Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of living in a foreign country.

    Reading and exploitation of text

    • Text 1. The Dogs and the Hunter Read the passage below and answer the questions. Then, much to the hunter’s surprise, the oldest dog spoke, ‘you sons of men are difficult to help,’ said the dog. 

    ‘We could easily help you solve your problem.’ ‘If there is any way in which you can help me, I promise that you will not regret it,’ said the hunter. ‘You know you can trust me. 

    But I don’t see how you can help.’ ‘Well, if you promise to keep it a secret, we can change into human shapes and help you carry the meat as far as the town gates. Then you can fetch your wives to carry it home from there before dark.’ 

    The hunter promised, and the dogs took human shapes and helped him with the meat. Now, you all know how curious women are? The very first thing the hunter’s wives wanted to know was how he alone had managed to get all that meat from the forest to the town gates. He refused to tell them, and of course that made them more interested than ever. 

    They continued to ask him, and the more he refused, the more curious they became, until they could hardly eat or sleep. So the youngest wife thought of a plan. One day she made a very tasty meal of pounded yam for the hunter, and gave him strong fresh palm-wine with it. She went on pouring him more and more palm- wine until he became rather drunk and sleepy.

     Just as he was falling asleep, she tapped him gently on the shoulder, and asked how he had got all that meat to the gates. And the drunken and sleepy hunter told her. 

    Later that same evening, when she was sweeping, she came to where the eldest dog was lying. She hit him with the broom. ‘Lazy animals!’ she said angrily.

     ‘They only sleep and eat and lie around all day, whereas if they wished they could take a better shape and help us with our housework! Get out of my way!’ The dog immediately knew what had happened. 

    He called the other two, and they went away from the hunter’s house. And although dogs have remained in men’s houses until today, they have decided never again to change their shape to help any human being. Adapted from practical English by P.A Ogundipe • 

    • Comprehension questions

    1. What was the hunter’s problem?

    2. Had the dogs ever spoken to the hunter before? How do you know?

    3. What did the hunter promise to do before the dogs agreed to help him?

    4. Why were the hunter’s wives puzzled?

    5. How did the youngest wife succeed in learning the hunter’s secret? 

    6. Why was she angry with the dogs?

    Text 2. A letter from a friend

    Read carefully the friendly letter below describing life in a foreign country and 

    answer the questions that follow. 

    • Comprehension questions

    1. Who is the writer of the above letter? 

    2. Where does he come from?

    3. Where does he live?

    4. Why is he in a foreign country?

    5. Is he happy? Explain your answer.

    • Text: A poem 

    Read the poem that follows and carry out the tasks below.

    Let no-one steal your dreams! 

    Let no-one steal your dreams 

    Let no-one tear apart 

    The burning of ambition 

    That fires the drive inside your heart

     Let no-one steal your dreams

     Let no-one tell you that you can’t

     Let no-one hold you back 

     Let no-one tell you that you won’t. 

    Set your sights and keep them fixed 

    Set your sights on high 

    Let no-one steal your dreams

    Your only limit is the sky.

    Let no-one steal your dreams

    Follow your heart 

    Follow your soul 

    For only when you follow them 

    Will you feel truly whole

    Set your sights and keep them fixed 

    Set your sights on high 

    Let no-one steal your dreams

    Your only limit is the sky.

     By Paul Cookson

    • Comprehension questions

    a. Why is the poet repeating the phrase “let no-one”?

    b. Which lesson can youth learn from this poem?

    c. Relate this poem to your future ambitions. 

    Read the following speech by Martin Luther King, JR. 

    I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of difficulties and frustrations of the moment, I still have a dream. 

    It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.’ 

    I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. 

    I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but the content of their character. I have a dream today.

    I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plains, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. This is our hope. 

    This is the faith with which I return to the south. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountains of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood.

     With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. 

    This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning, ‘My country, ‘tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my father died, land of the pilgrim’s pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring.’

     And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. 

    Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous peaks of California!

    Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!

    Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi.

    From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

    • Comprehension questions:

    1. Martin Luther King, uses many images to depict his dream, including ‘a 

    beautiful symphony of brotherhood.’ Which images most appeal to you and why?

    2. Based on King Martine Luther personal plans, think of who you are and future ahead of you. What is your personal plan?

    3. Give your personal opinion about the speech.

    3.4. Language structure: Present perfect, present perfect continuous, adjectives

    1. Present perfect

    It is formed by:

    Subject + has/have + verb past participle It is used:

    a. to express an action which began at some time in the past and has been 

    completed in the past but connected to the present,

    b. when we want to look back from the present to the past.


    a. I have broken my watch so I don’t know what time it is.

    b. David has just succeeded the president election.

    c. It has rained a lot lately.

    d. She has painted many portraits.

    e. I have just played basketball.

    f. I have worked as a teacher since 2011

    g. She has already watched this movie three times.

    h. She has been in England for six months.

    i. I have taken lunch.

    j. The kids have played for two hours.

    2. Present perfect continuous. 

    It is formed by:

    Subject + have/has + been +verb-in

    It is used for:

    a. ongoing actions

    b. temporary actions

    c. Indication of how long something has been happening.


    a. This kid has been playing since morning.

    b. I have been teaching this class for one hour.

    c. He has been repairing the car for two hours.

    d. He has been studying English for two months.


    Change the following sentences from the present perfect to present perfect continuous.

    a. I have worked here since April.

    b. Football teams have scored a lot of goals this season

    c. I have worked in China since 2017.

    d. She has watched this movie since morning.

    e. A lot of earthquakes have occurred in California.

    f. I have had a cold for two weeks.

    g. You have slept since 7 O’clock.

    h. Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.

    3. Adjectives

    • Note

    - An adjective describes a noun, or pronoun. It tells what kind, how many, or which one.

    - Adjectives that end ‘-ed’ describe emotions. They tell how people feel about something.

    - Example: I was very bored in the maths lesson. I almost fell asleep.

    - An adjective that end in ‘ing’ describe the things that causes the emotions

    Example: Have you seen that film? It’s absolutely terrifying.

    The table below shows some adjectives with their comparative and superlative forms.