Key Unit Competence: To analyse literary texts based on their genres and



    I. Prose
    • Extract 1. “The Pearl” by John Steinbeck”

    Read the following extract below and then answer questions asked thereafter.
    Kino and Juana came slowly down to the beach and to Kino’s canoe, which was
    the one thing of value he owned in the world. It was very old. Kino’s grandfather
    had brought it from Nayarit, and he had given it to Kino’s father, and so it had
    come to Kino. It was at once property and source of food; for a man with a boat
    can guarantee a woman that she will eat something. It is the bulwark against
    starvation. And every year Kino refinished his canoe with the hard shell-like
    plaster by the secret method that had also come to him from his father. Now he
    came to the canoe and touched the bow tenderly as he always did. He laid his
    diving rock and his basket and the two ropes in the sand by the canoe. And he
    folded his blanket and laid it in the bow.

    Juana laid Coyotito on the blanket, and she placed her shawl over him so that
    the hot sun could not shine on him. He was quiet now, but the swelling on his
    shoulder had continued up his neck and under his ear and his face was puffed
    and feverish. Juana went to the water and waded in. She gathered some brown
    seaweed and made a flat damp poultice of it, and this she applied to the baby’s
    swollen shoulder, which was as good a remedy as any and probably better than
    the doctor could have done. But the remedy lacked his authority because it was
    simple and didn’t cost anything. The stomach cramps had not come to Coyotito.
    the canoe creased the water and hissed with speed. The other pearlers were
    gone out long since. In a few moments Kino could see them clustered in the
    haze, riding over the oyster bed.

    Light filtered down through the water to the bed where the frilly pearl oysters
    lay fastened to the rubbly bottom, a bottom strewn with shells of broken, opened
    oysters. This was the bed that had raised the King of Spain to be a great power
    in Europe in past years, had helped to pay for his wars, and had decorated the
    churches for his soul’s sake. The gray oysters with ruffles like skirts on the
    shells, the barnacle-crusted oysters with little bits of weed clinging to the skirts
    and small crabs climbing over them. An accident could happen to these oysters;
    a grain of sand could lie in the folds of muscle and irritate the flesh until in selfprotection
    the flesh coated the grain with a layer of smooth cement. But once
    started, the flesh continued to coat the foreign body until it fell free in some
    tidal flurry or until the oyster was destroyed. For centuries men had dived
    down and torn the oysters from the beds and ripped them open, looking for the
    coated grains of sand. Swarms of fish lived near the bed to live near the oysters
    thrown back by the searching men and to nibble at the shining inner shells. But
    the pearls were accidents, and the finding of one was luck, a little pat on the
    back by God or the gods or both.

    Kino had two ropes, one tied to a heavy stone and one to a basket. He stripped
    off his shirt and trousers and laid his hat in the bottom of the canoe. The water
    was oily smooth. He took his rock in one hand and his basket in the other, and
    he slipped feet first over the side and the rock carried him to the bottom. The
    bubbles rose behind him until the water cleared and he could see. Above, the
    surface of the water was an undulating mirror of brightness, and he could see
    the bottoms of the canoes sticking through it.

    Kino moved cautiously so that the water would not be obscured with mud or
    sand. He hooked his foot in the loop on his rock and his hands worked quickly,
    tearing the oysters loose, some singly, others in clusters. He laid them in his
    basket. In some places the oysters clung to one another so that they came free
    in lumps.

    Now, Kino’s people had sung of everything that happened or existed. They had
    made songs to the fishes, to the sea in anger and to the sea in calm, to the light
    and the dark and the sun and the moon, and the songs were all in Kino and in
    his people - every song that had ever been made, even the ones forgotten. And
    as he filled his basket the song was in Kino, and the beat of the song was his
    pounding heart as it ate the oxygen from his held breath, and the melody of the
    song was the gray-green water and the little scuttling animals and the clouds
    of fish that flitted by and were gone. But in the song there was a secret little
    inner song, hardly perceptible, but always there, sweet and secret and clinging,
    Perhaps Juana had sucked out the poison in time, but she had not sucked out
    her worry over her first-born. She had not prayed directly for the recovery of
    the baby - she had prayed that they might find a pearl with which to hire the
    doctor to cure the baby, for the minds of people are as unsubstantial as the
    mirage of the Gulf.

    Now Kino and Juana slid the canoe down the beach to the water, and when the
    bow floated, Juana climbed in, while Kino pushed the stern in and waded beside
    it until it floated lightly and trembled on the little breaking waves. Then in coordination
    Juana and Kino drove their double-bladed paddles into the sea, and
    almost hiding in the counter-melody, and this was the Song of the Pearl That
    Might Be, for every shell thrown in the basket might contain a pearl.

    The Pearl by John Steinbeck
    • Answer these questions.

    1. After reading this extract, explore the organization of its plot development
    2. What did Coyotito’s mother do to prevent him from hot sunshine?
    3. Why did Kino and Juana go to the beech? Explain the main reasons that
    prodded them to go.
    4. Find the meaning of the following phrases and words as used in the text.
    a. Stripped off
    b. Moved cautiously
    c. Obscured with
    d. Clung.
    5. With reference to the above extract, explain the term Prose.
    6. Explain the following literary terms: plot, character, theme and setting
    7. Examine the plot development in prose.

