and an electric heater. By
    the time he had finished speaking, there was no doubt as to which way the vote
    would go. But just at this moment Napoleon stood up and, casting a peculiar
    sidelong look at Snowball, uttered a high-pitched whimper of a kind no one had

    ever heard him utter before.

    At this there was a terrible baying sound outside, and nine enormous dogs
    wearing brass-studded collars came bounding into the barn. They dashed
    straight for Snowball, who only sprang from his place just in time to escape
    their snapping jaws. In a moment he was out of the door and they were after
    him. Too amazed and frightened to speak, all the animals crowded through the
    door to watch the chase. Snowball was racing across the long pasture that led
    to the road. He was running as only a pig can run, but the dogs were close on
    his heels. Suddenly he slipped and it seemed certain that they had him. Then he
    was up again, running faster than ever, then the dogs were gaining on him again.
    One of them all but closed his jaws on Snowball’s tail, but Snowball whisked it
    free just in time. Then he put on an extra spurt and, with a few inches to spare,
    slipped through a hole in the hedge and was seen no more.

    Animal Farm by George Orwell

    • Answer these questions

    1. What is the text talking about?
    2. Why did the dogs chase Snowball?
    3. What does the phrase ‘was seen no more’ in the last line mean?
    4. Describe the character traits of the following;
    a. Snowball
    b. Dogs
    5. What do animals symbolize according to the author?
    6. Explain whether the above extract is narrative, descriptive, expository or

    • Notes
    Basing on its characteristics given above, prose can be broken into four
    categories, divided by purpose:

    Narrative: Writing which tells a story (can be fiction or non-fiction); usually
    told in chronological order; has characters; follows the basic plot-line/
    development/chart/diagram - exposition, rising action, climax, falling action
    and resolution.

    • Expository: It gives basic information; used often in speeches and
    essays; does not tell a story or argue.

    • Descriptive: It describes something in detail, again without telling a
    story or arguing a point; used most often in combination with another
    mode of writing, but alone is often found in scientific or medical reports.

    • Persuasive: it argues a point (or two sides of a question); gives
    evidence in favour or against.

    • Modern prose exhibits natural flow of speech and grammatical structure in
    written form whereas traditional prose was in form of rhythmic structure as

    in poetry. The common unit of verse was based on meter and rhyme.

    4. Elements of Prose
    Extract 3

    Read the following extract and answer questions asked below.
    Kino has found the Pearl of the World. In the town, in little offices, sat the men
    who bought pearls from the fishers. They waited in their chairs until the pearls
    came in, and then they cackled and fought and shouted and threatened until
    they reached the lowest price the fisherman would stand. But there was a
    price below which they dared not go, for it had happened that a fisherman in
    despair had given his pearls to the church. And when the buying was over, these
    buyers sat alone and their fingers played restlessly with the pearls, and they
    wished they owned the pearls. For there were not many buyers really - there
    was only one, and he kept these agents in separate offices to give a semblance
    of competition. The news came to these men, and their eyes squinted and their
    finger-tips burned a little, and each one thought how the patron could not live
    forever and someone had to take his place. And each one thought how with
    some capital he could get a new start.

    All manner of people grew interested in Kino - people with things to sell and
    people with favours to ask. Kino had found the Pearl of the World. The essence

    of pearl mixed with essence of men and a curious dark residue was precipitated.

    Every man suddenly became related to Kino’s pearl, and Kino’s pearl went into
    the dreams, the speculations, the schemes, the plans, the futures, the wishes, the
    needs, the lusts, the hungers, of everyone, and only one person stood in the way
    and that was Kino, so that he became curiously every man’s enemy. The news
    stirred up something infinitely black and evil in the town; the black distillate
    was like the scorpion, or like hunger in the smell of food, or like loneliness when
    love is withheld. The poison sacs of the town began to manufacture venom, and
    the town swelled and puffed with the pressure of it.

    But Kino and Juana did not know these things. Because they were happy and
    excited they thought everyone shared their joy. Juan Tomás and Apolonia did,
    and they were the world too. In the afternoon, when the sun had gone over
    the mountains of the Peninsula to sink in the outward sea, Kino squatted in
    his house with Juana beside him. And the brush house was crowded with
    neighbours. Kino held the great pearl in his hand, and it was warm and alive in
    his hand. And the music of the pearl had merged with the music of the family so
    that one beautified the other. The neighbours looked at the pearl in Kino’s hand
    and they wondered how such luck could come to any man.

