Topic outline


    Key Unit Competence: To use language learnt in the context of 

    people and places

    Introductory Activity

    Picture observation and interpretation

    Observe the above pictures and respond to the following questions: 1. Describe what is taking place in different figures from the pictures above. 2. Which places do you think people of different ages mostly like to visit and why? 3. What makes people different? Give a reason

    4. Describe people in your home using present simple tense. 5. How do you differentiate nuclear family and extended family? Provide some examples. 6. If you were a parent, would you spend money to take your children to explore new places where they play with toys or see interesting animals? Justify the relevance of your choice.

    1.1. Introducing oneself and others

    1.1.1. Learning activities:

    Reading and Textt analysis


    Observe the pictures and discuss. 

    1. Answer these questions:1) What is taking place in fig 1-2? 2. Why is it important for your head teacher/mistress to introduce a new nursery school teacher or any other new employee to other staff members? 3. Is it necessary to talk about your personal life information or your friend’s personal life during introduction? If yes or no, give a reason. 4. Suggest some pieces of advice to the people who forget to introduce their friends when together they meet new people.

    Text 1. Audio script between two teachers of nursery school Read the dialogue below and answer the questions that follow: MONICA AND LUCILLE

     Monica: We’re talking today with Lucille; she comes from a family of three kids. Lucille, I hear you have a younger sister.

     Lucille: Right. Five years younger? Monica: And a sister? Lucille: That’s right.

     Monica: And you and your sister are twins. Is that right? 

    Lucille: That’s true. She was born eight minutes before me. I was the little one. 

     Monica: Well, tell us a bit about her name, by the way?

     Lucille: Her name’s Laura. Monica: Laura! So, Lucille, do you both resemble? Lucille: We do, actually. A lot of people can’t tell us apart. Monica: Really? 

    Lucille: But I wear glasses all the time. She only wears them for reading. Monica: I see. Some people say twins like the same things. Is that true for you two? 

     Lucille: Well, we both love Mexican food. We always have the same thing when we go to restaurants. And let’s see… we like the same kinds of movies. Monica: Anything else? 

    Lucille: Well, this is kind of funny. Sometimes we buy almost the same clothes. Not because we want to. It just happens by accident. I go to visit her and she’s wearing a shirt like mine. It’s always a surprise. 

     Monica: So how are you different from each other?

    Lucille: Well, Laura’s a great dancer. And me, I can’t dance at all. 

     Monica: Anything else? Let’s see… her favourite colour is green; mine’s blue. She loves football and I love baseball… I could go on and on. 

     Monica: Well, how about musical tastes? Lucille: Oh yeah, I love classical music. But she really prefers pop. I actually play piano, but she doesn’t play any musical instrument. I’d say she’s really more of a dancer than a musical person. 

     Monica: And how about your own marriages and families? Are they similar in any way? Lucille: Well, we both have two kids. I’ve got a boy and a girl. She has got two boys and they are all studying in the same nursery school. But our husbands are completely different, not at all alike. 

    Monica: Really! Well, thank you, Lucille Kennedy, for talking with us today about you and your twin sister. 

    Lucille: Thank you. That was fun! Adopted from: teachers.pdf

    • Comprehension questions 

    1. How many people are speaking in the audio dialogue?

    2. Does Lucille have a brother? Is he older than her or younger?

    3. What is the name of the twin sister of Lucille?

    4. Which things do those twins have in common?

    5. Do you think the above conversation helped Monica to know 

    Lucille? Why?

    Text 2. Two different dialogues in two different situations

    Provide the meaning of the words highlighted as instructed below:

    In these two situations, people are introducing themselves to each other. 

    In the first situation, it is two strangers at a conference. In the second 

    situation, an employee is introducing himself to a new employee in an 

    office. From the context, find those which are formal and informal among 

    the words/phrases in bold.

    Situation 1

    David: ‘It’s a very good conference this year.’

    Lisa: ‘Yes, I’m really enjoying it. I think it’s better than last year’s. Did 

    you come last year?’

    David: ‘No, I didn’t. But I came the year before and that was good, but 

    not as good as this year.

    Lisa: ‘It was good last year, but the speakers this year are a much better.’

    David: ‘Allow me to introduce myself. My name’s Gary Smith.’

    Lisa: ‘Pleased to meet you Gary. My name’s Lisa Rodgers.’


    David: ‘Pleased to meet you too. For how long are you at the 


    Lisa: ‘I’m here for 5 days. And you?’

    David: ‘I’m here for only 3 days. I’m leaving the day after 


    Lisa: ‘What do you do?’

    David: ‘I’m a sales manager at Time box plc. And yourself?’

    Lisa: ‘I’m the director of marketing for an internet company 

    called ‘

    Situation 2

    Christine: Hi

    Paul: Hello

    Christine: ‘I don’t think we’ve been introduced. My name’s 


    Paul: ‘Nice to meet you Christine. My name’s Paul.’(Handshake)

    Christine:’ Hello Paul, nice to meet you too. How is everything?’

    Paul: ‘It’s going very well. There is a lot to learn, but this job seems 

    similar to my last job. The people here seem very friendly. Do you work 

    in the sales department?’

    Christine: ‘Yes, I do.

    1.1.2. Application activity: Essay writing

    Write a one-page essay explaining the importance of self-introduction 

    and introducing other people.