    • Notes
    1.Definition of prose
    Prose is a form of language that has no formal metrical structure. It applies
    a natural flow of speech and ordinary grammatical structure, rather than
    rhythmic structure. Prose comprises of full grammatical sentences, which
    consists of paragraphs and forgoes aesthetic appeal in favour of clear, straight
    forward language.

    The term prose is used simply as a contrast to verse. It is what linguists call the
    “unmarked” form of language. Literary critics divide prose into fictional and

    Examples: of prose include novels, novellas, short stories, essays, letters,
    editorials, articles and journals.

    2. Characteristics of prose
    • Prose is written in paragraphs
    • It tells the story rather than describing an image or metaphor
    • Generally, it has characters and a plot.

    3. Types of prose:
    Narrative, Descriptive, Expository and Persuasive
    • Extract 2

    Read the following extract from animal farm and answer questions.

    When the animals had assembled in the big barn, Snowball stood

    Up and, though occasionally interrupted by bleating from the sheep, set forth his
    reasons for advocating the building of the windmill. Then Napoleon stood up to
    reply. He said very quietly that the windmill was nonsense and that he advised
    nobody to vote for it, and promptly sat down again; he had spoken for barely
    thirty seconds, and seemed almost indifferent as to the effect he produced.

    At this Snowball sprang to his feet, and shouting down the sheep, which had
    begun bleating again, broke into a passionate appeal in favour of the windmill.
    Until now the animals had been about equally divided in their sympathies, but in
    a moment Snowball’s eloquence had carried them away. In glowing sentences,
    he painted a picture of Animal Farm as it might be when sordid labour was
    lifted from the animals’ backs. His imagination had now run far beyond chaffcutters
    and turnip-slicers. Electricity, he said, could operate threshing machines,
    ploughs, harrows, rollers, and reapers and binders, besides supplying every
    stall with its own electric light, hot and cold water, and an electric heater. By
    the time he had finished speaking, there was no doubt as to which way the vote
    would go. But just at this moment Napoleon stood up and, casting a peculiar
    sidelong look at Snowball, uttered a high-pitched whimper of a kind no one had

    ever heard him utter before.

    At this there was a terrible baying sound outside, and nine enormous dogs
    wearing brass-studded collars came bounding into the barn. They dashed
    straight for Snowball, who only sprang from his place just in time to escape
    their snapping jaws. In a moment he was out of the door and they were after
    him. Too amazed and frightened to speak, all the animals crowded through the
    door to watch the chase. Snowball was racing across the long pasture that led
    to the road. He was running as only a pig can run, but the dogs were close on
    his heels. Suddenly he slipped and it seemed certain that they had him. Then he
    was up again, running faster than ever, then the dogs were gaining on him again.
    One of them all but closed his jaws on Snowball’s tail, but Snowball whisked it
    free just in time. Then he put on an extra spurt and, with a few inches to spare,
    slipped through a hole in the hedge and was seen no more.

    Animal Farm by George Orwell

    • Answer these questions

    1. What is the text talking about?
    2. Why did the dogs chase Snowball?
    3. What does the phrase ‘was seen no more’ in the last line mean?
    4. Describe the character traits of the following;
    a. Snowball
    b. Dogs
    5. What do animals symbolize according to the author?
    6. Explain whether the above extract is narrative, descriptive, expository or

    • Notes
    Basing on its characteristics given above, prose can be broken into four
    categories, divided by purpose:

    Narrative: Writing which tells a story (can be fiction or non-fiction); usually
    told in chronological order; has characters; follows the basic plot-line/
    development/chart/diagram - exposition, rising action, climax, falling action
    and resolution.

    • Expository: It gives basic information; used often in speeches and
    essays; does not tell a story or argue.

    • Descriptive: It describes something in detail, again without telling a
    story or arguing a point; used most often in combination with another
    mode of writing, but alone is often found in scientific or medical reports.

    • Persuasive: it argues a point (or two sides of a question); gives
    evidence in favour or against.

    • Modern prose exhibits natural flow of speech and grammatical structure in
    written form whereas traditional prose was in form of rhythmic structure as

    in poetry. The common unit of verse was based on meter and rhyme.

    4. Elements of Prose
    Extract 3

    Read the following extract and answer questions asked below.
    Kino has found the Pearl of the World. In the town, in little offices, sat the men
    who bought pearls from the fishers. They waited in their chairs until the pearls
    came in, and then they cackled and fought and shouted and threatened until
    they reached the lowest price the fisherman would stand. But there was a
    price below which they dared not go, for it had happened that a fisherman in
    despair had given his pearls to the church. And when the buying was over, these
    buyers sat alone and their fingers played restlessly with the pearls, and they
    wished they owned the pearls. For there were not many buyers really - there
    was only one, and he kept these agents in separate offices to give a semblance
    of competition. The news came to these men, and their eyes squinted and their
    finger-tips burned a little, and each one thought how the patron could not live
    forever and someone had to take his place. And each one thought how with
    some capital he could get a new start.

