Topic outline


           Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of myself
          and my community



     1. Describe what you see in fig 1 and tell what this represents for the 
    2. Identify different activities which are being done in fig 2, and fig 3.
    3. What do you understand by the term community?
    4. As a community member what role would you like to play in order to 
         contribute to the development of your community? Describe such a 
    5. Is community work important? Explain.
    6. What would you advise a person who doesn’t take part in community 


                  1.1 Describing my community 
                 1.1.1. LEARNING ACTIVIT

                    Reading and text analysis 

                        Text: Visit to a village


    My father was born and brought up here. When at the age of 19 he joined the 
    army, he left his home. Since then he only occasionally visited the village. This 
    time we had gone there after five long years. But surprisingly, very little has 
    changed in my village during those five years.

     My village is backward. Despite great progress in other parts of the country, the 
    pace of development is very slow in my village. My village is connected to the 
    main road by non- metallic road. When I entered the village, I was welcomed by 
    lush green fields. There were hills and hillocks scattered all around the village. 
    The farmers were sowing the seeds in their fields. Their wives and children 
    were also helping them. At a little distance there was a big field. A flock of 
    children were grazing their cattle there. A stream was flowing nearby. The 
    grazing cattle were drinking water in the stream. The greenery that I saw in 
    the village is rare in a city. The life is laid back and calm. There is no hassle and 
    moving there. Moving ahead, suddenly some stinking smell struck my nose. I 
    covered my nose with my handkerchief. The smell was coming out of a big drain 

    which was flowing nearby. The muddy passage was littered by the cow dung. 

    In the village I saw the primary school. I was surprised at the sight of school. 
    It merely consisted of a two-room building. There were around thirty children 
    sitting on coir mat. There were two teachers, each one teaching a group of 
    fifteen, twenty children. The children were writing on the wooden plates called 
    tektites. There was dullness and silence all around. I could hear no noise except 
    the scream of children and the barking of dogs. However, there was occasional 

    hoarse crying of vendors that one can hear in the village.

    There were no shops, hospitals, cinema halls, post offices, banks in the village. 
    People have to move two kilometers to buy things of day-to-day need. Due to 
    lack of hospitals, sometimes the villagers have to meet untimely death. They 
    cannot get immediate emergency treatment there. There is no cinema hall. It is 
    only through the cable network that they can see a movie otherwise they have 
    to travel six kilometers to have a show of movie. Power cut is an important 

    feature of my village.

    I stayed for two days in our village; the second day was very boring. So long 
    I was among the relatives, I felt good. I returned to my city the third day. But 
    while returning I took a resolve to work for the improvement in the life of the 

    villagers, as I grow up.

              Adapted from:

                         /487-words-short essay-on-a-visit-to-a-village/48

     Comprehension questions 
    1. What would you say about the development of that village?
    2. Describe the home village of the writer as discussed in the passage.
    3. Do you think the environment was pleasant to the writer? Explain.
    4. According to the writer, how would you explain the challenges people 

        may face in that village?

              1.1.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY
              Vocabulary, sentence and essay writing 
           1. Using dictionaries and thesaurus, find the meaning of the 

                                             following words:



    Everybody is unique in their own way and so am I. I feel that what has had the 
    most impact on who I am today is being brought up in a God-fearing family. 
    Throughout my childhood till now, I have heavily relied on my family for support 
    in whatever decisions I make myself. My culture is based on three essential 
    tenets: good thoughts, good deeds, and good words. In line with these tenets, 
    I always try to do good things to other people and do my best in my own life 
    endeavors in order to achieve the best of results. I particularly try to do well in 
    my academics since I saw right from my childhood the many opportunities and 

    doors one can access through good education.

    Even though I am not very intelligent or highly talented, I am a very 
    hardworking person. In high school, I used to be among the last in memorizing 
    and understanding texts. While some students only needed to be taught the 
    basics of lessons in order to start understanding the concepts, it took me a lot 
    of time to understand them. This did not however bar me from always claiming 
    the first position in class and even winning the “Best Student of the Year” prize 
    on many occasions. Out of my spirit of hard work, I would sit down with my 
    books after class and carefully study all the concepts that I found challenging to 

    understand. Moreover, I would seek teachers’ help as much as I would need it.

    My humble attitude in relating with others has enabled me to earn respect 
    from everyone I interact with. In addition, I never lose hope no matter how 
    physically or mentally poor a situation might make me to be. Instead, I normally 
    make efforts to achieve my dreams by utilizing my strengths and accepting my 

    weaknesses but never giving them a chance to bring me down.

    Finally, I am blessed with a spirit that is sensitive and jumps into action 
    whenever there is need to stand up for righteousness, especially that involving 
    people. I am also hospitable to people regardless of where they come from 
    because I believe that guests bring good fortunes and the best thing to do is 
    to welcome them warmly. I may only turn hostile if the intention of the guest’s 
    visit is to harm me because even the Holy Bible teaches us to defend ourselves 

    from unjust aggression.

    Adapted from:

     Comprehension questions
    1. Explain the writer’s source of support in his or her life.
    2. Examine what makes the writer unique among other people as expressed 
        in the passage.
    3. Referring to the text, why do you think the writer could not get easily 
        discouraged in his/her life? 
    4. After reading this text, which lesson can someone learn from him/her as 

         far as people’s relationships in community are concerned?

              1.2.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY


            1.3 Talking about community daily activities


        A. Picture interpretation
    While interpreting the above pictures, respond to the following questions: 
    a. Describe what is taking place in fig 1 up to fig 4.
    b. Why do you think people need each other in the community?
    c. What is the importance of community works?
    d. Explain the following statement used by social security personnel within 
         your community: Every person is an eye of his/her colleague.
    e. Give reasons why children in our community need to be taught about 

         traffic rules and environment sustainability

           B. Text: My home city


    I was born and brought up in Kigali City. The roads are good and are connected 
    to almost every part of the country. There is a large population and there are 
    many vehicles to transport people and goods. There are many hospitals and 
    schools with very good facilities. The buildings are big, tall and amazing to look 
    at. Most of the country’s administrative offices and head offices of government 
    departments and organizations are found here.

    It is also where we find the National Bank of Rwanda and head office of the 

    University of Rwanda. There are a number of industries where people are 

    The people looking for jobs are usually more than the available jobs. Others 
    are government workers and they are paid salaries. Incomes are higher but 
    things are more expensive than in the village. Many people have piped clean 
    water supplied to their houses and electricity. Shopping is made easy by the 
    numerous supermarkets and shops found all over the city. There are also 
    various entertainment centres. People often travel using their own vehicles or 

    they use public transport such as buses or taxis. 

    Nadia is one the students studying at one of the schools located in my community. 
    She always walks on foot with her friends. At this school, children are taught 
    traffic rules. They have to be careful when crossing the road. They should look 
    both ways before they cross. There are zebra crossings for pedestrians at the 
    main roads, but not everywhere. Some learners ride their bicycles to school. If 
    they are carrying their heavy bags on their backs, it sometimes causes some 
    problems. Some travel by bus or taxi. Others are brought to school by motorcar, 
    if their parents have cars. There are very few of them. Because the school is in 
    the city, there are many services available. The school has a tuck shop. There is 
    also a café, a small supermarket, a bank and a post office near the school. The 

    bus stop is right outside the school grounds and a taxi rank is nearby. 

    Finally, my community does not only have business activities but also social 
    activities where people meet every last week-end of the month during 
    Umuganda and other social events such as weddings and burial ceremonies 

    among others.

    Adopted from English for Rwandan Schools, Student Book S5 (REB)

       Comprehension questions 
    1. Which type of community was the writer born in and brought up?
    2. How would you describe life in the city? Why do you think there is a 
        large population in the city?
    3. Explain what can make the countryside a better place to live in.
    4. In your opinion, what may cause some problems to people living in 
    5. Compare and contrast life of the city against life in rural area.
    6. What should children do when they want to cross the road?
    7. Which activities does the school neighboring community do?
    8. With examples, give reasons why it is important to participate in 

        community works.

                 1.3.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY     


            1.4 Recounting the past experience  


             Text: Princeton, Athlete (Football)
     I have learned great many things from participating in varsity football. It has 
    changed my entire outlook on and attitude toward life. Before my freshman 
    year at high-school, I was shy, had low self-esteem and turned away from 
    seemingly impossible challenges. Football has altered all of these qualities. On 
    the first day of freshman practice, the team warmed up with a game of touch 
    football. The players were split up and the game began. However, during the 
    game, I noticed that I didn’t run as hard as I could, nor did I try to evade my 

    defender and get open. 

    The fact of the matter is that I really did not want to be thrown the ball. I didn’t 
    want to be the one at fault if I dropped the ball and the play didn’t succeed. I 
    did not want the responsibility of helping the team because I was too afraid
    of making a mistake. That aspect of my character led the first years of my 
    high school life. I refrained from asking questions in class, afraid, they might 
    be considered too stupid or dumb by my classmates. All the while, I went to 

    practice and every day, I went home physically and mentally exhausted.

    Yet my apprehension prevailed as I continued to fear getting put in the game 
    in case another player was injured. I was still afraid of making mistakes and 
    getting blamed by screaming coaches and angry teammates. Sometimes these 
    fears came true. During my sophomore season, my position at backup guard 
    led me to play in the varsity games on many occasions. On such occasions, I 
    often made mistakes. Most of the time the mistakes were not significant; they 
    rarely changed the outcome of a play. Yet I received a thorough verbal lashing at 
    practice for the mistakes I had made. 

    These occurrences only compounded my fears of playing. However, I did 
    not always make mistakes. Sometimes I made great plays, for which I was 
    congratulated. Now, as I dawn on my senior year of football and am faced with 
    two starting positions, I feel like a changed person.

    Over the years, playing football has taught me what it takes to succeed. From 
    months of tough practices, I have gained a hard work ethic. From my coaches 
    and fellow teammates, I have learned to work well with others in a group, as 
    it is necessary to cooperate with teammates on the playing field. But most 
    important, I have also gained self-confidence. If I fail, it doesn’t matter if 
    they mock or ridicule me; I’ll just try again and do it better. I realize that it is 
    necessary to risk failure in order to gain success. The coaches have always said 
    before games that nothing is impossible; I know that now. Now, I welcome the 
    challenge. Whether I succeed or fail is irrelevant; it is only important that I have 

    tried and tested myself.

    Adapted from:

    /sample-essays significant-experience

         Comprehension questions
    1. How would you describe the character of the writer when he/she was in 
        high school?
    2. Why could the writer fail to get responsibilities?
    3. Evaluate what made the writer who he/she is as discussed in the passage.

    4. Which lesson did the writer learn to gain success in life?

             1.4.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY


                1.5 Language structure: Present simple tense, possessive 

                      adjectives, and reflexive pronouns

    I. The present simple tense
    The present simple tense is the most basic tense in the English language. There 
    are 7 uses of this tense in direct speech:
           a. Facts, generalizations and universal truths. 
           b. Habits and routines.
           c. Permanent situations. 
          d. Events that are certain to happen. 
          e. Arrangements that we can’t change (timetables, official meetings).
          f. State verbs (be, have, suppose, know etc.)

         g. Narrations, instructions or commentaries.

    A. Facts, generalizations and universal truths
    The present simple tense is used when talking about universal truths such 
    as laws of nature or things we believe are, or are not, true. It’s also used to 
    generalize about something or somebody.
             • Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. Universal( Truth)
             • It is a big house. (Fact)
             • The Earth goes around the Sun. (Universal truth, fact)
             • Dogs are better than cats. (Generalization)
             • Berlin is the capital city of Germany. (Fact)
             • The Elephant doesn’t fly. (Fact)
             • London is the capital city of France. (Fact)
             • Kivu lake is located in the west of Rwanda.(fact)

    B. Habits and routines
    We also use this tense to describe actions that happen frequently. For example: 
    habits, routines, tendencies.
            • We leave for work at 7:30 AM every morning. (Routine)
            • My husband watches the TV in the evening. (Habit, Routine)
            • Susan often meets with her friends after school. (Habit, Routine)
            • They usually play football on Sunday. (Habit, Routine)
            • Mark rarely visits his sick grandmother.(Tendency)
            • James usually tells lies. (Tendency)
            • Every last Saturday of the month people in Rwanda get together to 

    perform a type of community work known as “Umuganda”.(Routine)

       Adverbs of Frequency

    The Present Simple is often used with frequency adverbs including the following:


    Here are a few examples on how to use these frequency adverbs in sentences:
             • I always go to church on Sundays.
             • I never eat anything after 10 PM.

    C. Permanent situations
    The present simple tense applies for actions that last a relatively long time.
           • I live in Musanze district.
           • He works as a receptionist.
           • Margaret drives a Volkswagen.
           • Jane teaches Mathematics at high school.
           • Summer follows Spring,
           • The best time to come to Kivu beach is in the evening to see the sunset

    D. Events certain to happen
        The present simple tense is also used when an event is certain to happen in the 
            • My grandmother turns 100 years old this July.
            • Winter starts on 21 December.
            • The concert begins at 7.30 next Friday evening. 

     E. State Verbs
    Some verbs such as like, love... are called “state verbs” when they refer to “states. 
    A state action has neither beginning nor ending. It can’t be controlled and that’s 
    why it’s not normally expressed in present progressive tense.
             • I like swimming.
             • We know this man.
             • She loves her baby more than anything.
    N.B. Some of the state verbs used in the present simple tense can also appear 
    in the present continuous tense. This is typically when they have an active 
    meaning or when they emphasize change.

    • I’m thinking of moving to San Francisco.
    • I start loving your new haircut!
    There are five groups of state verbs. They refer to: (1) feelings (like, love, etc); 
    (2) thoughts/belief (think, understand, etc); (3) wants (want, prefer, etc); (4) 
    perception (see, hear, etc); (5) being/having/owning (appear, seem, belong, 

    F. Future Arrangements
    The present simple tense is used when talking about events whose schedule 
    can’t be changed (for example, an official meeting or a train departure).
            • The meeting starts at 4 PM.
            • The train leaves at noon.
            • First you weigh the ingredients.

     1. Write a paragraph about daily habits in your community with adverbs 
                of frequency. 
     2. Read the following extract and answer the question that follow 
    My sister Carol and I are very different. I really like sport, especially football, 
    but she doesn’t like it at all. Carol never eats meat but I eat it all the time. She 
    gets up early but I usually get up at about eleven. She loves classical music, and 
    I hate it! But we both use internet a lot- she sends me e-mails every day and we 
    both like dance music.
     Identify the tenses used in the above extract and give a reason why it was 
    3. Choose the correct alternative from the brackets to complete the 
         following sentences
           a. (My friend/I)____________always sleep last.
           b. You/John)___________teaches geography in all classes.
           c. __________make a lot of noise when left alone(children/ that child)
           d. Kevin and Suzan _____________well. (sing/sings) 
           e. Every child ____________a good education. (deserves/deserve)
           f. In my community, we always ____________Social community.(practice/
    4. Write ten sentences about the activities taking place in community using 
                 present simple tense. 
    5.  5. Write a paragraph talking about your roles in community development 
            using present simple tense.
    II. Possessive adjectives 
    1. Read the information about Thomas’ family and answer the questions. 


    2. Definition of adjective
    Adjectives are words that describe nouns or pronouns. Adjectives tell which 
    (this book, my book), how many (six communities), or what kind (red roses. 
    Possessive adjectives are used to show possession or ownership of something. 
    While we use them when we refer to people, it is more in the sense of relationship 
    than ownership.
    I love my community.
    Our house is big and has a pool.
    Their village is always clean and safe. 

    3. List of possessive adjectives
    They include: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their. They modify the nouns they 
    precede to show possession.
    • I’ll get my bag.
    • Is this your luggage?

    I. Fill in blank spaces with appropriate possessive adjectives:
    1) Joshua is looking for something. Where is --------- book?
    2) Ruth, this is mine. Where is ------------- bag?
    3) She goes to school alone. Why can’t she be escorted by ----------- brother?
    4) Frank works as a teacher, what about ----- father?
    5) You really like borrowing Mary’s property. Please be using...........own car 
        and leave alone .........laptop as well.
    6) We like sports very much. ---------- favorite hobby is tennis.
    7) She loves --------- husband so much. I wish I could do the same with 
    8) We want to see the match. We might come to watch it from ------------house.
    9) Leila likes this dog, she is right......eyes look innocent!
    10) What’s the name of ------------dog? My dog is called Bobby.
    II. Write a paragraph describing your school community. Remember to use 
    possessive adjectives.

    III. Reflexive pronouns



    The reflexive pronoun is used to refer back to the subject of a sentence. In this 
    case the “doer” and the “recipient” of the action are one and the same person. 
    Common examples of reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself, herself, himself, 
    itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves.

    It is formed by adding –self or –selves to personal pronouns.



                  Reflexive pronouns are often used to:

    1. Replace objects when the subject and object are the same person. 
    Example: I have really told myself not to worry about my community problems. 
    They are commonly used as object of verbs like burn, hurt, cut, enjoy, teach, 
    introduce, and look at. There are also common phrases with reflexive pronouns, 
    such as enjoy yourself (have a good time), help yourself (take something if you 
    want), and behave yourself (be good)). 
    2. Emphasise that a specific person is being referred to and nobody else. 

    Examples: I planned this workshop myself.
    3. Express emphasis (as intensive pronouns). 

    I did homework myself. (Emphasizes the fact that nobody else helped me to do 
    my homework)

    Write ten sentences using reflexive pronouns.

            1.6 Spelling and pronunciation of 3rd person verbs in 

                               present simple tense


                         1.7 END UNIT ASSESSMENT

    1. Use appropriate possessive adjectives and fill in the blanks below to 
         complete the sentences. 
    i. Where is _______ classroom? We can’t find it.
    ii. Susan, is that _______ pen on the table?
    iii. A: What is _______ name? B: My name is Thomas.
    iv. I think this is _______ book. She dropped it on the floor.
    v. _______ names are Kevin and Stewart. They are my friends.
    vi. He forgot to write _______ name on the test!
    vii. A: What is your phone number? B: _______ phone number is 555-
    viii. Did the cat eat all of _______ food? 
    ix. The children are crying because they can’t find _______ toys.
    x. Miriam and Jennifer like _______ new teacher.
    xi. I really like my new home, especially _______ location.
    xii. This is a picture of my friend. He is _______ best friend.
    xiii. Do you think your father likes _______birthday present?
    xiv. We still have twenty more minutes before _______ class begins.
    xv. Brazil is located in South America. _______ capital city is Rio de 
    xvi. When did Mr. and Mrs. Smith buy _______ new television?
    xvii. Oh no! I can’t find _______ keys! Where are they?
    xviii. A: Where is _______ brother? B: My brother is at school.
    2. Complete each of the sentences below using appropriate reflexive 
    a. My brother likes to practice his English by talking to_________________.
    b. James wasn’t careful and he cut ______________________ with a knife.
    c. My sister and I looked at ______________________ in the mirror.
    d. The repair shop was closed, so I fixed the car ______________________.
    e. Did you enjoy ___________________________ at the party last night?
    f. Cats can get clean by licking ___________________________.
    g. (A) Did the cleaners clean the house? (B) No, I did it ______________________!
    h. Mr. Smith burned ______________________ while he was cooking.
    i. He dried out ______________________ after he had taken a shower and went 
    j. Can you teach ______________________ to play the piano?
    k. My little sister dressed ___________________________. She didn’t need any 
    l. Why is your dog scratching ______________________? Does it have fleas?
    m.John and Thomas, did you ask ______________________ the question?
    n. Mrs. Brown, please help ______________________ to the cookies and drinks.
    o. I introduced ______________________ to my new classmates. 
    3. Complete these sentences using the verbs in brackets. Put the verbs in the 
         right tense. 
    a. Peter and his friends __________ to school by bus every day. (go)
    b. Elephants __________ leaves and grass. (eat)
    c. David’s father __________ in a hospital. (work)
    d. The bank opens at 9.30 and __________ at 4.30. (close)
    e. Tom and Jim always __________ football after school. (play)
    f. Mr. Jones is a teacher. He __________ History. (teach)
    g. Our lessons __________ at 9.00 and __________ at 3.30. (start / finish)
    h. Mary and her brother __________ cartoons every Sunday morning. 
    i. John __________ his room every day. (tidy)
    4. Choose the right word from the bracket to complete the sentence
        a. Franc always asks __________why English is used as a language of 
               instruction in our society. (Itself, himself)
        b. I consider ___________________to be an intelligent person in my community.
            (yourself, myself)
       c. The computer will reboot _________after the program installation.
           (himself, itself)
       d. George and Daniel drive _______to work every day. They don’t take the 
            bus.(themselves, ourselves, ) 
        e. Sarah cleans her room by ________. She never asks for help.(myself, 
           f. It is exciting for one to see _______on television.(itself, oneself )
    5. Write a 200 word composition describing one’s community activities and 
        people’s contribution in its development. Pay attention to the use of present 

         simple tense, possessive adjectives and reflexive pronouns.


        Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of leadership and 

                                                     famous people.



      Respond to the following questions: 

    1. Choose two different types of leaders you know from your 
        community and describe how they carry out their leadership. 
        Do you find their leadership styles compatible with your 
        understanding of leadership concept? Explain your answer.
    2. Evaluate different information given in the picture above and 
         identify the qualities of a good leader.
    3. On your opinion, what is a good style of leadership and why?
    4. Do you think it is important for a group of people to have a leader? 


      2.1 Talking about a famous Rwandan leader       

        Text: A famous traditional Rwanda Leader


    Kigeli IV Rwabugiri was the king of the Kingdom of Rwanda in the late 19th 
    century. He was among the last Nyiginya kings in a ruling dynasty that had 
    traced their lineage back four centuries to Gihanga, the first ‘historical’ king 
    of Rwanda whose exploits are celebrated in oral chronicles. He was the first 
    king in Rwanda’s history to come into contact with Europeans. He established 
    an army equipped with guns he obtained from Germans and prohibited most 
    foreigners, especially Arabs, from entering his kingdom.

    Rwabugiri held authority from 1853–1895. He died in September 1895, during 
    an expedition in modern day Congo, shortly after the arrival of the German 
    explorer Count Gustav Adolf von Götzen. His adopted son, Mibambwe IV 

    Rutarindwa, was proclaimed the next king.

    By the end of Rwabugiri’s rule, Rwanda was divided into a standardized 
    structure of provinces, districts, hills, and neighborhoods, administered by a 
    hierarchy of chiefs. 

    He defended the borders of the Rwandan kingdom against invading neighboring 
    kingdoms, slave traders, and Europeans. Rwabugiri was a warrior king and 
    is regarded as one of Rwanda’s most powerful kings. Some Rwandans see 
    him as the last true King of Rwanda due to the tragic assassination of his 
    successor Rutarindwa and coup by his stepmother Kanjogera who installed 
    her son Musinga. By the beginning of the 20th century, Rwanda was a unified 
    state with a centralized military structure. For his legacy, plans are underway to 
    revamp an expanse of land on a hill known as Kageyo in Ngororero district, on 
    which a palace of King Kigeri IV Rwabugiri was built in the 19 Century. This hill, 
    is a historical monument. It was also the venue where Count Von Götzen met 

    King Kigeri IV Rwabugiri towards the end of the 19 Century.

    Adopted from : Musée Royal de l’Afrique (1964). Annalen - Koninklijke Museum voor 

    Midden-Afrika, Tervuren, België. Reeks in-80. Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale. p. 473

    Comprehension questions
    1. In which century did King Kigeli IV Rwabugiri lead the Rwandan 
    2. Which dynasty was he from as described by the writer?
    3. Explain what really made Kigeli IV Rwabugiri a famous leader during his 
    4. Why is it important to leave a legacy as far as leaders are concerned?
    5. Indicate the place where king Kigeli IV Rwabugiri met Count Von Götzen 

         and when

               2.1.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY 


              2.2 Talking about leadership styles


                          Text : Leadership styles


      Leadership is one of the primary determinants as to whether an organization and 
    its personnel will be successful. In order to be a successful leader it is important 
    that an understanding of the various leadership styles is developed. Leadership 
    style has a direct impact on an organizational effectiveness and employee 
    performance. A thorough understanding of the various leadership styles 
    enables us to “develop our own approach and become a more effective leader” 
    (Malos, 2012, p. 421). Research has shown that leadership style “influences the 
    team members’ execution and performance, as well as motivates the team to 
    reach the organization’s goal(s)” (Cunningham, Salomone, & Wielgus, 2015, p. 
    28). The leadership styles researched in this paper are autocratic, democratic, 

    laissez-faire, transformational and Charismatic leadership.

    Firstly, there is a type of leadership where the leader keeps strict, close control 
    over followers by keeping close regulation of policies and procedures given to 
    followers. Indeed, within this kind of leadership, there is direct supervision in 
    order to maintain a successful leadership environment. Followers are expected 
    to be productive, and therefore authoritarian leaders endeavour to keep close 
    supervision, because of their belief that for anything to be done it requires 
    consistent supervision and follow up. Authoritarian leadership style often 
    follows the vision of those that are in control even when the decisions are not 

    agreed upon by every individual. 

    Secondly, this is a kind of style that involves the leader sharing the decision
    making process with his followers. The followers have a sense of belonging, 
    ownership and responsibility; this also promotes the interests of the group 
    members by practicing social equality. One of the main characteristics of this 
    leadership is discussion, debate and sharing of ideas and encouragement of 
    people to feel good about their involvement. Therefore, as the description 
    states, it is democratic leadership.

    Thirdly, it is where all the leaders and workers have the right and power to 
    make decisions. Laissez-faire leaders allow followers to have complete freedom 
    to make decisions concerning the completion of work and the running of the 
    community. There is a high degree of independence and self-rule, while at the 
    same time offering guidance and support when requested. The leader guides 
    with freedom, the followers are provided with all materials necessary to 
    accomplish their goals.

    Fourthly, it is a kind of leadership where the leader is not limited by his or her 
    followers’ perception, ideas or innovations. The main objective is to work to 
    change or transform his or her followers’ needs and to redirect their thinking. 
    Leaders that follow the transformation style of leading challenge and inspire
    their followers with a sense of purpose and excitement. They also create a 
    vision of what they aspire to be, and communicate this idea to others.

    Fifthly, Charismatic leadership resembles transformational leadership: both 
    types of leaders inspire and motivate their team members. The difference lies 
    in their intent. Transformational leaders want to transform their teams and 
    organisations, while leaders who rely on charisma often focus on themselves 
    and their own ambitions, and they may not want to change anything.

