Key unit competence: to use language learnt in the context of leadership and famous people



    Reading and text analysis • 


    Speech by President Paul Kagame at the opening of the 10th extraordinary 

    Summit of the African Union. 

    It gives me great pleasure to welcome you to Kigali for the Tenth Extra-Ordinary 

    Session of the Assembly of the African Union.

    May I also extend a special welcome to our brother, His Excellency Cyril 

    Ramaphosa, attending his first Summit as President of the Republic of South Africa.

    I thank the leaders of fellow Member States for once again according Rwanda the honour to serve you as your host.

    I also thank the Chairperson, Moussa Faki Mahamat, and the entire staff of the African Union Commission, for preparing this Summit with diligence and commitment.

    Today’s agenda is to adopt the Agreement establishing the African Continental Free Movement of Persons, and the Kigali Declaration, which expresses our unity moving our continent forward.

    Taken together, these are surely to be counted among the most consequential actions that this Assembly has ever taken.

    I commend our brother, His Excellency President Mahamadou Issoufou, for so ably leading the Continental Free Trade Area process.

    I wish to acknowledge all the leaders, past and present, involved in bringing us 

    to this point. We are reaping the rewards of their foresight.

    The Continental Free Trade Area is the culmination of a vision set forth nearly 

    40 years ago in the Lagos Plan of Action, adopted by Heads of States in 1980. 

    That undertaking led directly to the Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community in 1991.

    We continue to be guided by the foundational principals and detailed implementation roadmap that were laid down in those instruments.

    Among the most important guidelines is the pre-eminent role of our Regional Economic communities. They have been the model and the engine for Africa’s economic integration and they will continue to be. 

    Trade agreements cover many complex details. Behind the scenes, Commission staff, ministers, and technical experts put in countless days and nights of hard work. 

    This effort has paid off and we thank you. What is at stake is the dignity and well-being of Africa’s farmers, workers, and entrepreneurs, particularly women and youth.

     The promise of free trade and free movement is prosperity for all Africans, because we are prioritizing the production off value-added goods and services that are “Made in Africa”. The advantages we gain by creating one African market will also benefit our trading partners around the world, and that is a good thing.

     At the same time, we will be in a better position to leverage our growing strength and unity to secure Africa’s rightful interests in the international arena. This is not just a signing ceremony.

     Today’s deliberations are critically important as we chart the next steps on our journey towards the Africa we want. Once again, Excellencies, I welcome you and wish you all a very productive Summit. Thank you very much

    Text extracted from “The New Times”, March 21, 2018.

    • Comprehension questions:

    1. Who delivered this speech?

    2. At which event was this speech delivered? Where was it delivered?

    3. According to the passage, who was the very new president at such a 


    4. What was the agenda of the summit on that day?

    5. Is the idea in the summit’s agenda very new or some people had conceived it before? 

    Explain basing on what you have read in the text?

    6. Read the following sentence and choose the right answer from those suggested below.

    When the President delivered this speech, he wanted to emphasise that Africans 

    should strive to preserve their dignity and well-being by:

    a. Relying on foreign aids

    b. Visiting European countries.

    c. Producing value-added goods and services that are made in Africa d. Helping one another. • 

    Text 2. Towards a better «Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie». 

    Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. 

    Ms. Louise Mushikiwabo has promised to dedicate her time and leverage her experience as a diplomat to make Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie(OIF) a better organisation following her election as its Secretary General. 

    The election took place Friday during the OIF Summit in Yerevan the capital of Armenia. Her win follows months on the campaign trail that took her to different countries across the world. 

    Heads of State and Government of the organisation’s member countries unanimously endorsed Mushikiwabo on the last day of the Summit. In her acceptance speech Mushikiwabo thanked those who supported and guided her throughout her campaigns.

     She said that over the last two and a half months, she toured almost all the parts of the world campaigning, and managed to gather the views and expectations of member states of La Francophonie. 

    She thanked the heads of African states, particularly President Paul Kagame, who is the Chairperson of the African Union, for their support. 

    Mushikiwabo said that during the last nine years as Rwanda’s Minister for Foreign Affairs, she has managed to acquire experience, which enabled her to build a strong relationship with various countries across all continents, something she will draw from her new role. 

    She added:”I equally thank you for the opportunity you offered to me, this La Francophonie family has an enormous potential,”she said, adding: “That is the reason why I would like to introduce myself to this post, the potential to serve our population with truth, good reputation and in a transparent way. 

    Reflecting on her meetings during the campaigns, she said she listened to people’s ideas and expectations. “Some expressed their desire to be more involved in the organisation’s functioning”, she said.

     While some wanted more presentation, others talked about a La Francophonie that promotes and caters for the interests of all members, she added.

     As a Secretary General, I take into account the importance of French language because I am convinced that French has its place around our other languages and for the good of our global world.

    “For those who don’t know me, I would like to tell you that I am a very pragmatic lady, (during the nine years that I spend at the top position of diplomacy, I have learnt to find concrete solutions to the well-defined problems.