    And Juan Tomás, who squatted on Kino’s right hand because he was his brother,
    asked, “What will you do now that you have become a rich man?”
    Kino looked into his pearl, and Juana cast her eyelashes down and arranged
    her shawl to cover her face so that her excitement could not be seen. And in
    the incandescence of the pearl the pictures formed of the things Kino’s mind
    had considered in the past and had given up as impossible. In the pearl he saw
    Juana and Coyotito and himself standing and kneeling at the high altar, and
    they were being married now that they could pay. He spoke softly: “We will be
    married - in the church.”

    In the pearl he saw how they were dressed - Juana in a shawl stiff with newness
    and a new skirt, and from under the long skirt Kino could see that she wore
    shoes. It was in the pearl - the picture glowing there. He himself was dressed in
    new white clothes, and he carried a new hat - not of straw but of fine black felt -
    and he too wore shoes - not sandals but shoes that laced. But Coyotito - he was
    the one - he wore a blue sailor suit from the United States and a little yachting
    cap such as Kino had seen once when a pleasure boat put into the estuary. All
    of these things Kino saw in the lucent pearl and he said: “We will have new
    clothes.” And the music of the pearl rose like a chorus of trumpets in his ears.

    Then to the lovely gravy surface of the pearl came the little things Kino wanted:
    a harpoon to take the place of one lost a year ago, a new harpoon of iron with a
    ring in the end of the shaft; and - his mind could hardly make the leap - a rifle -
    but why not, since he was so rich? And Kino saw Kino in the pearl, Kino holding
    a Winchester carbine. It was the wildest day-dreaming and very pleasant. His

    lips moved hesitantly over this - “A rifle,” he said. “Perhaps a rifle.”

    was the rifle that broke down the barriers. This was an impossibility, and if
    he could think of having a rifle whole horizon were burst and he could rush on.
    For it is said that humans are never satisfied, that you give them one thing and
    they want something more.

    And this is said in disparagement, whereas it is one of the greatest talents the
    species has and one that has made it superior to animals that are satisfied with
    what they have.

    The neighbours, close pressed and silent in the house, nodded their heads at
    his wild imaginings.

    And a man in the rear murmured: “A rifle. He will have a rifle.”
    But the music of the pearl was shrilling with triumph in Kino. Juana looked up,
    and her eyes were wide at Kino’s courage and at his imagination. And electric
    strength had come to him now the horizons were kicked out. In the pearl he
    saw Coyotito sitting at a little desk in a school, just as Kino had once seen it
    through an open door. And Coyotito was dressed in a jacket, and he had on a
    white collar, and a broad silken tie. Moreover, Coyotito was writing on a big
    piece of paper. Kino looked at his neighbours fiercely. “My son will go to school,”
    he said, and the neighbours were hushed. Juana caught her breath sharply. Her
    eyes were bright as she watched him, and she looked quickly down at Coyotito
    in her arms to see whether this might be possible.

    But Kino’s face shone with prophecy. “My son will read and open the books, and
    my son will write and will know writing. And my son will make numbers, and
    these things will make us free because he will know - he will know and through
    him we will know.” And in the pearl Kino saw himself and Juana squatting by the
    little fire in the brush hut while Coyotito read from a great book. “This is what
    the pearl will do,” said Kino. And he had never said so many words together in
    his life. And suddenly he was afraid of his talking. His hand closed down over
    the pearl and cut the light away from it. Kino was afraid as a man is afraid who
    says, “I will,” without knowing.

    From the Pearl by john Steinbeck

    • Answer these questions.
    1. In your own words, define the symbol of the “Pearl” as used in aboveextract?
    2. The Pearl is a parable. Discuss its relevance to the society.