    Lastly by no means of least, as long as leadership styles are concerned, another 
    style is where the leader must adjust his/her style to fit the development level 
    of the followers he/she is trying to influence. With situational leadership, it 
    is up to the leader to change his/her style, not the follower to adapt to the 
    leader’s style. The style may change continually to meet the needs of others in 
    the organization based on the situation. 

    In conclusion, leadership is an integral part of human life. Leaders are evident 
    in families, in schools, in work places, in churches, in social groups, and in 
    one’s own life. Indeed, everyone must be a leader of his/her own life as he/
    she matures into an adult and makes decisions for him/herself. What makes 
    a person successful in this endeavor is his/her ability to challenge, create,
    achieve, inspire, energize, assess and ultimately decide what is best for both 
    him/herself and for his/her followers. Therefore, as there are different types 
    of leadership styles, the governing body, based on what type it is, may chose 

    management individuals with specific leadership styles to achieve their goals.

    Adapted from General studies and communication skills, S5 student book

     Comprehension questions
    1. What is the importance of leadership style according to the research, as 
        discussed in the passage?
    2. From the various types of leadership you have learnt, which one appeals 
        to you the most? Give reasons for your answer.
    3. Identify and explain three leadership styles as discussed in the passage.
    4. Think of an ideal leader, who is capable of bringing positive transformation 

         and explain the character traits that such a leader should possess.

                2.2.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY


    a. Juliet is the leader of an organization that provides computer services. She 
    has realized that there is a problem with the way they advertise their business. 
    Sitting at her desk, she lists some approaches they can take to improve their 
    communications. She then tells the other employees what they need to do 
    without asking for anyone else’s ideas. 

    b. Judith is the manager of a catering service called Best Bakery. They have been 
    asked to prepare cakes for an upcoming wedding of the daughter of a political 
    leader. She decides that coconut cakes will be the best and calls the staff 
    together to discuss the order. She informs them of the order and then launches 
    into a speech about all the advantages of making coconut cake. Others express 
    an interest in making vanilla cakes but in the end, Viviane convinces them that 
    coconut is best.

    c. David is the owner of a successful auto mechanic workshop. A customer has 
    brought a vehicle in that has multiple problems. He asks his team to assess the 
    problems and get back to him with possible solutions. A few hours later they 
    have a meeting to discuss what they have found and what they propose. They 

    have a discussion, John gives some advice and the team begins to repair.

    d. Joy runs a tailoring business in town. He has 5 employees. With an upcoming 
    holiday, they have many orders to fulfill. She gathers all the employees to 
    get their opinions on how to best manage the process so they can meet the 
    deadlines. In the end, they decide together to divide tasks amongst themselves. 
    Joy and two others were tasked with cutting and shaping the cloth while the 
    other tailors would do the sewing. In the end they managed to keep all of their 
    customers satisfied. Jimmy is one of the leading members of the community 
    youth association in a rural area. Following the illness of several community 
    members, she decided it was necessary for community members to have better 
    access to potable water. During weekly youth association meetings, she shared 
    her vision and got others interested in resolving the problem. Together they 
    researched different possibilities such as working with local government 
    offices to mobilize resources to install a borehole (pipe drilled down to access 
    clean water). During their association meetings, Jimmy always recognized the 
    effort each individual was making. Eventually the youth were able to mobilize 
    the resources necessary to access clean water. The youth and the community 
    members were all inspired by her commitment and hard work to make it 


                  Extracted from: Entrepreneurship Student’s Book for Senior Five

    1. Describe the leadership styles applied in the scenario and give reasons 
         to support your answers.
    2. Justify whether they were the most appropriate styles to apply or not. 

        Support your answers with clear facts.

    II. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the missing meanings of the 
    words/phrases and pronunciation in the table below. Copy the table into your 

    book and fill in the blank spaces.


    III. Debate the following motion: “a good leader is born, not made.”
    IV. Use the following words as they are used in the passage to make sentences.
         c) influences
         d) strict
         e) authoritarian 
         f) democratic 
         g) Charismatic
         h) Inspire 
         i) Aspire

              2.3 Giving opinion on leaders


                   Text: Qualities of a good leader


    No one denies the fact that a good leader should have some positive features no 
    matter which community he/she comes from. Leaders are important parts of 
    any community; so they all require some special attributes and skills. As for me, 
    the most important characteristics are as fallows:

    First, leaders should be good decision makers; they should be able to make 
    their minds the best way possible in a short period of time and on the spur
    of moment they should decide about various issues. For example a leader of 
    country should have the ability to take the best and efficient decision during a 
    limited time, regarding ratifying or declining a specific law.

    Second, leaders should have a wide spectrum of information related to their 
    task’s area; without having fundamental and up to date true information in the 
    related context, they can’t make decisions, accretion and unity and many other 
    works. They should stay abreast of different issues related to them and their 


    Thirdly, leaders should be reliable, prudent, wise and responsible. These 
    features are also of importance and attention for a leader who has a vital 
    role in the fate and destiny of the community. They should act in a way that 
    attracts people’s trust and reliance; they should be mature enough not to act 
    on their whims, to anticipate the intended and unintended consequences of 
    their decisions, not to be indifferent and carefree about their tasks, not to be lax 
    and irresponsible. They should be aware of their duties and encourage other 
    people to work efficiently to achieve the common goals and aims of community. 
    For instance, a leader who doesn’t do their duties well and is apathetic about 
    the community and goals can’t ask other people to work and cooperate to gain 
    their goals.

    To put it in a nutshell, I’m of the opinion that leading others requires leadership 
    qualities and skills and it’s not easy to be a good and successful leader. Good 
    and competent leaders should enjoy many characteristics and traits because 

    the destiny, success and prosperity of the community all are related to them.

    Adapted from: ;


    Comprehension questions
    1. Explain why good leaders should possess the qualities of good decision 
    2. What makes a good leader according to the author?
    3. Explain the importance of good leadership in socio-economic 
    4. How would you predict the challenges a society with a bad leader can 




                    2.4 Talking about famous persons in modern Rwanda


    Text: The Leadership of President Paul Kagame
    I am a Kenyan who worked in Rwanda for about three years from 2004 to 2008 
    but I consider Rwanda as my second home. I am proud to be associated with 
    Rwanda. During my stay there, Rwanda was going through one of the most rapid 
    developments to transform itself in all sectors. This was due to the leadership 
    of President Paul Kagame, which is one of the most progressive and dynamic 
    leadership in the world. Did I say that Rwanda has the most progressive and 
    dynamic leadership in the world? Yes, and it is not by mistake!

    President Kagame has been and still is one of the greatest political leaders in 
    the world today in terms of vision, leadership, compassion, personal integrity 
    and magnanimity. He is on a daily basis overly concerned about small issues in 
    a village while at the same time providing the voice of reason in a tumultuous 
    Central and East African region in addition to charting new grounds on world 
    leadership at global forums such as the great speeches that have made him 
    famous all over the world.

    He has had the power but, like Nelson Mandela, he did not and does not misuse 
    such power to revenge on those who did untold injustice to him, his family and 
    his country women and men. I read New Times almost every day since I left 
    Rwanda two years ago. I am amazed by the heartwarming stories that I read as 
    compared to newspapers in Kenya, Uganda or SA that are full of heartrending
    stories of crime, political intrigues and corruption.

    I hope Rwandans wherever they are have learned valuable lessons in history: 
    that we must praise and treasure good leaders when they are at it not when 
    they leave office or after they die. I have always told my friends everywhere that 
    President Kagame is the class of Nelson Mandela, Mahtma Gandhi and George 
    Washington and that Rwandans are lucky to have him. I wish he could become 
    the president of EA or Africa at large. 

    Many people visiting Rwanda , they might really have many choices but choosing 
    Rwanda - they know they are safe in a clean environment in a country that 
    makes everyone feel at home the first day, and every day), Rwanda can teach all 
    other countries in the world different lessons. From the above achievements, 
    we can affirm that good leadership remains the main cornerstone of sustainable 
    development; and has undoubtedly been the force powering Rwanda’s rapid 
    growth and transformation into a dignified nation.

    In a nutshell, based on Rwanda’s experience, it is clear that good governance 
    stems from the commitment of leaders to the values of servant-leadership and 
    accountability, exercised with consistency and excellence. It also requires the 
    ingenuity of leaders at all levels to shape meaningful citizen-centered home
    grown solutions and the participation of citizens in tackling local problems, 
    thus ensuring the current growth rates are sustainable.

    Adapted from New times: Published: June 20, 2010

        Comprehension questions 
    1. Who is talking in the story and how does he/she consider Rwanda?
    2. What makes his excellence Paul Kagame famous according to the writer? 
    3. To whom did the writer compare the president of Rwanda? Why?
    4. Explain why the writer affirms that good leadership is a cornerstone to 
         sustainable development.
    5. Why do you think leaders are servants of the people?

    6. Based on the writer’s views, which conclusions can you draw?

                     2.4.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY 


                2.5 Language structure: Past simple tense and Wh-clauses

    Fill in gaps within the following paragraph using verbs in brackets. Put these 
    verbs in the right tense.
    Last Saturday, we (a) ----------------- (visit) a big art gallery in New York. We (b) 
    ---------------- (come) by bus. The bus (c) ------------------- (park)-near a park. 
    We (d) ----------------- (go) through the park to the museum. In the gallery we 
    (e) ---------------------- (look) at a lot of paintings and drawings. After that, we 

    (f) ----------------(write) our favorite painting in our notebooks. On Sunday 

    morning, I (g) ---------------------(go) in bed late. I was tired! In the afternoon, I 

    heart --------------------(see)--a picture for my mom. I (i) ---------------- (get) lots of 

    different colors. My mom was happy.

    This tense is usually used to:
    • describe events completed in the past at time indicated by such adverbs 
        of time as yesterday, ago, last month, last week and last year.

    a. Some famous African leaders like Nelson Mandela and Mahtma Gandhi 
    died many years ago.
    b. You didn’t call last night! 
    c. She went to Paris three years ago.
    d. Adam arrived in London a week ago.
    • express habits in the past

    a. John went to the park every evening.
    b. She sang at parties regularly.
    Such past habits are usually described in simple past with adverbs
     of frequency 
    like: always, never, frequently, sometimes, generally,…
    • express actions that happened over a long time in the past

    a. The poor boy struggled and became rich.
    b. The thieves grew into a big dacoit(a band of armed robbers)
    • The simple past is also used after conditional phrases such as if only, as 
       if, as though, wish, etc.

    a. If only I were rich, people could see what I’m capable of.
    b. He spoke to me as if he were my boss.
    c. I wish I had wings then I would fly far away.
    Spelling of regular verbs in past simple tense.
    a. Verbs that end with y letter, y is replaced by letter i followed by ed: 

    carry - carried, study - studied, fry - fried, try – tried 
    b. A one syllable regular verb that ends with a consonant, the consonant is 
    doubled and followed by ed. 

    Stop - stopped, plan - planned, rob - robbed, beg – begged 
    d. If a regular verb has more than one syllable and ends with a consonant, the 
    past simple tense is formed by doubling the final consonant and adding ed only 
    if the final syllable is stressed.

    prefer - preferred, regret – regretted 
    e. Exception: 
    In British English verbs ending in -l have -ll before -ed whether the final syllable 
    is stressed or not. 
    Example: travel – travelled 

    Use the correct past simple tense of the verb in brackets. 
        a. Ndabaga is famous in Rwanda because she (become) a warrior. 
        b. King Kigeri IV (extend) the boundaries of the kingdom during his rule. 
        c. He (prevent) any Rwandans from being captured as slaves. 
        d. Mao-Tse-Tung (be) the leader of the Chinese Communist party. 
        e. Julius Nyerere (form) a strong, modern Tanzania during his term in office. 
        f. Nelson Mandela (fight) against apartheid in South Africa. 
        g. He (show) that it was possible to bring about reconciliation in a country. 
         h. Agathe Uwiringiyimana (be) the first female prime minister. 
         i. She and her family (be) executed during the Genocide. 
        j. People believe that colonialists (assassinate) King Mutara III on his way 
            to hospital for treatment. 

             2. WH-word clauses


    An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask 
    a question, such as what, when, where, who, which, whom, whose, why, 
    and how. They are sometimes called wh-words, because in English most 
    of them start with wh- (compare five Ws). They may be used in both direct 
    questions: (Where is he going?) and in indirect questions (I wonder where he 
    is going). In English and various other languages the same forms are also used 
    as relative pronouns in certain relative clauses (The country where he was 
    born) and certain adverb clauses (I go where he goes).

    WH-word clauses get their name from the fact that most of the words that 
    introduce them begin with the letters wh. There are ten WH-words. Six of them 
    are pronouns; four are adverbs:
             • The pronouns are who, whose, whom, which, what, that.
             • The adverbs are: where, when, why, how.

    Who was the first black president to lead South Africa?
    What are the characteristics of a good leader?
    Who is the president of the republic of Rwanda?
    Who among prominent leaders inspire you the most in Rwanda?

    Wh-words are used to ask about specific qualities, times, places, people and so 
    on. The question word is used at the beginning. If there is a helping (auxiliary) 
    verb that precedes the main verb (for example: can, is, are, was, were, will, 
    would...), we add the question word and invert the subject and the helping 
    (auxiliary) verb. Below is table showing a list of question words and example 




    Choose the correct word from Which, why, who, what, how to complete the 
    blank spaces.
    1. I don’t know……………………..jacket to choose!
    2. Do you know………………….I am?
    3. Richard will know……………………to do.
    4. I wonder…………………she’s doing here.
    5. Can you show us……………………to do it?
    6. I don’t know…………………..I didn’t think of it before!
    7. Do you know……………………….actors will be at the premiere?

    8. I’d like to learn ........................................ to be successful.

            2.6 END UNIT ASSESSMENT

    I. Complete the story below with appropriate tense of the verbs in blackest. 
    Kamaliza Divine is a leader in Imbuto foundation, she has been sick in the 
    hospital for two months. Her friend Joy….2… (go) to see her yesterday. She 
    … …….3…… (take) plenty of fruits with her. When she ……4…… (arrive) at 
    the hospital, she ……. 5… (find) that Joy……. …….6……. (leave) the hospital 
    the previous day.
    Kamaliza…………..7……. (not know) what to do with the fruits, and she 
    ………….(think) of throwing them all away but later, she ………..9…..(change) 
    her mind. The fruits…….10 ……. (cost) her a lot of money. Eventually, she 
    … ….11……. (decide) to give them to a poor patient. She … ….12…….(go) 
    home happy, knowing that she ……13……(do) the right thing. As famous 
    leader in her community, journalists also……….14…..(come) to see her but 
    unfortunately ……15….(find)…her.
    II. Choose the right word to complete the following sentences 
    1. Ann brought (a new dictionary). Question: What did Ann buy? Noun 
    Clause: Do you know ___________________?
    A. What Ann buy.
    B. What Ann bought.
    C. What did Ann buy.
    D. What did Ann bought.
    2. It is (350 miles) to Denver from here. Question: How far is it from here 
          to Denver? Noun Clause: I need to know _____________________________
    A. How far it is from Denver to here.
    B. How far it is from here to Denver?
    C. How far is it from here to Denver.
    D. How far it is from here to Denver.
    III. Write an essay describing the qualities of a famous leader from your 

          community. Pay attention to the use of past simple tense and wh-clauses. 


          Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of living in a 

            foreign country.


    Listening to a short story about living in a foreign country. 
     Roger’s story

    Roger is a Rwandan who lives in South Africa. He has been living there 
    for two years and a half. Initially, it wasn’t easy for him to cope with this 
    new life, environment and culture. He spent two months feeling lonely 
    but later was able to cope with most of these things with the help he got 
    from his classmates at the University of Pretoria. He says he still feels 
    homesick and somehow lost in spite of all the two years he has spent 
     Answer these questions: 
    1. What are the challenges is this person encountering? Why? 
    2. What do you think Roger should do to cope with life in the foreign 
    3. What advantages could be there for a person to live in a foreign 


                          3.1 Personal recent activities     



              Text: A life story 
    I have been living in France for six months and have been staying with Maria, 
    my cousin, and Patrick my half -brother. Recently, it has snowed in the north 
    of France. Maria and I have loved visiting France and some other European 
    countries for so long. We have only visited three African countries: Kenya, 
    Ghana and Zambia and have learnt many things. 

    Maria and I have never seen the snow. We have been dreaming of visiting France 
    since many years ago. We are now in Northern France. We have just put on our 
    warm clothes and snow boots because it is very cold in the North of France. We 
    have undertaken our walk up the hill. We have already made the decision to 
    move with Patrick, our new friend. We have been planning this walk together 

    for three days.

     Maria, Patrick and I have just reached the top. We are exhausted because we 
    have been walking since eight o’clock. Maria has read an adventure story that 
    she has in her bag, and she feels more and more excited by the new discoveries 
    related to what is in her book. However, it is so cold that we have left the snow 
    without having quenched our curiosity. Maria has written the most important 
    information in her diary. She holds Patrick’s hand and we head back home. We 

    are living in Nantes, near the Atlantic Ocean.

    Text adapted from https://

         Comprehension questions
    Which country is now fascinating for Mary and the narrator?
    1. How is the weather when Maria, Patrick and the narrator undertake 
        their adventure walk?
    2. How long have Maria and the narrator been planning their walk?
    3. Was the three children’s curiosity satisfied? Why?
    4. What has Maria done so as to remember that day in future?

    5. What can we learn from the text?

           3.1.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY   

    Vocabulary, sentence and letter writing
    1. By means of dictionary or thesaurus, find the meaning and 
              pronunciation of the words or phrases below:
        (a) Undertaken, (b) snow boots, (c) adventure story, (d) quenched, 
        (e) inquisitive mind
    2. Make correct sentences with the above words.
    3. Write a letter to your friend staying in a foreign country. In the 

         letter, include your recent activities.

           3.2 Talking about possibilities


               Text: A letter
    Read the following letter and answer the questions which follow.
                                                                                              Riverside Community College
                                                                                             Fen Place
                                                                                              CB3 OYZ
                                                                                              United Kingdom
                                                                                                March 1st, 2019
    Ms. Elisabeth
    Deputy Headteacher 
    FAWE Girls’ School
    P.O. Box 5001


    Dear Ms. Elisabeth,
    RE: Proposed visit to fawe girls’ school
    Thank you for your letter. I am very pleased that you are happy for a party of 
    twelve Year 10 students from Riverside, accompanied by Mr. Fred Smith and 
    myself, to visit your school. It is a wonderful opportunity for us and I hope both 
    our schools will benefit from our visit. It is an important chance for us to foster 
    the links between us.

    As I mentioned in my previous letter, we hope to come at the end of June for 
    a period of two weeks and we might stay the nights in your school. We have 
    looked into suitable dates and available flights and we would like to propose 
    that we arrive on Sunday 11th June and leave on Saturday 24th June. 

    You mentioned that food could be provided for us in a local guest house, which 
    is a very good idea. Please could you let me know the name, address and 
    telephone number of the guest house so that we can make arrangements or 

    agree with them upon any booking?

    I would be very grateful if you could also give me some ideas for our programme. 
    We wish that we might attend some of your classes if possible. Perhaps you 
    could suggest other suitable events in which students from both schools could 
    participate, such as sports matches or cultural event. The students could also 
    be involved in some practical work such as gardening. We may even visit 
    some tourist destinations in your area. We can hire a bus for that purpose. In 
    addition, would it be possible for the students to visit the homes of some of 
    your students? 

    These are some possibilities, but please let me know if you think they are really 
    suitable and if you have any other suggestions. We would like to draw up the 
    programme and make any necessary arrangements before our departure on 
    how things are going. There are many arrangements for us to make at this end 

    and I will let you know for their programmes?

    I look forward to hearing from you soon.
    Yours sincerely, 
    Alison Clark (Mrs)

    Head of Year 10

     Comprehension questions
    1. Is this the first time Mrs. Clark has written to Ms. Elisabeth?
    2. What is the main purpose of this letter? Choose the best answer.
           a. To confirm that Riverside is going to Butare.
           b. To ask Ms. Elisabeth for help in the planning of the trip.
           c. To tell Ms. Elisabeth what the Riverside group is going to do in Butare.
           d. To ask Ms. Elisabeth to make arrangements for them.
    3. How long is the Riverside group going to stay in Butare?

    4. What suggestions does Mrs. Clark make?

                  3.2.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY
    Vocabulary, sentence writing and discussion
    1. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions. 
    If necessary, use a dictionary to help you. 
    (a) Guest house, (b) booking, (c) flights, (d) hire, (e) suitable
    2. Use these words to write your own sentences.

    3. Write your own dialogues whereby you will use possibilities.

               3.3 Describing plans

    Text: A dialogue 
    Read this conversation and answer the questions that follow.
    Mother and James
    Mother: James! Are you out of bed yet?
    James: Yes, mother.
    Mother: What are you intending to do next weekend?
    James: Next weekend, I’m going to visit my aunt in Kayonza. She said she longs 
    to see me.
    Mother: But your father wanted you to accompany him to Butare. He’s sick, you 
    know well.
    James: Ok! I’m going to talk to my aunt and postpone my visit. I must first look 
    after my dad before going anywhere else.

    Mother: Thanks a lot my dear son.

            Comprehension questions
    1. What is James’ plan for the next weekend?
    2. Why must James postpone his visit to his aunt?

    3. What do you learn from James?

       Vocabulary, sentence and essay writing
    1. Explain the meaning of the following words:
    (a) Look after, (b) postpone, (c) longs
    2. Use these words to create your own sentences.

    3. Write an essay describing your future plans.

                 3.4. Future activities 


               Text: Emile talks about his future 
    The Rwandan Malaysia-based student has recently spoken to The Edge Malaysia 
    Weekly’s reporter that he believes in his plans to visit strong companies and 
    become a great entrepreneur or business man abroad. In the interview The 
    Edge Malaysia weekly, Emile talks about his plans: he will be visiting strong 

    companies because of the latest information he got about them. 

    When asked about current situation after studies, Emile recognises that the 
    only way to succeed is placing business ahead of anything else. He said,’ Now 
    that I’ve completed my studies in Malaysia, I want to keep moving and working 
    harder. I got the opportunity to attend some businesses conferences and they 
    inspired me a great deal; from next year, I will be travelling across different 
    countries and see how my dreams of becoming one of the most successful 

    people may be fulfilled.’

    When asked about opportunities and practicability, he said, “Where there is a 
    will there is a way”. Initially, I have got an idea. Secondly, I’ve made new friends 
    among entrepreneurs who promised to offer me whatsoever I might need in 
    order to succeed. Some are from South Korea, one is from China, and three 
    come from Saudi Arabia. Firstly I am visiting Saudi Arabia at the very beginning 
    of January and see how my new friends’ companies are operating.

    Earlier this year, Emile made the decision after having heard the speeches 
    of strong people on self –employment. He said,” I’ m going to undertake my 
    second tour in South Korea, probably in March to study more about my business 

    When asked whether he would like to deal with business in Rwanda, he said, 
    “When I am back from South Korea, I will immediately start my business in 
    Rwanda. I am keen on staying there longer, though it may not be possible. But 
    it’ll be my pride to have my company running there in my home land. By the 
    end of the second year, I shall have known whether to extend it into the region 
    or elsewhere”.

    He was asked if he has some faithful friends whom he would like to work with, 
    and he replied, “I have been living in Malaysia for five years. Of course, I have 
    made new but trustworthy friends, who are willing to guide me. I think I will 
    be working with them in the course of the first year of my company. After this 
    period, I am going to work in collaboration with my two brothers, only”.

     About the company’s name, Emile said, “I have been thinking of ‘Special 
    multipurpose computer I hope I will be successful and give 

    my contribution in creating jobs”.

           Text adapted from www. learning future. com

     Comprehension questions
    1. What does Emile want to embark on after his studies in Malaysia?
    2. Which countries will Emile be visiting in the forthcoming year?
    3. Where there is a will, there is a way. What does this English proverb 
         imply in relation with Emile’s decision?
    4. Where will Emile let his company initially run from?

    5. What do you learn from this text?

               3.4.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITIES 
         Vocabulary, sentence and essay writing 
    1. Explain the words and expressions used in the text. In case of 
        necessity, check the dictionary.
      (a) Fulfilled, (b) whatsoever, (c) be keen on, (d) pride, (e) 
    2. Use the above words in your own sentences.

    3. Write a 200 essay about your future activities.

              3.5 Comparing cultures


    Text: Cultural comparison
    In trying to compare cultures one has first to establish some working definition 
    of culture. There is a Chinese proverb which says that “The fish did not discover 
    water.” Similarly no one discovers culture by staying at home. It so intimately 
    shapes our lives that we only become aware of it under special circumstances, 
    when we encounter difference. Experiencing culture happens in the plural; we 
    experience cultures. We are not aware of the first until we have experienced 
    the second. Culture begins to lose its invisibility when we become aware that 
    there are many other ways of fulfilling the basic needs of human lives and of 

    interpreting human.

    Not only are there different cultures but some are more different than others. 
    The profounder the differences encountered in another culture, the deeper 
    the perspective one can gain on one’s own. My experience in China revealed 
    ways in which my own resembled the European ones I had previously found 
    so different. For example, in my own experience I encountered an interesting 
    case of cultural differences when I was working on a woman’s studies project. 
    In the United States feminists were complaining that the marriage ceremony 
    discriminated against men because the new couple was pronounced man and 
    wife. The woman was thereby “denatured” in some way by being shifted into 
    a social role whereas the man retained his essential and primary identity. In 
    France feminists were having similar complaints even though the French 
    marriage ceremony pronounces the couple,” husband and woman”. Complaints 
    were still abundant, however, this time that the man was being given a fuller, 
    more differentiated social identity whereas the woman was stuck in her original 
    natural identity. The obvious point to be made from this comparison was that 
    the idea of “nature” is itself not only subject to definition but to value judgments.