    1.2. Describing people and places

    1.2.1. Learning activity: Reading andText analysis

    • Text: A good friend 

    I have a friend with a beautiful name Lucy. She is low on growth, browneyed and black-browed. She has on her pale face barely visible freckles. 

    Big brown eyes are framed with long fluffy eyelashes. She always grins 

    with her amazing smile. When she laughs, her little nose wrinkles so 

    funnily. She is very tidy. Her dresses are always ironed. Lucy is a sincere 

    friend. Between us, there are never secrets. Together we read books, go 

    to the library, prepare home tasks. When I am sick, she always comes to 

    me after classes, talks about school and about her adventures. But the 

    most interesting she talks about the new books she read. I want to listen 

    to her every day, listen without end. Lucy doesn’t avoid work. She just 

    comes home from school immediately and cleans up the room. I love my 

    friend for her sensitivity, kindness and spiritual purity.

    Recently, my friend wanted to know about a very important place to me 

    and of course what came to my mind was a place which is meaningful to 

    me because it is part of the county I loved, is part of the country where I 

    grew up and is part of my childhood. This place is in the country in an old 

    region named Appalachia, a small piece of the Appalachian Mountains, 

    in a town named Pikeville. Pikeville is a polluted town because of the coal 


    People live in apartment or condominium buildings because of its little 

    space available. I grew up in one of the many buildings in Pikeville 

    admiring from my bedroom window the beauty of the mountains, always 

    exploring with my eyes the forest or the meadows, looking for a clean and 

    quiet place. And, I found one on a hill in the back of the town. It is about 

    100 feet square, it has seven old trees, wild flowers and a lot of bugs and 

    ants during summer time. I used to go there to sit down on a rock and 

    watch the town and my trees. There was a very old tree, a maple tree, 

    with a huge trunk. 

    The others were smaller, three in the back, three on my left side and 

    the old maple tree on my right. There were flowers, many kinds, white, 

    yellow, purple and blue. It was nobody’s place. Nobody owned that hill, 

    but it was beautiful and peaceful and I dreamed many times about a 

    white house over there. Let us not deceive each other and love others 

    as they are, because we are not all the same. And finally, not forget to 

    beautify our places to attract other people.

    Adopted from:

    • Comprehension questions

    1. What is the name of a person who is being described in the 


    2. Describe her the way the author did it in the passage.

    3. Why does the author love her friend?

    4. Give reasons why the author likes the old region named 


    5. How did the author describe that place?

    6. Which advice did the author give to people who are friends?

    1.2.2. Application activity: Word meanings and paragraph writing

    Find the meaning of the following words as they were used in the above 

    text using your dictionaries:

    • Deceive

    • Beautify

    • Huge 

    • Cheerful person

    • Childhood

    • Freckles 

    • Adventures

    • Brown eyes

    2.Write a paragraph describing the people you love and important places 

    to you.

    1.3. Talking about people at home

    1.3.1. Learning activity: Reading and Text analysis

    • Text 1

    Look at the picture, and read the passage below. and answer the questions 

    that follow. 


     My family

    There are 6 people in my family. I have two brothers and one sister. I am 

    the second born. My Dad goes to work every day from 8 am to 8 pm. His 

    job is to communicate with Vietnamese people. My mom doesn’t work 

    outside the home. She stays at home and takes care of the house. She 

    also raises the kids and cooks every day. My oldest brother is 23 years 

    old. He doesn’t work or go to school. He just stays at home and only does 

    what he wants. He also spends a lot of money from what our dad earns. 

    My younger brother is just the opposite. He is 18 years old. Every day he 

    goes to school and sometimes he goes to work. He also helps my parents 

    when he has free time. He got a diploma from high school and now he 

    is enrolled at the University. My parents are proud of him very much. 

    Finally, my sister is 11 years old and a cute girl. She is in the fifth grade. 

    I think she is a very smart girl. I love her and my parents very much.

    It was at 2.00 o’clock in evening on January 6th 2000. I came to the U.S. 

    When I got off the airplane I entered the airport and looked around, Oh!

    It looked big and very luxurious! I had never seen that before and all 

    the words were in English, no more Vietnamese. And also, the people 

    were strangers. It made me a little scared because I didn’t speak English 

    well. After one hour waiting for the customs officer to process my paper, 

    I met my husband and my parents–in-law and also my two uncles; they 

    welcomed me to the U.S. I felt happy but a little tired, because I didn’t 

    sleep very well on the plane.

    After that, my husband drove me home. On the way home, I saw the big! 

    big! streets with a lot of cars. They did not look like those in Vietnam 

    where you find motorbikes and motorcycles. They drive there with no 

    lanes. Also, the trees had no leaves “What happened “that I thought. So, 

    I asked my husband. He said “Because in the winter time the weather is 

    cold, and snow makes all the leaves fall off. “Oh, I see “Isaid.

    Adopted from:


    • Comprehension questions

    1. How many members does the above family have? How many boys 

    and girls?

    2. What does the father and the oldest brother do and when?

    3. Which challenge did the author face in the journey?

    4. Why parents are proud of the young brother of the author?

    5. What did her husband comment on the reason why trees had no 


    1.3.2. Application activity: Paragraph writing

    Write a short paragraph explaining how a good family would look like. 

    (Refer to notes on paragraph writing in unit 5, page….)

    1.4. Narrating about different places

    1.4.1. Learning activity: Reading and Text analysis

    Read the following text and answer questions that follow:

    • Text: Visit to an exhibition of Birds

    Last Sunday, an exhibition on birds was held in our locality at Salt Lake. 