    All manner of people grew interested in Kino - people with things to sell and
    people with favours to ask. Kino had found the Pearl of the World. The essence

    of pearl mixed with essence of men and a curious dark residue was precipitated.

    Every man suddenly became related to Kino’s pearl, and Kino’s pearl went into
    the dreams, the speculations, the schemes, the plans, the futures, the wishes, the
    needs, the lusts, the hungers, of everyone, and only one person stood in the way
    and that was Kino, so that he became curiously every man’s enemy. The news
    stirred up something infinitely black and evil in the town; the black distillate
    was like the scorpion, or like hunger in the smell of food, or like loneliness when
    love is withheld. The poison sacs of the town began to manufacture venom, and
    the town swelled and puffed with the pressure of it.

    But Kino and Juana did not know these things. Because they were happy and
    excited they thought everyone shared their joy. Juan Tomás and Apolonia did,
    and they were the world too. In the afternoon, when the sun had gone over
    the mountains of the Peninsula to sink in the outward sea, Kino squatted in
    his house with Juana beside him. And the brush house was crowded with
    neighbours. Kino held the great pearl in his hand, and it was warm and alive in
    his hand. And the music of the pearl had merged with the music of the family so
    that one beautified the other. The neighbours looked at the pearl in Kino’s hand
    and they wondered how such luck could come to any man.

    And Juan Tomás, who squatted on Kino’s right hand because he was his brother,
    asked, “What will you do now that you have become a rich man?”
    Kino looked into his pearl, and Juana cast her eyelashes down and arranged
    her shawl to cover her face so that her excitement could not be seen. And in
    the incandescence of the pearl the pictures formed of the things Kino’s mind
    had considered in the past and had given up as impossible. In the pearl he saw
    Juana and Coyotito and himself standing and kneeling at the high altar, and
    they were being married now that they could pay. He spoke softly: “We will be
    married - in the church.”

    In the pearl he saw how they were dressed - Juana in a shawl stiff with newness
    and a new skirt, and from under the long skirt Kino could see that she wore
    shoes. It was in the pearl - the picture glowing there. He himself was dressed in
    new white clothes, and he carried a new hat - not of straw but of fine black felt -
    and he too wore shoes - not sandals but shoes that laced. But Coyotito - he was
    the one - he wore a blue sailor suit from the United States and a little yachting
    cap such as Kino had seen once when a pleasure boat put into the estuary. All
    of these things Kino saw in the lucent pearl and he said: “We will have new
    clothes.” And the music of the pearl rose like a chorus of trumpets in his ears.

    Then to the lovely gravy surface of the pearl came the little things Kino wanted:
    a harpoon to take the place of one lost a year ago, a new harpoon of iron with a
    ring in the end of the shaft; and - his mind could hardly make the leap - a rifle -
    but why not, since he was so rich? And Kino saw Kino in the pearl, Kino holding
    a Winchester carbine. It was the wildest day-dreaming and very pleasant. His

    lips moved hesitantly over this - “A rifle,” he said. “Perhaps a rifle.”

    was the rifle that broke down the barriers. This was an impossibility, and if
    he could think of having a rifle whole horizon were burst and he could rush on.
    For it is said that humans are never satisfied, that you give them one thing and
    they want something more.

    And this is said in disparagement, whereas it is one of the greatest talents the
    species has and one that has made it superior to animals that are satisfied with
    what they have.

    The neighbours, close pressed and silent in the house, nodded their heads at
    his wild imaginings.

    And a man in the rear murmured: “A rifle. He will have a rifle.”
    But the music of the pearl was shrilling with triumph in Kino. Juana looked up,
    and her eyes were wide at Kino’s courage and at his imagination. And electric
    strength had come to him now the horizons were kicked out. In the pearl he
    saw Coyotito sitting at a little desk in a school, just as Kino had once seen it
    through an open door. And Coyotito was dressed in a jacket, and he had on a
    white collar, and a broad silken tie. Moreover, Coyotito was writing on a big
    piece of paper. Kino looked at his neighbours fiercely. “My son will go to school,”
    he said, and the neighbours were hushed. Juana caught her breath sharply. Her
    eyes were bright as she watched him, and she looked quickly down at Coyotito
    in her arms to see whether this might be possible.

    But Kino’s face shone with prophecy. “My son will read and open the books, and
    my son will write and will know writing. And my son will make numbers, and
    these things will make us free because he will know - he will know and through
    him we will know.” And in the pearl Kino saw himself and Juana squatting by the
    little fire in the brush hut while Coyotito read from a great book. “This is what
    the pearl will do,” said Kino. And he had never said so many words together in
    his life. And suddenly he was afraid of his talking. His hand closed down over
    the pearl and cut the light away from it. Kino was afraid as a man is afraid who
    says, “I will,” without knowing.

    From the Pearl by john Steinbeck

    • Answer these questions.
    1. In your own words, define the symbol of the “Pearl” as used in aboveextract?
    2. The Pearl is a parable. Discuss its relevance to the society.