    3. Analyse the setting of the novel. (refer to the figure below).

    • Notes.
    The elements of prose include; plot, setting, character, conflict, symbol, point
    of view, style, atmosphere. The writer uses such elements of prose to develop a
    story and its theme. Because literature is an art and not a science, it’s impossible
    to specifically quantify any of these elements within any story or guarantee that
    each will be present in any given story.

    a. Plot. The arrangement of incidents or events in a story. In literature, the
    plot encompasses all the incidents and provides aesthetic pleasure.

    b. Setting. Stories have two types of setting. Physical and chronological.
    Physical setting is where the story takes place

    c. Character. What type of individuals are the main characters? Brave,
    cowardly, bored, obnoxious? In literature, as in real life, we can evaluate
    character in three ways.

    i. What the individual says
    ii. What the individual does
    iii. What others say about him / her.
    d. Conflict. Two types of conflicts are;

    External and internal conflicts.

    NB. External conflict could be man against nature, or man against man. Internal
    conflict might not seem as exciting as external. Real life has far more internal
    than external conflict.

    e. Symbol. A symbol is something which means something else. Frequently
    it is a tangible physical thing which symbolises something intangible.

    f. Point of view. Is the ‘narrative point of view,’ how the story is told more
    specifically, who tells it. There are two distinct different types of point of
    view and each of these two types has a variation.

    -- In the first person point of view, the story is told by a character within the
    story, a character using the first person pronoun, ‘I’. if the narrator is the
    main character, the point of view is first person protagonist. If the narrator
    is a secondary character, the point of view is first person observer.

    -- In the third person point of view, the story is not told by a character but by
    an ‘invisible author,’ using the third person pronoun. (he, she, it)

    -- If the third person narrator gives us the thoughts of characters, then he is
    a third person omniscient narrator (all knowing)

    -- If third person narrator only gives us information which could be recorded,
    then he is a third person dramatic narrator.

    In summary, here are the types of point of view
    a. First person narrator
    For example: protagonist and observer.
    b. Third person narrator.

    For example; omniscient and dramatic

    Different points of view can emphasize different things. First person protagonist
    narrator would give us access to the thoughts of the main character. If the author
    doesn’t want us to have that access, he could use the first person observer, or
    the third person dramatic.

    c. Theme.
    The theme is the main idea the writer of the poem or story wants the reader to
    understand and remember. ‘a theme is a statement about a topic.’
    Not all stories or poems have an overriding ‘universal themes’

    II. Poetry
    Read the poems below and answer questions.

    Poem 1
    Song of Lawino

    Ocol is no longer in love with old type
    He is in love with a modern girl.
    The name of the beautiful one Is Clementine.

    Brother, when you see Clementine!

    beautiful one aspires to look like a white woman.
    Her lips are red- hot
    Like glowing charcoal,
    She resembles the wild cat
    That has dipped its mouth in blood
    Her mouth is like raw yaws It looks like raw yaws, Like the mouth of a field!
    Tina dusts powder on her face
    And it looks so pale;
    She resembles the wizard
    Getting ready for the midnight dance.

    She dusts the ash-dirt all over her face
    And when little sweat Begins to appear on her body She looks like guinea fowl!
    -By Okot P’ Bitek
    Source: A poetry Course for KCSE, Page 54.

    • Answer these questions
    1. Describe the subject matter of the poem.
    2. What images does Lawino use to build up a picture of Clementine?
    3. Discuss Lawino’s attitude towards Clementine.
    4. Analyse the poetic devices used in this poem and comment on how they
    affect the meaning of the poem in question.
    5. Identify the setting of the poem above.
    6. Definition of poetry related terms
    a. What do you understand by poetry?
    b. Describe the tone and structure of the poem.

    c. Discuss the characteristics of poetry.

    ▫▫ The word poem comes from the Greek word poiema which means a
    thingmade, composed or created.

    ▫▫ Poems are works of literature in which words are arranged to sound
    pleasant to the ear and to express ideas, emotion and thoughts.

    ▫▫ Poems are written in a specific style. The lines and the language of the
    poem must conform to certain rules.

    ▫▫ The writer of a poem is called a poet.
    ▫▫ We can therefore define poetry as a type of literature that is written in
    verses and which uses condensed language to express strong feelings.
    ▫▫ Poetry relies on the careful choice of words to relay the best possible
    meaning. In short, we should see poetry as the best and most precise
    way of saying something.

    ▫▫ A good poet selects, arranges and rearranges words until the words
    are able to say what he wants them to say as effectively as possible.
    Poetry appeals to our emotions as well as to our mind.