    I visited the exhibition with my parents. The exhibition started from 11 

    a.m. in the morning. It was held in the Salt Lake Stadium. One part of 

    the ground was surrounded with barricade made of tin. The ground was 

    decorated with colourful lights. Many stalls were set up for displaying 

    the birds. 

    These stalls were made with wooden frames. The main attraction of the 

    exhibition was our Chief Minister. She came and cut the ribbon in the 

    opening ceremony. There were many species of birds. Birds like sparrows, 

    parrots, kakatua, 


    pigeon and many more were kept there for display

    From the afternoon people crowded all over the stalls. Some of them were 

    buying birds, some were only watching and some were busy bargaining 

    with the bird sellers. It was quite exciting to see the reactions of the 

    children in the fair. They were so thrilled that they were running all 

    over the ground. They were very happy to see so many colourful birds 

    together. It was very nice to see the talking parrot. A bird trainer was 

    making the parrot talk. There were many food stalls. Different types of 

    snacks were also sold at the fair. 

    Children were mostly buying ice-creams and popcorns. Many people were 

    seen carrying cages in their hands on their way home. It was truly a nice 

    exhibition to visit. It is becoming more and more popular every year. We 

    saw so many rare birds from close but I prefer to see them in their natural 

    habitat. When I go for holidays with my parents, we watch out for birds 

    all around us. In my next trip, I wish to request my parents to permit me 

    to go to a place heard from my classmates called safari of Nandankanan 

    from Purithat isalso wonderful. They told me that they went to Chilka 

    which is famous for dolphins. They sat in a boat and went a far distance 

    into the sea. They have heard that dolphins are human’s friends, so they 

    also wanted to make friends with them. But unfortunately, they could 

    not see a dolphin. In Chilka red crabs and prawns are found. This is 

    about all their experience in Puri which they think is the ideal place for 

    all visitors. They plan to go to Puri this year again and hopefully, I will 

    go with them and have lots and lots of fun.


    • Comprehension Questions

    1. Vocabulary

    Using dictionary and thesaurus, find the meaning of the following words 

    as they are used in the above passage. (the words are highlighted in the 


    a. exhibition

    b. habitat

    c. stalls

    d. crowded 

    e. barricade

    f. ribbon

    g. species 

    h. snacks

    i. popcorns

    j. bargaining

    2.When did the exhibition of birds take place?

    3. Where is the story/exhibition happening?

    a. Mention who the main guest in this exhibition was.

    b. Why were the children much attracted by this exhibition?

    c. What made this fair become more and more popular?

    4. Which place was the writer planning to visit during her next free time?

    5 .Why were the writer and mates intending to visit a new site?

    1.4.2. Application activity: Sentence writing

    Use each of the above words from the vocabulary in your own sentences.

    1.5. Comparing people according to their gender and 


    1.5.1. Learning activity: Reading and Text analysis

    • Text: A man in the kitchen

    In Rwanda, a man in the kitchen is an unusual sight in most places, 

    be it urban or rural. This is often accompanied by sarcastic comments, 

    mocking laughter or shaking of heads in disapproval, from men as well as 

    women. Patriarchy has been a widely accepted social norm; gender roles 

    are clearly divided into how men are supposed to act and how women 

    have to behave. However, in most rural areas in Rwanda all this has 

    started to change and men have miraculously accepted to step foot into 

    the kitchen to cook and serve their children and wives.

    In the village of Kayonza, a group of men were found preparing beans 

    together with women in the kitchen. “It is so surprising to see my husband 

    assist me in sorting out beans for cooking. This has never happened 

    since we were married 32 years ago,” said Gertrude Mukagatare, a 

    56-year-old resident of Rwinkwavu in Kayonza district. Jean Damascene 

    Ntabanyurwa is the 60 year-old husband of Mukagatare who has become 

    a role model and earned respect for his change in attitude. “I was initially 

    ridiculed by other men for doing work traditionally reserved for women,” 

    said Ntabanyurwa, “but I have quickly become a role model, earned 

    respect and courage to do things differently.”

    Hile Jennifer in her book, ‘Stereotypical Naturism: Understanding 

    Discrimination Based on Stereotypes Prejudice,’ noted the impeccable 

    need to understand the nature of stereotypes. “Understanding the 

    nature of stereotypes, generalizations, prejudice and discrimination is 

    the first step in cultivating tolerance. Every person has prejudices since, 

    it is simply human nature. People should, however, in the interest of 

    intellectual honesty, consider that fairness is compromised when they 

    discriminate against others because of personal prejudices.”

    “Many people believe that every human being deserves respect and 

    freedom to practice unhindered, activities that make life more meaningful 

    for them as long as there is no harm done to others. After all, personal 

    freedom is one of the hallmarks of democracy,” Hile stated. Rwandan 

    women have been an important and increasingly visible part of the 

    modern Rwandan society. Women are successfully and continuously 

    fighting patriarchy and discriminative male dominance. Claudette 

    Nyiramasoni is a 38-year-old local leader in Kirehe district who said 

    that through involving a change in attitude and perception, they crossed 

    over the very boundaries which had constructed leadership as a male 


    “Our presence in administration and general politics indicates our 

    rejection of the women’s traditional and marginalized status which has 

    been met with resentment and resistance. Rwanda’s development is 

    bound to change as the society recognizes that women are a driving force 

    that is needed to change the course of this country”.