     She added: “I intend to ensure the Francophonie plays a great role as a forum for mediation, dialogue, negotiation and reconstruction.

    ” She noted that la Francophonie should support each member country in a very particular context towards a common interest. 

     Mushikiwabo takes over from Canadian Michaёlle Jean, who has held the position for the last four years. 

    The Organisation was created in 1970 to promote the French language, peace, and sustainable development in member countries.

    Text extracted from “The New Times”, October 13, 2018. 

    • Comprehension questions

    1. Who is the newly elected OIF Secretary General? Which country does this person come from?

    2. What occupation had the new Secretary General been occupying?

    3. What strategies did the new Secretary General use to win elections?

    4. What kind of person is the new OIF Secretary General?

    5. What are the goals and vision of OIF?

    6. What does the new OIF Secretary General intend to do at La Francophonie Office?

    Text 3: King Rwabugiri 

    Text: A famous traditional Rwanda Leader

    Kigeli IV Rwabugiri was the king of the Kingdom of Rwanda in the late 19th century. He was among the last Nyiginya kings in a ruling dynasty that had traced their lineage back four centuries to Gihanga, the first ‘historical’ king of Rwanda whose exploits are celebrated in oral chronicles. He was the first king in Rwanda’s history to come into contact with Europeans. 

    He established an army equipped with guns he obtained from Germans and prohibited most foreigners, especially Arabs, from entering his kingdom. Rwabugiri held authority from 1853–1895. He died in September 1895, during an expedition in modern day Congo, shortly after the arrival of the German explorer Count Gustav Adolf von Götzen. His adopted son, Mibambwe IV Rutarindwa, was proclaimed the next king. By the end of Rwabugiri’s rule, Rwanda was divided into a standardized structure of provinces, districts, hills, and neighborhoods, administered by a hierarchy of chiefs. He defended the borders of the Rwandan kingdom against invading neighboring kingdoms, slave traders, and Europeans. 

    Rwabugiri was a warrior king and is regarded as one of Rwanda’s most powerful kings. Some Rwandans see him as the last true King of Rwanda due to the tragic assassination of his successor Rutarindwa and coup by his stepmother Kanjogera who installed her son Musinga. By the beginning of the 20th century, Rwanda was a unified state with a centralized military structure.

     For his legacy, plans are underway to revamp an expanse of land on a hill known as Kageyo in Ngororero district, on which a palace of King Kigeri IV Rwabugiri was built in the 19 Century.

     Kageyo is known as a historical monument since was the venue where Count Von Götzen met King Kigeri IV Rwabugiri towards the end of the 19 Century. Adopted from : Musée Royal de l’Afrique (1964). Annalen - Koninklijke Museum voor Midden-Afrika, Tervuren, België. Reeks in-80. Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale. p. 473.

    Comprehension questions

    a. In which century did King Kigeli IV Rwabugiri lead Rwandan Kingdom?

    b. Which dynasty was he from as described by the writer?

    c. Explain what really made Kigeli IV Rwabugiri a famous leader during his kingdom.

    d. Why is it important to leave a legacy as far as leaders are concerned?

    e. Which place did the king Kigeli IV Rwabugiri meet Count Von Götzen and when?

    There are different kinds of leadership that include the following:

     1. Democratic leadership style Also known as participative or shared leadership, is a type of leadership style in which members of the group take a more participative role in the decision making process. It can apply to any organisation from private and public institution to the government. 

    2. Coaching leadership A coaching leader is someone who can quickly recognise their team members ‘strengths, weaknesses and motivations to help each individual improve. This type of leader often assists team members in setting smart goals and then provides regular feedback with challenging projects to promote growth. They are skilled in setting clear expectations and creating a positive and motivating environment. 

    3. Visionary leadership Visionary leaders have a powerful ability to drive progress and usher in periods of change by inspiring employees and earning trust for new ideas. A visionary leader is also able to establish a strong organizational bond. They strive to foster confidence among direct reports and colleagues alike. This type of leadership is especially helpful for small, fast-growing organizations experiencing transformations or corporate restructuring.

     4. Servant leadership Servant leaders live by a people’s-first mindset and believe that when members feel personally fulfilled, they’re more effective and more likely to produce great work regularly. Because of their emphasis on employee satisfaction and collaboration, they tend to achieve higher levels of respect. 

    5. Autocratic leadership Also called the “authoritarian style of leadership”. In this type of leadership, a leader is someone who is focused almost entirely on results and efficiency. They often make decisions alone or with a small trusted group and expect employees to do exactly what they’re asked. It can be helpful in military commanding.

     6. Hands off leadership This leadership style is the opposite of the autocratic leadership type, focusing mostly on delegating many tasks to team members and providing little to no supervision. Because a laissez-faire leader does not spend their time intensely managing employees, they have more time to dedicate to other projects. This kind of leadership can apply when all team members are highly experienced, well trained and require little oversight. 