    Looking back at this after a year in China, I am impressed not only with the 
    differences in outlook between the French and American women but also with 
    what they share when compared to Chinese women. American and French 
    women reveal different cultural orientations within Western civilization. Both, 
    however, have had to fight for their rights whereas in China social legislation of 
    the fifties immediately established equality between the sexes. When jobs were 
    distributed by the government there was never a question of discrimination 
    in employment. In an attempt to overcompensate for past discrimination, 
    the government provided maternity benefits for new mothers which are 
    very generous with leaves ranging from six months to six years. With such a 
    background Chinese women were shocked at certain consequences of recent 
    economic reforms of the late Deng period. When obliged to make a profit, 
    work units resisted becoming responsible for the cost of having women among 
    their employees. Whereas such discrimination is the point of departure from 
    which occidental women must struggle for better conditions, women in China 
    assumed equality to be the given status quo. What we saw in the responses 
    of both the French and American women to the marriage ceremonies was a 
    critical habit of mind born of constant struggle for one’s rights.

    Both language and culture claim special reality for what they carve out as 
    significant, as “natural” even. What can be more “natural” than marriage 
    and reproduction of the species, which is nonetheless filtered through very 
    culture-bound ceremony. Living within our native culture typically takes place 
    unselfconsciously rather like the way we use our native language as described 
    by A. Robert Ramsey: ...speaking a language does not make the user consciously 
    aware of its sounds. Language is like the air we breathe. We go about our daily 
    lives articulating thousands of words without once thinking about what we are 
    doing or how we do it. ... How many Americans, for example, know that they 

    usually pronounce where and wear exactly the same way?

    We become aware of our language when we step out of habitual uses for a 
    time, for example, when we study the way others use their language. Similarly 
    to become aware of our own culture most readily we need to encounter that 
    of someone else. To become aware of what related Western cultures have in 
    common it is useful to move into radically different ones arising in the East.
    Language, however, especially written language, is easily abstracted from 
    culture. While language can readily be made visible, culture remains invisibly 
    embedded in human minds. The English used in England is quite similar to 
    that used in the United States yet the two cultures remain distinct; in fact each 
    has within it many subcultures, all of which are English- speaking. Again China 
    provides an interesting point of contrast. There a vast nation of 1.1 billion 
    people, who speak many dialects, share a common written language, which, 
    because it is not phonetic, can be pronounced according to local patterns.

    The relation between language and culture as well as an entry into cultural 
    diversity can be seen in proverbs. In teaching English I have frequently used 
    proverbs in a variety of activities because they are densely laden with cultural 
    assumptions. Within its culture of origin the meaning of a proverb may be 
    considered too obvious to need explanation. In other contexts the lack of 
    any commonly accepted authority may make traditional sayings seem highly

    Within their culture of origin proverbs are often used to “end” conversation 
    insofar as they are shared expressions of value which are beyond questioning. 
    In addition in some cultures they make little attempt to refer to an external 
    world beyond that of shared stories. For example, “old ‘Cai’ lost his horse, good 
    or bad” is loose translation of a Chinese proverb which refers in shorthand 
    form to a lengthy story of the many consequences, both positive and negative, 
    of the simple fact that old ‘Cai’, here used as a name but meaning in Chinese 
    someone living in a rural area, lost his horse. For example, the loss of the horse 
    was an immediate regret, but without a horse he could not serve in the army 
    and risk death. The words “Old Cai lost his horse, good or bad” are simple and 
    understandable to anyone with the slightest notion of English, yet their meaning 
    is opaque because of the invisible cultural material that remains unspoken 

    between the lines.

    Traditional Chinese proverbs have four characters; in this case, the more 
    or less literal meaning would be “rural person lost horse.” However these 
    characters may be pronounced in different regions, the proverb remains a 
    vehicle for Chinese culture. The Chinese students from all over China who told 
    me this proverb at first were not aware that I could not understand it without 
    explanation. As a result of the encounter they gained an awareness not only 
    of their own culture but of culture in general. They lost a certain unthinking 
    automaticity which characterized the way in which they told me the proverb in 
    the first place as something everyone would, of course, know.

    Such experiences make clear the disjunction between culture and language. 
    The words were all clear and familiar but the meaning they had depended on a 
    cultural context only partially accessible through words. When I recounted this 
    experience to students in Switzerland, they assumed that my Chinese students 
    were intentionally recounting such a proverb in revenge for Americanisms I had 
    imposed on them. Such an interpretation reflects their own cultural inclinations 
    which pit student against teacher in a way different from an American’s need to 
    strike out individually and from the close and enduring bonds I encountered in 
    China between student and teacher.

    A tragic example of the working of cultural stereotypes, which can easily 
    change the meanings of familiar vocabulary, can be found in the student 
    demonstrations at Tiananmen in Beijing in June 1989. Students were aware 
    that their government would like to discredit their movement by attributing it 
    to foreign influence. They built a large statue of a woman in traditional Chinese 
    dress holding a torch with both hands and called it the Goddess of Democracy, 
    a goddess even the Greeks did not think of. Yet media men, through easy 
    association called it the Statue of Liberty, thereby playing into the hands of the 

    government while they thought they were supporting the students.

       Text extracted from Robert Ramsey, The language of China, 1987, p.11-12

          Comprehension questions
    1. According to the writer, what do you understand by this assertion: “we 
         experience cultures”.
    2. Compare cultures in China with cultures in Europe.
    3. What were women complaining about in France?
    4. What are the similarities between French and Chinese cultures?

    5. What is the relationship between language and culture?

             3.5.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITIES 
    Vocabulary, sentence and composition writing
    1. Find the meaning of the following words and expressions and 
         (a) Circumstances, (b) encounter, (c) carve out, (d) culture-bound, 
         (e) dialects, 
          (f) ambiguous
    2. Use these words to make your own sentences.
    3. Write a composition comparing the Rwandan customs with the 

         foreign ones.

            3.6 Describing culture

     Text: The culture description

    Culture is collective and common shared ideas, values, and traditions of a group 
    or society. These ideas, values, and traditions can range from food to music, 
    from religion to restaurant etiquette. There are many different aspects that 
    define a culture and the best way to recognize how many different aspects are 
    within a culture is to immerse yourself within an entirely different culture in 
    a different part of the world. Then you’ll be able to see how every little aspect 
    about your daily life is different somewhere else and is treated as the norm in 
    that location.

    Cultural differences are where the aspects in culture don’t agree or match with 
    another. For example, the food in one country can be either very similar in some 
    parts or very different. In America, I rarely ate fish as my source of protein. Fish 
    and seafood are generally treated more of a restaurant style food, but now I’m 
    living in Japan where fish is one of the biggest sources of protein. While the 
    fish here in Japan is incredibly delicious, not having chicken or beef as often is 
    definitely a different experience. Even how McDonald’s is treated and enjoyed 
    in America is very different than Japan.

    Cultural differences are strictly that, just differences. This doesn’t mean that any 
    culture is more correct or incorrect. They’re strictly different in the same style 
    that you might prefer one style of music because you grew up with parents who 
    loved classic rock opposed to your friend whose parents partook in Jazz band 

    as children and shared their music tastes with their child when growing up. 

                Text Adapted from Riley Jones, Education and Culture, Anc. 1998

    Comprehension questions
    1. How would you describe your culture?
    2. What are cultural differences?
    3. What is the difference between cultural similarities and cultural 
    4. Name and describe some cultures.
    5. Why do cultures differ?

    6. What is the difference between culture and cultural?

              3.6.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITIES
    Vocabulary, sentences writing and debate
    1. Explain the following words. Use a dictionary.
        (a) Etiquette, (b) immerse (c) oneself, (d) jazz
    2. Use the above words to write your own sentences
    3. Debate on the following motion: “Some cultures are better than 


                   3.7 Talking about emotions


    Text: A letter
    Read the following letter and answer the questions that follow.
    Bujumbura City
    Lycee Ngagara
    Senior 5 Modern Sciences 
    March 01, 2019

    Dear Mom
    It’s been a while since I’ve heard from you. How have you been? I hope this 
    letter finds you in the best of your health. I am really homesick and nostalgic. 
    But I often meet some Rwandan immigrants in the city. How is dad?

    As summer is approaching, I was thinking if we could spend the summer break 
    together in Kigali for I know you want to visit there, too. I will introduce you to 
    all my friends and close relatives. I will show you my new friend, Kelly, as well. 
    We will spend some quality time in the afternoons visiting my cousins. But will 
    you accept to leave father?

    I am excited even at the thought of you and I spending summer holidays together 
    after so long. I have to tell you a lot of things from Bujumbura and expect the 
    same from you. Give my regards to aunty and uncle and my little brothers and 
    sisters. How shall I get my travel fare?

    Hope to see you soon.
    Yours lovingly


        Comprehension questions
    1. Who wrote this letter?
    2. Where is the sender studying?
    3. What is the purpose of the letter?
    4. Will the sender go home in the forthcoming Summer?
    5. What type of letter is it? Explain.

        Vocabulary, sentence writing and discussion
    1. Give the meaning of the following words: 
         (a) homesick, (b) nostalgic, (c) immigrant.
    2. Use the above words in your own sentences.

    3. Discuss the pros and cons of living abroad.

          Notes on vocabulary
    1. immigrant:
       i. a person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence
       ii. a plant or animal that becomes established in an area where it was previously 
    2. Currency:
    A currency, in the most specific sense is money in any form when in use or 
    circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and 
    coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money in 
    common use, especially for people in a nation. Under this definition falls U.S. 
    dollars (US$), pounds sterling (£), etc.
    3. Homesick:
         Missing one’s home and family very much when home away.
    4. Nostalgic: 
        Feeling happy and slightly sad when you think about things that happened in 
         the past.
    5. Fare: 

        Money paid for a journey, on bus, train, etc.

     6. Booking: 
    Making an arrangement or reservation, with the hotel or any other company so 

    as to help you get something in advance, such as a room, ticket, etc.    

            3.8 Language structure: Present perfect, present perfect 

                                    continuous, adjectives 

    I. Present Perfect

    The present perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past. 
    The time of the action is not now but not specified. By using it, we are more 
    interested in the result than the action itself. 

    • We haven’t seen her today (one of the results of the action of not seeing 
       her that the speaker is interested in conveying can be: we don’t know 
       where she is now or she is no longer the member of ours among others 
    • He has finished his work. (so he can now rest)
        In brief, the present perfect is used for:
    a. Actions which happened at an indefinite (unknown) time before now.

    • I have already had breakfast.
    • He has been to England.
    b. Actions in the past which have an effect on the present moments

    • He has finished his work. (so he can now rest)
    • I have already eaten the dinner. (so I›m not hungry)
    • He has had a car accident. (that›s why he is in the hospital)

    c. Actions which began in the past and continue in the present

    • Mary has worked as a teacher for over 25 years.
    • Patrick has achieved a lot in his life.
    d. Actions that give new information or announce a recent happening

    • The road is closed. There has been an accident.
    • He is not eating. He has lost appetite. 
    1. The present perfect tense doesn’t require adverbs of time like yesterday, a 
         week ago, last year, etc.
    2. When talking about a starting point of an action the present perfect is used 
         with since and for.

    • I have lived here for 20 years.

    • I have lived here since 1960.

          2. Present perfect progressive tense
    The present perfect continuous (also called present perfect progressive) is a 
    verb tense which is used to show that an action started in the past and has 
    continued up to the present moment. The present perfect continuous usually 
    put emphasis on duration or amount of time that an action has taken. 

                The present perfect progressive tense is formed as follows:  


    It is used for:
    a. Actions that started in the past and continue in the present
    • He has been painting the house for 5 hours. He’s still painting it
    • I have been working as a fireman since 1973. I still work as a fireman

    b. Actions that have recently stopped
    • I have been waiting for you for half an hour! I›m not waiting anymore 
    because you have come
    • Look at her eyes! I’m sure she has been crying. She stopped crying 
      when she saw them

    c. Temporary actions and situations
    • I have been living in Boston for two months.
    • I have been working as a waitress for the last two weeks.
    a. Adverb of time for is used with the present perfect continuous tense to 
    determine the period of time in which the action took place.
    Example: I have been living here for 20 years.

    b. Adverb of time since is used with the present perfect continuous tense to 
    specify a starting point in time.
    Example: I have been living here since 1960.

    3. Adjectives
    An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun by providing descriptive 
    or specific details. Adjectives usually precede the noun or pronoun they modify. 
    They do not have to agree in number or gender with the nouns they describe. 
    They answer the following questions: what kind?, how many?, or which ones? 

    a. Like nouns, adjectives are formed using affixes (suffix/prefix). For adjectives 
         some suffixes are used. They include: 
         -able/-ible (meaning capable of being).
    Example: manageable; visible, permissible
    -ful ( meaning full of). Example: boastful
     -ic. Example: magic, energetic
    -(i)an. Example: Christian, American, Rwandan
    -ish . Example: foolish, reddish, British
    -ly. Example: friendly, lovely
    -ous. Example: humorous
    ese. Example: Japanese
    b. Apart from suffixes, adjectives can also be formed by using prefixes. A prefix 
    added to an adjective generally has a negative effect.
    E.g. I think it’s possible to solve the problem. I think it’s impossible to solve the 
    Some other prefixes include the following un-: e.g. uncooked, unimaginable; in-:
    e.g. incapable, inhuman; il- : e.g. illegal, illegible; im-: immoral, impractical; 
    dis-: e.g. dishonest, disagreeable; ir-: irresponsible, irregular
    a. Pre- (pre-war) and hyper- (hyperactive) do not create opposites but modify 
    the meaning of the word in some way. 
    b. We can also form compound adjectives by combining numbers with nouns.
    For instance, instead of saying a man of twenty years we can say a twenty
    year-old man. We can notice that nouns are in singular and hyphens are 
    therefore needed.
    I. Complete the sentences with present perfect or present perfect continuous
    1. Tom is studying chapter 2. He ………………… (already/finish) chapter 1.
    2. Today Tom began studying at 8 o’ clock. Now it is 10 o’ clock. Tom …………
        (study) for 2 hours.
    3. I am in class right now. I arrived in class today and sat down at 8 o clock. 
        Right now the time is 10:00 am. That means that I ……(sit) in this seat 
        for 2 hours.
    4. Since classes began, I (have/not)……….much free time. My classes keep 
         me really busy.
    5. Mr and Mrs Jones are sitting outside on their porch right now. they (sit)….
        there from the time they finished dinner.
    6. The test begins at 8:00. Right now it’s 11:00. Sara is at the library. She 
          is reviewing her notes right now. She (review)….her notes all morning.

    II. Refer to the words in brackets and put in the right adjectives in this text:
    It is (legal) 1…………………… to drive under the age of seventeen in Britain, but a 
    (boy of seventeen years old) 2…………………………. Managed to pass his driving 
    test on the day of his seventeenth birthday. Most people would consider this 
    (possible) 3……..........................because you need a lot of lessons to pass the test. 
    David Livesley arranged to have (a lesson of five hours) 4………………………………. 
    Beginning at dawn on his birthday. At first he was very (care) 5…………………… 
    and (hesitate) 6……………..but he had a (wonder) 7…………………. teacher and 
    his driving improved amazingly during the day. By four in the afternoon, still 
    feeling ( energy) 8…………………….., he was ready to take his test and he passed 
    first time! He was almost in a state of shock after the test, and he drove home 
    very slowly in the ( red) 9……………….. Light of the (set) 10……..………………..sun. 
    David’s driving attracted the attention of two policemen, but they broke into 

    smiles and congratulated him warmly when he showed them his certificate

           3.9 END UNIT ASSESSMENT  

    1. What are the pros and cons of living in a foreign country?
    2. Compare the Rwandan culture with European cultures.
    3. Why do you think people migrate?
    4. Explain the following terms:
    a. flights
    b. immigrant,
    c. nostalgic
    d. acculturation
    e. popular
    5. Complete with the past perfect or past perfect continuous
    a. How long…( Denis and Martine/be) ill?
    b. Why are you sweating?.....(you/run?
    c. What ….(they /hear)?
    d. I …….( work) on my project recently.
    6. Use the right adjective from words in brackets.
    a. He was a………man. (work hard)
    b. The weather is…..(sun)
    c. That is a ………. teacher. (friend)
    7. Tell to which group of adjectives belongs each of the underlined 
    a. This dress is new.
    b. She has got three children.
    c. This day is rainy.

    d. Survey and present the causes of acculturation.


         Key unit competence: To use the language learnt in the context of business 

                                                          and money 


                             Picture observation and interpretation


                      1. Based on the fig above, explain different activities that can be done 
                            using money.
                     2. Examine the role money has in business operations.
                     3. Do you think marketing is important in business? Explain

                     4. How would you explain what people need to start lasting businesses?

                     4.1 Describing business and money   


         Text: Business and money 
    Someone once described the age we live in as that of a vanishing world, one in 
    which the familiar is constantly disappearing forever and technological change 
    is often difficult to cope with. So it should come as no surprise to most of us to 
    hear that yet another part of everyday life is about to go forever. Still, when I 
    read recently that in the next decade money as we know it will probably cease 
    to exist in technologically advanced countries. 

    According to Professor Gerry Montague, of the Institute of economic reform, 
    the familiar coins and banknotes will soon be replaced entirely by credit cards
    of various kinds. And the shop of the future (the ‘retail outlet’-as Professor 
    Montague puts it) will be linked to the network of banking computers. The 
    assistant will only key in your bank account code number and the amount you 
    have spent, and thank you politely. You won’t have to dig deep in your pocket or 
    wallet for change or pretend at the pub that you have left your money at home. 
    You may not even have a number for your account as such, as the computer may 
    by the end be able to read your handprint. So, no more credit card frauds either. 

    But I am afraid that I shall waste money. I have felt strongly attached to it, ever 
    since I received my first pocket money when I was five, and kept it in a money box. 
    Even if my credit card of the future will be able to tell me exactly how much 
    spending power I have left in the computer file, even if it lights up and plays a 
    happy or sad tune at the same time, nothing will be able to replace the sheer 
    pleasure I gained from rattling the coins in my money-box. Not to mention the 
    other obvious problems which will be caused by a shortage of real money – like 

    how to start a football match for example!

         Extracted from Advanced Language Practice by Michael Vice, p.196

     Comprehension questions
    1. Examine the impact of current technological advancement on our 
         concept of money according to the first and second paragraphs.
    2. Do you think the progress made in the banking system will end credit 
        card frauds? Justify your answer.
    3. Why do you think that the technological advancement in banking will 
        lead to the wastage of money.

                 4.1.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITIES 

    Vocabulary and sentence and composition writing
    1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the missing meanings of the 
         words or phrases below. 
    a. Vanishing
    b. Rattling
    c. Waste
    d. Handprint
    e. Fraud
    f. Spending power
    g. Cope with
    h. Credit card
    2. Using the words above, write meaningful sentences related to the use 
        of money.
    3. Write a short composition describing the future use of money based 

         on the current technological progress.

                 4.2 Describing the role of money


     Text: The function of money
    Money can be defined as anything that people use to buy goods and services. 
    Money is what many people receive for selling their own things or services. 
    There are many kinds of money in the world. Most countries have their own 
    kind of money, such as the United States dollar or the British pound. Money 
    is also called many other names, like Francs, currency or cash and (in India) 

    The idea of bartering things is very old. A long time ago, people did not buy or 
    sell with money. Instead, they traded one thing for another to get what they 
    wanted or needed. One person who owned many cows could trade with another 
    person who had a lot of wheat. Each would trade a little of what he had with the 
    other. This would support the people on his farm. Other things that were easier 
    to carry around than cows also came to be held as valuable. This gave rise to 
    trade items such as jewelry and spices. When people changed from trading in 
    things like, for example, cows and wheat to using money instead, they needed 
    things that would last a long time. They must still have a known value, and 
    could be carried around. The first country in the world to make metal coins was 
    called Lydia. 

    Money is often defined in terms of the three functions or services that it 
    provides. Money serves as a medium of exchange, as a store of value, and as 
    a unit of account.

    Money’s most important function is as a medium of exchange to facilitate 
    transactions. Without money, all transactions would have to be conducted 
    by barter, which involves direct exchange of one good or service for another. 
    The difficulty with a barter system is that in order to obtain a particular good 
    or service from a supplier, one has to possess a good or service of equal value, 
    which the supplier also desires. In other words, in a barter system, exchange 
    can take place only if there is a double coincidence of wants between two 
    transacting parties. The likelihood of a double coincidence of wants, however, 
    is small and makes the exchange of goods and services rather difficult. Money 
    effectively eliminates the double coincidence of wants problem by serving 
    as a medium of exchange that is accepted in all transactions, by all parties, 
    regardless of whether they desire each other’s goods and services.

    In order to be a medium of exchange, money must hold its value over time; 
    that is, it must be a store of value. If money could not be stored for some period 
    of time and still remain valuable in exchange, it would not solve the double 
    coincidence of wants problem and therefore would not be adopted as a medium 
    of exchange. As a store of value, money is not unique; many other stores of value 
    exist, such as land, works of art, and even baseball cards and stamps. Money 
    may not even be the best store of value because it depreciates with inflation. 
    However, money is more liquid than most other stores of value because as a 
    medium of exchange, it is readily accepted everywhere. Furthermore, money is 
    an easily transported store of value that is available in a number of convenient 

    Money also functions as a unit of account, providing a common measure of the 
    value of goods and services being exchanged. Knowing the value or price of a 
    good, in terms of money, enables both the supplier and the purchaser of the 
    good to make decisions about how much of the good to supply and how much 
    of the good to purchase.

    Adapted from:
    money-and banking/functions-of-money

    Comprehension questions 
    1. How would you define the term money according to the text?
    2. plain how people could exchange different goods in trading before the 
        introduction of the use of money.
    3. How do we call the money used in United States and india?
    4. According to the text, what was the first country in the world to make 
        metal coins?
    5. What are the functions of money mentioned in the passage?
    6. Discuss different ways of using money as described in the text.
    7. Justify the reason why medium of exchange is considered as most 
         function of money?

         Vocabulary, sentence writing and debate
    1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the missing meanings of the 
                words or phrases in the table below.
           a. Purchaser
           b. depreciates 
           c. barter
           d. double coincidence
           e. convenient denominations
           f. inflation
           g. liquid money
    2. Using the above words, construct grammatically correct sentences. 
    3. Debate the following topic ‘Money is everything in life.’

    4. Write a paragraph describing the role of the money in doing business.

                 4.3 Describing marketing 


     Text: Marketing 
    Nowadays, people tend to define marketing as the development along with the 
    industrial revolutionduring18thand 19thcenturies, which was a period of rapid 
    fundamental social change driven by scientific innovation and technology. 
    According to (Pride and Ferrell, 2008; Cooper and Argyris, 1998), there are 
    three orientation eras cross between the 18th till 20th centuries, the production 
    orientation era which emphasize on distribution of production and cost; sales 
    orientation era, which focuses on advertising, communication and branding, 
    and lastly marketing orientation era, which concentrates on competitors.

    Marketing is managing cost-effective consumer relationships. Marketing does 
    not just focus on products, it is the satisfaction off customers matters the most. 
    For instance, the most successful company rely on the returning purchase of 
    the customer, and so the common goal for the company is to deliver long term 
    satisfaction to the consumer but not ‘deceiving them’ in a short run. 

    Therefore, it is of paramount importance to make researches on customer 
    case studies so as to understand their needs, which is different from the old 
    traditional way of justselling and advertising. (Drucker, 2001) Hence, advertising 
    has become the only part of tools for building customer relationships through 
    marketing process.

    There are steps in the marketing process. (Huber, 2006; Kotler and Armstrong, 
    2008) The first one is marketplace and customer needs understanding. This 
    step focuses on human needs, market offering and customer satisfaction. 
    According to Maslow (1954), hierarchy of needs, it include basic needs of food 
    and shelter, safety needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs and the lastly 
    self-actualization. By understanding consumer needs and wants, marketer can 
    offer a specific service and product into the market which is required by the 
    consumer. By prioritizing their needs, company will receive recognition from 
    the public, as well as to help marketer in frame up their consumer relationships.

    Next is the customer driven marketing strategic designed. In this section, 
    marketer should be very clear that which group of customers are they serving, 
    and what more they can do to serve them better.(Kotler and Armstrong, 2009) 
    So the first thing that marketer need to do is market segmentation. (Huber, 
    2006) Dividing the market into several groups will make it easier for marketer to 
    search target. After decided a target market, it is necessary to have a proposition 
    value in the market, which is very important as it helps to differentiate yourself 
    from other company. On the other hand, there are five concepts from marketing 
    management to help build a commercial relationship with target market. 

    First is the production concept, which emphasises on large scale and lower 
    cost. Second is the product concept, which focuses on product quality, selling 
    concept, such as ideas to tempt the customers into buying by offering some 
    discounts or promotion. The other concept is the marketing concept, which 
    focuses on knowing the needs and wants of target consumer and delivering 
    value to them. Lastly is the societal marketing concept, a concept which focuses 
    on customer and society’s interest in long run apart from just considering the 
    needs and wants of the customers.

    All in all, marketing has been changed from ‘inward looking’ discipline era, 
    which always focus on the organization produced to the ‘outward looking’ 
    discipline era, which bring a greater understanding of market and consumer 

    into the organization.

           -mean-marketing essay.php

     Comprehension questions
    1. What would you tell about three orientation eras between the 18th till 
         20th centuries in terms of marketing as described in the passage?
    2. Apart from focusing on products, what else does marketing focus on as 
         described in the text?
    3. Say and justify why in marketing, people should make researches on 
         customer case studies.
    4. Explain the different steps taken in the marketing process as discussed 
         in the text.
    5. What would you suggest about marketing activities as long as today’s 

         businesses are concerned?

                4.3.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITIES
     Vocabulary, sentence writing and speaking 
    1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the meanings of the 
    words or phrases below.
    a. branding
    b. marketing
    c. fascinate the consumer
    d. discipline era
    e. market segmentation
    f. in ward looking
    g. out ward looking
    2. Using the above words and phrases, write different grammatically 
        correct sentences and present them to the class.
    3. Discuss about what we find in your community and act out a role
         play marketing them to other people during classroom activities.      

              4.4 Describing business


     Text: Business operations 
    A variety of operations keep businesses, especially large corporations running 
    efficiently and effectively. Common business operation divisions include 
    production, marketing, finance and human resource management. Production 
    includes those activities involved in conceptualizing, designing, and creating 
    products and services. In recent years there have been dramatic changes 
    in the way goods are produced. Today, computers help monitor, control, and 
    even perform work. Flexible, high-tech machines can do in minutes what it 
    used to take people hours to accomplish. Another important development 
    has been the trend toward just-in-time inventory. The word inventory refers 
    to the amount of goods a business keeps available for wholesale or retail. In 
    just-in-time inventory, the firm stocks only what it needs for the next day or 
    two. Many businesses rely on fast, global computer communications to allow 
    them to respond quickly to changes in consumer demand. Inventories are thus 
    minimized and businesses can invest more in product research, development, 
    and marketing.