    Adopted from:

    • Comprehension questions 

    1. What caused sarcastic comments, mocking laughter or shaking 

    of heads in disapproval, from men as well as women?

    2. What is gender according to the text?

    3. Compare people’s perception of gender in both rural and urban 


    4. Who stated that personal freedom is one of the hallmarks of 


    5. What shows marginalization status among women today than in 

    the past?

    6. Suppose you are a head teacher in a school x, what will you do to 

    change people’s prejudice on women?

    1. Question related to gender awareness

    a. At what extent do you think gender awareness has reached?

    b. Where do you find areas of improvement?

    c. What is your role?

    1.5.2. Application activity

    Debate on the following topic, “Women occupations should be the same 

    as men’s occupations.” Read the instructions on how to carry out a debate 

    activity in unit five of this book.

    1.6. Language structure

    • A. Present simple tense

    Present simple tense, also known as simple present tense or present 

    indefinite tense is used to describe an action that is regular, true and 

    normal. It could equally be used to describe what is happening currently. 

    Present simple tense can be used for the following:

    1. Repeated actions- For example:

    - She walks to work every day.

    - The train leaves the railway station daily.

     2. Habits,

     - They swim every evening.

     - I get up early every day.

     3. Things that are generally true.

     - They speak Ikinyarwanda at home.

     - It shines a lot in summer.

     4. Facts

     - They come from Rwanda.

     - Birds have wings.

     5. Something fixed in the future.

     - The school choir leaves at 7:00pm in the evening.

     - She performs her traditional song tomorrow morning.

    6. Some time to talk about past actions when we are summarising a 

    book, film or play


    Okwonko is moved although he remains unstoppable with his mission to 

    become a Lord of his clan. He is disappointed by Nwoye but maintains 

    great love for his daughter Ezinma, his child by his second wife Ekwefi. 

    Ekwefi has begotten ten children but only Ezinma has survived. He 

    lovesthe girl so much… 

    (Extract from Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe)

    The table below shows how the simple present tense can be used.



    • We use do/does for questions in the present simple and we specifically 

    employ does for the third person singular.

    • For third person singular, (she, he, it) we add ‘s’ to the verb.

    • Often, adverbs of frequency such as sometimes, usually, seldom etc. 

    are used with the present simple. 

    • We also use do/does to make interrogative clauses and negative 

    sentences in the present simple.

    • Do and does can be used with some of the ‘WH’ words such as where, 

    when, what. Example, when does Nzeyi clean his room?

    However, who does not use do or does as seen in the example below:

    Who lives in Huye?


    1. Construct (10) grammatically well-structured sentences using 

    the present simple tense.

    2. Narrate an experience you encountered at college using the 

    present simple tense.

    B. Past Simple tense

    The past tense is formed by adding ‘ed’ at the end of the verb. This is 

    very applicable for only regular verbs in their past form. Such verbs in 

    their base include play, laugh, clean, pray etc. while the irregular verbs 

    like catch, sweep, bring, carry have no defined formula to include for 

    their past form.

    Uses of the past tense:

    To talk about something that happened once in the past


    1. We met at the market last evening.

    2. We carried the books back to the library yesterday.

    When talking about a thing that happened several times in 

    the past.


    1. We sung a lot while we were in school.

    2. They always enjoyed playing the piano.

    For expressions with ago, we also use simple past


    1. I met my family twenty years ago.

    2. Kevine finished her assignment two days ago.

    When something was true for some time in the past


    1. She prayed a lot when she was sick.

    2. I worked in Rwanda for fifteen years.

    Examples of verbs with their past form.


    C. Nouns

    1. Definition

    A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing or an idea. 

    2. Types of Nouns

    There are different types of nouns: Proper nouns, Common nouns, 

    Collective nouns, Abstract nouns, Countable and Uncountable nouns.

    Our focus will be on proper, common, abstract, collective (also known as 

    mass nouns), countable or uncountable nouns

    a. Abstract nouns 

    These are nouns that.

    Examples could be habits such as politeness, intelligence

    b. Collective nouns

    These are used to represent a group of things, people and animals. 

    Examples include a flock of sheep, a gang of thugs, a crowd of people, a 

    fleet of trucks etc.

    c. Common nouns

    A word used to name general thing, people, places, ideas, events, or 

    people: class, tables, desk, board

    d. Proper nouns: 

    The name of a particular person, place animal or thing and some events.

    They always begin with a capital letter.

    e.g. Gatesi, Nyanza, Rwandair, January, Friday, Easter, Christmas, Id 

    El Fitr, etc.

    e. Countable and uncountable nouns

    • Countable nouns

    They are nouns we use to name people, animals or things that can be 

    counted using numbers: e.g. bottles, books, cups, boys, girls, etc. 

    • Uncountable nouns

    They are noun used to name people, animals or things that cannot be 

    counted like air, sand, wind, crowd, herd, etc.

    D. Pronouns

    I. Definition

    Pronouns are words that are used to replace nouns. They act like 

    nouns; they are nouns substitutes.

    We normally use pronouns to limit repetition of the nouns that they refer to.

    Types of Pronouns

    The types of pronouns include personal, indefinite, reflective, 

    demonstrative, relative, reflexive, reciprocal and possessive pronouns. 

    This unit will however exploit personal, possessive and demonstrative 


    1. Personal pronouns include:

    They replace names of people, animals, things or ideas acting as 

    subjects or objects within sentences.

    Examples: Mutesi likes wild animals. She visits them during holidays.