    3. Analyse the setting of the novel. (refer to the figure below).

    • Notes.
    The elements of prose include; plot, setting, character, conflict, symbol, point
    of view, style, atmosphere. The writer uses such elements of prose to develop a
    story and its theme. Because literature is an art and not a science, it’s impossible
    to specifically quantify any of these elements within any story or guarantee that
    each will be present in any given story.

    a. Plot. The arrangement of incidents or events in a story. In literature, the
    plot encompasses all the incidents and provides aesthetic pleasure.

    b. Setting. Stories have two types of setting. Physical and chronological.
    Physical setting is where the story takes place

    c. Character. What type of individuals are the main characters? Brave,
    cowardly, bored, obnoxious? In literature, as in real life, we can evaluate
    character in three ways.

    i. What the individual says
    ii. What the individual does
    iii. What others say about him / her.
    d. Conflict. Two types of conflicts are;

    External and internal conflicts.

    NB. External conflict could be man against nature, or man against man. Internal
    conflict might not seem as exciting as external. Real life has far more internal
    than external conflict.

    e. Symbol. A symbol is something which means something else. Frequently
    it is a tangible physical thing which symbolises something intangible.

    f. Point of view. Is the ‘narrative point of view,’ how the story is told more
    specifically, who tells it. There are two distinct different types of point of
    view and each of these two types has a variation.

    -- In the first person point of view, the story is told by a character within the
    story, a character using the first person pronoun, ‘I’. if the narrator is the
    main character, the point of view is first person protagonist. If the narrator
    is a secondary character, the point of view is first person observer.

    -- In the third person point of view, the story is not told by a character but by
    an ‘invisible author,’ using the third person pronoun. (he, she, it)

    -- If the third person narrator gives us the thoughts of characters, then he is
    a third person omniscient narrator (all knowing)

    -- If third person narrator only gives us information which could be recorded,
    then he is a third person dramatic narrator.

    In summary, here are the types of point of view
    a. First person narrator
    For example: protagonist and observer.
    b. Third person narrator.

    For example; omniscient and dramatic

    Different points of view can emphasize different things. First person protagonist
    narrator would give us access to the thoughts of the main character. If the author
    doesn’t want us to have that access, he could use the first person observer, or
    the third person dramatic.

    c. Theme.
    The theme is the main idea the writer of the poem or story wants the reader to
    understand and remember. ‘a theme is a statement about a topic.’
    Not all stories or poems have an overriding ‘universal themes’

    II. Poetry
    Read the poems below and answer questions.

    Poem 1
    Song of Lawino

    Ocol is no longer in love with old type
    He is in love with a modern girl.
    The name of the beautiful one Is Clementine.

    Brother, when you see Clementine!

    beautiful one aspires to look like a white woman.
    Her lips are red- hot
    Like glowing charcoal,
    She resembles the wild cat
    That has dipped its mouth in blood
    Her mouth is like raw yaws It looks like raw yaws, Like the mouth of a field!
    Tina dusts powder on her face
    And it looks so pale;
    She resembles the wizard
    Getting ready for the midnight dance.

    She dusts the ash-dirt all over her face
    And when little sweat Begins to appear on her body She looks like guinea fowl!
    -By Okot P’ Bitek
    Source: A poetry Course for KCSE, Page 54.

    • Answer these questions
    1. Describe the subject matter of the poem.
    2. What images does Lawino use to build up a picture of Clementine?
    3. Discuss Lawino’s attitude towards Clementine.
    4. Analyse the poetic devices used in this poem and comment on how they
    affect the meaning of the poem in question.
    5. Identify the setting of the poem above.
    6. Definition of poetry related terms
    a. What do you understand by poetry?
    b. Describe the tone and structure of the poem.

    c. Discuss the characteristics of poetry.

    ▫▫ The word poem comes from the Greek word poiema which means a
    thingmade, composed or created.

    ▫▫ Poems are works of literature in which words are arranged to sound
    pleasant to the ear and to express ideas, emotion and thoughts.

    ▫▫ Poems are written in a specific style. The lines and the language of the
    poem must conform to certain rules.

    ▫▫ The writer of a poem is called a poet.
    ▫▫ We can therefore define poetry as a type of literature that is written in
    verses and which uses condensed language to express strong feelings.
    ▫▫ Poetry relies on the careful choice of words to relay the best possible
    meaning. In short, we should see poetry as the best and most precise
    way of saying something.

    ▫▫ A good poet selects, arranges and rearranges words until the words
    are able to say what he wants them to say as effectively as possible.
    Poetry appeals to our emotions as well as to our mind.

    Characteristics of poetry
    1. Poetry uses language in an economical way. It can say in a few words
    what a novel can say in hundreds of pages. In poetry, each word is very
    important and cannot be ignored. It uses heightened language which
    is full of connotation. Poetic language is very different from ordinary
    language. Poetic language relies more heavily on imagery than other

    2. Poetry expresses strong feelings and emotional expressions.
    3. Poetry is arranged in stanzas rather than paragraphs. That is, it exists in
    verse form rather than in prose form.
    4. Poetry is musical; it contains rhythms which are created by repetition

    and rhyme, among others.

    Plot, tone, voice, mood/ atmosphere, settings and Themes in a poem

    Read the following poems and answer the question that follows.