    7. Transformational leadership style The transformational leadership style is similar to the coach style in that it focuses on clear communication, goal setting and employee motivation. However, instead of placing the majority of the energy into each employee’s individual goals, the transformational leader is driven by a commitment to organization objectives. Because these types of leaders spend much time on the big picture, this type of leadership is best for teams that that can handle many delegated tasks without constant supervision.

     8. Pacesetter leadership Pacesetting leaders are found most effective for driving fast results. These leaders are primarily focused on performance. They often set high standards and hold their team members accountable for hitting their goals.

    9. Transactional leadership A transactional leader is someone who is focused on performance, similar to a pacesetter. Under this leadership style, the manager establishes predetermined incentives – usually in the form of monetary reward for success and disciplinary action for failure. Unlike the pacesetter leadership style, though transactional leaders are also focused on mentorship, instruction and training employees to achieve goals, transactional leadership motivates employees through rewards.

     10. Bureaucratic leadership Bureaucratic leaders are similar to autocratic leaders in that they expect their team members to follow the rules and procedures precisely as written. This style focuses on fixed duties within hierarchy where each employee has a set list of response. 

     11. Tolerant leadership style Tolerant leaders think that through their words and actions, their employees overcome their anxieties about making mistakes and, in the process, create a culture of intelligent risk-taking that leads to sustained innovation. Adapted from https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career development/10-common-leadership-styles.

    There are different character traits in people including leaders, they can be classified as:

    Simple: as the name suggests, a simple person is the one who lives an ordinary 

    life in terms of clothing, interacting with others and even eating.

    Unpretentious: this means not attempting to impress others with an appearance 

    of greater importance, talent, or culture than is actually possessed.






    Loving, role model, inspiring, talented


    2.4. Language structure: Past simple and Wh- clauses

    1. Past simple

    • The simple past is used when talking about events, actions or situations 

    which happened in the past and are now finished. We always have to 

    say when the action happened , so we often use time references like yesterday, ago, last, etc

    Example: We waited for an hour yesterday.

    • To describe actions which happened in the recent or distant past.

    Example: Sam phoned a moment ago.

    • To describe past habit

    Example: I smoked forty cigarettes a day till I gave up. 

    2. Wh- clauses

    Some verbs can be followed by a clause beginning with a wh-word (what, 

    when, where, which, how, who, or why). Those verbs include: arrange, 

    calculate, check, choose, debate, determine, discover, discuss, establish, 

    find out, forget, guess, imagine, know, learn, notice, plan, realize, 

    remember, say, see, talk about, think (about), understand, wonder…


    1. That might explain why he’s looking unhappy.

    2. Let’s consider how we can solve the problem.

    3. I couldn’t decide which train I ought to catch.

    • Note:

    These verbs can also be followed by a wh-word (except ‘why’) + to-infinitive.


    1. I don’t know what to do.

    2. She calculated how much to pay on the back of an envelope.

    But notice that if we change the subject in the wh-clause we can’t use a toinfinitive.


    I can’t imagine what you like about jazz. (but not I can’t imagine what to…)

    Some verbs must have an object before the wh-clause. Those verbs include: 

    advise, inform, instruct, teach, warn, remind, tell…


    1. She reminded me where I had to leave the papers

    2. We told Derek and Linda how to get to our new house.

    • Note:

    The verbs ask and show often have an object before a wh-clause, but not always.


    - I asked (him) how I could get to the station, and he told me.

    - These verbs can also be followed by an object + wh-word + to-infinitive.


    - She taught me how to play chess.

    - I showed him what to look for when he was buying a second-hand car. 

    - We can use the way instead of how.


    - Have you noticed the way he spins the ball. (or …how he spins the ball.)

    3. Whether

    • Note:

    We can use whether as the wh-word in a wh-clause when we want to indicate 

    that something is possible, but other things are also possible. Whether can have 

    a similar meaning to that of ‘if’.


    1. He couldn’t remember whether he had turned the computer off.

    2. Can you find out whether she’s coming to the party or not.

    Whether can be followed by an infinitive, but ‘if’ is never used before an 

    infinitive. Verbs that are often followed by whether + infinitive include choose, 

    consider, debate, decide, determine, discuss, know, wonder…

    Example: They have 14 days to decide whether to keep it or to send it back.


    The difference between the pairs of sentences below. The first has a wh-clause 

    with whether and the second has a that-clause.



    a. I didn’t know whether the university was shut down. (= if the university 

    was shut down or not)

    b. I didn’t know that the university was shut down. (suggests that the 

    university was shut down)

    c. We couldn’t see whether he was injured. (= if he was injured or not)

    d. We couldn’t se that he was injured. (suggests that he was injured)

    Exercise: Find wh-clauses in the sentences below.

    1. I wonder why she said that.

    2. They don’t know what they’re doing.

    3. We don’t remember where the house is.

    4. I’m not sure when we’re going to arrive.

    5. Let’s find out what time the show starts.

    6. She’s thinking about how she’s going to do it. 

    7. I’ve forgotten why I started this.