    Marketing is the process of identifying the goods and services that consumers 
    need and want and providing those goods and services at the right price, place, 
    and time. Businesses develop marketing strategies by conducting research to 
    determine what products and services potential customers think they would 
    like to be able to purchase. Firms also promote their products and services 
    through such techniques as advertising and personalized sales, which serve to 
    inform potential customers and motivate them to purchase. Firms that market 
    products for which there is always some demand, such as foods and household 
    goods, often advertise if they face competition from other firms marketing 
    similar products. Such products rarely need to be sold face-to-face. On the other 
    hand, firms that market products and services that buyers will need to see, use, 
    or better understand before buying, often rely on personalized sales. Expensive 
    and durable goods - such as automobiles, electronics, or furniture benefit from 
    personalized sales, as do legal, financial, and accounting services.

    Finance involves the management of money. All businesses must have enough 
    capital on hand to pay their bills, and for-profit businesses seek extra capital to 
    expand their operations. In some cases, they raise long-term capital by selling 
    ownership in the company. Other common financial activities include granting, 
    monitoring, and collecting on credit or loans and ensuring that customers 
    pay bills on time. The financial division of any business must also establish a 
    good working relationship with a bank. This is particularly important when a 
    business wants to obtain a loan. Businesses rely on effective human resource 
    management (HRM) to ensure that they hire and keep good employees and that 
    they are able to respond to conflicts between workers and management. HRM 
    specialists initially determine the number and type of employees that a business 
    will need over its first few years of operation. They are then responsible for 
    recruiting new employees to replace those who leave and for filling newly created 
    positions. A business’s HRM division also trains or arranges for the training of 
    its staff to encourage worker productivity, efficiency, and satisfaction, and to 
    promote the overall success of the business. Finally, human resource managers 

    create workers’ compensation plans and benefit packages for employees.

       Adopted from: Jones Leo, Alexander Richard, (2003). New International Business 
       English Cambridge University Press,


    Comprehension questions 
    1. Referring to the text, define the word ‘business. 
    2. Distinguish between profit and non-profit organizations. Support your 
        answer with relevant examples.
    3. How would you define the term production and marketing?
    4. Explain the contributions of technology in business operations.
    5. Explain how business can develop marketing activities.

    6. Evaluate the role of HRM division in business related activities.

              4.4.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITIES 
    Vocabulary, sentences and essay writing 
    1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the meanings of the words 
         or phrases below.
               a. Corporations 
               b. Conceptualizing 
               c. Human resource
               d. Dramatic 
               e. Wholesale
                f. Firm 
                g. Stocks
                h. Inventories
                i. Granting 
    2. Use the words given above to construct grammatically correct sentences.
    3. Discuss about what people need to create businesses.
    4. Write an essay on different businesses that people in community have 


              4.5 Describing documents used in business


    Text: Business tool
    Payments are essentially transportation tasks as funds are transferred from 
    payer to payee following established payments flows that are characteristic 
    of a given payment instrument. Generally the payee has provided some kind 
    of service or goods to the payer, who will in return pay an agreed amount of 
    money against a request for payment, usually an invoice document, as part of 
    the invoicing process. The following are different types of payments to facilitate 
    the smooth of the business.

    The first type is cash (bills and change). This is one of the most common ways 
    to pay for purchases. Both paper money and coins are included under the larger 
    category of “cash.” While cash has the advantage of being immediate, it is not 
    the most secure form of payment since, if it is lost or destroyed, it is essentially 

    gone. There is no recourse to recoup those losses.

    In addition to cash, personal cheque is the other type. Personal chaques are 
    ordered through the buyer’s account. They are essentially paper forms the 
    buyer fills out and gives to the seller. The seller gives the cheque to their bank, 
    the bank processes the transaction, and a few days later the money is deducted 
    from the buyer’s account. With the increasing trend towards fast payment, 
    cheques are seen as slow and somewhat outdated. 

    Other types of payment include debit card and credit card. Paying with a debit 
    card takes the money directly out of the buyer’s account. It is almost like writing 
    a personal cheque, but without the hassle of filling it out. Credit cards look like 
    debit cards. But paying with a credit card temporarily defers the buyer’s bill. 
    At the end of each month, the buyer receives a credit card statement with an 
    itemized list of all purchases. Therefore, rather than paying the seller directly, 
    the buyer pays off its bill to the credit card company. If the entire balance of 
    the bill is not paid, the company is authorized to charge interest on the buyer’s 
    remaining balance. Credit cards can be used for both online purchases and at 
    physical retailers. In bank account-based systems the funds move from the 
    payer’s account to the payee’s account within the books of financial institutions 
    providing payment services. The need for physical transportation of cash 
    has changed to transporting payment instructions for making the required 

    With card, the machine reads information on the card and then enters a pin
    (Personal Identification Number) that only you know. Entering your pin is good 
    security because nobody else should know what your pin is and will not be able 
    buy anything with your card. You should never give your pin to anybody. You 
    can set the pin on your card using the ATM-bank machine. If you are unsure 
    how to do this you can ask the bank teller and they will assist you.

    Cash-based payments are manual and prone to inefficiencies and fraud. 
    Bank account based instruments require electronic transfers of payments to reap 
    all the benefits. With the development of information technology and the 
    wide adoption of computers, networks, mobile telephones and other e-based 
    solutions, methods for payment have moved to a new level of efficiency. In 
    particular, electronic applications offer possibilities to simplify and facilitate 
    payment procedures. Initiation, transportation and bookings of payments can 
    currently be made immediately to anywhere in the world. Payments can be 
    finalized without any manual or paper-based routines.

    For all payment instruments, the payment service providers must be 
    connected to each other in order to facilitate the transportation of funds 
    between the different institutions. The instruments should be harmonized 
    and thus use inter-operable procedures. Be very careful when using a credit 

    card because it is very easy to spend too much and end up owing a lot of money!


     Comprehension questions 
    1. Referring to the text, describe what happens with invoicing process.
    2. Why do you think cash as one of the types of payment is the most 
        commonly used way for purchase?
    3. What do you think make personal cheque to be seen as slow and 
         somewhat outdated?
    4. How would you differentiate between personal cheque and debit card?
    5. Evaluate the role of the development of information technology in 

        regards to payment methods.

    Vocabulary, speaking, sentence writing and survey 
    1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the meanings of the words or 
    phrases below.
    a. Invoice
    b. Fraud
    c. physical retailers
    d. recoup
    e. ATM
    f. Cheque
    g. Credit cards
    h. Debit cards
    2. Based on the words given above, write different grammatically correct 
    3. Make a survey of different business tools or documents used by most 
    people in your community.
    4. Debate on the advantages and disadvantages of using electronic banking 

         tools in business.

                 4.6 Describing entrepreneurship terminologies


     Text: Entrepreneurship terms
    Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new 
    business, which is often initially a small business. The people who create these 
    businesses are called entrepreneurs. 

    Entrepreneurship has been described as the “capacity and willingness to 
    develop, organize and manage a business venture along with any of its risks
    to make a profit.” While definitions of entrepreneurship typically focus on the 
    launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching 
    a start-up, a significant proportion of start-up businesses have to close due to 
    “lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis, lack of market 
    demand, or a combination of all of these.” 

    A broader definition of the term is sometimes used, especially in the field 
    of economics. In this usage, an Entrepreneur is an entity which has the ability 
    to find and act upon opportunities to translate inventions or technologies into 
    products and services: “The entrepreneur is able to recognize the commercial 
    potential of the invention and organize the capital, talent, and other resources 
    that turn an invention into a commercially viable innovation.” In this sense, 
    the term “Entrepreneurship” also captures innovative activities on the part of 
    established firms, in addition to similar activities on the part of new businesses.

    The term “entrepreneur” is often conflated with the term “small business” or 
    used interchangeably with this term. While most entrepreneurial ventures
    start out as a small business, not all small businesses are entrepreneurial in the 
    strict sense of the term. Many small businesses are sole proprietor operations 
    consisting solely of the owner or they have a small number of employees and 
    many of these small businesses offer an existing product, process or service 
    and they do not aim at growth. 

    In contrast, entrepreneurial ventures offer an innovative product, process or 
    service and the entrepreneur typically aims to scale up the company by adding 
    employees, seeking international sales and so on, a process which is financed 
    by venture capital and angel investments. In this way, the term “entrepreneur” 
    may be more closely associated with the term “startup”. Successful entrepreneurs 
    have the ability to lead a business in a positive direction by proper planning, 
    to adapt to changing environments and understand their own strengths and 

    Theorists Frank Knight and Peter Drucker defined entrepreneurship in terms 
    of risk-taking. The entrepreneur is willing to put his or her career and financial 
    security on the line and take risks in the name of an idea, spending time as 
    well as capital on an uncertain venture. However, entrepreneurs often do not 
    believe that they have taken an enormous amount of risks because they do not 
    perceive the level of uncertainty to be as high as other people do.

    The ability of entrepreneurs to work closely with and take advice from early 
    investors and other partners (i.e. their coachability) has long been considered 
    a critical factor in entrepreneurial success. 

    At the same time, economists have argued that entrepreneurs should not simply 
    act on all advice given to them, even when that advice comes from well-informed 
    sources, because entrepreneurs possess far deeper and richer local knowledge 
    about their own firm than any outsider. Indeed, measures of coachability are 
    not actually predictive of entrepreneurial success (e.g. measured as success 
    in subsequent funding rounds, acquisitions, pivots and firm survival). Indeed, 
    entrepreneurship is all about being to face failure manage failure and succeed 

    after failing.


     Comprehension questions
    1. Explain how risks and profit are key things in regards with 
    2. Give at least four reasons that can make a start-up business close.
    3. What do you think are abilities one has to possess to be called an 
    4. How would you differentiate between entrepreneurial ventures and 
        small businesses?
    5. Explain this statement: “entrepreneurship is all about being ready to 

         face failure, manage failure and succeed after failing”

    Vocabulary, sentence writing and survey
    1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the meanings of the words 
            or phrases below.
          a. entrepreneurship 
          b. small business
          c. business venture 
          d. risk
          e. profit 
          f. running of businesses
          g. lack of funding
           h. coach ability
           i. firm
           j. scale up
          k. sole proprietor
           l. Uncertainty
          m. Ventures
          n. commercial potential
          o. capital
          p. economics 
          q. market demand
           r. economic crisis

          s. lack of funding


    4.7 Language structure: Phrasal Verbs
    Phrasal verbs are multiple-word verbs. They are made up of the verb and one or 
    two particles. A particle can be either an adverb or a preposition. The majority 
    of phrasal verbs have a fixed meaning; they are idiomatic expressions. Often, 
    the meaning of a phrasal verb is not a sum of the meanings of the words in the 
    phrase. You cannot derive the meaning from the meaning of each individual 
    word. For example, keep up does not mean ‘keep in a high place’.

           a) The assistant will only key in your bank account code number.
           b) Jimmy trained up most of his workers.
           c) A successful business man is one who pays off all his debts.
           d) The loan from the bank helped us set up the shop.
           e) Jimmy and I built up a joint business for five years.
           f) We were advised to pay back our loan on time.
          g) Mkami cashed out part of her earnings for personal use.
          h) My brother and I set up a good business plan before starting our 

                commercial activities.

    Fill in the blank space with the correct response:
    1. We have decided ………. pursuing this course of action
        i. Against        ii. Out          iii. Off
    2. If we……… this option, our business will certainly fail.
         i. write up    ii. Rule out     iii. Sort out
    3. It will take a long time for the board to ………. This mess
         i. Turn around      ii. Put in      iii. Sort out
    4. Barack has a plan to ………. out the automotive industry
        i. Give      ii. Bail         iii. Make 
    5. Why didn’t Tracy ………. up at the meeting 
        i. Turn       ii. Come      iii. Set
    6. Our suppliers have ……….new offices outside the capital in a very ugly 
           industrial estate
        i. Get up      ii. Set up     iii. Got up
    7. Last month’s sales results ……….much better than expected.
        i. Turned out     ii. Turned on     iii. Turned in
    8. Don’t ………. till tomorrow what you can do today.
        i. Put off    ii. Put on     iii. Put out
    9. We had to ……….off the meeting because of the bad weather
        i. Put     ii. Call    iii. Take
    10. It’s not such a terrible thing! Don’t worry! ……….

        i. Cheer out    ii. Laugh out     iii. Cheer up

              4.8 Spelling and pronunciation 
      Use dictionaries and thesaurus to find the missing pronunciations and meanings 

      of words in the following table.



                  4.9 END UNIT ASSESSMENT
    1. Write a 250 word composition about strategies to start a successful 
    2. Construct one meaningful sentence with each of these phrasal verbs.
         a) Count on   b) Sell off    c) Pay back     d) Set up      e) Cash out 
         f) Carry out    g) Pay off     h) Cash out    i) Rule out    j) Step in
    3) Put in the correct phrasal verb in accordance with the meanings 
         shown in brackets.
         a) Can you ……….. (think of an idea) a better idea.
         b) I wish I hadn’t ……… (become responsible for) so much working 
        b)  this industry.
        c) She ………. (showed/mentioned) that all the shops would be closed.
        d) I ………. (went to an event) for a dinner with my business partners.
        e) Where did you ………. (become adult)?
        f) I’d love to……….. (arrange/create) my own business.
       g) I thought the conference was going to be boring as the operations 
            manager was absent, but it ………. (in the end we discovered) to be 
            quite useful for each of us.
      h) Would anybody like to ……….. (become responsible for) this new 
            client ?
        i) What’s ……….. (‘s happening) in the conference hall?
        j) Can we ………. (arrange/create) another business meeting next 
    4) Give the phonetic transcription of each word in the table below. Put the 




          Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of early childhood 



     Observe the picture below and answer these questions:
           a. What is early childhood?
           b. Describe the stages of early childhood
           c. What is early childhood welfare?
           d. Describe the stages of early childhood welfare.
           e. How should parents and care takers help in the education of a child 
                during stages of development?
           f. Describe how an ECD centre should look like to enhance the learning 

              of a child.


     NB: Each child develops in a holistic manner. He or she requires nurturing 
    and support from parents, legal guardians and caregivers, who should provide 
    opportunities for stimulating play, early learning, good health care, nutritious 
    balanced diet, clean water, hygienic environment, love, safety and security so 
    as to grow up healthy, socially well-adapted and emotionally balanced. Services 
    for infants, young children, their parents, legal guardians and other caregivers 
    must address their needs in a holistic manner. It is impossible for one sector 
    alone to meet all of their requirements. Thus, it is essential that all sectors work 

    together to serve young children, parents and legal guardians.

             5.1 Talking about early childhood education in Rwanda   


    Text: Early Childhood Centers (ECDCs) in Rwanda 
    Read the text below describing early childhood in Rwanda and answer the 

    questions that follow


    The government of Rwanda is committed to the establishment of ECD centers 
    at eachadministrative sector (2010-2017). This takes into account all young 
    children, boy sand girls alike, to fulfill the concern of Education for All (EFA) 

    Over the past decade, Rwanda has been successfully improving access to its 
    primary education, and it has almost achieved universal primary enrolment. 
    Primary net enrolment rates have increased up to 95.4% in 2010 (96% for girls), 
    and primary completion rates have increased from 52.5% in 2008 up to 75.6% 
    in 2010, putting Rwanda on track to achieve the education-related Millennium 
    Development Goals. Transition to lower secondary education has equally 
    significantly increased over the past years (from 87.9% in 2008 to 95% in 2009), 
    resulting in increased enrolment rates for secondary education (from 13.9% Net 
    enrolment rate in 2008 to 22.6% in 2010). The primary dropout rate in 2010 was 
    12.2% and repetition 14% indicating that the school system is failing a significant 
    number of children each year. International research has demonstrated that 
    access to quality ECD services improve children’s performance in school and 
    contribute substantially to improving internal efficiencies throughout the
    school cycle.

    In 2005, the demographic and health survey found that 70% of women with 
    one or two children and 74%with three or more children worked outside of 
    the home. During Consultative Workshops, mothers from all parts of Rwanda 
    expressed a desire for more community ECDCs. It was recommended that more 
    Community ECDCs should be built and equipped with learning materials and 
    toys. Participants in the consultations also requested one centre per each a 
    hundred houses agglomeration (Umudugudu), 
    and more centers where large concentrations of working mothers are found. 
    In addition to an increased number of ECDCs, it was suggested that the quality 
    of services provided need also to be strengthened. To enhance service quality, 
    standards, guidelines, pre- and in-service training for caregivers, and technical 
    support, supervision and monitoring are required. The Government plans to 
    support the establishment of one ECD centre in each sector during the lifetime 
    of the five-year ECD Strategic Plan.

    Existing Early Care and Development Centers (day care centers, nurseries or 
    Community ECDCs) are often run without adherence to standards, without 
    sufficient and uniform training of caregivers, and without supervision and 
    monitoring oversight. By and large ECD centers are managed and run by civil 
    society or privatesector groups though the exact number of such centers is 

    According to national institute of statistics projections, there are 
    approximately 1.1 million children between the ages of three to six 
    years, the years generally associated with pre-primary education. 
    According to the Ministry of Education, only 6.1% of pre-school-age
    children are attending pre-primary schools (education management 
    information system 2010). The pupil-teacher ratio at pre-primary level is 1:33 
    well above the internationally recommended levels (OECD) has established 
    a minimum staff to pupil ratio of 1:15 UNICEF: 2008). Rwanda will gradually 
    reduce its pupil-teacher ratio to internationally recognised levels and in the 
    timeframe, though in the short term aiming at a standard of not more than 25 
    children per teacher. The Ministry of Education has a limited budget for 
    preprimary education which does not at present cover the salaries for pre-primary 
    teachers. These costs are generally provided by parents and communities or in 
    some cases by civil society organizations.

    The Ministry of education is the lead Ministry in ECD Policy development 
    within an inter ministerial framework and the Education Sector Strategic 
    Plan (education sector strategic plan (2010-2015) reflects the commitment 
    to develop and implement the ECD Policy and Strategic Plan. The education 
    sector strategic plan calls for civil society, communities and the private sector 
    to continue providing pre-primary education services. It notes that with the 
    development of the new ECD Policy, this approach will be re-examined in light 
    of national and community needs and demands for services. The education 
    sector strategic plan commits MINEDUC to set policy, norms and standards for 
    pre-primary education; 
    plan and ensure the provision of teacher training; and oversee monitoring and 
    evaluation of ECD. It calls for access to pre-primary education, but findings 
    from nationwide consultations drew attention to the one year gap which exists 
    between the end of pre-school and the beginning of primary school and the 
    need to ensure six-year olds do not languish at home in between completing 
    ECD and before entering primary school. For those children who do not attend 
    formal ECD centers, there may also be a need for the special provision of a rapid 
    school readiness program.

    The education sector strategic plan recognizes that pre-primary education 
    as well as other levels of formal education is relevant for the achievement of 
    the high-level objectives of the economic development and poverty reduction 
    strategy. These objectives include: access to education for all, quality education 
    at all levels, equity in education at all levels, effective and efficient education 
    system, science and technology and ICT in education. The ESSP provisions 
    present a mandate for expanding and improving pre-primary education. It also 
    reinforces the national policy for children with special educational needs, calls 
    for a school health policy, and includes nutrition services at schools especially 
    for malnourished children.

    The preschool years, 3-6 years: In addition to health and nutrition support as 
    well as continued cognitive stimulation, children during this period benefit from 
    experiences and programs that provide increased opportunities for learning 
    through play and exploration in groups and more opportunities to interact with 
    other children and a variety of adults. Safe and appropriate support can also 
    be provided within the home setting, through community-based activities and 
    within the pre-school setting. The strong involvement of parents and primary 
    caregivers is critical to the success of programs whether based at home or in 
    early childhood centers, hospitals etc.

    Moving onto primary school: During this period, there is continued support 
    for other aspects of development as well as school readiness. School readiness 
    includes supporting the child’s preparedness for school, and making schools 
    ready for children as well as parental “readiness”. Key programming aspects at 
    this age include support for successful transition to formal education, life skills 
    education, school health and hygiene as well as safety and protection.

    Across the ECD continuum support that addresses the interrelatedness of all 
    aspects of a child’s growth and development require that the Ministries and 
    other agencies governing education, health, nutrition, water/sanitation and 
    hygiene, social welfare and protection, as well as non-government groups, 
    communicate and work together with families and communities to develop 
    and implement appropriate policies, programmes and operational guidance 
    and support. In addition, respecting young children’s evolving capacities in 
    participation and understanding is especially significant during early childhood 
    because of the rapid transformations in children’s physical, intellectual, social 
    and emotional functioning, from earliest infancy into the early primary grades. 

    To support holistic and comprehensive development throughout the early years, 
    various strategies and policy actions need to be implemented that will provide
    increased opportunities for all children to benefit.

    Holistic early child hood development services will greatly contribute to 
    improved health and development outcomes, more specifically to reduced 
    poverty; strengthened unity; improved child health and nutrition, educational 
    efficiency; timely enrolment at primary school, increased school attendance 
    and achievement of both boys and girls, increased completion rates; and 
    expanded adult literacy, especially for mothers. It is worth noting that Vision 
    2020 recognizes the importance of parent’s role as the children’s first educators, 
    who teach values and norms that support children’s progress in school, which 
    is a critical component of this ECD policy. Expanded investments in ECD will 
    provide an enabling environment for the achievement of the goals of Vision 
    2020, and is expected to contribute especially to the achievement of pillars 1, 2, 

    3 as well as to the cross cutting gender theme.

              Extract from ECD policy white paper

     Comprehension questions 
    1. How would you define the term early childhood education?
    2. What is the importance of early childhood education as discussed in the 
    3. Compare early childhood education in the early years to the current 
           modern trend.
    4. What efforts in early child hood education has the government of Rwanda 
        put in to reach the success of ECD program?
    5. Explain the role of the following organs in the support of ECD as 
        mentioned above.
           a. Ministry of education
           b. Education sector strategic plan
           c. National institute of statistics
           d. Education management information system

    6. Describe the objectives of ECD in the passage above.

             5.1.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITIES 
         Speech writing, presentation and debate
    I. Prepare a speech addressing parents in your community to support 
        ECD centers. Suggest possible ways on how ECD in Rwanda can be 
        improved and why do you think your suggestions can lead to its success.
    II. Prepare a debate on; ‘without early childhood education, there is no 
         career success. 
    Ensure that in the debate, the issue of how ECD centre can be established 
    in your sector is discussed.

    NB: Early Childhood Education is a term that refers to educational 
    programs and strategies geared toward children from birth to the age 
    of six. This time period is widely considered the most vulnerable and 
    crucial stage of a person›s life. Early childhood education often focuses 
    on guiding children to learn through play. The term commonly refers to 

    preschool or infant/child care programs.

                5.2 Describing early childhood basic needs



               Comprehension questions:
    1. What do you understand by early child hood basic needs?
    2. How should parents and care givers provide basic needs to children
    3. How does emotional need affect the child’s development?
    4. What basic needs do you advise parents and caregivers to put emphasis 
         on while handling children?
    5. ‘Parents and caregivers should express clear expectations to children.’ 
         Suggest more advice on the statement.

    NB: early childhood basic needs include:
             a. Food and shelter. Children cannot acquire their own food or sustain any 
                  reasonable shelter
             b. Physical safety. Children cannot protect themselves from aggressive 
                  adults and other stronger children
             c. Emotional security
                          • Social skills
                          • Career abilities

                          • Internal skills.

       A. Child needs
      Read the following short text about children needs and answer the questions 

      that follow


    In an era of aggressive marketing towards children and parents alike, many 
    parents wonder what children actually need. Years of research in child 
    development have identified eight essential requirements for children to 
    become happy, and successful adults. 

    The eight things children need to thrive among them is security, stability, 
    consistency, emotional support, love, education, positive role models, and 
    structure. Children must feel safe and sound, with their basic survival needs 
    met: shelter, food, clothing, medical care, and protection from harm. Stability 
    comes from family and community. Ideally, a family remains together in a stable 
    household, but when that’s not possible, it’s important to disrupt the child’s 
    life as little as possible. Children and families should be a part of larger units to 
    give them sense of belonging, tradition and cultural continuity. Parents need to 
    synchronize their parenting and make sure important values stay consistent, 
    parents’ words and actions should encourage children trust, respect, self 
    -esteem, and ultimately independence. Even when children have disobeyed, 
    angered, frustrated and rebelled against you as a caregiver or parent, show 
    them love and that you will always love them. Children should get the best 
    possible education for their future. This includes school, life lessons, and this 
    can be achieved through the time you spend together. Parents and caregivers 
    are their children’s most important role models. Instill your values and teach 
    children empathy by being the kind of persons you want them to become. More 
    importantly rules and boundaries and limits, without them, children are forced 
    to be adults before they are ready, and other adults. Children need time perhaps 
    the most important factor of all is time. Without enough time to spend with 
    children and be a parent, you miss out on the wonderful privileges of parenting. 
    Time is a miracle solution for most dilemmas of parenthood, says Dr. Rotbart. 
    Taken in minutes or hours, the time you spend with your children gives you the 
    opportunity to provide your children all their essential needs and much more. 
    Children today are growing with depth, breadth and speed of media that didn’t 
    exist 20years ago. Their parents don’t always understand what that’s like, but 

    children still need their help.

                              Extracted from:

     Comprehension questions
    1. Outline the needs of a child according to the text.
    2. Why is time considered as one of the needs of a child
    3. Discuss the role of a parent and caregiver in the life of a child.

    4. Summarize the whole story about the needs of a child in no more than 80

       Vocabulary, composition writing and presentation
    1. What are the meanings of the following words as used in the text?
           a. Essential
           b. Breadth
           c. Boundaries
           d. synchronize
           e. empathy
    2. Prepare a television show that you would present to the class talking 
        about needs of a child.
    3. Write a describe composition on the needs of a child
    4. Suggest other needs that a child of today needs in order to have a 
          better life.
       B. Meeting children’s needs
    The young of every species have basic needs that must be met for them to 
    develop and mature. Children are no exception. For children, these essential 
    needs include warm, caring, and responsive adults; a sense of importance 
    and significance; away to relate to the world around them; opportunities to 
    move and play; and people to help structure and support their learning. In 
    the past, these needs were met at home and in the community but now these 
    needs are being met in our classrooms. According to Jim Greenman (1988), 
    early childhood environment should be: children need to explore, experiment 
    and learn basic knowledge through direct experience. The role of the teacher 
    is critical in a child’s life. Children depend on teachers to be their confidant, 
    colleagues, model, instructor, and nature of educational experience.