    • Poem2. I love you my gentle one
    I love you, my gentle one;
    My love is the fresh milk in the rubindi
    Which you drank on the wedding day;
    My love is the butter we were smeared with
    To seal fidelity into our hearts.
    You are the cattle-bird’s egg,
    For those who saw you are wealthy;
    You are the papyrus reed of the lake,
    Which they pull out with both hands.
    And I sing for you with tears
    Because you possess my heart:
    I love you, my gentle…
    Poems from East Africa Publisers by Ralph Bitamazire

    Poem3. Fair Ines
    Farewell, farewell, fair Ines!
    That vessel never bore
    So fair a lady on its deck,
    Nor danced so light before, —
    Alas for pleasure on the sea,
    And sorrow on the shore!
    The smile that blessed one lover’s heart
    Has broken many more!
    Thomas Hood (1798–1845)

    • Answer these question
    1. Discuss and compare the plot, tone, atmosphere/ mood in the two
    different poems.
    2. Characterising plot, tone, voice, mood/atmosphere, setting and theme
    in a poem.
    a. What is the effect of tone in a poem?
    b. Why is setting important in poems?
    c. Describe how mood/ atmosphere affects the reader of a poem.

    • Notes

    1. Tone.

    The tone in the poem is the attitude you feel in it. The writer’s attitude toward
    the subject or audience helps create a particular kind of atmosphere or mood
    in the poem.

    Tone is the manner of writing about the subject, character, theme, by careful
    choice of words. The choice of words creates the tone. Tone is used to express
    different emotions.

    Tone may be described as being; sentimental, approving, appreciative, sad,
    comic, condescending, sarcastic, critical etc.

    2. Atmosphere.
    In literature, atmosphere refers to the feeling, emotion, or mood a poet conveys
    to a reader through the description of setting and objects. It aims at creating an
    emotional tone for the piece. A writer can establish atmosphere, or the vehicle
    for mood, through several different facets of a work. One such mechanism is
    through the use of objects.

    3. Point of view.
    The point of view of a poem is defined as the perspective from which a poem is
    told/recited. Point of view is the angle of considering things, which shows us the
    opinion or feelings of the individuals involved in a situation. In literature, point
    of view is the mode of narration that an author employs to let the readers “hear”
    and “see” what takes place in a poem.

    4. Plot
    This is how the poet orders events or incidents in a poem. Or how the poet
    arranges events/ ideas in the poem. Plot helps to keep the reader to read/ to

    recite it till the end, with curiosity to know more.

    5. Theme
    Theme is the central idea of the poem or what the poem is talking about. Poets
    employ different poetic devices to bring out the themes or central ideas.

    6. Setting.
    This refers to time, place and situation and period when the poem was written.
    Poets use particular settings to convey different messages to the readers.
    III. Drama
    Observe the picture below and answer the questions thereafter:

    1. What do you think the people on the picture are doing?

    2. Where do you think these people are coming from?
    3. What do you understand by European Drama?

    • Notes:
    Drama is a literary genre which is performed by professional actors on stage
    before an audience. It involves conflict, actions and a particular theme.
    The types of drama include: Tragedy and comedy.

    Tragedy is a serious play based on an important social, personal or religious
    issue. It often has tragic end.

    Comedy: It is a type of play that aims at provoking smiles and laughter. It usually
    has a happy ending.

    Extract 1: Act 1 of “an enemy of the people” by Henrik Ibsen
    Read the following extract and discuss the questions that follow.

    You see, if you come an hour late, Mr. Billing, you have to put up with cold meat.
    BILLING (as he eats):

    It is uncommonly good, thank you--remarkably good.
    My husband makes such a point of having his meals punctually, you know.

    That doesn’t affect me a bit. Indeed, I almost think enjoy a meal all the better
    when I can sit down and eat all by myself, and undisturbed.

    Oh well, as long as you are enjoying it--. (Turns to the hall door, listening.) I
    expect that is Mr. Hovstad coming too.

    BILLING: Very likely.
    (PETER STOCKMANN comes in. He wears an overcoat and his official hat, and
    carries a stick.)

    PETER STOCKMANN: Good evening, Katherine.
    MRS. STOCKMANN: (coming forward into the sitting-room). Ah, good evening-
    -is it you? How good of you to come up and see us!

    I happened to be passing, and so--(looks into the dining-room). But you have
    company with you, I see.

    MRS. STOCKMANN (a little embarrassed): Oh, no--it was quite by chance he
    came in. (Hurriedly.) Won’t you come in and have something, too?

    I! No, thank you. Good gracious--hot meat at night! Not with my digestion,

    Oh, but just once in a way--

    No, no, my dear lady; I stick to my tea and bread and butter. It is much more
    wholesome in the long run—and a little more economical, too.

    MRS. STOCKMANN (smiling): Now you mustn’t think that Thomas and I are
    spend thrifts.

    PETER STOCKMANN: Not you, my dear; I would never think that of you. (Points
    to the Doctor’s study.) Is he not at home?

    MRS. STOCKMANN: No, he went out for a little turn after supper--he and the

    PETER STOCKMANN: I doubt if that is a wise thing to do. (Listens.) I fancy I
    hear him coming now.