    2. Possessive pronouns.

    They show that something or someone belongs to something or someone 

    they include: mine, yours, hers, his, ours, theirs.

    e.g. Elisabeth and Catherine have their books. 

    Mine is on the desk. Jacob left his home. 

    Rosemary gave hers to Noah.

    Samuel and colleagues, do you have yours?

    3. Demonstrative pronouns

    They are words that are used to designate something specific within a 

    sentence. They are very few and include: this, that, those, these, none, 

    neither, such, etc.

    e.g. a. Neither of you did the homework.

     b. None knew about the road. 

    c. Students from poor families drop out of school so early.

     Such students need help.

    E. Articles

    I. Definition

    An article is a word that accompanies a noun to specify its grammatical 

    definiteness. Articles include a, an and the. 

    II. Types of Articles

    There are two main types of Articles: the definite and the indefinite. 

    a. Indefinite Articles

    Indefinite articles include a and an. They are used in several ways:

    1. We use the indefinite articles (a and an) when we refer to any 

    person or thing and not a particular one; i. e. a/an means any.

    Example: - She gave me a radio. 

     - Kamali is afraid to use an escalator.

    Note: Here the words “radio” and “escalator” in the examples 

    above are referring not to particular but to general items. 

    2. We also use indefinite articles when we mention something for the 

    first time: a/an means a certain.

    Example: A farmer approached an orange tree with an axe.

    3. We use the indefinite article an when the word that follows it 

    begins with a vowel sound. A is used when the word that follows it 

    begins with a consonant sound.

    Examples: -Her fiancé gave her a ring. 

    - The girl gave an answer. 

     - I prefer working in a university. 

    III. Pronunciation of articles: 

    The choice between a and an depends on pronunciation not on spelling. 

    Therefore, we say a university, a useful thing, an hour, an honest man… 

    and indefinite articles are only used with singular count noun

    IV. Definite articles

    The definite article the is used to refer to particular things or persons. It 

    is used in the following ways:

    1. It can be used with both singular and plural nouns, unlike the 

    indefinite articles. 


    2. It is used when we mention something that we had mentioned 


    Example: The farmer approached the pine tree with the axe he bought 


    3. We don’t put an article before the name of a country unless it 

    starts with united, for Example, the United States of America or 

    the United Kingdom; or its name contains the word Republic or 

    Union, for example, the People’s Republic of China.

    4. When referring to languages, we use the in the following ways: 

    we say the English language and not English language; We say 

    fluent in English and not fluent in the English

    5. Pronunciation of the:

    - ‘the’ is pronounced |Òe| before nouns beginning with a 

    consonant sound or articulated/sounded letter like ‘h’.

    Example: the climate, the beach, themuseum, the trade-fair, the 

    lake, the harbour, the hotel, the hyena

    - But the is pronounced |Òi| before nouns beginning with a vowel 

    sound and silent letters like h.

    Examples: the exhibition, the orange, the honest man,

    III. Zero article

    We call Zero article the non expression of either a definite or indefinite 

    article before a noun phrase.

    1. Generic/indefinite reference (mass and plural nouns)

    (1) generic mass noun: Happiness is contagious.

    (2) generic plural noun: Parks are beautiful places to visit.

     They (People) want equal rights.

    2. Indefinite reference with both plural and mass nouns.

    (1) indefinite mass noun: I drink coffee.

    (2) indefinite plural noun: I saw cars.

    B. Conjunctions: Whereas, While, When, Where

    The sentences below have been taken from the text above. Read them 

    carefully and explain the role of the words highlighted. 

    1. A home is generally defined as a place where one lives permanently

    2. The term nuclear family refers to the family group consisting of 

    parents and children, while extended family includes all those 

    with kinship ties. 

    3. Nuclear family is composed of parents and siblings, whereas

    extended family is made up of all people from the same ancestors.


    A conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect words, phrases, 

    clauses, or sentences. Conjunctions do not change in number, neither do 

    they in person. They are invariable grammar particles. Below are some 

    conjunctions that are used to contrast two similar things. 

    a) Whereas 

    Whereas is a conjunction which is used to highlight an important 

    difference between two similar things or facts.

    When whereas comes at the beginning of a subordinate (dependent) 

    clause, we put a comma before it. 


    1. Nuclear family is composed of parents and siblings, whereas 

    extended family is made up of all people from the same ancestors.

    2. The term nuclear family refers to the family group consisting of 

    parents and children, whereas extended family includes all those 

    with kinship ties

    3. People say ‘fries’ in America, whereas in Britain they call 



    When the clause with whereas comes before the main clause, we put a 

    comma after that main clause.


    1. Whereas extended family is made up of all people from the same 

    ancestors, Nuclear family is composed of parents and siblings.

    2. Whereas Bugesera has very hot summers, Musanze summers are 

    sometimes quite cold. 

    3. Whereas street children don’t get affection, children in families 

    get enough care. 

    b) While 

    While can be used instead of whereas


    1. Nuclear family is composed of parents and siblings, whereas/

    while extended family is made up of all people from the same 


    2. Children in orphanages are sometimes sad, whereas/while 

    children in families are usually happy. 

    While can also be used to express time. In that case it introduces a 

    time clause and means at the same time or during the time. 


    1. While the kids were having a nap, the mom could have a relaxing bath.

    2. I remembered I had forgotten to buy food while I was just leaving the 


    c) When 

    When can be used in different ways, but when it is used as a conjunction 

    it means at the time that. The clause with when is a subordinate 

    clause and needs a main clause to complete its meaning. If the when 

    clause comes before the main clause, we use a comma. When can be 

    used to talk about the past, present or future as explained below.