    Play provides away for children to integrate all their new experiences into 
    rapidly developing minds, bodies, emotions, and social skills. Brain research 
    supports this idea, stressing that children learn best through integrated 
    approach combining physical, emotional, cognitive and social growth. Children 

    need lots of exposure to other people in their early childhood years. 

    Young children need to feel important, and to feel that what they do is meaningful 
    to someone besides themselves.

    A basic human need is the need to belong. Children need to feel they belong 
    too. They need to be close to people they know, have familiar and comfortable 
    objects, and be in a setting that has a personal history for them.

    There is no single remedy to decrease the pressure and stress associated with 
    caring for a child with a disability. Self -care, however, is the most effective way to 
    reduce caregiver burnout and create a nurturing, loving environment. Parents 
    who identify and meet their own needs model to their children what it means 
    to value their bodies, minds and souls. Parents who make a plan and meet their 
    own needs before deficit strike will also be better equipped to recognize the 
    unmet needs of their children.

    Children need adequate nutrition, water, sleep and exercise. Clean air, shelter 
    and human touch are also basic elements of life required to maintain a 
    child’s health. Along sleepless night caring for a sick child or the struggles of 
    a parent who tries to feed herself as she feeds her child are quick reminders 
    of the importance of meeting physical needs. Security, trust, and intimacy are 
    emotional needs that all children need. Emotional needs can be met through the 
    affection parents share with their children paired with time spent with adults. 

    All children need time with peers and companions to satisfy their social needs 
    and decrease the risk for caregiver burnout. Also, children need some level of 
    intellectual stimulation to experience satisfaction and a sense of calm. This 
    need can be met by reading, engaging in healthy debates, and joining lively 
    discussions. Brainstorming and problem solving are avenues to keep brains 

    Children need to express themselves, need for creativity can be met through 
    explorations of culture, unique dress, and expositions of the talents and gifts 
    that a child possesses. Creativity involves spontaneity and the inclusion of 

    imagination into a child’s life.

           Extract from: Basic needs of children in early childhood education.

     Comprehension questions
    1. Outline the basic needs of an early childhood as described in the passage 
    2. Do you believe that emotion is a basic need for a child? Discuss.
    3. According to Mr. Greenman (1988), how should be early childhood 
    4. According to the text, what is the role of parents and caregivers on 

         providing basic needs to children?

                5.2.3 APPLICATION ACTIVITIES

    Composition writing and discussion
    1. Write an argumentative composition with the title ‘Early 
        childhood basic needs.’
    2. Prepare a classroom discussion about the basic needs of a 
    3. Write a dialogue talking about early childhood basic needs.
    4. Suggest possible ways of how early childhood basic needs 

         could be respected in your community or at ECD centers.

             5.3 Talking about duties and responsibilities of parents 

                            and caregivers in early childhood education.


    Text 1: Child caregivers in education
    Child caregivers look after the basic needs of children, such as dressing, 
    feeding and supervising their playtime. They also provide a beneficial learning 
    environment and a safe home away from home for little ones. People who love 
    working with children and who naturally have a fun, enthusiastic attitude will 
    thrive as child caregivers. It is common for child caregivers to work in childcare 
    centres, private day cares or their own home. Some childcare centres are 
    open all year, with long hours so that parents can drop off and pick up their 
    children before and after work. Some centres employ full and part- time staff 
    with staggered shifts to cover the entire day. Many care takers work full time, 
    but part-time work and flexible hours are also very common. While a child 
    caregiver’s day-to-day duties and responsibilities are determined by where 
    they work, there are many core tasks associated with the role. 

    Child care givers, plan, supervise, and implement a structured learning 
    environment that allows young children to explore their interests. For example, 
    they may read and play with children to introduce social skills such as manners. 
    They help young children learn through creative group activities, child care 
    givers are required by law to maintain a safe, sanitary and clean environment 
    under their care. When needed, a care giver may change the diaper of an infant 
    or child. They may need to help a young child go the toilet. Throughout the day 
    as child play, child caregivers make sure their environment stays neat and may 
    enlist the children’s help to keep this standard. A child caregiver ensures that 
    the children they take care of have enough to eat. They normally prepare and 
    organize meal times and child caregivers prepare nutritional food selections 
    for children and encourage them to try new things. 

    Since play is so important for the healthy psychological development of 
    children, child caregivers combine playtime with other instructional strategies 
    to aid this development. Caregivers create routines to make sure that children 
    have a balanced amount of physical activity, rest, and playtime. While children 
    are playing with each other, caregivers monitor for any safety concern. Child 
    caregivers are responsible for carefully watching for any signs of a child or 
    development issues with children. When they notice something amiss, they 
    must bring it to the attention of a child’s parents or the appropriate team 
    leader. A primary goal of a child caregiver is to create a positive relationship 
    with parents, children, and other staff. They engage in active communication to 

    help keep children safe and make them feel cared for.

    People who are exceptionally patient and passionate about working with 
    children will thrive as child caregivers. Employers from larger childcare 
    establishments typically prefer candidates who have a degree or certification 
    in early childcare, at least one year of childcare experience, and the following 
    skills; familiarity with childhood development, physical fitness, creativity, 
    interpersonal skills, and writing skills.

    Lastly, understanding how childhood development works, is essential for child 
    caregivers who address the emotional, physical and mental needs of children 
    every day and must often involve children in creative activities such as art, 

    dance, and music to stimulate their development.

                                  Extracted from:

             Comprehension questions:
    1. Discuss the role of caregivers in education as described in the text above.
    2. How can caregivers improve on their responsibilities in early childhood 
    3. What key major points according to the text that caregivers need to 
         improve in your ECD centres/ communities?
    4. Give the meaning of the following words or phrases as they are given in 
                  the text above.
             a. Enthusiastic attitude.
             b. Staggered shifts
             c. Explore their interests
    5. Write a summary of 50 words describing the role of caregivers according 

         to the text.

                 5.3.3 APPLICATION ACTIVITIES 
    Survey and Speech writing 
    1. You have been given a task by the sector education officer in 
         your sector to survey and make a tangible report about early 
         childhood centres and responsibilities of caregivers in the sector 
          ECD centres. Write a report you would present to the sector 
         education officer.
    2. Your ECD centre is organizing a parents’ week, write a speech 
         reminding parents of your role as a caregiver and their roles as 


                       Text 2: Parents’ involvement in early childhood education


       Many parents drop their children off in the morning while teachers take over, 
    and then pick them up at the end of the day without giving their learning 
    much more thought. To get the true benefits from early childhood education, 
    however, parents need to consider how they can support what their children 
    are learning throughout the day. Some of a child’s most important cognitive 
    development happens during their preschool years. By taking an active role in 
    the early childhood education process, parents can help ensure that their child 

    has all the support they need to develop to their full potential. 

    Parents’ involvement helps extend teaching outside the classroom, creates 
    a more positive experience for children and helps children perform better 
    when they are in school. It is essential for parents to support the learning that 
    happens in preschool settings at home as well. Parents who are in tune with 
    what is happening in their child’s preschool classroom or child care facility are 
    better able to establish a connection between what is learned at school and 
    what takes place in the home. This connection is a key component of a child’s 
    development and supporting further learning. Not only does family or parental 
    involvement help extend teaching outside the classroom, it creates a more 
    positive experience for children and helps children perform better when they 
    are in school. Parents involvement in early childhood education can extend 
    the experiences that a child has in the classroom to real-world activities that 
    happen at home. 

    A parent who understands what their child is working on at preschool has a 
    better sense of their child’s competency and which areas they need to work on 
    to improve confidence and ability. One of the most difficult challenges for early 
    childhood educators is figuring out how to better engage parents in their child’s 
    learning. By establishing good lines of communication between your child and 
    care centre and parents, as well as making a strong effort to involve parents as 
    an important partner in their child’s education, you can make a positive impact 
    on their learning ability.

    Furthermore, care centres/ caregivers, can invite parents to learn more about 
    the care centre, staff and how the care child centre operates. Making families 
    more comfortable with you centre and the educators who work there will go 
    a long way in making them feel at ease and more likely to be involved. Parents 
    can be asked if they would be interested in participating in care centres or 
    classroom. Ask them if they have a special talent that they would like to share 
    with the class. Or if they would be interested in volunteering to help in an art 
    project or read a story.

    Parents can be asked if they have any topics they would like to see incorporated 
    into the curriculum, and once they are aware that they can have a say in what 
    is taught in the classroom, parents may want to help shape what their children 
    learns throughout the day.

    As a caregiver, create a daily report or journal for each child. Use these daily 
    reports to outline their individual progress and offers away to parents and 
    educators to communicate and give feedback. Make useful resources available 
    to parents and these can be in relation to developing motor skills, language 
    development, behaviour management and more. These resources can offer 
    additional guidance that parents can use at home to cultivate further skills and 
    talents in their children.

    Recommending complementary activities that a parent and child can complete 
    at home is important. These activities can extend your curriculum beyond the 
    classroom setting and reinforce what you have been teaching. Once parents 
    get first -hand experience teaching new things to their children and seeing the 
    impact, they will be more compelled to take an active role on an ongoing basis. 
    After a parent visit or volunteer at your child care centre, write a thank you 
    note to let them know you appreciate their time and assistance.

    Studies show that when parents are actively involved with their child’s early 
    childhood education, they are more likely to stay involved when their child 
    enters elementary school. 

    By encouraging parent participation in your child care centre, you can help 
    support children beyond their early years and make their families an important 
    part of their education well into the future. Parental and family involvement 
    in early childhood education will help improve learning outcomes for children 
    by ensuring that they have all the support they need to succeed. Part of this 
    process involves detailed documentation, so teachers and parents have a 

    complete picture of how a child is progressing and can act accordingly.

                                               Extracted from:

     Comprehension questions:
    1. Outline the responsibilities of parents in early childhood education as 
         mentioned in the passage.
    2. Write a summary of 50 to 80 words about responsibilities of parents 
        towards early childhood education according to the passage.
    3. ‘Parents involvement helps extend teaching outside classroom.’ How 
         true is the statement according to the text?
    4. Compare the roles of parents and caregivers in early childhood education.

    5. Describe how a child care centre should look like, and why?

                       5.3.3 APPLICATION ACTIVITIES
    Vocabulary, composition writing and debate
    1. Find the meanings of the following words or phrases as used in the 
              text 2.
              a. Complementary activities
              b. First-hand experience
              c. Volunteer
              d. Detailed documentation
    2. Write a composition on the importance of documentation during 
        early childhood education.
    3. Prepare a debate with the following topic ‘Parents should play a 
         bigger role in early childhood education than caregivers.’
    4. Your care centre has organized a parents’ meeting, and you are one 
         of the caregivers. You have been selected to give a speech. Prepare a 

         diligent speech you will deliver to parents.

                         5.4 Language structure: Modal verbs and adjective’s 

                                                   degrees of comparison 

    I. Modal verbs: Should, need, dare ...
    There are many modal verbs In English including should, need, dare etc.
             Using should, need, dare in sentences:
           a. Teachers should get acquainted with competences in early childhood 
           b. Some years back, parents daren’t take their kids to school

           c. We all need learn about early childhood education

    A. Uses of should 
    i. Modal verb should is used to express a moral obligation as in examples below:
    a. We should love one another
    b. Children should obey their parents, teachers and neighbours.
    c. You should not do such a mistake.
    ii. Should is also used in criticism
    Example: You shouldn’t eat too much.

    N.B. in past context, we use should+ have+ past participle to mean that 
    something was necessary but wasn’t done.
    Elijah should have brought the child to school last week. (He didn’t bring the 
    Margaret should have learnt how to teach young children. (she didn’t learn it)
    You shouldn’t have eaten too much. (you ate too much: criticism)
    B. Use of need
    i. Need is used to express necessity.
              a. They needn’t come today. There aren’t many things to do.
              b. This kid needs sleep.

    In past context, we use need+ have+ past participle to mean that something 
    was not necessary but it was done.
    Why did you go to Kigali? You needn’t have gone there because you had his 
    phone number.
    Tom wasted his money. He needn’t have bought another pair of shoes. The child 
    has many pairs.
    ii. Need can also behave like a normal verb and take an auxiliary.
             a. Do children need care in early childhood education?
             b. Brian doesn’t need a toy. He has many.
             c. use of dare
    Dare is used when the action is taken bravely or in abnormal situations.
    How dare you treat the kids like this?
    I dare say that you are our hero!

    N.B. Dare can be used as other normal verbs and take an auxiliary.
    Example: She didn’t dare to talk to them.
    C. Exercises on the uses of should, needn’t and dare
    1) Complete sentences with should, needn’t, dare
         a. Why ……rich people help the poor?
         b. How … insult others?
         c. She …….have come here. It was not necessary.
    2) Using need, should and dare, write one paragraph about teaching in Early 
    II. Adjective’s degrees of comparison
          a. Adult people are interested in games.
          b. Adolescents are more interested in games than adults.

           c. Young children are the most interested in games of all.

    In sentence one, the adjective “interested” is used with adult people only. It is 
    In sentence two, adolescents are compared with adults. More interested…
    than,.... It is comparative degree.
    In sentence three, young children are compared with adolescents and adults, 
    (the most interested ..of..). it is superlative degree.
    In English language there are three degrees of comparison:
    1. Positive degree: 
    Example: Jack is tall.
    2. Comparative degree
    In comparative degree, there are three levels of comparison:

    i) Equality: as + adj. + as 
    a. Jack is as tall as Mary or Jack is tall, so is Mary. 
    b. A girl child is as important as a boy child or 
    c. A girl child is important and so is a boy child.

    ii. Inferiority:
    Not as +adj.+ as; less+ adj.+ than; adj. of minor value+ than or not so +adj. +as
          a. Adults are not as interested in games as kids.
          b. Bruce is not so tall as Jack.
          c. Charles is less intelligent than Assia.

          d. Thierry is shorter than his sister.

    iii) Superiority 
    Adjective (of major value) + er + than, more + polysyllabic or verbal adjective. 
    + than
    a. Fabiola was quicker than Alpha 
    b. This machine is more expensive than that one.
    c. Enock is more tired than Teddy. 

    3. Superlative degree
    The+ adjective +est + of/in or the + most + polysyllabic or verbal adjective+ of/
    a. Who is the quickest learner of your class?
    b. The most difficult thing in life is to manage oneself.
    c. Constance was the most excited of all.

    Irregular comparison
    Adjective                               comparative                                    Superlative
    Good/well:                          better…than                                     (the) best
    Bad/ill                                   worse…than                                    (the) worst 
    Far                                          farther…than                                   (the) farthest
    Near                                      nearer…than                                     (the) nearest
    Old                                         older….than                                       (the) oldest
    Late                                        latter....than                                      (the) latest

    Many/much                         more…than                                      (the) most

    1. Complete the sentences with the correct comparison form
         a. Both Kelly and Kenia are intelligent but Kenia is the………. Of the two.
         b. My results in exams are………than I expected ( good)
         c. Who is the…….man in the world? (rich)
         d. Innocent is my … Of course he is ……than me(old)
    2. Write about duties and responsibilities of educational stakeholders using 

         modal verbs and adjective’s degrees of comparison.

               5. 5. Spelling and pronunciation

          Use dictionaries and thesaurus to find the missing pronunciations and meanings 

          of the words in the following table.


                   5.6 END UNIT ASSESSMENT
     A. Complete the sentences using should, shouldn’t and the words in 
         brackets egg.
    1. You have a great job as early childhood officer; you …………….. 
         (change) it.
    2. You…………….. (drink) so much coffee; it’s bad for your blood 
    3. The government…………….. (help) Pre-primary schools more 
          than other schools.
    4. It’s an incredible film. Children……………… (watch) it.
    5. It’s a very dangerous area. Little children…………….. (go) there.
    6. Do you think……………. (I/apply) for a new job as a head teacher 
        of Kagarama nursery school?
    7. You ………….. (go) to that restaurant. The food is terrible.
    8. Children are aware that when someone does you a favour, 
         you………(say) thank you.
    9. Children…………… (drink) sugary drinks. It’s not very healthy.
    B. Debate about the importance of early child hood education.

    Topic: Early child hood education does not contribute to any further 
    C. Write an article describing the role of early child education in further 

         academic performances and parental involvement.


          Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of Cultural diversity 

                                                      and African development


          Picture interpretation 


    1. Describe some aspects of the Rwandan culture that you observed in 
         the above pictures.
    2. Why do you think it is important to respect every one’s culture?
    3. Explain the importance of cultural diversity in someone’s life.
    4. Give reasons why people would migrate from a country or city to 


                6.1 Describing Being in a Foreign Country


    Text: Stages of culture shock

    Culture shock! You are lost, standing confused in a new place, unable to tell left 
    from right, up from down, phone booths from waste bins or con-artists from 
    friends. But this image of sudden shock isn’t quite right. In reality, culture shock 
    is a phenomenon that can take months to develop. Culture shock tends to move 
    through four different phases: wonder, frustration, depression, and acceptance. 

    The first stage is the wonder phase, also known as the “honeymoon” phase. It’s 
    often very positive. You’re fascinated with the language, the people, and the 
    food. The trip seems like the greatest thing you’ve ever done. It’s an adventure 
    and you enjoy everything! 

    The second is a difficult stage of culture shock called frustration, familiar to 
    anyone who has lived abroad or travelled for a long time. You don’t understand 
    gestures. You get laughed at or you offend a little old lady without knowing why. 
    You feel angry often and miss your own culture. 

    The worst stage of culture shock is depression. You are homesick and sad all of 
    the time. It’s hard to be so far away, especially if you’re all by yourself. It feels like 
    nothing will ever be fine again until you return home. The forth is acceptance 
    and comes after weeks and months of struggling through a thousand different 
    emotions, acceptance finally arrives like a warm bath at the end of a hard day.

    Acceptance does not mean total understanding-it’s almost impossible to ever 
    completely understand another culture-but involves the realization that you 
    don’t have to “get” it all. You find what makes you happy and content in your 

    new surroundings.

                       Extracted from English for Rwanda Schools by SDB Publishers

    Comprehension questions
    1. State the phases that culture shock moves through.
    2. Describe the feeling that a person has in the wonder phase.
    3. How does a person feel during the frustration phase?
    4. What is the feeling of a person who goes through the phase of depression?
    5. Prove that acceptance does not mean total understanding in the context 

         of cultural diversity.

                  6.1.1 APPLICATION ACTIVITY

               Vocabulary, sentence construction and composition writing

                1. Match the words in the table below with their meanings.


             2. Construct one meaningful sentence with each of the words in the 
                   above table.
             3. Write 350 word composition on the topic “How to cope with cultural 

                   diversity in a new country.”

                 6.2 Comparing cultures


     In trying to compare cultures one has first to establish some working definition 
    of culture. There is a Chinese proverb which says that “the fish did not discover 
    water.” Similarly no one discovers culture by staying at home. It so intimately 
    shapes our lives that we only become aware of it under special circumstances, 
    when we encounter difference. Experiencing culture happens in the pluralism
    of cultures. We are not aware of the first until we have experienced the second. 
    Culture begins to lose its invisibility when we become aware that there are 
    many other ways of fulfilling the basic needs of human lives and of interpreting 

    Not only are there different cultures but some are more different than others. 
    The profounder the differences encountered in another culture are, the deeper 
    the perspective one can gain on his own culture will be. My experience in China 
    revealed ways in which my own resembled the European ones I had previously 
    found so different. For example, in my own experience I encountered an 
    interesting case of cultural differences when I was working on a women’s 
    studies project. In the United States feminists were complaining that the 
    marriage ceremony discriminated against women because the new couple was 
    pronounced man and woman. The women was thereby “denatured” in some 
    way by being shifted into a social role whereas the man retained his essential 

    and primary identity. 

    In France feminists were having similar complaints even though the French 
    marriage ceremony pronounces the couple husband and wife. Complaints were 
    still abundant, however, this time that the man was being given a full and more 
    differentiated social identity whereas the woman was stuck in her original 
    natural identity. The obvious point to be made from this comparison was that 
    the idea of “nature” is itself not only subject to definition but to value judgments.

    Looking back at this after a year in China, I am impressed not only with the 
    differences between the French and American women but also with what they 
    share when compared to Chinese women. American and French women reveal 
    different cultural orientations within western civilization. Both, however, 
    have had to fight for their rights whereas in China social legislation of the 
    fifties immediately established equality between the sexes. When jobs were 
    distributed by the government there was never a question of discrimination 
    in employment. In an attempt to overcompensate for past discrimination, 
    the government provided maternity benefits for new mothers which are 
    very generous with leaves ranging from six months to six years. With such a 
    background Chinese women were shocked at certain consequences of those 
    recent economic reforms. When obliged to make a profit, work units resisted 
    becoming responsible for the cost of having women among their employees.

    Both language and culture claim special reality for what they carve out as 
    significant, as “natural” even. We become aware of our language when we step 
    out of habitual uses for a time, for example, when we study the way others 
    use their language. Similarly to become aware of our own culture most readily 
    we need to encounter that of someone else. To become aware of what related 
    western cultures have in common it is useful to move into radically different 

    ones arising in the East.

    Adapted from: The Languages of China, Robert Ramsey, 

    Princeton University Press, 1987.

               Comprehension questions
    1. Approve and explain the saying “no one discovers culture by staying at 
    2. Explain how feminists in the United States perceived women 

    3. What did feminists in France complain about?

    4. How did French and American women come together against Chinese 

    5. Do you agree that encountering other cultures makes us aware of our 

          own culture? Justify your answer.

             6.2.2 APPLICATION ACTIVIT


                  6.3 Describing customs


                             Text: Origin and importance of customs

    A custom is defined as a cultural idea that describes a regular, patterned way 
    of behaving that is considered characteristic of life in a social system. Shaking 
    hands, bowing and kissing are all customs: they›re ways of greeting people 
    that help to distinguish one society from another. They help maintain social 
    harmony and unity within a group. 

    Societal customs often start out of habit. A man clasps the hand of another upon 
    first greeting him. The other man and others, who are watching, take note. When 
    they later meet someone on the street, they extend a hand. After a while, the 
    handshaking action becomes habit and takes on a life of its own. It becomes the 
    norm to adhere to the custom, and customs are often followed without any real 
    understanding of why they exist or how they got started. Customs persist for 
    generations, as new members of a society learn about existing customs through 

    a process of socialization.

    Importantly, different cultures often have different customs: something 
    that is an established custom in one society may not be a custom in another 
    society. For example, while one of the traditional breakfast foods in the United 
    States is cereal, breakfast in other societies might include dishes such as soup 

    or vegetables.

    Customs exist among all types of societies, including both more industrialized 
    and less industrialized societies. Interestingly, their nature doesn’t change 
    based on literacy, industrialization or other external factors. They are what 
    they are, and they can impact the society they are a part of. They tend to be 
    more powerful in less industrialized societies, however. Over time, customs 

    become the law of social life. They create and maintain harmony in a society. 

    For example, after handshaking becomes a norm, an individual who declines to 
    offer his hand upon meeting another may be looked down upon and perceived 


    Consider what might happen if a whole segment of a population suddenly 
    decided to stop shaking hands, assuming that handshaking was a very important 
    custom in that society. Animosity might grow between the hand shakers and 
    the non-shakers, spreading into other areas. Hand shakers might assume that, 
    if the non-shakers won’t shake hands, maybe it’s because they’re unwashed or 
    dirty. Or maybe the non-shakers feel that they’re superior and don’t want to 
    sully themselves by touching the hands of an inferior person.

    Because customs are so important to social harmony, the breaking of a custom 
    could theoretically result in an upheaval that has little or nothing to do with the 
    custom itself, particularly when the reasons perceived for breaking it have no 

    bearing in fact.

    Adapted from Customs: Their Importance in Society, by Ashley Crossman, 

    Dec, 2018

             Comprehension questions
    1. Using suitable examples from the text, define the term custom.
    2. Determine the importance of customs in a society.
    3. Explain how customs often start and become a law of social life.
    4. Show how customs differ from culture to another.
    5. Discuss the power of customs in industrialized and less industrialized 

    6. Assess the impact of breaking a well-established custom in a society.

                 6.3.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY

             Vocabulary, sentence construction and summary writing

    1. Find the meanings of the following terms used in the above text
             a) …handshaking… (paragraph 2)
             b) …socialization… (paragraph 2)
             c) …segment… (paragraph 4)
             d) …animosity… (paragraph 4)
             e) …sully… (paragraph 4)
              f) Upheaval… (paragraph 4)
    2. Use the above words in grammatically correct sentences.
    3. In not more than 60 words, summarize the above passage about the 

         origin and importance of customs.

             6.4 Describing traditional Rwandan Culture


                    Text: Rwandan Traditions and Culture

    In the Rwandan culture, it is considered extremely rude to eat in public. People 
    are not supposed to eat on the street, in public transportation, and sometimes 
    even during big parties in the presence of strangers. In addition, traditionally 
    adults don’t eat in front of their in-laws. In the past, adults could not even eat in 
    front of their own children and would often take their food into their bedroom. 
    Some men would only eat food cooked by their wives and refuse to eat any food 
    cooked by a housekeeper. It was said in the past that women were not supposed 
    to eat goat meat, for two reasons: it would make them grow beard, and become 
    stubborn. However, it is now believed such assumptions were invented by 

    greedy men who wanted all the good meat for themselves. 

    Going out to eat at restaurants is actually a fairly new concept that has only 
    taken hold with the influence of foreigners. In the recent past, if a man or a 
    couple went out to eat, it meant that the wife was a bad cook or that the man 
    did not have a wife

    at all. Even today, there are many Rwandans who generally do not dine out. 

    In the past, it was considered a taboo for in-laws to eat at a married couple’s 
    house. It was also taboo for them to stay the night and they would have to find 
    another place in the neighborhood to stay. Rwandans say that drinking milk 
    makes women beautiful. 