    MRS. STOCKMANN: No, I don’t think it is he. (A knock is heard at the door.)
    Come in! (HOVSTAD comes in from the hall.) Oh, it is you, Mr. Hovstad!

    Yes, I hope you will forgive me, but I was delayed at the printers. Good evening,
    Mr. Mayor.

    PETER STOCKMANN (bowing a little distantly): Good evening. You have come
    on business, no doubt.

    HOVSTAD: Partly. It’s about an article for the paper.

    PETER STOCKMANN: So I imagined. I hear my brother has become a prolific
    contributor to the “People’s Messenger.”

    HOVSTAD: Yes, he is good enough to write in the “People’s Messenger” when he

    has any home truths to tell.

    MRS, STOCKMANN (to HOVSTAD): But won’t you--? (Points to the dining-room.)

    PETER STOCKMANN: Quite so, quite so. I don’t blame him in the least, as a
    writer, for addressing himself to the quarters where he will find the readiest
    sympathy. And, besides that, I personally have no reason to bear any ill will to
    your paper, Mr.Hovstad.

    HOVSTAD: I quite agree with you.

    PETER STOCKMANN: Taking one thing with another, there is an excellent spirit
    of toleration in the town--an admirable municipal spirit. And it all springs from
    the fact of our having a great common interest to unite us--an interest that is in
    an equally high degree the concern of every right-mind citizen
    HOVSTAD: The Baths, yes.

    PETER STOCKMANN: Exactly---our fine, new, handsome Baths. Mark my
    words, Mr. Hovstad--the Baths will become the focus of our municipal life! Not
    a doubt of it!
    MRS. STOCKMANN: That is just what Thomas says.

    PETER STOCKMANN: Think how extraordinarily the place has developed
    within the last year or two! Money has been flowing in, and there is some life
    and some business doing in the town. Houses and landed property are rising in
    value every day.
    Extract from: An enemy of the people by Henrik Ibsen
    • Answer these questions:
    1. Describe the setting of the play.
    2. Discuss the theme of the play.
    3. Discuss the characteristics of Peter Stockman in the above extract.
    4. What are the main features of drama?

    • Notes
    A review of techniques used in a drama
    Techniques are used in a drama for the following reasons. Some are used to
    increase the dramatic tension in a play. Others to divert audience attention or
    appealing directory to the audience’s emotion to elicit sympathy for the main
    character. The main techniques are: Dialogue, monologue, soliloquy, body
    language, flashback, entrance/exit, aside, costume, Foreshadow.

    a. Dialogue: It is a conversation between two or more persons
    b. Monologue: is a speech spoken by one character, usually in a play. most
    often to express their mental thoughts aloud, sometimes also to directly
    address another character or the audience.

    c. Soliloquy: is a speech given by a character in a play when the speaker
    is alone, this is presented to inform the audience or reader of what is
    happening in the mind of a character.

    d. Body language: is a communication by movement or position, particularly
    facial expressions, gestures and the relative positions of a speaker and

    e. Flashback: is an interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time
    from the current point in the play. Flashbacks are often used to recount
    event that happened before the story ’s primary sequence of events to fill
    in crucial back story.

    f. Foreshadowing: is a literary device in which a writer gives an advance
    hint of what is to come later in the play. It is generally used to build

    anticipation in the mind of readers about what might happen next.

    Extract2: The play “Julius Ceasar” by William Shakespeare

    Read the extract bellow and identify some techniques employed in the
    following extract from the play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare
    (Enter Brutus in his Orchard.)
    What, Lucius, ho! I cannot, by the progress of the stars. Give guess how near

    today. Lucius. I say! I would it were my fault to sleep so soundly. When, Lucius,

    when? awake, I say! What Lucius! (Enter Lucius.)
    Lucius: Called you, my Lord?

    Get me a taper in my Study, Lucius. When it is lighted, come and call me here.
    I will, my Lord.(Exit)

    Brutus: Enter.
    It must be by his death: and for my part, I know no personal cause, to spurn
    at him, But for the general. He would be crowned. How that might change his
    nature, there’s the question? It is the bright day, that brings forth the Adder,
    And that craves wary walking. Crown him that,
    And then I grant we put a sting in him
    That at his will he may do danger with.

    Th’ abuse of greatness is when it disjoins
    Remorse from Power: And, to speak truth of Caesar,
    I have not known, when his affections swayed
    More than his reason. But ‘tis a common proof,
    That lowliness is young ambition’s ladder,
    Where to the climber upward turns his face:
    But when he once attains the upmost round.
    He then unto the ladder turns his back.

    Looks in the clouds, scorning the base degrees
    By which he did ascend: so Caesar may;
    Then lest he may, prevent. And, since the quarrel

    Will bear no color for the thing he is,

    Fashion it thus; that what he is, augmented
    Would run to these and these extremities;
    And therefore think him as a serpent’s egg
    Which hatched, would as his kind grow mischievous.
    And kill him in the shell.

    Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare
    Themes and messages in drama

    Extract 3/ Exerpt: “ The lion and the Jewel” by Whole Soyinka

    Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow.