    Characteristics of poetry
    1. Poetry uses language in an economical way. It can say in a few words
    what a novel can say in hundreds of pages. In poetry, each word is very
    important and cannot be ignored. It uses heightened language which
    is full of connotation. Poetic language is very different from ordinary
    language. Poetic language relies more heavily on imagery than other

    2. Poetry expresses strong feelings and emotional expressions.
    3. Poetry is arranged in stanzas rather than paragraphs. That is, it exists in
    verse form rather than in prose form.
    4. Poetry is musical; it contains rhythms which are created by repetition

    and rhyme, among others.

    Plot, tone, voice, mood/ atmosphere, settings and Themes in a poem

    Read the following poems and answer the question that follows.

    • Poem2. I love you my gentle one
    I love you, my gentle one;
    My love is the fresh milk in the rubindi
    Which you drank on the wedding day;
    My love is the butter we were smeared with
    To seal fidelity into our hearts.
    You are the cattle-bird’s egg,
    For those who saw you are wealthy;
    You are the papyrus reed of the lake,
    Which they pull out with both hands.
    And I sing for you with tears
    Because you possess my heart:
    I love you, my gentle…
    Poems from East Africa Publisers by Ralph Bitamazire

    Poem3. Fair Ines
    Farewell, farewell, fair Ines!
    That vessel never bore
    So fair a lady on its deck,
    Nor danced so light before, —
    Alas for pleasure on the sea,
    And sorrow on the shore!
    The smile that blessed one lover’s heart
    Has broken many more!
    Thomas Hood (1798–1845)

    • Answer these question
    1. Discuss and compare the plot, tone, atmosphere/ mood in the two
    different poems.
    2. Characterising plot, tone, voice, mood/atmosphere, setting and theme
    in a poem.
    a. What is the effect of tone in a poem?
    b. Why is setting important in poems?
    c. Describe how mood/ atmosphere affects the reader of a poem.

    • Notes

    1. Tone.

    The tone in the poem is the attitude you feel in it. The writer’s attitude toward
    the subject or audience helps create a particular kind of atmosphere or mood
    in the poem.

    Tone is the manner of writing about the subject, character, theme, by careful
    choice of words. The choice of words creates the tone. Tone is used to express
    different emotions.

    Tone may be described as being; sentimental, approving, appreciative, sad,
    comic, condescending, sarcastic, critical etc.

    2. Atmosphere.
    In literature, atmosphere refers to the feeling, emotion, or mood a poet conveys
    to a reader through the description of setting and objects. It aims at creating an
    emotional tone for the piece. A writer can establish atmosphere, or the vehicle
    for mood, through several different facets of a work. One such mechanism is
    through the use of objects.

    3. Point of view.
    The point of view of a poem is defined as the perspective from which a poem is
    told/recited. Point of view is the angle of considering things, which shows us the
    opinion or feelings of the individuals involved in a situation. In literature, point
    of view is the mode of narration that an author employs to let the readers “hear”
    and “see” what takes place in a poem.

    4. Plot
    This is how the poet orders events or incidents in a poem. Or how the poet
    arranges events/ ideas in the poem. Plot helps to keep the reader to read/ to

    recite it till the end, with curiosity to know more.

    5. Theme
    Theme is the central idea of the poem or what the poem is talking about. Poets
    employ different poetic devices to bring out the themes or central ideas.

    6. Setting.
    This refers to time, place and situation and period when the poem was written.
    Poets use particular settings to convey different messages to the readers.
    III. Drama
    Observe the picture below and answer the questions thereafter:

    1. What do you think the people on the picture are doing?

    2. Where do you think these people are coming from?
    3. What do you understand by European Drama?

    • Notes:
    Drama is a literary genre which is performed by professional actors on stage
    before an audience. It involves conflict, actions and a particular theme.
    The types of drama include: Tragedy and comedy.

    Tragedy is a serious play based on an important social, personal or religious
    issue. It often has tragic end.

    Comedy: It is a type of play that aims at provoking smiles and laughter. It usually
    has a happy ending.

    Extract 1: Act 1 of “an enemy of the people” by Henrik Ibsen
    Read the following extract and discuss the questions that follow.

    You see, if you come an hour late, Mr. Billing, you have to put up with cold meat.
    BILLING (as he eats):

    It is uncommonly good, thank you--remarkably good.
    My husband makes such a point of having his meals punctually, you know.