    When there is a beautiful woman, Rwandans might say that she must have 
    drunk a lot of milk. If you invite someone or even multiple people out to dinner 
    or drinks, it is expected that you will pay for them. When Rwandans are served 
    a bottle of beer with a glass, they will sometimes pour a few drops into the 
    glass, swish the liquid around, and then pour it on the ground behind them. 

    This serves two functions: it symbolizes sharing the drink with ancestors and 
    also helps clean out the glass. When a guest stops by for a visit to a friend or 
    family member, it is expected that the host will offer him or her something to 
    drink. The most common drink is Fanta or beer. It is considered very rude to 
    offer water, at least not until the guest has finished the first drink. 

    When a married couple has children, their names essentially change to reflect 
    the identity of their first-born child. For example, if parents are named Joshua 
    and Gloria. As soon as they get their first baby-girl and call her Simbi, everyone 
    who knows them (friends, family members, community members, neighbours, 
    perhaps even colleagues) would start to call them Papa Simbi and Mama Simbi. 

    People hence start considering them as having enriched their identity and 
    recognition with a family and address. However this practice was borrowed 
    from other African Countries such as the Democratic Repuplic of Congo (DRC) 
    When a couple is planning a wedding, the man and the woman separately hold 
    numerous “planning meetings” at which they meet with their friends and family 
    to organize and finalize the details for the marriage.

    One of the ways that the family of a bride prepares for a wedding is to plant 
    a few banana trees along the road leading to their house. In the past this was 
    done to show that the family was relatively wealthy, because it was implied that 

    they could also supply their guests with banana beer from their banana trees. 

    When a man and a woman share the bed, the man always sleeps on the side of 

    door so that he may protect his wife in the case of an intruder or a problem. 

    It is considered a serious taboo for an unmarried man to spend the night at 
    an unmarried woman’s home. This is part of a larger discussion about gender 
    and double standards/disparate access and opportunities: it is not acceptable 
    for women to go out dancing without men. If they do so, they will be taken for 


    It is forbidden for a married person to pronounce the name of his or her mother
    in-law or father-in-law. When greeting them or even describing them to others, 
    people cannot say their name and have to describe them instead. They cannot 

    even share meals. 

    If a woman sews at night or in the dark, people will discourage her by saying that 
    she is sewing her parents’ eyes shut. This is most likely to prevent women from 
    straining their eyes by sewing under faint light. Whistling at night is considered 
    a taboo as it is believed to be a way of summoning snakes. It is also a taboo for a 
    woman to whistle at any time of the day for she would be considered as male. If 
    you have the hiccups, people say that someone is talking about you. When you 

    have a twitch on your eye or face, people believe it is a good omen.

                         Extracted from English language, senior 6, by REB

           Comprehension questions 
    a. Explain five aspects of the Rwandan culture as discussed in the above 
    b. Describe the wedding process in the Rwandan culture as portrayed in the 

          above passage.

              6.4.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITIES
       Vocabulary, sentence construction and summary writing
    1. Give the meaning of the following words and expressions as used in 
         the above passage: 
         a. extremely rude 
         b. invented by greedy men 
         c. considered taboo 
         d. to pour 
         e. symbolizes 
          f. to reflect 
         g. a bride 
          h. double standards 
          i. faint light 
          j. a twitch 
    2. Use the above words and phrases to construct meaningful sentences 
         as used in the passage.

    3. Write an eighty-word paragraph about any other aspect of the 
         Rwandan culture that you know. 

    4. Imagine you have a friend from another community where they are 
         not aware of your culture and he would like to come and work for a 
         project in your community. Write a detailed letter to him describing 

         both your traditional culture and modern culture. 

             6.5 Reporting a migration story


                   Text: A Clash of Cultures


    Ms Yusuf is a young Somali woman aged 19 who left Somaliland in late 2017 
    following the death of her father. “After my father died I could not find anyone 
    who could cater for my needs. In fact, nobody could provide the same support 
    to me; so I decided to leave the area.” She travelled on her own to Yemen and 
    experienced a very new culture from the time of her arrival. “The culture was 
    different from the Somaliland culture I was used to. Someone had to accompany 

    me when I wanted to go to the market.”

    After a difficult year in Yemen, Ms Yusuf decided to return to Somaliland in 
    November 2018. “It is very difficult to start a small business in Yemen as the 
    nationals will tell you that they are unemployed, hence how can a foreigner 
    make a business in their country? The security also got worse and resulted in 

    explosions in Sana, Yemen. You live in fear.

    “IOM (International organization for migration) provided me with health 
    support and transportation from Yemen and to our final destination in 
    Somaliland.” In the future Ms Yusuf hopes to specialize in health and or technical 
    skills. She wants other Somalis especially women to know that “life in Yemen is 

    very difficult and only housemaid work is available. 

    For women it’s very difficult to get out as you risk your life. It’s also difficult to 
    use public taxis without anyone accompanying you as they could kidnap you; 

    and you may end up being raped-who knows?”

    Adapted from

          Comprehension questions
    1. How did Ms. Yussuf find herself in Yemen?
    2. Describe the cultural shock that Ms. Yussuf experienced in Yemen
    3. Why is it difficult for foreigners to start a business in Yemen?
    4. How did the international organization for migration help MsYussuf?
    5. What does Yussuf’s plan for the future?

    6. What is Yussuf’s advice to her fellow Somalis? 

            Vocabulary, sentence construction and composition writing
           1. Use the dictionary and thesaurus to find the meanings of the words 

                 in the table below


            2. Construct one correct sentence with each of the above words.
           3. Write a 300 word composition on the topic “No place is better than 


                 6.6 Describing causes of migration


                    Text: Factors of migration


    People migrate for a number of reasons. These reasons may fall under four 
    areas that are environmental, economic, cultural and socio-political reasons. 
    Within all these, there are some that may be seen as ‘Push’ or ‘Pull’ factors. Push 
    factors force individuals to move out voluntarily, and in many cases, they are 
    forced because they are risking something if they stay. 

    Push factors may include conflict, drought, famine, or religious based 
    discrimination. Poor economic activity and lack of job opportunities.

    Other strong push factors include race and discriminating cultures, political 
    intolerance and persecution. Pull factors are those factors in the destination 
    country that attract the individuals or groups to leave their home. Those factors 
    are known as place utility, which is the desirability of a place that attracts people. 

    Better economic opportunities, more jobs, and the promise of a better life 
    often pull people into new locations. Sometimes, individuals have ideas and 
    perceptions about places that are not necessarily correct, but are strong pull 
    factors for them. As people grow older and retire, many look for places with 
    warm weather, peaceful and comfortable locations in order to spend their 

    retirement after a lifetime of hard work and savings. 

    Such ideal places are pull factors too. Very often, People consider and prefer 
    opportunities closer to their locations than similar opportunities farther away. 
    In the same spirit, people often like to move to places with better cultural, 
    political, climatic and general terrain in closer locations than locations farther 
    away. It is rare to find people move over very long distances in order to settle in 
    places that they have little knowledge of. 

                     Extracted from English Language, senior 6, by REB

             Comprehension questions 
    1. State and explain the reasons why people migrate. 
    2. Assume there are migrants who come to your home area. Explain how 

         you would treat them.

        Vocabulary, sentence and essay writing
    1. Find the meaning of the following words referring the passage above.
           a. Migrate
           b. Push factor
           c. Political intolerance
           d. Vein
           e. Peaceful and comfortable 
    2. Construct meaningful sentences with each of the following words and 
             a. Migrate 
             b. Push factor 
             c. Political intolerance 
             d. Vein 
             e. Peaceful and comfortable
    3. Suppose you experienced a situation involving ‘culture shock’. Write 
         an essay of about 350 words showing the right way of behaving in 

         such a situation.

                  6.7 Describing cultural diversity


                 Text: Importance of culture diversity

    Why is cultural diversity a good thing? Culture is the lens with which we 
    evaluate everything around us; we evaluate what is proper or improper, normal 
    or abnormal.

    If we are immersed in a culture that is different from ours, we can experience 
    culture shock and become disoriented when we come into contact with a 
    fundamentally different culture. People naturally use their own culture as a 
    yard stick to judge other cultures. Such judgment could reach to a level whereby 
    people tend to discriminate against others whose ways of living are different 
    from theirs.

    People fear essentially what they don’t understand. Cultural diversity is 
    inevitable since in our country, at our workplaces, and schools there exist 
    increasingly various cultural, racial, and ethnic groups. We can learn from one 
    another, but first we should have a level of understanding about each other in 
    order to facilitate collaboration and cooperation.

    Learning about other cultures helps us understand different perspectives 
    within the world in which we live, and helps dispel negative stereotypes and 
    personal biases about different groups.

    In addition, cultural diversity can help us recognize and respect “ways of being” 
    that are not necessarily our own, so that as we interact with others we can 
    build bridges to trust, respect, and have more understanding across cultures. 
    Furthermore, this diversity makes our country a more interesting place to live in. 
    Indeed, people from diverse cultures contribute to the development of language 
    skills, new ways of thinking, new knowledge, and different experiences.

    How can you support cultural diversity? You ought to increase your level of 
    understanding about other cultures by interacting with people outside your 
    own culture. Meaningful relationships may never develop simply due to a lack 
    of appreciation of others’ cultural values. You should avoid imposing your own 
    values on others as that may conflict or be inconsistent with their beliefs. You 
    ought to recognize and understand that concepts such as family ties, gender 
    roles, spirituality, and emotional well-being, vary significantly among cultures 

    and impact on behavior.

    Within the workplace, educational setting, and clinical setting, advocate for 
    the use of materials that are representative of the various cultural groups in 
    the local community and the society in general. You should intervene in an 
    appropriate manner when you observe others engaging in behaviors that show 
    cultural insensitivity, bias, or prejudice. You ought to be proactive in listening, 
    accepting, and welcoming people and ideas that are different from your own. 

    Cultural diversity supports the idea that every person can make a unique and 
    positive contribution to the larger society in spite of their differences. Imagine 
    a place where diversity is recognized and respected; various cultural ideas 
    are acknowledged and valued; contributions from all groups are encouraged; 
    people are empowered to achieve their full potential; and differences are 


          Extracted from English language, Senior six student book, 

          by Rwanda Education Board.

           Comprehension questions 
    1. Discuss the dangers of judging other people on the basis of your own 
    2. Basing on the above text, tell how cultural diversity can improve 
         someone’s life perspectives? 
    3. How did the writer advise people who do different activities (restaurant, 

         hotels,) in terms of cultural diversity?

        Vocabulary, debate, sentence and essay writing 
    1. Use a dictionary, a thesaurus or internet to find the meanings of the 
         following words as used in the passage. 
            a. yard stick
            b. diversity
            c. family ties

            d. proactive
            e. bias
             f. prejudice
    2. Construct different meaningful sentences using the above words and 
         phrases from the 
    3. Debate on this motion “Cultural Diversity is a blessing, not a loss of 
         one’s identity”. 

    4. Write an essay talking about the importance of cultural diversity

              6.8 Describing cultural general challenges


                     Text: Cultural clash in expectations

    Gabriela worked for a multinational company as a successful project manager 
    in Brazil and was transferred to manage a team in Sweden. She was excited 
    about her new role but soon realized that managing her new team would be a 

    Despite their friendliness, Gabriela didn’t feel respected as a leader. Her new 
    staff would question her proposals openly in meetings, and when she gave 
    them instructions on how to carry out a task, they would often go about it in 
    their own way without checking with her. When she announced her decisions 
    on the project, they would continue giving their opinions as if it was still up for 
    discussion. After weeks of frustration, Gabriela emailed her Swedish manager 
    about the issues she was facing with her team. Her manager simply asked her 
    if she felt her team was still performing, and what she thought would help her 
    better collaborate with her team members. Gabriela found her manager vague 

    and didn’t feel as if he was managing the situation satisfactorily.

    What Gabriela was experiencing was a cultural clash in expectations. She was 
    used to a more hierarchical framework where the team leader and manager 
    took control and gave specific instructions on how things were to be done. This 
    more directive management style worked well for her and her team in Brazil 
    but did not transfer well to her new team in Sweden, who were more used to a 
    flatter hierarchy where decision making was more democratic. When Gabriela 
    took the issue to her Swedish manager, rather than stepping in with directions 
    about what to do, her manager took on the role of coach and focused on getting 
    her to come up with her own solutions instead.

    Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede uses the concept of ‘power distance’ to 
    describe how power is distributed and how hierarchy is perceived in different 
    cultures. In her previous work environment, Gabriela was used to a high power 
    distance culture where power and authority are respected and everyone has 
    their rightful place. In such a culture, leaders make the big decisions and are 
    not often challenged. Her Swedish team, however, were used to working in a 
    low power distance culture where subordinates often work together with their 
    bosses to find solutions and make decisions. Here, leaders act as coaches or 
    mentors who encourage independent thought and expect to be challenged.

    When Gabriela became aware of the cultural differences between her and her 
    team, she took the initiative to have an open conversation with them about their 
    feelings about her leadership. Pleased to be asked for their thoughts, Gabriela’s 
    team openly expressed that they were not used to being told what to do. They 
    enjoyed having more room for initiative and creative freedom. When she told 
    her team exactly what she needed them to do, they felt that she didn’t trust 
    them to do their job well. They realised that Gabriela was taking it personally 
    when they tried to challenge or make changes to her decisions, and were able 

    to explain that it was how they’d always worked.

    With a better understanding of the underlying reasons behind each other’s 
    behaviour, Gabriela and her team were able to adapt their way of working. 
    Gabriela was then able to make adjustments to her management style so as to 
    better fit the expectations of her team and more effectively motivate her team 

    to achieve their goals.

    Extracted from


           Comprehension questions
    1. Why did Gabriella feel disrespected?
    2. How did Gabriella’s Swedish manager react when she informed him 
        about her frustration?
    3. Explain how Gabriella experienced culture clash against her 
    4. Contrast Gabriella’s work environment in Brazil and Sweden.
    5. What did Gabriella do when she became aware of the cultural differences 
          between her and her new team?
    6. Assess Gabriella’s initiative result.
    7. Examine the advantage of understanding better the underlying reasons 

         behind each other’s behavior.

         Vocabulary, sentence construction, summary writing and research.
    1. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus to find the meanings of the words and 

          in the table bellow


                 6.9 Key Rwandan Values


                 Text: Celebrating Rwanda’s Cultural Values


    The national harvest day was an event that came second to the enthronization
    of a new king. “Umuganura”-literally “Thanks Giving day” was performed by 
    Rwandans at the beginning of every harvest. It was a very big event in the 
    kingdom as Rwandans celebrated the achievements in terms of harvest both at 
    the kingdom and family level.

    The trace for this event, when exactly it was first celebrated remains evasive; 
    no exact date is pronounced as to when this event could have been introduced 
    in Rwanda. But research in this field connects it with the introduction of 
    agriculture in Rwanda during the 3rd century.

    In the beginning of the celebration of ‘Umuganura’ Rwandans focused mainly 
    on staple foods like sorghum and finger millet. From history, the celebration 
    of ‘Umuganura’ used to be a unifying factor for all Rwandans through acts of 
    sharing what they had produced either at the family level, in the village or 
    as a kingdom. The rich and the poor, the higher and middle families all came 
    together and shared what they had without exclusion as a form of promoting 

    Rwandan cultural values.

    As a form of preserving Rwandan Culture, the celebration of ‘Umuganura’ educates 
    the young generation on the value and power of safeguarding the past legacy
    for edutainment purposes. At the heart of every Rwandan in and outside the 
    country, the event helps raise awareness among Rwandans, friends of Rwanda 
    and policy makers on how the ‘Umuganura’ celebration was a very significant 
    part in creating unity in diversity. This kind of tradition in Rwanda always brings 
    to view the past with the positive cultural values that we can use to build, unite 

    and reconcile Rwanda as a nation.

    Adapted from TheNewTimes

         Comprehension questions
    1. Describe the national harvest day in the history of Rwanda.
    2. Explain how the harvest day plays a unifying role for all Rwandans.
    3. Assess the contribution of the harvest day for preserving the Rwandan 
    4. How can cultural values brought in your mind by the harvest day be used 

         to build Rwanda as a nation?

            6.9.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY
         Vocabulary and sentence writing and research
    1. Use a dictionary or thesaurus to find the meanings of the following 
             a) …enthronization… (paragraph 1)
             b) …evasive… (paragraph 2)
             c) …staple food… (paragraph 3)
             d) …unifying… (paragraph 3)
             e) …safeguarding… (paragraph 4)
              f) …legacy… (paragraph 4)

             g) …edutainment… (paragraph 4)

    2. Construct one correct sentence with each of the above words.
    3. Conduct a research on Rwanda cultural values and their contribution for 

          unifying Rwandans.

            6.10 Language structure: Adverbs of time and adverbs of 



      I. Adverbs of time

    Adverbs of time modify the meaning of a sentence by telling us when, for how 
    long, an action happens. Many adverbs of time are the same as adverbs of 
    frequency. There is quite a bit of overlap between these two types of adverbs.
    Here are some examples of adverbs of time:
          • yesterday
          • today
          • tomorrow
          • later
          • now
          • last year
          • since 1999/Monday/3 o’clock etc.,
          • all day/month/week etc.,
          • for a week/a year/a 100 years etc.,

    Adverbs of time tell us when an action happened, but also for how long, and 
    how often. Some adverbs tell us how often express the exact number of times 
    an action happens or happened. These adverbs are usually placed at the end of 
    the sentence. Many adverbs that express frequency can also be placed at either 
    the beginning or the end of the sentence.

    Yet is used in questions and in negative sentences to indicate that something 
    that has not happened or may not have happened but is expected to happen. 
    It is placed at the end of the sentence or after not. Still expresses continuity. In 
    positive sentences it is placed before the main verb and after auxiliary verbs 
    such as be, have, might, will. If the main verb is to be, then place still after it 

    rather than before. In questions, still goes before the main verb.


         a. We are going to church on Sunday for prayer but we fear that we don’t 
             know their culture.
        b. She is going to have a baby soon being in a foreign country.
        c. My father went to Chile last year for a vacation.
        d. We eventually went to a pub after eating.
        e. He has already been to Canada three times but he does not know their 

        II. Adverbs of place
    Adverbs of place tell us about an aspect of location associated with the action of 
    a verb, specifying the direction, distance, movement, or position involved in the 
    action. They are specific to actions of verbs and they cannot be used to modify 
    adverbs or adjectives.

    Simple rules for adverbs of place:
          • An adverb of place always expresses about the location where the 
                  action of the verb is being carried out.
          • Adverbs of place can be directional. For example: Up, down, north, 
               around, southwest, away
          • Adverbs of place can denote distances. For example: Nearby, far away, 
             miles apart
         • Many adverbs of place specify movement in a specific direction and 
            end in the letters “-ward or -wards”. For example: Toward, forward, 
             backward, homeward, westward, eastwards onwards
        • An adverb of place can point out an object’s position in relation to 
          another object. For example: Below, between, above, behind, through, 
          around and so forth.
    As far as the position of adverbs of place in a sentence is concerned, adverbs 
    of place generally appear immediately after the main verb in a sentence if it 

    is intransitive, or else after the verb’s object if it is transitive. 

    For example:
    a. We were walking north. (intransitive—adverb follows the verb)
    b. He kicked the ball into the field. (transitive—adverb follows the object)
    N.B. We can use prepositions to talk about:

    1. Places or locations.
    a. He was standing by the pool.
    b. You’ll find it in the lobby.
    c. Sign your name here, at the end of the page.
    d. The compartment door is very small so it’s difficult to get into it.

    2. Direction
    a. Walk past the bank and keep going to the end of the highway.
    b. We were in London. Birmingham was 250 kilometres away.

     3. Distance
         a. Birmingham is 250 kilometers from London.
         b. He is sitting at a hundred meters from his house.
    I. Choose the best answer to complete each of these sentences.
    1. Close the door when you go ___________.
    2. The baby is hiding down there under the table.
    3. The cat is hiding_______________ the couch.
    4. Will you be starting your plants ________________ or in a greenhouse?
    5. The ship sailed _______________, encountering heavy weather along the way.
    6. When she saw me waiting, she ran __________________ me.
    7. __________________ you live, I will come to that place to live.
    8. He led the caravan, __________________ he wanted to go.
    9. What are you doing _________there?
    10. ________________we went, people greeted us warmly as they do it in their 
    II. Write a paragraph using adverbs of time, place and comparison of adjectives 

         talking about cultural diversity.

            6.11 END UNIT ASSESSMENT 
    I. Complete the sentences, using the positive, comparative and 
        superlative of the adjectives in brackets.
    1. Jane’s culture is ………………….. than mine. (good)
    2. I think living in your country is ……………….. than living in foreign 
         countries. (happy)
    3. He thinks this test was …………….. than the last one. (difficult)
    4. They live in a really ……………….. house. (beautiful)
    5. She is the ………………. tennis player of the world. (good)
    6. Susan is a …………….. girl. She’s much ……………….. than her sister. 
    (nice / nice)
    7. My aunt’s customs are ……………. than ours. (adaptable)
    8. Hotels in London are …………….. than in Vienna. (expensive)
    9. Bob is ………….. than Keith but Philip is the …………… (tall / tall)
    II. Construct grammatically correct sentences with the following words
    1. Tolerated
    2. Cultural diversity
    3. Belief
    4. Customs
    5. Immigrant

    III. Write an essay describing the importance of cultural diversity.


       Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of Human rights 

         and Ethics



                   7.1 Describing rights


                   Text: Human rights violations

    Human rights violations include death of innocent people due to war. A war 
    brings suffering and devastation, irrespective of the cause. The fundamental 
    rights of an individual are assaulted during a war. Torture, capture, prisoners of 
    war, slavery, etc. are all types of human rights violations due to war. Genocide 
    is one of the biggest human rights violations. Genocide can occur due to racial 
    enmity, religious wars, or singling out an ethnic group.

    The crimes against women, especially rape, are also among the greatest human 
    rights violations. Women, girls, are raped and sexually tortured all around the 
    world. Women are forced into prostitution and sexual slavery, during war and 
    even during peace. There are many forced pregnancies and forced abortions 
    carried out on women. Sexual mutilation and sexual humiliations are human 
    rights violations that many women young and old have to face. And this is not 
    just seen in under developed, war ridden or male dominated societies around 
    the world. Rape and sexual analysis of women is also common in the so-called 
    developed and civilized countries we live in. I am sure many women will agree 
    there is rampant sexual harassment faced by them in their jobs, while travelling 
    and even made passes at, by those they think are their confidants. 

    In some countries, women are not allowed to be born. Yes, female infanticide is 
    still rampant in countries like India, and its neighbouring Asian regions. There 
    are many countries where women are not allowed to a right to education, 
    freedom to choose the man they want to marry, and are kept as slaves than 
    wives, mothers or sisters.

    Child abuse is another form of human rights abuse, where children are forced 
    and violated physically, mentally as well as sexually. Child labour is a human 
    rights violation that takes away the freedom of being a child from a child. Some 
    workers toil under harsh conditions and not being their fair remuneration. Low 
    wages, poor working conditions and in humane treatment melt out are also 

    some of the human rights violations. 

    Adapted from Human rights day: A morbid celebration, by Batul Nafisa 


          Comprehension questions
    1. Assess the impact of war on human rights. 
    2. State some root causes of genocide.
    3. Analyse the consequences of crime against women as one of the great 
        human rights violations.
    4. State some human rights women are deprived from in India and 
         neighbouring Asian regions.
    5. Describe child abuse as one of human rights violations.

    6. State other forms of human rights violations.

            7.1.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY

         Vocabulary, sentence construction, research and presentation.

    1. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus to find the meanings of the words 
          a) …devastation… (paragraph 1)
          b) …enmity… (paragraph 1)
          c) …mutilation… (paragraph 2)
          d) …humiliation… (paragraph 2)
          e) …harassment… (paragraph 2)
           f) …rampant… (paragraph 3)
          g) …infanticide… (paragraph 3)
    2. Construct meaningful sentences with the above words.
    3. Conduct a research aiming at identifying any cases of human rights 
          violations in your area.
    4. Write down measures that you would take on those cases to report 

         to Rwanda investigation bureau. Present your measures to the class. 

             7.2 Describing children’s Rights 


                Text: Convention on the Rights of the Child


      In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed 
    that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance. 

    Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural 
    environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly 
    children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it 
    can fully assume its responsibilities within the community, 

    Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or 
    her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of 
    happiness, love and understanding, 

    Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in 
    society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of 
    the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, 
    freedom, equality and solidarity,

    bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been 
    stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the 
    Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 
    November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in 
    the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 
    23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural 
    Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments 
    of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the 
    welfare of children, bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the 
    Rights of the Child, “the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, 
    needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, 

    before as well as after birth”,

    Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles 
    relating to the protection and welfare of children, with special reference to 
    foster placement and adoption nationally and internationally; the United 
    Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice 
    (The Beijing Rules) ; and the declaration on the protection of women and 
    children in emergency and armed conflict, recognizing that, in all countries in 
    the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and 

    that such children need special consideration. 

         Adapted from

        Comprehension questions
    1. Who is responsible for children’s care and assistance?
    2. Discuss where and when care to the child has been stated referring to 
         the above passage. 
    3. What do the Beijing Rules emphasize?
    4. Are some of children’s rights mentioned in the above passage applied 

         in your community.

         Vocabulary, sentence and summary writing
    1. Use dictionaries and thesauruses to check the meaning of the following 
         words and phrases 
    1. ratification 
    2. accession
    3. preamble 
    4. Covenant
    5. Safeguard

    6. Civil rights


                7.3 Talking about ethics


                Text: The concepts of ethics

    The word ethics etymologically is from the Greek word “ethos” which means 
    “customs” . Ethics is defined as science of good and bad. The modern ethics 
    substitutes notions of good and bad to those of morality, values and anti-value. 

    Ethics can also be defined as the part of human reflection which searches to 
    determine the sense of human life, and means to come to this end. This definition 
    is also applied to philosophy and ethical philosophy.

    Ethics is the branch of philosophy. It is interested in moral and elaborates 
    analysis and theories on nature, function and values of moral judgment. These 
    judgments help us to evaluate our behavior and society organization and to 
    guide our proper actions.

    It treats from the value of good and bad and constitutes then life orientation 
    and engagement for it treats from one value of good and bad and constitutes 

    the life orientation and engagement for wellbeing.