    Talking about the past


    1. When I was younger, there were no houses here. 

    2. Nobody spoke when she came into the room. 

    Talking about the present 


    1. When a new child is born, there is a lot of joy in family.

    2. There is a lot of joy in family when a new child is born. 

    Talking about the future


    In references to the future with when, we use the present simple or the 

    present perfect in the when-clause, not the future with shall and will:


    1. When the new park opens, my father will take me there.

    Not: When the new park will open, my father will take me there.

    2. When I’ve finished my homework, I’m going to phone my dad.

    Not: When I’ll finish my homework, I’m going to phone my dad.

    We can also use when to mean “considering that”.


    What’s the point in going out when we have to be home by eleven o’clock?

    d) Where 

    Where is used as a conjunction to mean in the place that or in situations 

    that. The clause with where is a subordinate clause and needs a main 

    clause to complete its meaning. If the where clause comes before the 

    main clause, we use a comma.


    1. Where you find a lot of water, you will also find these beautiful insects.

    2. Where you have to pay a deposit, be sure to get a receipt.


    Using conjunctions and articles in sentences

    i. Choose the right words from the brackets to fill in gaps in each of 

    the sentences below.

    1. Kariza, will you lay the table……. I help your sister with her 

    maths exercise, please. (whereas/while)

    2. The twins are very different: Kalisa is shy and reserved……. 

    Kamana is outgoing. (whereas/while)

    3. My aunt Sophie is a doctor…Uncle Pete is a dentist. (whereas/


    4. I remembered my keys…I had left. (while/when)

    5. Dad would like to have a holiday in Spain… Mom would prefer 

    Italy. (whereas/when)

    6. Why carrying bed covers in Musanze…we have to sleep in a hotel. 


    7. A home is generally defined as a place…one lives permanently. 


    8. When my mother … I will tell her that you didn’t mop your room. 

    (comes, will come) 

    ii. Use a, an or the to fill the blanks in the following sentences. The 

    first one has been done for you. 

    1. My mother considered it an hour to receive the reward promised 

    by the President. 

    2. Your car is very nice. Does it have … DVD player?

    3. Kamali rested at home in … garden …whole morning. 

    4. Kalisa found … cat. … cat belongs to his neighbour. 

    5. Keza has got … job in … bank in Kigali. 

    6. She is … useful person most of … time. 


    Vocabulary is the basis for the development of all the other skills: 

    reading comprehension, listening comprehension, speaking, writing, 

    spelling and pronunciation. This is the main tool that will help you 

    attempt to use English effectively. You will first find meanings of words 

    and then use them in your own sentences. 

    Copy words in column A in your exercise book and match them with 

    their meanings in column B


    1.8. End unit assessment

    a. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

    1. Kamali and Kalisa often… to parties yesterday. (go)

    2. Jenny sometimes …Monica. (meet)

    3. In summer, children usually… in the garden. (play)

    4. Kalisa …the board every day. (clean) 

    5. My sister…blue eyes. (have)

    6. Bill…the window at night for it is always hot here. (open)

    7. They all…dark blue pullovers when it is cold. (wear) 

    8. He always…the housework himself. (do)

    9. My mum…shopping every Friday. (go)

    10. I never…TV in the morning. (watch)

    11. Fred…football last week. (play)

    12. Hannah and Betty often…pizza. (eat) 

    13. Frank …Watching TV. (like)

    b. Decide whether to use a, an, or the for each of the following 


    1. _____ flowers he gave me are beautiful. 

    2. Her dad sings her _____ song each night before she goes to bed.

    3. Have you ever eaten _____ raw egg before?

    4. Excuse me, do you have _____ time?

    5. He had _____ exciting day today.

    6. Bob forgot to bring _____ cake he baked.

    7. Can you please return _____ records you borrowed?

    8. Fred met _____ wonderful group of people last night.

    9. _____ people Scott met were also nice. Tell me _____ story!

    c. Re-arrange the following conversation about self-introduction and 

    others to be meaningful.

    • Nice to meet you too.

    • I’m an engineer.

    • Mrs. Smith, what do you do for a living?

    • I work for Pentax International. What do you do?

    • Oh. Where do you work?

    • I teach English.

    • Hi. Nice to meet you.

    • Thank you. It was nice to talk to you!

    • What do you teach?

    • I’m a teacher.

    • Robert, this is my friend, Mrs. Smith.

    d. Write a 100 word composition explaining why living in a family is 

    better than living in an orphanage.


    Key unit competence: To use language in the context of Career 

    and Choices

    Introductory Activity


    Questions for discussion

    1. Identify different activities that are taking place in each figure.

    2. Why do you think people do different jobs?

    3. What would you do if you chose a career and found it too 


    4. Do you think qualifications and skills are necessary? Discuss. 

    5. Recommend some pieces of advice for young people to choose a 

    good career

    2.1. Describing different types of careers and specific jobs

    Pre-reading activity


    In our country, people do different activities from different institutions. 