    That doesn’t affect me a bit. Indeed, I almost think enjoy a meal all the better
    when I can sit down and eat all by myself, and undisturbed.

    Oh well, as long as you are enjoying it--. (Turns to the hall door, listening.) I
    expect that is Mr. Hovstad coming too.

    BILLING: Very likely.
    (PETER STOCKMANN comes in. He wears an overcoat and his official hat, and
    carries a stick.)

    PETER STOCKMANN: Good evening, Katherine.
    MRS. STOCKMANN: (coming forward into the sitting-room). Ah, good evening-
    -is it you? How good of you to come up and see us!

    I happened to be passing, and so--(looks into the dining-room). But you have
    company with you, I see.

    MRS. STOCKMANN (a little embarrassed): Oh, no--it was quite by chance he
    came in. (Hurriedly.) Won’t you come in and have something, too?

    I! No, thank you. Good gracious--hot meat at night! Not with my digestion,

    Oh, but just once in a way--

    No, no, my dear lady; I stick to my tea and bread and butter. It is much more
    wholesome in the long run—and a little more economical, too.

    MRS. STOCKMANN (smiling): Now you mustn’t think that Thomas and I are
    spend thrifts.

    PETER STOCKMANN: Not you, my dear; I would never think that of you. (Points
    to the Doctor’s study.) Is he not at home?

    MRS. STOCKMANN: No, he went out for a little turn after supper--he and the

    PETER STOCKMANN: I doubt if that is a wise thing to do. (Listens.) I fancy I
    hear him coming now.

    MRS. STOCKMANN: No, I don’t think it is he. (A knock is heard at the door.)
    Come in! (HOVSTAD comes in from the hall.) Oh, it is you, Mr. Hovstad!

    Yes, I hope you will forgive me, but I was delayed at the printers. Good evening,
    Mr. Mayor.

    PETER STOCKMANN (bowing a little distantly): Good evening. You have come
    on business, no doubt.

    HOVSTAD: Partly. It’s about an article for the paper.

    PETER STOCKMANN: So I imagined. I hear my brother has become a prolific
    contributor to the “People’s Messenger.”

    HOVSTAD: Yes, he is good enough to write in the “People’s Messenger” when he

    has any home truths to tell.

    MRS, STOCKMANN (to HOVSTAD): But won’t you--? (Points to the dining-room.)

    PETER STOCKMANN: Quite so, quite so. I don’t blame him in the least, as a
    writer, for addressing himself to the quarters where he will find the readiest
    sympathy. And, besides that, I personally have no reason to bear any ill will to
    your paper, Mr.Hovstad.

    HOVSTAD: I quite agree with you.

    PETER STOCKMANN: Taking one thing with another, there is an excellent spirit
    of toleration in the town--an admirable municipal spirit. And it all springs from
    the fact of our having a great common interest to unite us--an interest that is in
    an equally high degree the concern of every right-mind citizen
    HOVSTAD: The Baths, yes.

    PETER STOCKMANN: Exactly---our fine, new, handsome Baths. Mark my
    words, Mr. Hovstad--the Baths will become the focus of our municipal life! Not
    a doubt of it!
    MRS. STOCKMANN: That is just what Thomas says.

    PETER STOCKMANN: Think how extraordinarily the place has developed
    within the last year or two! Money has been flowing in, and there is some life
    and some business doing in the town. Houses and landed property are rising in
    value every day.
    Extract from: An enemy of the people by Henrik Ibsen
    • Answer these questions:
    1. Describe the setting of the play.
    2. Discuss the theme of the play.
    3. Discuss the characteristics of Peter Stockman in the above extract.
    4. What are the main features of drama?

    • Notes
    A review of techniques used in a drama
    Techniques are used in a drama for the following reasons. Some are used to
    increase the dramatic tension in a play. Others to divert audience attention or
    appealing directory to the audience’s emotion to elicit sympathy for the main
    character. The main techniques are: Dialogue, monologue, soliloquy, body
    language, flashback, entrance/exit, aside, costume, Foreshadow.

    a. Dialogue: It is a conversation between two or more persons
    b. Monologue: is a speech spoken by one character, usually in a play. most
    often to express their mental thoughts aloud, sometimes also to directly
    address another character or the audience.

    c. Soliloquy: is a speech given by a character in a play when the speaker
    is alone, this is presented to inform the audience or reader of what is
    happening in the mind of a character.

    d. Body language: is a communication by movement or position, particularly
    facial expressions, gestures and the relative positions of a speaker and

    e. Flashback: is an interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time
    from the current point in the play. Flashbacks are often used to recount
    event that happened before the story ’s primary sequence of events to fill
    in crucial back story.

    f. Foreshadowing: is a literary device in which a writer gives an advance
    hint of what is to come later in the play. It is generally used to build

    anticipation in the mind of readers about what might happen next.