    Academically, ethics is classified among human sciences like philosophy of 
    which it is the part. The society cannot exist if the members do not respect and 
    help one another at least up to a given level. By this, in all societies the same 
    phenomenon is produced. In every society and in every country, it statues and 
    judges that some actions are good and have to be done, whereas others are bad 
    must be avoided and rejected. The ethics questions rise in moral practice. 

    Ethics indicates the ideal to be reached. It shows the way to take and helps 
    to discover positive human values to be cultivated. Its fundamental task is the 

    success of human life, characterized by positive human values. 

    Adapted from:


            Comprehension questions 
    1. What do you understand by the concept of ethics?
    2. In which way ethical judgments help in our day to day life?
    3. What do you think is the purpose of ethics?
    4. After reading the above passage about ethics, examine your community’s 

         ethics and present the findings to the class. 





     One day I was returning home with a heavy water gourd on my back. It had 
    rained very heavily the day before. I made a wrong step, slipped and staggered 
    badly. I lost balance and the gourd fell down and broke into many pieces. I went 
    home trembling with fear and explained to Mukulu what happened. I should 
    have known better. Mukulu snatched the strap with which I had been carrying 
    the gourd and thrashed me with it heavily. I screamed, begging for mercy, but 
    she wouldn’t stop whipping me. She yelled, “is it your mother’s gourd that you 
    have broken, you worthless creature?”

    Despite my pleas, she wouldn’t listen to me. Then I realized that I should run 
    for my life. I slipped out of her hands and run out of the house, but she run after 
    me, whipping me furiously. I was saved by some strokes of good luck when she 
    stumbled over something and fell down heavily. She cursed me heatedly, but by 
    that time, I had run round the granary. 

    That evening Mukulu didn’t give me food. I went to bed on an empty stomach. I 
    couldn’t sleep as my stomach rumbled in hunger. They had eaten sweet potatoes 
    for supper that evening.

    That night I felt so hungry that I thought I would starve to death. So I got up 
    from my bed very quietly, fearing to wake Mukulu. I tiptoed to her bedroom 
    door, pressed my ear against the door and listened. Yes, she was fast asleep, 
    snoring soundly. So I tiptoed to the main door and opened. I went to the kitchen 
    to see whether there were any potatoes left in the pot. I walked holding my 
    breath and my teeth clenched, fearing I would be heard, I inserted the key into 
    the keyhole and opened the door silently. Just as I was getting in, I accidently 
    stepped on a chicken in the dark and it made a lot of noise! I nearly fainted. I 
    heard Mukulu’s voice calling out for Muindu, asking him to go out and see what 
    was disturbing the chicken. I stood there too terrified to know what to do until 

    Muindu came out of the house running...

              An extract from the story “the poor child “by David G. Mailu

     Comprehension questions
    1. Describe the mood of the speaker in the above passage.
    2. Which type of child abuses have been applied to the narrator?
    3. What misfortune happened to the speaker when she went to the kitchen 
         to find some food?
    4. What would you do in the position of the narrator?
    5. Has anything like this ever happened to you? Or do you know any person 
        who has undergone this situation?
    6. How did it end? What helped you?

    7. What do your friends and yourself do to stop child abuse?

                 7.4.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY
         Vocabulary, sentence and composition writing
    I. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the meanings of the words 
        or phrases that follow: use them to construct sentences. 
    1. Gourd
    2. Starve 
    3. Curse
    4. rumble in hunger
    5. tiptoe
    II. Summarize the above story within 10 lines. End with the moral lesson 

       that you have captured from it.



            Text: Fighting against child abuse

    The Secretary General of Rwanda Investigation Bureau (RIB) Jeannot Ruhunga 
    stated that the campaign against child abuse is not the responsibility of a 
    certain single institution but rather a collective effort ifthe vice was to be completely 
    uprooted in the Rwandan society. He made the observation while opening a 
    one-day conference in Kigali aimed at evaluating the progress made in the fight 
    against Gender-based violence (GBV) and what new measures can be taken to 
    ensure this is curtailed.

    “It’s a must for each and everyone who wants to make a meaningful 
    contribution to the future of our nation, to take care of the young generation 
    by shielding them from any form of abuse. Because what we sow in them 
    today, is what we shall harvest in the future. The future of our country lies in 
    the hands of young people,” Ruhunga said.

    The conference, titled “Stop abusing a child” was jointly organized by RIB 
    in partnership with World Vision.

    The main purpose of the meeting was to rally religious organizations, civil 
    society and non-governmental organizations to join the fight against all forms 
    of child abuse.

    Prof Anastase Shyaka, the Minister for Local Government pointed out the 
    particular importance of religious organizations in this fight.

    “Religious entities, which are able to reach out to a lot of people in a short time, 
    are the right partners in advocating for children rights,” he said.

    Through their body, the Rwanda Interfaith Council, the religious entities vowed 
    to support the efforts as stressed by the Mufti of Rwanda, Sheikh Salim Hitimana, 

    who represented the council at the meeting.

    Extract from TheNewTimes

    urged-join-fight-against-child-abuseby Bertrand Byishimo, September 30, 201

         Comprehension questions 
    1. What was the issue discussed in the conference?
    2. Why do you think child abuse is not a responsibility of certain single 
    3. Discuss the speech of the Secretary-General of Rwanda Investigation 
         Bureau (RIB). 
    4. Why do you think Religious entities are responsible for main agents for 

        child abuse?

             7.5.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY



        Text: The Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination 
                    against Women 
    This was adopted in 1979 by the UN. It aims at eliminating any form of political, 
    economic, social, cultural and civil discrimination against women. States are 
    required to enshrine gender equality into their national laws and eliminate 
    customs that promote superiority of one sex or gender role stereotypes. In 
    addition, states should establish tribunals and public institutions to protect 
    women against discrimination. 

    Article 1 of the treaty defines discrimination against women as any distinction, 
    exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose 
    of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, 
    irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, 
    of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, 
    cultural, civil or any other field 

    Article 2 requires states to enshrine gender equality into their national laws 
    and remove all discriminatory provisions in their laws. It also requires them 
    to establish tribunals and public institutions to guarantee women of effective 
    protection against discrimination and eliminate all forms of discrimination 

    against women by individuals, organizations and enterprises. 

    Article 5 requires states to eliminate prejudices and customs that promote the 
    idea of the inferiority or the superiority of one sex or stereotyped roles for men 
    and women.

    A text from general science and communication for Rwandan schools s6 (REB)

        Comprehension questions
    1. When was that convention on the Elimination of All forms of 
          Discrimination against Women adopted?
    2. What did this convention require the government?
    3. Explain in your words what the article 1 defines. 
    4. Discuss some prejudices attributed to women.
    5. Does this convention apply in your community? Explain.

               7.6.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY
         Vocabulary, sentence and composition writing
    1. Improve your vocabulary by using dictionary and thesaurus to look 
    up the meanings of the following words. Exercise yourself to spell them 
          a) Convention 
          b) Enshrine
          c) Tribunals
          d) Impairing
          e) Nullifying
           f) to guarantee
    2. Use the above mentioned words to construct your own sentences. 
    3. Write a story of 2 pages narrating a testimonial of gender bias in your 

         community. Share it to the whole class.

                7.7 Minority rights and inclusiveness

    Kalisa is a 13 young boy and was born in rural village. In his daily activities 
    he had inattention to accomplish tasks and was not able to follow some 
    instructions because of his hyperactivities. His parents had tried to take him to 
    the nearest school in order to help him as other children but his condition did 
    not become good for the classmates, due to the way he interrupted others in 
    class while any activities (taking notes, talking, throwing things, etc.). During 
    the break time he had no stop, running, jumping and driving vehicles. Even 
    though he was overactive he was also interested in playing music with piano or 
    guitar and singing. His teacher has discovered that Kalisa may be good at music 
    and then oriented him to the new teacher who can teach him in the way he 
    can perform in his helpful manner where Kalisa can sing and play music with 
    some instrument as well as he can. The teacher advised parents to take him to 
    the specialist. When Kalisa arrived there he was diagnosed ADHD (Attention 
    Deficit Hyperactive disorder). In three years later he was able to play piano and 
    sing some songs. His parents become happy because of his child’s success and 

    his parents want to support him to make album of his songs. 



      Comprehension questions:
    1. What do you understand by ADHD?
    2. What is the reason that pushed Kalisa to leave his first teacher for the 
        music teacher? 
    3. Can really children with ADHD study in the same class with other children 
        (with or without) disabilities? Explain why?

    4. Is there any strategy to educate children with ADHD?

            7.7.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY  
       Vocabulary, sentence and composition writing
    1. Using dictionary and thesaurus to look up the meaning of the following 
          words and spell them correctly.
         (a) Hyperactivities, (b) overactive, (c) deficit, (d) album
    2. Use them to construct the sentences related to inclusion in education.
    3. Write any a 300 words composition discussing how you can promote 

         inclusion in your class.

      7.8. Language structure: Modal Verbs and passive voice 
           for present tense

    I. Modal verbs 
    1. Definition

    A Modal Verb is a type of auxiliary (helping) verb that is used to convey ideas 
    like talking about ability, asking permission, making requests, talking about 
    things which are desired and so on. This verb can never stand alone in the 
    sentence. It is always with the main verb (full verb)

    We can never say: I can the piano. We will instead say: I can play the piano

    2. Uses of Modal Verbs
    i) How to use the modal verb can
    Can is used when talking about someone’s skill or general abilities. It is also 
    used to make offers, ask and give permission.
    1. Rodgers is patient and humble, he can adapt to any situation. (Ability)
    2. If children’s rights are recognized, a child can follow a career he likes. 
    3. I can play for you a nice piece of music about children’s rights if you like. 

    ii) How to use modal verb should
    Should is used when giving a piece of advice, a recommendation or a suggestion. 
    Very often, should is used instead of must to make rules, orders or instructions 
    sound more polite.
    a. If we are to live peacefully with others, we should avoid prejudices. 
    (Advice, recommendation, suggestion).
    b. We should experience a united community since people now respect 
        each other’s beliefs. (Likely situation).
    c. As tolerance is encouraged in our communities, we should have a more 
        peaceful generation in the future. (Prediction).

    iii) How to use modal verb might and may 
    Might is used to talk about possibilities in the present, past and future. It has 
    the same meaning as may but may is used when one is a bit more sure, while 

    might expresses some doubts. Therefore, may” and “might” can be used: 

    a. To show possibility 
    1. There might be life on Mars, we never know. (In this sentence, the degree of 
        certainty is low) 
    2. There may be life on Mars since they found there water and micro organisms. 
    (In this sentence, the degree of certainty is a bit higher for water and micro 
    organisms are signs of life)

    b. To ask for or give permission: 
    You may go now.
    You may come at eleven if you wish.

    c. To express polite offers, request or suggestions. 
    1. May I borrow the car tomorrow?
    2. May we come a bit later?

    iv) How to use be able to
    We use Was/Were able to describe successful completion of a specific action or 
    am/is/are able to for the ability that we have to do something now. 
    1. ANC was able to fight against apartheid in South Africa.
    2. Even though I am a woman, I am able to drive 

    Construct nine meaningful sentences related to human rights and ethics 
    using each of the following model Verbs: can, may and should. Then read your 

    sentences to the class.

    II. Passive voice for present tense
    The passive voice is used mostly in three ways;
    1. When we don’t want to take responsibility for something. E.g. children’s 
        rights are not respected in some countries)
    2. When we want to focus on what happened but not the one who did the 
         action. E.g. the laws of protecting a woman are broken every day. (We don’t 
          know by who)
    3. When we want to avoid subjects which would make the meaning 
         confusing. E.g. child abuse was talked about in the meeting.

    We use “by” when we want to say who did the action with verbs like build, 
    discover, destroy, invent, wash, cut, make, design, compose etc. (action verbs)

    a. Transform the following sentences into passive voice
    1. Waitress and waiters serve customers 
    2. The teacher is going to explain the lesson
    3. Does professor Samuel teach that course
    b. Tell the class 10 things a child should be provided with because it is his/her 

         right. Remember to use passive voice. (example: a child should be given food)

               7.9 END UNIT ASSESSMENT
    1. Change each active voice sentence into a passive voice sentence
    a) The media plays an important role in advancing the right.
    b) RIB investigates into child abuse cases 
    c) Some communities ignore the role of a woman.
    d) Our ancestors build shrines to worship from
    e) We should bring up our children in the spirit of the ideals 
    proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations
    f) Traditionalists believe in the gods
    g) Africans also believed in the supreme God

    2. Choose the correct Modal Verb between may, can, and should to 
         complete the sentences below.
    a) We …………..celebrate love children rather than teasing them. 
    b) Different people ………..share the same beliefs towards women.
    c) It………..rain today. 
    d) Immigrants ………... adapt to new customs.
    e) Prejudices ……………. be a hindrance to peace building.
    f) Political conflicts ………. be a factor to the human right abuse.

    3. Read the case study below then answer the questions that follow. 

    Jane (not her real name) is a 25 year old girl. Jane has had a difficult 
    life growing up in one of the rural villages in Rwanda. She is the second 
    born in a family of 5, and is the first of the two daughters of the home. 
    Jane has always had a love for education from an early age, and she 
    performed well in school, where she was position 2 in class most of 
    the time. However, Jane’s father did not think girls needed education. 
    To him, a woman was supposed to grow up learning household duties 
    such as cooking and raising a family and not reading in school. Boys are 
    the ones who should learn so they can get good jobs like being doctors, 
    pilots and business people.

    So after she got to Level 6, her father married her off to an older man. 
    Jane tried to talk to her husband to let her finish school but he would 
    not listen to her. He told her he had married her to make sure she bore
    him healthy children and also take care of the home. She was also exposed to a 
    lot of sexual activity by this older man who was more experienced. He would 
    have sex with Jane every night, and would leave her badly bruised. Jane got 
    pregnant and gave birth to a boy who died shortly after birth due to malaria. 
    Her husband beat her up, blaming her for the death of their child because 
    according to him, she was supposed to ensure the child was healthy. She later 
    gave birth to twin girls, but the husband blamed her for not giving him boys. 
    She was constantly beaten, even in front of the children. Now that she is 25, 
    she looks very old because of all the hardships she has gone through. She 
    has tried going back home but her parents tell her that it is the work of the 
    woman to make her home, so she should go back and build her family.

    Adapted from General science and communication for Rwandan schools s6 (p.g. 193)

    1. Identify the cases of stereotyping in the case study above. 
    2. What is the pornographic information in the case study? 
    3. What, according to your understanding of the case study, is the impact 
        of pornography on gender stereotypes?
    4. Write a speech encouraging people in your community to use peaceful 
         means of solving problems and discouraging violence because of the 

         negative effects it has.


     Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of national assets.


           8.1 Talking about national assets


                 Text 1: Environmental protection and socio-economic development 

    All human activities that are designed and implemented for the economic 
    growth of a country and the social needs may impact on the environment either 
    directly or indirectly. However, in as much as human beings strive to achieve 
    social development, environmental conservation should be observed. Economic 
    development is associated with technological and industrial advancement. If 
    people are not sensitive to the environment, so much can go wrong in matters 
    of the environment while pursuing economic growth. 

    Some economic activities can be destructive to the environment even though 
    they are income generating. For example, in commercial agriculture, farmers 
    may have to use fertilisers and pesticides in order to have higher produce that 
    maximises profits. The practice can lead to economic growth but at the same 
    time the chemicals are likely to destroy the natural resources such as the soil 
    and water.

    Other human activities that can have adverse effects on the environment 
    include: diversion of water courses, the extraction of minerals, emission of heat 
    and gases into the atmosphere due to industrial processes, deforestation as a 
    result of people using trees as raw materials to make commercial products and 
    genetic manipulation of natural plants to have more produce at lower costs. 

    It is also important to note that environmental degradation can be quite costly 
    to a country. The cost of land reclamation is high. These may involve restoration
    of green cover, cleaning up of landfills and protection of endangered species.

    The economic impact can also be in terms of loss of tourism industry. When 
    the natural resources that serve as tourists’ attraction sites are polluted and 
    diminished, this impacts negatively on the tourism sector. When there are 
    fewer tourists visiting a country, the revenue also goes down and as a result the 
    socio-economic development of that country is affected. 

    Another way in which environmental protection is related to socio-economic 
    development is that pollution can cause diseases on the population. Disease is 
    an economic aspect in the society because it means incurring costs in medical 
    procedures and incapacitating a part of the population since when people get 
    sick, they are less productive.

    Therefore, even as we strive for economic growth and social development, we 
    should avoid over-analysis of natural resources to avoid depletion. We should 
    pursue development that encourages environmental sustainability.

    Adapted from General studies and communication skills, senior 4 (REB)

        Comprehension questions
    1. Assess the link between environment protection and economic growth 
         based on paragraph one of the text.
    2. Determine the extent to which economic activities can be destructive to 
         the environment.
    3. Identify other economic activities that can have negative effects on the 
    4. Justify how environment degradation can be costly to the country.
    5. Examine the negative impact of economic growth on the tourism industry.
    6. Prove that environment protection is related to socio-economic 

         development as shown in the last but one paragraph



                8.2 Talking about the role of national assets


                Text: Public places in Rwanda

    Public places and assets are museums, national parks, forests, industries, 
    genocide memorial sites, schools, public gardens, hospitals and police stations. 
    Public places and assets are important. For Examples They provide us with 
    different services, generate income to us, and help to preserve our culture and 
    aid in recreation.

     It is through the natural resources like vegetation that we feed. The environment 
    provides fresh air to humans, animals and plants. From our environment, we get 
    rain water that flows into our rivers, lakes, wetlands and swamps. Buildings are 
    constructed by funds obtained from the analysis of various national resources. 
    From the forests, we get firewood, charcoal and building materials. We also get 
    natural gas from our environment. 

    Let us preserve public places and assets by cleaning, employing people to take 

    care of environment and the natural resources at their disposal. 

    A text adapted from geography for Rwandan schools senior 4 student’s book.

          Comprehension questions:
    a) Which national assets are described in the above passage?

    b) Explain why we should conserve our environment.

               8.2.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY


           Case study: Factors influencing forest analysis

    John Richards is a European who decided to spend his summer holidays in 
    Rwanda. While in the country, he visited various areas. He was very pleased 
    by what he saw. He wrote this down in his note book: Rwanda is a country that 
    is so rich with flora and fauna. The country’s geography is well-balanced. Its 
    climate is good. The drainage is good and the infrastructure is well developed. 
    The Eastern Province is made up of savanna grasslands with the beautiful 
    bushes and thickets in Akagera National Park. The northern region beautifully 
    rolls with hills and mountains that are covered by evergreen trees. The forests 
    offer a home to the endangered mountain gorillas. The Nyungwe Forest has tall 
    trees that almost reach the heavens. The wonderful canopy walk was a great 
    experience. Rwanda’s people are warm and very hardworking. There is a lot of 
    potential for analysis in the forests of this green land of a thousand hills. I will 

    definitely come back here.

         a. Account for the variation of the plant cover of Rwanda witnessed by John.
         b. Identify the forested areas that are mentioned in the story. 
         c. Name the forest resources that are available for analysis.
        d. Explain the factors that influence the analysis of forests that have been 
            mentioned by Mr. Richards.
        e. Evaluate the importance of forest resources to the country of Rwanda.
        f. Present your findings in a class discussion.
    4. Write a 150 composition about what to be done to preserve public places and 

       8.3 Talking about problems related to the national assets


          Text: Volcanoes National Park

         Read the text below and carry out the tasks that follow:


          The Volcanoes National Park is located in the northwest region of Rwanda. 
    The park is also known as the Volcanoes National Park. It is connected to the 
    Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Gahinga Gorilla 
    National Park in Uganda. The establishment of Birunga National Park dates 
    back to 1925 under King Albert I of Belgium.

    This was part of the first African national parks known as the Volcanoes 
    National Park. The Volcanoes National Park is known for its mountain gorillas 
    which are an endangered species. The Rwandan government has conserved 
    and protected this habitat to ensure that the population of these endangered 
    animals increases. This has been achieved through intervention measures such 
    as the mountain gorilla naming locally known as “Kwita-Izina”

    The Volcanoes National Park sits on five of the eight volcanoes. They are the 
    Karisimbi, Bisoke, Muhabura, Gahinga and Sabyinyo Mountains. The mountains 
    have rain and bamboo forests. The Volcanoes National Park is naturally endowed 
    with tourist attractions that have placed it on the world map as the most well 
    conserved and protected environment and homeland to the mountain gorillas. 
    The park also has the forest giraffe, African elephants and buffaloes.

    The park is threatened by poaching and encroachment from neighboring 
    communities. Poachers from neighboring countries especially the Democratic 
    Republic of Congo kill elephants for their ivory and kidnap the young mountain 
    gorillas for trafficking. 

    The government together with other international partners has created a team 
    of professional game rangers to ensure that poaching and other human related 
    threats are minimized in the park. This park is the major source of foreign 
    exchange in the country. It contributes the greatest percentage of the tourism 

    earnings in Rwanda.

       Text adapted from geography for Rwandan schools senior 4 student’s book p376

        Comprehension questions: 
    1. Where is Volcanoes National Park located?
    1. With the above text, give the reasons why Volcanoes National Park is the 
         national asset
    2. Mention some animals which are found in the Volcanoes National Park

    3. Discuss some threats that Volcanoes national park experience

        Vocabulary, sentence and essay writing 
    1. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the missing meanings of 
               the words below
             a) endangered 
             b) species
             c) endowed
             d) threatened
             e) encroachment
    2. Use each of the above words or phrases in your own sentence.
    3. Write a 300 words essay discussing some measures to be taken so 

         that Birunga national park is well protected

           8.4 Describing a visit to a national park
                Text: A visit to Nyungwe national park
    Last week, I had a chance to visit Nyungwe rainforest, popularly known as 
    Nyungwe National Park, which lies in the south west corner of Rwanda. What 
    an evergreen and thick forest! It covers a vast area. I traversed the forest from 
    one entry point to exit point. The journey takes approximately an hour. The 
    forest covers an area of over 1000sq kilometres and it extends into Burundi 
    in Kibira national park. It has believed to be one of Africa’s most evergreen 
    forests, which illustrates its rich biodiversity.

    The forest weather is quite chilly but friendly. It is truly an awesome experience 
    for nature lovers. It has a well tarmac road traversing the forest intended for 
    long-term use. History reveals that Nyungwe forest has been in existence for 
    thousands of years. For the purposes of ecotourism, trees are determinants of a 
    forest ecosystem as they considerably influence forest micro-climate-available 
    light, wetness, and temperatures. Therefore, the diversity and vastness of a 
    forest strongly depend on the richness of tree species. In fact, Nyungwe forest 
    hosts multi-tree-species rather than one-tree-species. No matter what your 
    interests are, you will never run out of ways to enjoy the beautiful forest. Some 
    of these species can only be found in Nyungwe forest and nowhere else. It is 
    truly an awesome experience for nature lovers. What a memorable adventure! 

    More interestingly, Nyungwe forest hosts canopy, a loveliest man-made touristic 
    feature. As likely as not visitors can’t afford to leave the forest without enjoying 
    a canopy walk. Canopy walk is a window of opportunity to view the panoramic
    forest view. Visitors can be able to correlate and learn about the role of forests in 
    maintaining air quality, regulating precipitation and mitigating climate change.

    Finally, visitors’ security in the forest is effectively guaranteed by park rangers 
    in collaboration with the security organs. Equally, the park rangers protect the 
    forest from any encroachment or menace of every kind. There are hundreds of 
    species of animals throughout the world which are fast disappearing because 
    of human interference in their natural habitat. The more flora and fauna we 
    lose, the fewer there are to contribute to individual ecosystems. Responsible 
    travel to natural areas may conserve the environment brings huge benefits to 

    Thanks, relevant authorities, for putting in place policy and legal frameworks 
    for the conservation of forests.

    Adapted from ;


         Comprehension Questions
    1. Describe the physical feature of Nyungwe national park.
    2. Appreciate the contribution of the multi-tree-species to the beauty of 
          Nyungwe national park.
    3. Assess the role of the Nyungwe canopy as a touristic feature.
    4. Determine the role played by rangers in Nyungwe national park.

            8.4.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY
     Vocabulary, sentence and summary writing
    1. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus to find the meanings of the words and 
          phrase used in the passage
         a) …traverse… (paragraph 1)
         b) …biodiversity… (paragraph 1)
         c) …tarmac… (paragraph 2)
         d) …panoramic… (paragraph 3)
         e) …canopy walk… (paragraph 3)
         f) …correlate… (paragraph 3)
         g) …encroachment… (paragraph 4)
    2. Construct grammatically meaningful sentences using each of the 
          above terms.
    3. Make a research on the contribution of Rwanda national parks to the 

         country’s economic growth. Then present your findings to the class.

    8.5 Language structure: Adverbs of frequency and use of 
    I. The use of adverbs of frequency
    1. I have often visited the Huye national museum.
    2. Rwandans seldom visit their national forests.
    3. Foreign tourists are always present in Nyungwe national forest.
    4. Poachers should never be covered up because they destroy the national 
    5. Rwanda natural resources are taken care of daily.

    Adverbs of frequency are used to describe how often something is done, occurs 
    or happens, either in definite or indefinite terms. An adverb that describes 
    definite frequency is one such as weekly, daily, or yearly. An adverb describing 
    indefinite frequency doesn’t specify an exact time frame. We generally place 
    the adverb of frequency between the subject and the verb but it usually comes 
    after the verb “be”. If the sentence has more than one verb in it (e.g. an auxiliary 
    or a modal verb), we usually put the adverb after the first part of the verb. 
    Examples of adverbs of frequency are sometimes, often, rarely, etc.

    Below is a table of those adverbs and their frequency.


    Use the adverb and the correct form of the verbs in brackets to complete the 
    Top of Form
    1. Our teacher, Mrs Jones, …………. (never / be) late for lessons.
    2. I …………. (often / clean) my bedroom at the weekend.
    3. My brother …………. (hardly ever / help) me with my homework.
    4. I …………… (sometimes / be) bored in the maths lessons.
    5. We ……………. (rarely / watch) football on TV.
    6. You and Tony …………. (never / play) computer games with me.
    7. You …………. (usually / be) at the sports centre on Sunday.
    8. The school bus …………. (always / arrive) at half past eight.
    9. Poachers …………….. (always/be) punished by the law.
    10. He …………… (seldom/remember) that natural resources
    are part of national 

    II. The use of determiners
    1. The Rwandan government cares for the national assets.
    2. A national park is part of the national assets.
    3. TheHuye national museum is Rwanda’s historical richness.
    4. James has never been at the national stadium.
    5. An Asian tourist has praised Rwanda officials for natural resources 
    6. Nyungwe national forest is a valuable touristic site.