    Faith. Because I have faith Oh Sidi, vow to me your own undying love and I
    will scorn the Jibes of these bush minds. Who know no better. Swear, Sidi, Sidi,
    swear you will be my wife and I will Stand against earth, heaven, and the nine

    Now there you go again.
    One little thing
    And you must chirrup like a cockatoo.
    You talk and talk and deafen me

    With words which always sound the same

    And make no meaning.
    I’ve told you, and I say it again
    I shall marry you today, next week
    Or any day you name.

    But my bride-price must first be paid.
    Aha, now you turn away.
    But I tell you, Lakunle, I must have
    The full bride-price. Will you make me
    A laughing stock? Well, do as you please.
    But Sidi will not make herself
    A cheap bowl for the village spit.
    Lakunle: On my head let fall their scorn.

    They will say I was no virgin
    That I was forced to sell my shame
    And marry you without a price.
    Excerpt from: The Lion and the Jewel by Wole Soyinka

    • Answer these questions:
    1. What is the theme of the discussion between Sidi and Lakunle?
    2. What is the message in above exatract?
    3. Explain what the following expression mean ‘’ will you make me a
    laughing stock?’

    A Theme refers to the main central idea portrayed in a play. It is the view
    about life that is expressed in a play. What does a playwright hope to achieve
    when writing a play? Some playwrights write with the intention of showing
    the power of change, the dangers of love, the role of good governance and
    leadership, preservation of culture and practices, faith and destiny among
    others. While other plays could have two or more themes. The most common
    theme in plays are change, religion, education, love, death, gender, tradition,
    power of education.

    A message is the lesson the playwrights hopes the audience or the reader can
    get from the play.

    Wole Soyinka in his play “The Lion and the Jewel” explores a number of themes
    such as love, marriage, tradition and culture, family relation, polygamy etc.

    Henrik Ibsen in his play “An enemy of the people” explores a number of themes
    such as society and class, principles, rules and order, pride, power, education

    Extract4: Acts of An enemy of the people by Henrik Ibsen
    Read the following extract and answer the question after.
    Dr. Stockmann (snapping his fingers and getting up from the table):
    I have it! I have it, by Jove! You shall never set foot in the school again! The Boys.

    No more school!
    Mrs. Stockmann.
    But, Thomas-
    Dr. Stockmann.
    Never, I say. I will educate you myself; that is to say, you shan’t learn a blessed
    thing-Morten. Hooray!

    Dr. Stockmann.
    --but I will make liberal-minded and high-minded men of you. You must help
    me with that, Petra.
    Yes, father, you may be sure I will.
    Dr. Stockmann.
    And my school shall be in the room where they insulted me and called me an
    enemy of the people. But we are too few as we are; I must have at least twelve
    boys to begin with.

    Mrs. Stockmann.

    You will certainly never get them in this town.

    Dr. Stockmann.
    We shall. (To the boys.) Don’t you know any street urchins--regular ragamuffins--?
    Yes, father, I know lots!

    Dr. Stockmann.
    That’s capital! Bring me some specimens of them.
    I am going to experiment with curs, just for once; there may be some exceptional
    heads among them.

    And what are we going to do, when you have made liberal minded and highminded
    men of us?

    Dr. Stockmann.
    Then you shall drive all the wolves out of the country, my boys! (EJLIF looks
    rather doubtful about it; MORTEN jumps about crying “Hurrah!”)

    Mrs. Stockmann.
    Let us hope it won’t be the wolves that will drive you out of the country, Thomas.

    Dr. Stockmann.
    Are you out of your mind, Katherine? Drive me out!
    Now--when I am the strongest man in the town!

    Mrs. Stockmann.
    The strongest--now?

    Dr. Stockmann.
    Yes, and I will go so far as to say that now I am the strongest man in the whole

    Morten. I say!

    Dr. Stockmann
    (lowering his voice). Hush! You mustn’t say anything about it yet; but I have
    made a great discovery.

    Mrs. Stockmann. Another one?

    Dr. Stockmann.
    Yes. (Gathers them round him, and says confidentiallysmile It is this, let me tell you-
    -that the strongest man in the world is he who stands most alone.
    Mrs. Stockmann (smiling and shaking her head).
    Oh, Thomas, Thomas!
    Petra. (encouragingly, as she grasps her father’s hands).
    Extracted from: An enemy of the People by Henrik Ibsen, ACT 5 page 88

    Answer these questions:
    1. What is the purpose of Dr. Stockman in the extract?
    2. Why is he qualified himself as a strong man?
    3. Discuss the main themes in the above excerpt?

    4. Discuss the difference between the African drama and European Drama.

    10.2. Different literary periods in the development of

    English and literature.