    Extract2: The play “Julius Ceasar” by William Shakespeare

    Read the extract bellow and identify some techniques employed in the
    following extract from the play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare
    (Enter Brutus in his Orchard.)
    What, Lucius, ho! I cannot, by the progress of the stars. Give guess how near

    today. Lucius. I say! I would it were my fault to sleep so soundly. When, Lucius,

    when? awake, I say! What Lucius! (Enter Lucius.)
    Lucius: Called you, my Lord?

    Get me a taper in my Study, Lucius. When it is lighted, come and call me here.
    I will, my Lord.(Exit)

    Brutus: Enter.
    It must be by his death: and for my part, I know no personal cause, to spurn
    at him, But for the general. He would be crowned. How that might change his
    nature, there’s the question? It is the bright day, that brings forth the Adder,
    And that craves wary walking. Crown him that,
    And then I grant we put a sting in him
    That at his will he may do danger with.

    Th’ abuse of greatness is when it disjoins
    Remorse from Power: And, to speak truth of Caesar,
    I have not known, when his affections swayed
    More than his reason. But ‘tis a common proof,
    That lowliness is young ambition’s ladder,
    Where to the climber upward turns his face:
    But when he once attains the upmost round.
    He then unto the ladder turns his back.

    Looks in the clouds, scorning the base degrees
    By which he did ascend: so Caesar may;
    Then lest he may, prevent. And, since the quarrel

    Will bear no color for the thing he is,

    Fashion it thus; that what he is, augmented
    Would run to these and these extremities;
    And therefore think him as a serpent’s egg
    Which hatched, would as his kind grow mischievous.
    And kill him in the shell.

    Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare
    Themes and messages in drama

    Extract 3/ Exerpt: “ The lion and the Jewel” by Whole Soyinka

    Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow.

    Faith. Because I have faith Oh Sidi, vow to me your own undying love and I
    will scorn the Jibes of these bush minds. Who know no better. Swear, Sidi, Sidi,
    swear you will be my wife and I will Stand against earth, heaven, and the nine

    Now there you go again.
    One little thing
    And you must chirrup like a cockatoo.
    You talk and talk and deafen me

    With words which always sound the same

    And make no meaning.
    I’ve told you, and I say it again
    I shall marry you today, next week
    Or any day you name.

    But my bride-price must first be paid.
    Aha, now you turn away.
    But I tell you, Lakunle, I must have
    The full bride-price. Will you make me
    A laughing stock? Well, do as you please.
    But Sidi will not make herself
    A cheap bowl for the village spit.
    Lakunle: On my head let fall their scorn.

    They will say I was no virgin
    That I was forced to sell my shame
    And marry you without a price.
    Excerpt from: The Lion and the Jewel by Wole Soyinka

    • Answer these questions:
    1. What is the theme of the discussion between Sidi and Lakunle?
    2. What is the message in above exatract?
    3. Explain what the following expression mean ‘’ will you make me a
    laughing stock?’

    A Theme refers to the main central idea portrayed in a play. It is the view
    about life that is expressed in a play. What does a playwright hope to achieve
    when writing a play? Some playwrights write with the intention of showing
    the power of change, the dangers of love, the role of good governance and
    leadership, preservation of culture and practices, faith and destiny among
    others. While other plays could have two or more themes. The most common
    theme in plays are change, religion, education, love, death, gender, tradition,
    power of education.

    A message is the lesson the playwrights hopes the audience or the reader can
    get from the play.

    Wole Soyinka in his play “The Lion and the Jewel” explores a number of themes
    such as love, marriage, tradition and culture, family relation, polygamy etc.