    Determiners are important to proper sentence structure and comprehension. 
    They are important because they work to clarify nouns and make a sentence 
    as precise and focused as possible. Determiners are words that come before a 
    noun and serve to modify the noun. They modify nouns by providing context 
    and specificity to the noun. 

    Articles are the most popular types of determiners. The main articles are ‘the,’ 
    ‘a,’ and ‘an.’ ‘The’ is a definite article, which means it refers to a specific person, 
    place, or thing. When we use the word ‘the’ as a determiner, it increases the 
    exactness of the subject in a sentence. On the other hand, the indefinite articles 
    ‘a’ and ‘an’ are indefinite articles, which means that the noun they precede isn’t 
    an exact person, place or thing; rather, the article creates a more generalized 
    noun. ‘A’ is used in front of nouns starting with a consonant sound while ‘an’ is 

    used before a noun starting with a vowel sound.

    Complete the following sentences using a, an or the. In some cases, no articles 
    are needed.
    1. If you are really hungry, you can eat ……………… apple.
    2. She went on to become ………………….. successful playback singer.
    3. ………………… library on the corner has an amazing collection of story 
    4. I don’t speak ………………… French very well, but I can make myself 
    5. She is ………………… prettiest girl I have ever seen.
    6. ‘Where is ………………… cheese?’ ‘I ate it.’
    7. Move ………………… books off that chair and sit down.
    8. . ………………… . Spanish have their own language.
    9. ………………. life is complicated.
    10. I am writing ………………… book on Indian mythology.
    3. The use of quantifiers
    1. We see many tourists in our home town.
    2. Some people destroy national assets like animal killings
    3. Much work should be done for environment conservation.
    4. Few Rwandans are not aware that natural resources are part of the 
        national assets.
    5. Governments employ a lot of income from national assets to create new 

    A quantifier is a word or phrase which is used before a noun to indicate the 
    amount or quantity. Some, many, a lot of and a few, are examples of quantifiers.
    Some quantifiers, like a few, few, many are used only before plural countable 
    nouns. Others, like a little, little, much are used only before uncountable nouns. 
    And a few quantifiers can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns. 
    Some, most, plenty of, all and any are examples of quantifiers that can go with 
    both countable and uncountable nouns.

    Choose among much, some, many, any, few, little or most to complete the 
    sentences below.
    1. How …………… time do you need to finish the work?
    2. There are too ……………. students in the library.
    3. Have you visited ……………….. foreign countries?
    4. Although he’s very ill, he didn’t take …………….. medicine.
    5. …………… people know as much about linguistics as John does.
    6. They say ……………. knowledge is a dangerous thing.
    7. He’s having ……………. of trouble passing his driving test.
    8. I spend …………….. of my time reading novels.
    9. We spent …………… money on our last vacation.

    10. Did you have ………….. friend coming to your party ?

            8.6 Spelling and pronunciation 
    Use dictionaries and thesaurus to find the missing pronunciation and meanings 

    of the given words to complete the following table.




    1. Choose the correct option to complete the sentences below.
          a) We haven’t got ……………… petrol. We need to stop and get some.
           a. much                             b. many                           c. little
          b) We had ……………. rain last autumn.
          a. lot of                                 b. much                              c. many
          c) There was ……………… food in the fridge. It was nearly empty.
           a. little                                  b. a little                               c. few
           d) You travel a lot. Have you been to ……………. countries?
           a. much                             b. many                                  c. few
           e) It costs ………….. money to give your children a good education.
          a. much                              b. many                           c. a lot of
          f) There was ………….. space for all the people who came.
         a. very little                            b. very few                          c. many
         g) “Have you got any coins for the vending machine?” “Yes, I have 
              a. a little                                     b. a few                       c. few
               h) There’s …………….. of sun cream in the bottle.
               a. a bit                       b. a little                         c. a few
               i) We need to go to the greengrocer’s. There are …………… potatoes left.
              a. few b.             a few               c. a little
               j) There was ………….. traffic so we arrived very early.
               a. a little           b. a few                     c. little
    2. Complete the following sentences using appropriate articles. In some 
         cases, no articles are needed.
          a) ………………….. man is mortal.
          b) I am …………………. university student.
          c) She goes to the temple in ……………….. mornings.
          d) Jessica is …………………. best student in the class.
          e) ………………….. camel is the ship of the desert.
           f) This book has won ………………….. Booker prize.
           g) Sandra was …………………. honest king.
            h) I am fond of ………………. classical music.
            i) I met ..................... boy in the store.
             j) Gold is …………… precious metal.
    3. Rewrite the following sentences by inserting the adverbs of frequency that 
         are in brackets
         a) They go swimming in the lake. (sometimes)
         b) The weather is bad in November. (always)
         c) Peggy and Frank are late. (usually)
         d) I have met him before. (never)
         e) John watches TV. (seldom)
          f) I was in contact with my sister. (often)
          g) She will love him. (always)
    4. Write an essay describing the role of natural assets to the socio-economic 
        development of Rwanda.
    5. Debate the following topic, ‘protecting natural assets is only the 

         responsibilities of the government.’ 


      Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of media and 




                  9.1 Describing words and expressions used in the media


                          Text: Starting a school newspaper


    The next day, students gathered in the hall again. They were all very excited. 
    The members of editor committee sat at the front. This time Miss Catherine, the 
    English composition teacher, addressed the pupils. “Good morning, everyone,” 
    she stated. “Yesterday you listened to Miss Mwangi describe how to start a 
    school newspaper. Remember that she herself was an active member of the 
    school newspaper. Do any of you remember the name?” Billy put up his hand 
    but everyone had the answer. “The Kigali shinning” they chanted. “Good. Yes 
    that is right. I hope you too will find a good name for our school newspaper. 

    You have elected your editor committee and I wish to congratulate those twelve 
    pupils who will be responsible for producing the newspaper. Remember, it will 
    mean a hard work and commitment, and you will need help from the rest of 
    the students here. If you want to produce the first issue, before term ends, 
    everyone will have to work hard. So, those of you who are not members of the 
    editorial committee do not be too disappointed. Your contribution is also very 
    important. As reporters, it is your job to produce the article. And we can’t have 
    a school newspaper without any article, can we?

    The students laughed and began to talk excitedly among themselves. ‘Now, 
    ‘continued Miss Nakamwaga, and everyone became quiet again. ‘Yesterday 
    you discussed the kinds of articles that we usually find in our local 
    newspapers. Have you decided what kind of articles you want to include 
    in your own school newspaper? Perhaps one student from each group can 
    write her or his group’s list on the board here, and then will discuss them.’
    Afterwards, Miss Nakamwaga read out all the topics: the school, school news, 
    school sports news, our surroundings, the people and their activities, news 
    about our community, especially when it affects the school or students, special 
    events: Announcements before and descriptions afterwards, advertisements. 

    “OK,instead of your usual composition lessons this week, you will all work on 
    an article for the school newspaper. Your writing skills will improve if you get 
    a lot of writing practice. And the editorial committee will not accept an article 
    that is of poor quality. If it is untidy, uninteresting, or contains a lot of mistakes, 
    they will ask you to rewrite it.”

    “I want you to prepare your articles in groups so that you can help each other. 
    Each group will have a different topic. As a group, you can discuss and prepare 
    your article before you begin writing. You may want to do some research, that 
    is, go and ask questions to find out information that will make your article 
    interesting. Before you start writing, put yourself in the reader’s position and 
    ask yourself “if I was the reader, what would I want to know? What would I 

    enjoy reading about?

    Adapted from JJB Bugembe (1993). Oxford English: ninth impression 2002. Oxford 

    ox26DP, England.

       Comprehension questions
    1. How many members did the students vote on the editorial committees?
    2. What is the job of the rest of people?
    3. When do they want to produce the first issue of their newspaper?
    4. What are the six kinds of articles that the pupils want to include in their 
    5. For what reasons might the editorial committee ask group to rewrite an 
    6. If your school produced a school newspaper, what would you like to read 

    7. What do you think is the job of a reporter for a newspaper?

                 9.1.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY
          Vocabulary, sentence and summary writing
    1. Match the words from the story in column A with their meanings in 

         column B


      2. Use the above words in the table and make your own sentences.

      3. Summarize the story “starting a school newspaper in 8 lines. “

                 9.2 Describing a scene


          Scene 1: Adika’s memorial ceremony

    It is set at Adika’s grave. The grave appears to have been burnt and there is a 
    bowl of coins on it. Nina and doga, Adika’s parents are approaching the grave 
    in the morning to prepare for the shaving memory. The burning of the grave 
    confirms that the person who killed Adika lives among them. It is revealed that 
    Adika was shot by a police officer during university demonstration. Chagaga, 
    the sub-chief’s brother was implicated in the murder. 

    Jusper comes back. Since his brother’s death, he has been behaving strangely. 
    This has made his parents suspect that he is mad. He is coming from the river 
    where he has thrown Chagaga’s body whom he had caught burning Adika’s 
    grave to prevent Adika’s ghost from haunting him- as the community believes. 
    He asks his parents whether he should go and confess the murder. Thinking 
    that he is raving, they tell him to put on a clean shirt and go confess.

    Two soldiers, jere and Mulili, arrive to insure that no ceremony is held in the 
    memory of Adika. They inform Nina and Daga that Jusper is currently in custody. 
    After confessing to have murdered Chagaga, an angry mob almost lynched him. 
    He was saved by the police and locked up. Mulili and jere argue over whether 
    to allow the ceremony to go on. Jere being from that village understands the 
    importance of shaving ceremony as a traditional ritual and therefore he wants 
    to let the old couple proceed with it. Mulili differs with him because he has been 
    promised a large chunk of land by Boss in return for his loyalty. They fight. jere 
    shoots at Mulili. 

    An extract from the play Betrayal in the city by Francis Imbuga

        Comprehension questions 
    1. Describe the start of the scene one of betrayal in the city. 
    2. What did Adika die of in the play?
    3. What is making Jusper act madly?
    4. Who came to stop the ceremony?
    5. Why do Mulili and jere differ in deciding up on “the shaving ceremony”? 

    6. In not more than 4 lines, describe the scene above.

           9.2.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY  
           Vocabulary, sentence and composition writing
    1. Find the meaning of the following words and use them to write your 
                  own sentences 
             1. Scene
             2. Demonstration
             3. Ghost
             4. Custody 
             5. Murder 
    2. Think of a scene about a business activity at the market and describe 

         it in not more than eight lines. 

                9.3 Reporting speech


                 Text: Church commended

    Addressing the gathering, Prime Minister commended the church’s contribution 
    in Rwanda’s journey of unity and reconciliation. Within the framework of 
    achieving unity and reconciliation among Rwandans, he said the Government 
    opted for home-grown solutions (such as Gacaca courts) noting that such 
    initiatives were shaped by fusing traditional and biblical values.

    “It is commendable that the Bible society and the churches worked hand in 
    hand with government and non-government institutions. This partnership 
    brings about community development social welfare in society,” he said. He 
    also highlighted the role of the youth in the development of a nation. He said 
    that investing in the youth and providing them with proper value orientation 
    is not an option, adding that the youth should be at the forefront of innovation, 
    leadership and decision making.

    “I am proud that the issue of youth is a major focus of African Biblical Leadership 

    Initiative,” the Premier noted.

    Renowned American evangelist and author, Rick Warren, said that there is a lot 
    to celebrate about Africa noting that, the strength and future of the Church is 

    He also applauded Rwanda’s progress noting that years ago Rwanda was known 
    mostly for what happened in the 1994 Genocide against Tutsi and that now the 
    world knows it for its progress.

    “And this is something to celebrate, you may not realize this because you live 
    here all the time, but the rest of the world is realizing this. Many want to come 
    and learn from Rwanda, this is why we have much to celebrate my brothers and 

    sisters,” he added.

    New Times article from


        Comprehension questions
    1. What did the prime minister commend churches for?
    2. Discuss the role of youth in innovation.
    3. What is the hint that the reporter used to convey the message?

    4. Does he/she report the message effectively?

    Vocabulary, sentence and composition writing
    1. Improve your vocabulary: Use dictionary and thesaurus to check the 
                meaning of the following words.
                      1. Applaud 
                      2. Fusing
                      3. Welfare
                      4. Forefront
                      5. Reconciliation
    2. Write meaningful sentences using the above words.

    3. Write a summary of the above article in 5 lines

             9.4 Describing a report


          Text 1: How to write a report

    Some academic assignments ask for a ‘report’, rather than an essay, and 
    students are often confused about what that really means. Likewise, in 
    business, confronted with a request for a ‘report’ to a senior manager, many 
    people struggle to know what to write. Confusion often arises about the writing 
    style, what to include, the language to use, the length of the document and other 
    factors. This point aims to disentangle some of these elements, and provide you 
    with some advice designed to help you to write a good report. 

    In academia there is some overlap between repots and essays, and the two 
    words are sometimes used interchangeably, but reports are more likely to be 
    needed for business, scientific and technical subjects, and in the workplace. 
    Whereas an essay presents arguments and reasoning, a report concentrates on 

    Essentially, a report is a short, sharp, concise document which is written for a 
    particular purpose and audience. It generally sets out and analyses a situation 
    or problem, often making recommendations for future action. It is a factual 
    paper, and needs to be clear and well-structured. Requirements for the precise 
    form and content for a report will vary between organization and departments 
    and in study between courses, from tutor to tutor, as well as between subjects, 
    so it’s worth finding out if there are any specific guidelines before you start. 

     Comprehension questions 
    1. What do many people struggle to know when writing a report? 
    2. What confuses them?
    3. Discuss the difference between a report and an essay

    4. Give a short definition of a report

         Text 2: Weight problem in America by Israel Sandoval  


    Next time you are in a crowd, take a look around you. If the crowd is typical, 
    many people probably are heavier than they should be. Weight has become a 
    real health issue in America. This paper will present facts and discuss causes. It 
    will also suggest possible ways to overcome our weight problem. 

    Are all overweight people unhealthy or unfit? No. some heavy people are very 
    fit. Muscular people weigh more than others who look about the same size. This 
    is because muscle is heavier than fat. Pregnant women also weigh more than 
    they would normally. Some people are just heavier than others. That doesn’t 
    always mean they are unhealthy. However, many people who are seriously 
    overweight are at risk for health problems. 

    Here are some figures to think about. More than 97 million Americans are 
    overweight. According to the American Obesity Association, about 39 million 
    of these are obese. Obese means more than 30 pounds overweight. Obesity 
    is the cause of some 300000 death in this country every year. It is also a risk 
    factor in many ailments. These include heart disease, arthritis, diabetes, high 
    cholesterol and cancer. According to U.S surgeon General David Satcher, obesity 
    is “an epidemic”

    Weight problems are not unknown in other countries. However, they are much 
    easier to fall prey to in the United States. Consider Sam Moore, who moved here 
    from Sierra Leone in 1998. His story is fairly common. “When I first came,” Sam
    told writer Lawrence Lindner, ‘I was around 165 (pounds). Now I am looking 
    at close to 200. It creeps upon you.” Sam is 5 foot 9 inches tall. Two hundred 

    pounds is definitely more than he should weigh.

    Other immigrants report similar weight gain. Some of them were asked to 
    think about why their weight shot up. Some of them pointed out the size of 
    restaurant portions. Over and over, they talked about the size of meal they 
    served in American restaurants. One woman commented on a huge salad and 
    enormous dish of pasta she was served for dinner. She noted that even her 
    6-foot 5- inch boyfriend couldn’t have eaten it all. Yet the meal was typical size 
    for an American diner in a restaurant. 

    Extract from zaner-Bloser (2003) . strategies for writers : Columbus,Ohio,p.g 207

     Comprehension questions 
    1. What kind of text is this?
    2. Are all overweight people unhealthy or unfit? Why?
    3. With the above text, discuss the problem of overweight in America 

       Vocabulary, sentence and composition writing
    1. Use dictionary and thesaurus to check the meanings of the following 
               a. Disentangle
               b. Overlap
               c. Concise
               d. Obese
               e. Cholesterol
                f. Portions
               g. Inch
               h. Creep upon
                i. Portion
                j. Arthritis
    2. Write sentences using the above words on the list

    3. Summarize the above report on weight problem in America in 7 lines

                   9.5 Describing stages in reporting


            Text: Skills you need to write a report
    Step 1: know your brief : You will usually receive a clear brief for a report, 
    including what you are studying and for whom the report should be prepared. 
    First of all, consider your brief very carefully and make sure that you are clear 
    who the report is for (if you’re a student then not just your tutor, but who it 
    is supposed to be written for), and why you are writing it, as well as what 
    you want the reader to do at the end of reading: make a decision or agree a 
    recommendation, perhaps. 

    Step 2: Keep your brief in mind at all times: During your planning and writing, 
    make sure that you keep your brief in mind: who are you writing for, and why 
    are you writing? All your thinking needs to be focused on that, which may 
    require you to be ruthless in your reading and thinking. Anything irrelevant 
    should be discarded.

    As you read and research, try to organize your work into sections by theme, a 
    bit like writing a literature review.

    Make sure that you keep track of your references, especially for academic 
    work. Although referencing is perhaps less important in the workplace, it’s also 
    important that you can substantiate any assertions that you make so it’s helpful 
    to keep track of your sources of information.

    Pay particular attention to whether all the information that you have included 
    is relevant. Also remember to check tenses, which person you have written in, 
    grammar and spelling. It’s also worth one last check against any requirements 
    on structure.

    For an academic assignment, make sure that you have referenced fully and 
    correctly. As always, check that you have not inadvertently or deliberately 

    plagiarized or copied anything without acknowledging.

    Comprehension questions 
    1. What is it needed first to make a good report?
    2. Which question does he/she ask before writing?
    3. Why do you think a reporter should keep references?
    4. Discuss other things that a reporter takes into consideration while he/

    she is writing.

            9.5.2 APPLICATION ACTIVITY
            Vocabulary, sentence and report writing
    1. Use the dictionary to check the meanings of the following words and 
           phrases and use them to make good sentences. 
             a. Ruthless
             b. Discarded
             c. Assertions
             d. Substantiate
             e. Keep track of 
    2. Choose an issue of your choice at your school and report it in 300 
          words. Share it to your class. 

           9.6 Expressing probability on past events 


        Text: Okonkwo sinks into depression
    Okonkwo sinks into a depression. He feels weak, and he cannot sleep or eat. 
    Ezinma worries that something might have gone wrong wither father. When 
    she brings him his evening meal three days later, she tells him that he must 
    finish everything. He repeatedly wishes that she were a boy, and he berates 
    himself for acting like a “shivering old woman.” He visits his friend Obierika and 
    congratulates Maduka on his successful wrestling. Obierika, in turn, requests 
    that Okonkwo stay when his daughter’s suitor arrives to determine a bride price. 
    Okonkwo complains to Obierika that his sons are not manly enough and
    says that he would be happier if Ezinma were a boy because she has “the right 
    spirit.” He and Obierika then argue over whether it was right of Okonkwo to 

    partake in Ikemefuna’s death.

    Okonkwo begins to feel revived a bit. He decides that his unhappiness was a 
    product of his idleness—if Ikemefuna had been murdered at a busier time of the 
    year, he, Okonkwo, would have been completely undisturbed. Someone arrives 
    to report the death of the oldest man in a neighboring village. Strangely, the 
    old man’s wife died shortly thereafter. Okonkwo questions the man’s reputed 
    strength once he learns how attached he had been to his wife. Okonkwo sits with 
    Obierika while Obierika bargains his daughter’s bride-price with the family of 
    her suitor. Afterward, Obierika and his future son-in-law’s relatives talk about 
    the differing customs in other villages. They discuss the practice of, and skill 
    at, tapping palm trees for palm-wine. Obierika talks about hearing stories of 
    men with skin as white as chalk. Another man, Machi, pipes in that such a man 
    passes through the village frequently and that his name is Amadi. Those who 

    know Amadi, a leper, laugh—the polite term for leprosy is “the white skin.”

             An extract from the novel things fall apart, by Chinua Achebe

        Comprehension questions 
    1. Discuss two deaths that appear in the passage.
    2. Why does okonkwo admire his daughter?
    3. Why do you think okonkwo is failing to eat?
    4. What worry does Ezinma possess?
    5. Discuss the probability in the past that appears in the passage.

        Vocabulary, sentence and composition writing 
    1. Use the dictionary and check the synonyms of the following words: 
        a. Suitor
        b. Murdered
        c. Partake
        d. Undisturbed
        e. Bargains
    2. Use the above words to make correct sentences. 

    3. Summarize the above story in your own words in not more than 50 words.

        9.7 Language structure: Past perfect continuous
        1. Past perfect continuous
    1. The manager had been taking money from the company.
    2. They had been planning to write this report since last the previous
    3. The witness said that the driver had been talking on his mobile phone.
    4. The car had been emerging into the main road when the accident took 
    5. Janet had been preparing her news presentation for an hour when I 
    6. Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.
    7. Reporters had been waiting there for more than two hours when the 
         press conference finally started.

    The past perfect continuous is used to talk about actions or situations that 
    were in progress before some other actions took place. Using the past perfect 
    continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and 
    effect. You can use time expressions like for and since with this tense. You have 
    learnt about the use of since and for in unit 3 of this book.

    Put the verbs into the correct form of the past perfect continuous.
    1. We (sleep) ……….. for 12 hours when he woke us up.
    2. They (wait) ……….. at the station for 90 minutes when the train finally 
    3. We (look for) ………… her ring for two hours and then we found it in the 
    4. I (not / walk) ………… for a long time, when it suddenly began to rain.
    5. How long (learn / she) ..………. English before she went to London?
    6. Frank caught the flu because he (sing)………… in the rain too long.
    7. He (drive) ………… less than an hour when he ran out of petrol.
    8. They were very tired in the evening because they (help) ……….. on the 
    farm all day.
    9. I (not / work) ..………… all day; so I wasn’t tired and went to the disco at 
    10. They (cycle) ………... all day so their legs were sore in the evening.

    2. Passive voice
    1. This article was written by a young journalist.
    2. All articles had been checked by the chief editor.
    3. The newspaper has been banned by the government recently.
    4. The news was presented late because of the football match.

    5. Reporters were advised on professional rules of ethics.

    The passive voice is marked by be + the past participle form of the verb + by 
    + noun (agent). The verb in a passive sentence contains the appropriate form 
    of the auxiliary be and the past participle form of the main verb. We use the 
    passive voice when we are interested in what is done rather than who does it. 
    The phrase by + noun (agent) is left out when the doer of the action has been 

    mentioned earlier, is obvious, is unknown or is considered unimportant.

          Below is a table showing the main verb forms.



    Put the following sentences in passive voice.
    1. The secretary received the article in the morning.
    2. The chief editor structured all the reports himself.
    3. Jimmy had carefully planned the writing of the report.
    4. The editor understood the purpose of the report.
    5. The reporters gathered and selected the information wisely.
    6. This made the writing much easier.
    7. The manager had taken the money from the company.
    8. A burglar broke into the house.
    9. Many journalists use cameras and reporters.

    10. A police officer rescued a seven-year-old boy.

                3. Reported speech





    In newspapers, reporters need to repeat what other people have said. In this 
    case, the mastery of reported speech is needed. Mostly, in newspapers the 
    simple past is used to report events. This tense changes into past perfect if 
    the event is reported indirectly. However, to report a progressive past event, 
    the past perfect continuous tense is used. In reported speech, the word that is 

    optional. That’s why it is put between brackets in the above sentence. 

    The table below shows other important changes:

               Direct speech Reported speech

         Ago                                                                             Before
         This                                                                            That
        These                                                                         Those
        Here                                                                           There
        Today                                                                        that day
        Tonight                                                                    that night
        Now                                                                           then / at that time (moment)
        Tomorrow                                                              the next day / the following day
        Yesterday                                                               the previous day/ the day before 
        last night                                                                the night before, Thursday night

        last week                                                                the week before / the previous wee

    Put the following sentences into reported speech. 
    a) The newspaper reported, “The manager intended to take a big amount of 
    b) The policeman said, “The robbers broke into the house and stole money.” 
    c) “Police officers rescued a seven-year-old boy,” the witnesses told Imvaho 
    d) The driver reported, “There were many passengers at the scene.” 
    e) Brown said, “We didn’t hear gunshots and the boy was out here fighting 
        with somebody.”
    f) ‘The magazines were featuring various articles about women rights,’ the 
          project manager told us.
    g) “The plane crashed en-route to Dubai,” The BBC reported. 
    h) “Seventy per cent of the farmers used fertilisers last year,” minister of 
           agriculture told The Newtimes.
    i) “Her article inspired young entrepreneurs in this region,” said the Chief 

    j) ‘James was writing a report about the scene,’ the police announced. 

              9.7 END UNIT ASSESSMENT
    1. Construct meaningful sentences with words below
            a) Journalist
            b) Reporter
             c) Newspaper
             d) Advertisement
             e) Media
             f) Broadcasting
             g) Copyright
              h) Article
              i) Brochure
               j) Documentary
    2. Choose some daily activities at your college and write an article. 

          Share it with your class. 

    3. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in brackets using the past 
              perfect continuous. 
          a. I ………………………… (work) all day, so I didn’t want to go out. 
          b. She ………………….. (sleep) for ten hours when I woke her.
          c. They …………………….. (live) in Beijing for three years when he lost his 
          d. When we met, you …………………… (work) at that company for six 
           e. We ………………….. (eat) all day, so we felt a bit ill.
            f. He was red in the face because he ……………… (run).
            g. It ………………(rain), and the road was covered in water.
             h. I was really tired because I ……………………… (study).
              i. We ……………..(go) out for three years when we got married.
              j. It …..………..(snow) for three days.
    4. Change these active sentences to passive ones. Choose if you need the 
            agent or not.
         a. The Government is planning a new road near my house.
         b. My grandfather built this house in 1943.
         c. Picasso was painting Guernica at that time.
         d. The cleaner has cleaned the office.
         e. He had written three reports in 2017.
          f. John will tell you later.
         g. The traffic might have delayed Jimmy.

          h. They are building a new stadium near the station.


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