    A. Medieval literature versus renaissance literature

    B. Colonial literature versus poatcolonial literature

    • Questions on the characteristics of English literature periods

    Answer the questions below
    1. Think of any novel, play and determine its literary period considering
    the characteristics of literary periods in the development of literature.
    2. Write short notes on the following literary periods showing the
    connection between society, history and literature.

    a. The old English (450AD-1066AD)
    b. The middle English (1066AD-1500AD)
    c. The Renaissance (1500-1600)
    d. The Elizabethan period (1558-1603)
    e. The Jacobean period (1603-1625)
    f. The Caroline period (1625-1649)
    g. The Puritan period (1649-1660)
    h. The Restoration period (1660-1700)
    i. The Augustan period (1700-1785)
    j. Romantic period (1785-2530)
    k. The modern period (2590-1925)
    l. The inter-war period (1925-1939)
    m. The mid-20th century (1939 onwards)

    10.3. Language structure: Use of tenses for past, present,
    and future.

    1. Past tense.
    In the past tense, the action is simply mentioned and understood to have taken
    place in the past. The action started and ended sometime in the past but the
    time may or may not be mentioned.

    Read the following passage and describe how past tense has been used. Write
    examples of sentences in the past that have been used in the passage.

    • Text in the past tense: Gahigi and the Snake-woman
    Once upon a time, there was a man who had a son called Gahigi. Gahigi loved to
    hunt. When he reached the age of marriage, his father wanted to look for a wife
    for him but the boy refused. He said that a wife would take him away from his
    job. One day, while going to hunt, he found a beautiful girl sitting under a tree.
    They talked for some time and he realised he liked her. Gahigi decided to take
    her home and make her his wife. He decided not to tell his father about it until
    a later time and try to balance hunting and having a wife.

    On reaching home, he took her directly to his small house where his parents
    wouldn’t see her. Gahigi’s parents woke up very early every day to go to work
    in the fields. Gahigi spent the whole day hunting. He therefore would come
    back home late in the evening. His bride, who was mostly in the house alone,
    would wake up and do all the house work. After finishing her work, she would
    enter her house and change herself into an enormously long snake. Then she
    would coil herself on the house pillar and begin to sing:“They just marry not
    knowing whom they are marrying; they just marry not knowing whom they are

    One day, when the neighbour’s children were playing in the home compound,
    they heard someone singing and went to see who it was. They were shocked to
    find it was a huge snake. They ran away very terrified.

    When Gahigi’s mother came home, one of the children narrated the story to her.
    “There is a huge snake in our brother’s house. When you are all out, it coils itself
    around the house pillar and sings,’’ she said. The mother could not believe what
    she had heard. She decided to investigate on her own. The following morning,
    the mother went and hid herself where she could see clearly her son’s house.
    That morning, the bride did as usual. Gahigi’s mother could not believe it when
    the bride turned into the snake! When Gahigi returned home in the evening, his
    mother told him of what she had seen. The boy did not believe her. His mother
    suggested they wait again together the following day. In the morning, Gahigi
    left as usual, but when he had got far enough from the house, he tiptoed back
    and came to the place his mother was hiding to see whether what she said was
    true. Gahigi could not believe what he saw. His beautiful bride was now a long
    scary snake coiled around a pillar. Unable to control his fear, he jumped from
    his hiding position and ran away screaming. The noise attracted the neighbours
    out in the fields who came to see what the noise was about. When they got to
    the house, the bride was nowhere to be found. Since that day, Gahigi heeds to
    his parent’s advice
    Source: Literature in English, students’ book 3 (REB)

    2. Future tense.
    The future tense is used to:
    • show a plan for action in the future
    • show prediction, spontaneous decisions or offers
    • express a voluntary action

    • express a promise

    Examples include:
    a. I will make sandwiches.
    b. They will study math.
    c. I will call you when I arrive.
    d. Manchester will win the match today.
    e. I will carry that!

    Read the political leaflet about what the politician intends to do if she is elected.
    Write down the sentences that are in future tense.
    My campaign

    • I will make sure that the economy is improved. I will support the
    farmers and see that they are given extra training.
    • I will attend to education. I will find funds to provide more classrooms,
    playing fields and teachers. I will help the teachers improve their
    teaching abilities.
    • I will improve health provision in this district. I will initiate negotiations
    for a new hospital to be built. More clinics will also be built.
    • As a woman, I understand the need for education and equality for
    • A strong, educated woman will improve the lives of her children and
    her husband. She is no threat to her husband and will make his life

    Source: English Language, Student Book Senior six (REB)
    Answer these questions:

    a. Mention four areas in which the candidate plans to make a difference if
    she is elected.
    b. Which of the intentions are realistic and can perhaps be achieved?
    c. Do you think all the promises can be achieved? Give a reason for your

    d. Do you agree with the candidate’s statement in the last bullet point?
    3. Present tense
    The present tense is used to:
    • show regular activities, facts and preference
    • used for repeated actions
    • used for facts or generalization

    a. She always forgets her purse.
    b. Every twelve months, the earth circles the sun.
    c. He never forgets his wallet.
    d. Kigali is in Rwanda.
    e. I prefer my coffee black.

    Read the following table showing different tenses and describe how present

    tense is used giving sample sentences of your own.

    10.4. Sounds and spelling
    Use a dictionary and thesauruses to check the spelling and pronunciation of the
    following words:
    1. Tone
    2. Meter
    3. Metaphor
    4. Personification
    5. Apostrophe
    6. Connotation
    7. Assonance
    8. Consonance
    9. Hyperbole
    10. Stanza
    11. Symbol

    12. Simile

    10.5. End unit assessment



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