    Henrik Ibsen in his play “An enemy of the people” explores a number of themes
    such as society and class, principles, rules and order, pride, power, education

    Extract4: Acts of An enemy of the people by Henrik Ibsen
    Read the following extract and answer the question after.
    Dr. Stockmann (snapping his fingers and getting up from the table):
    I have it! I have it, by Jove! You shall never set foot in the school again! The Boys.

    No more school!
    Mrs. Stockmann.
    But, Thomas-
    Dr. Stockmann.
    Never, I say. I will educate you myself; that is to say, you shan’t learn a blessed
    thing-Morten. Hooray!

    Dr. Stockmann.
    --but I will make liberal-minded and high-minded men of you. You must help
    me with that, Petra.
    Yes, father, you may be sure I will.
    Dr. Stockmann.
    And my school shall be in the room where they insulted me and called me an
    enemy of the people. But we are too few as we are; I must have at least twelve
    boys to begin with.

    Mrs. Stockmann.

    You will certainly never get them in this town.

    Dr. Stockmann.
    We shall. (To the boys.) Don’t you know any street urchins--regular ragamuffins--?
    Yes, father, I know lots!

    Dr. Stockmann.
    That’s capital! Bring me some specimens of them.
    I am going to experiment with curs, just for once; there may be some exceptional
    heads among them.

    And what are we going to do, when you have made liberal minded and highminded
    men of us?

    Dr. Stockmann.
    Then you shall drive all the wolves out of the country, my boys! (EJLIF looks
    rather doubtful about it; MORTEN jumps about crying “Hurrah!”)

    Mrs. Stockmann.
    Let us hope it won’t be the wolves that will drive you out of the country, Thomas.

    Dr. Stockmann.
    Are you out of your mind, Katherine? Drive me out!
    Now--when I am the strongest man in the town!

    Mrs. Stockmann.
    The strongest--now?

    Dr. Stockmann.
    Yes, and I will go so far as to say that now I am the strongest man in the whole

    Morten. I say!

    Dr. Stockmann
    (lowering his voice). Hush! You mustn’t say anything about it yet; but I have
    made a great discovery.

    Mrs. Stockmann. Another one?

    Dr. Stockmann.
    Yes. (Gathers them round him, and says confidentiallysmile It is this, let me tell you-
    -that the strongest man in the world is he who stands most alone.
    Mrs. Stockmann (smiling and shaking her head).
    Oh, Thomas, Thomas!
    Petra. (encouragingly, as she grasps her father’s hands).
    Extracted from: An enemy of the People by Henrik Ibsen, ACT 5 page 88

    Answer these questions:
    1. What is the purpose of Dr. Stockman in the extract?
    2. Why is he qualified himself as a strong man?
    3. Discuss the main themes in the above excerpt?

    4. Discuss the difference between the African drama and European Drama.

    10.2. Different literary periods in the development of

    English and literature.

    A. Medieval literature versus renaissance literature

    B. Colonial literature versus poatcolonial literature

    • Questions on the characteristics of English literature periods

    Answer the questions below
    1. Think of any novel, play and determine its literary period considering
    the characteristics of literary periods in the development of literature.
    2. Write short notes on the following literary periods showing the
    connection between society, history and literature.

    a. The old English (450AD-1066AD)
    b. The middle English (1066AD-1500AD)
    c. The Renaissance (1500-1600)
    d. The Elizabethan period (1558-1603)
    e. The Jacobean period (1603-1625)
    f. The Caroline period (1625-1649)
    g. The Puritan period (1649-1660)
    h. The Restoration period (1660-1700)
    i. The Augustan period (1700-1785)
    j. Romantic period (1785-2530)
    k. The modern period (2590-1925)
    l. The inter-war period (1925-1939)
    m. The mid-20th century (1939 onwards)

    10.3. Language structure: Use of tenses for past, present,
    and future.

    1. Past tense.
    In the past tense, the action is simply mentioned and understood to have taken
    place in the past. The action started and ended sometime in the past but the
    time may or may not be mentioned.

    Read the following passage and describe how past tense has been used. Write
    examples of sentences in the past that have been used in the passage.