    Based on that experience, discuss different types of jobs and specific 



    2.1.1. Learning activities: Reading and Text analysis

    • Inspired professions Reading and exploitation of texts

    • Text 1: Describing different professions and specific jobs

    “There are as many kinds of professions as there are people. They are 

    like clothes; you have to choose the size and style that suits you”

    There are five professions which I admire most. First and foremost is 

    the profession of teaching. A teacher is a nation builder. He is a role 

    model for his students. In the modern materialistic age, the teachers 

    have lost the high status they used to enjoy in society. Still, one can say, 

    teaching is the noblest of all professions.

    The second profession I admire most is the profession of a doctor. There 

    is no doubt many doctors have these days grown very greedy. They try 

    to fleece the poor helpless patients. But I’m here talking about an ideal 

    doctor only. Such a doctor has the milk of human kindness in him. He 

    considers service to mankind his mission. He charges moderate fees and 

    works wholeheartedly to mitigate the sufferings of the ailing humanity.

    The third profession which I admire most is the profession of a soldier. 

    Asoldier is the saviour of the country and its people. He is ready to 

    sacrifice his life for the sake of his country. He must be given due respect, 

    regard and status in society. The fourth profession I admire most is the 

    profession of a farmer. A farmer supplies food to all the people. Nobody 

    can live without food. So, all of us depend for food on the farmer.

    The farmer must be given better treatment and facilities. The fifth 

    profession I admire most is that of a politician. This may seem strange 

    as the politicians are condemned everywhere. The reason for their 

    condemnation generally is because they are mostly corrupt.

    But I’m talking here about an ideal politician only. Such a politician is a 

    model of service to society, country and mankind. Before independence, 

    we had such great politicians as Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, 

    Balgangadhar Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and others. I wish we had 

    such great selfless leaders and politicians now also.

    Adopted from:

    • Comprehension questions: 

    1. What are the jobs that the writer admires most?

    2. Why is teaching a noble profession according to the writer?

    3. Mention the qualities of a professional doctor as described in the 


    4. Why some politicians are condemned? 

    5. Compare the person who did different jobs within different 

    professions with the person who only had one profession in life

    2.1.2. Application activities: Word definition and composition writing

    1. Match the correct definition to the following professions



    2. Choose one profession and write two paragraphs describing its benefits 

    and related challenges

    2.2. Describing ways of finding jobs

    2.2.1. Learning activities Reading and Text analysis


     After observing the pictures, answer the following questions:

    1. Describe different activities that are taking place in the figure 


    2. Identify some ways of finding a job in Rwanda.

    3. What is the importance of professional internship and 


    4. Suggest an advice to teachers about their responsibilities in 

    classrooms in relation to ways of finding jobs

    Text 1: An interviewer and an interviewee

    Read the interview conducted and answer questions that follow


    Interviewer: Welcome to ABC Controls, David. I am Tom.

    Interviewee: Hello, it’s nice to meet you.

    Interviewer: Nice to meet you too, how are you doing today?

    Interviewee: I am doing well, and you?

    Interviewer: Great, thanks. I hope we didn’t keep you waiting for 


    Interviewee: No, I had the chance to talk to one of your engineers 

     while waiting.

    Interviewer: That’s good. David, shall we start?

    Interviewee: Yeah, sure.

    Interviewer: First of all, let me introduce myself. 

     Iam the manager of our engineering 

     department here and we have an open position, 

     so we have been interviewing applicants 

    to fill the position as quickly as possible.

    Interviewee: Yes Sir, I read about the position on your website, 

    and I think I am a good fit.

    Interviewer: We currently have several ongoing projects and 

     the team is working hard. We are hoping to keep 

     busy for a long time.

    Interviewee: What are the essential qualifications required 

     for the position?

    Interviewer: This is an entry-level engineering position; we do provide 

     a lot of training here. But we do require that you have 

     at least a bachelor’s degree in computer engineering. 

    Previous experience in the field is a plus.

    Interviewee: What kind of experience would you count as a work in 

    the field?

    Interviewer: Even though we provide training, it would 

     be great if you had some hands-on programming 

     experience, knowledge of database systems or skills on 

     developing applications.

    Interviewee: My final school project was actually developing a mobile 

     application, so I am fairly competent in developing 

     mobile and web applications.

    Interviewer: That’s good to hear, which school did you graduate from?

    Interviewee: I was a student at DEF University, and I graduated with a bachelor degree in computer science. 

     I worked as a computer lab tutor in school for about 2 years. Guiding students through their projects helped me get experience in several programming languages.

    Interviewer: What are you looking for in a job?

    Interviewee: The job should definitely help me grow in my career. I 

     will be happy to learn and grow as I work in a passionate 

     company like yours.

    Interviewer: You are right. There is plenty of room for advancement in our 

     company. What are your strengths? Why should I hire you?

    Interviewee: I am a diligent person and a fast learner. I am very eager to 

    learn. My friends also find me very easy to work with.

    Interviewer: Very well. Now, do you mind working overtime?

    Interviewee: No, I do not

    Interviewer: Because, sometimes we get overwhelmed with heavy workload.

    Interviewee: I understand that’s the nature of the job. When I was going 

     to school, I took quite a few courses each semester while working at least twenty hours every week. And, I handled that situation very well.

    Interviewer: Do you have any questions for me?

    Interviewee: No, I think I have a pretty good understanding of the requirements. I believe that I can handle it with ease, and the fact that you provide all the training sounds excellent. 

     I hope to have the opportunity to work for you.

    Interviewer: David, it is nice to meet you. I can tell that you are a good candidate. Expect to hear from us within a week or so about the job.

    Interviewee: Nice meeting you too. Thank you for your time.

    Interviewer: Thank you for coming.