    • Text in the past tense: Gahigi and the Snake-woman
    Once upon a time, there was a man who had a son called Gahigi. Gahigi loved to
    hunt. When he reached the age of marriage, his father wanted to look for a wife
    for him but the boy refused. He said that a wife would take him away from his
    job. One day, while going to hunt, he found a beautiful girl sitting under a tree.
    They talked for some time and he realised he liked her. Gahigi decided to take
    her home and make her his wife. He decided not to tell his father about it until
    a later time and try to balance hunting and having a wife.

    On reaching home, he took her directly to his small house where his parents
    wouldn’t see her. Gahigi’s parents woke up very early every day to go to work
    in the fields. Gahigi spent the whole day hunting. He therefore would come
    back home late in the evening. His bride, who was mostly in the house alone,
    would wake up and do all the house work. After finishing her work, she would
    enter her house and change herself into an enormously long snake. Then she
    would coil herself on the house pillar and begin to sing:“They just marry not
    knowing whom they are marrying; they just marry not knowing whom they are

    One day, when the neighbour’s children were playing in the home compound,
    they heard someone singing and went to see who it was. They were shocked to
    find it was a huge snake. They ran away very terrified.

    When Gahigi’s mother came home, one of the children narrated the story to her.
    “There is a huge snake in our brother’s house. When you are all out, it coils itself
    around the house pillar and sings,’’ she said. The mother could not believe what
    she had heard. She decided to investigate on her own. The following morning,
    the mother went and hid herself where she could see clearly her son’s house.
    That morning, the bride did as usual. Gahigi’s mother could not believe it when
    the bride turned into the snake! When Gahigi returned home in the evening, his
    mother told him of what she had seen. The boy did not believe her. His mother
    suggested they wait again together the following day. In the morning, Gahigi
    left as usual, but when he had got far enough from the house, he tiptoed back
    and came to the place his mother was hiding to see whether what she said was
    true. Gahigi could not believe what he saw. His beautiful bride was now a long
    scary snake coiled around a pillar. Unable to control his fear, he jumped from
    his hiding position and ran away screaming. The noise attracted the neighbours
    out in the fields who came to see what the noise was about. When they got to
    the house, the bride was nowhere to be found. Since that day, Gahigi heeds to
    his parent’s advice
    Source: Literature in English, students’ book 3 (REB)

    2. Future tense.
    The future tense is used to:
    • show a plan for action in the future
    • show prediction, spontaneous decisions or offers
    • express a voluntary action

    • express a promise

    Examples include:
    a. I will make sandwiches.
    b. They will study math.
    c. I will call you when I arrive.
    d. Manchester will win the match today.
    e. I will carry that!

    Read the political leaflet about what the politician intends to do if she is elected.
    Write down the sentences that are in future tense.
    My campaign

    • I will make sure that the economy is improved. I will support the
    farmers and see that they are given extra training.
    • I will attend to education. I will find funds to provide more classrooms,
    playing fields and teachers. I will help the teachers improve their
    teaching abilities.
    • I will improve health provision in this district. I will initiate negotiations
    for a new hospital to be built. More clinics will also be built.
    • As a woman, I understand the need for education and equality for
    • A strong, educated woman will improve the lives of her children and
    her husband. She is no threat to her husband and will make his life

    Source: English Language, Student Book Senior six (REB)
    Answer these questions:

    a. Mention four areas in which the candidate plans to make a difference if
    she is elected.
    b. Which of the intentions are realistic and can perhaps be achieved?
    c. Do you think all the promises can be achieved? Give a reason for your

    d. Do you agree with the candidate’s statement in the last bullet point?
    3. Present tense
    The present tense is used to:
    • show regular activities, facts and preference
    • used for repeated actions
    • used for facts or generalization

    a. She always forgets her purse.
    b. Every twelve months, the earth circles the sun.
    c. He never forgets his wallet.
    d. Kigali is in Rwanda.
    e. I prefer my coffee black.

    Read the following table showing different tenses and describe how present

    tense is used giving sample sentences of your own.

    10.4. Sounds and spelling
    Use a dictionary and thesauruses to check the spelling and pronunciation of the
    following words:
    1. Tone
    2. Meter
    3. Metaphor
    4. Personification
    5. Apostrophe
    6. Connotation
    7. Assonance
    8. Consonance
    9. Hyperbole
    10. Stanza
    11. Symbol

    12. Simile

    10.5. End unit assessment



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    7. Rwanda Education Board. (2019). Economics for Rwanda secondary
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