    Comprehension questions 

    1. What is the names of both interviewer and interviewee?

    2. Which institution would like to recruit an employee and for which 


    3. Where did the applicant get the information and what were the 


    4. Identify the interviewee working experience as described.

    5. Give the reason given by the applicant/interview about why he 

    was looking for that job.

    6. Have you learnt any lesson from the interview read. Justify your 


     Text2. Finding jobs

    Read the text below and answer comprehension questions:

    Growing up in school, students are constantly reminded that a college 

    education is necessary to make a decent salary. Over the years, it has 

    become evident to many young adults that this statement is indeed true. 

    However, as the need for jobs increases, so does the necessity of being more 

    competitive in a work field. Since our generation has grown up knowing 

    that graduating from college is a necessity, a college education is no longer 

    enough to be competitive in the job market; therefore, our generation has

    given birth to a new requirement to find the right job after college. This 

    requirement is known as an internship.

    There are many people who are currently working in fields where they 

    never thought they would work. Their plans in life didn’t work out the way 

    they wanted and they are now living under what they once labelled “Plan 

    B”. Companies can be sure that interns are dedicated and truly interested 

    in the field that they are working in.

    If you’re considering a new career, volunteering can help you get experience 

    in your area of interest and meet people in the field. Even if you’re not 

    planning on changing careers, volunteering gives you the opportunity 

    to practice important skills used in the workplace, such as teamwork, 

    communication, problem solving, project planning, task management, 

    and organization. You might feel more comfortable stretching your wings 

    at work once you’ve honed these skills in a volunteer position first.

    Volunteering offers you the chance to try out a new career without making 

    a long-term commitment. It is also a great way to gain experience in a 

    new field. In some fields, you can volunteer directly at an organization 

    that does the kind of work you’re interested in. For example, if you’re 

    interested in nursing, you could volunteer at a hospital or a nursing home. 

    Your volunteer work might also expose you to professional organizations 

    or internships that could benefit your career.

    Finally, for finding jobs graduates either secondary students or University 

    students apply and when their application are accepted, they may sit for 

    written exams and interviews. Examples of channels include and not 

    limited to Job in Rwanda, Rwanda Civil service Recruitment portal and 

    Adopted from:


    Comprehension questions

    1. Which different ways of finding jobs are mentioned in the passage 


    2. Explain the relationship between professional internship and 

    career opportunity.

    3. Do you think volunteerism can help someone to find a job? 


    4. How do people apply through Rwanda recruitment portal and job 

    in Rwanda?

    5. Find the meaning of the following words used in the passage,

    using dictionaries and thesauruses.

    a. Internship

    b. Job market

    c. Plan B

    d. Volunteering

    e. Professional

    2.3. Recounting a career

    2.3.1. Learning activity: Reading andText analysis

    A text: Teaching is not only a career but also a vocation

    Teaching is not always the first job for many teachers, but it is the last for 

    Janice. One of her first jobs is to work at a call centre of a cellular phone 

    company. She made $9 per hour then. She worked graveyard shifts, and 

    she complained that the schedule and target goals were very stressful 

    and exhausting. After only three months, she decided to shift to becoming 

    a pre-school teacher. She finished BS Mathematics and she enjoyed it. 

    But she realized that she wanted to also become a pre-school teacher. For 

    the next three years, she took Early Childhood and Education programs. 

    After she finished the programs, she applied for a public school 

    in our community and she got hired. Right now, she is still a preschool teacher and loving her job. She makes around $30,000 every 

    year. She is now pursuing her MA in Early Childhood Education.

    Teachers are not superheroes; they are human beings with likes and 

    dislikes in this world. She said that as a girl, their family had two dogs, 

    three cats, two rabbits, and two hamsters. The most special pet for her 

    was Britney, their white cat with blue eyes and bunny tail. She is special, 

    because she seems to be aware of her limits as a pet. Janice said: “Brit is 

    the sweetest cat ever, and she never pounces on food, unless it is given to 

    her. And you can just feel that she loves you so much, when she brushes 

    on your legs.” Like other people, Janice tries to avoid some things, but 

    she ends up doing them. 

    She said that some of the things that she is doing that she said she would 

    never do are eating another slice of chocolate cake, and spending more 

    time playing Castle Ville than originally planned. She admitted being 

    “partially addicted” to both. Janice stresses that she hates long lines, 

    traffic, and young people who disrespect their parents. Some of the best 

    things that Janice loves about her life right now are that she can do 

    anything she wants, because she is still single and she does not have to 

    be encumbered with the responsibilities of being a wife and a mother. 

    She plans to have a family someday, but maybe in her mid-thirties.Being 

    a teacher requires sacrifices, love, and dedication. Janice’s long-term 

    goals are about her career as a teacher and the benefits she can get from 

    it. She is working hard to save money and to buy her own house. She 

    also plans to finish her Master’s degree in two years. For her, these goals 

    require sacrifices, like delaying marriage and cutting back on numerous 

    expenses. When asked about her strongest and weakest attributes, she 

    said: “My strongest attribute is my dedication to public service and 

    teaching. My weakest is that I have a hard time saying no to people.” 

    People can easily know that she is a teacher by heart, because when asked 

    the question: If you could go back in history and meet anyone, who would 

    it be and why? She answered that she wants to meet Jesus Christ. She 

    stressed: “I want to listen to his stories and to learn from his goodness. I 

    want to learn from the most awesome teacher of all time.”Janice is like 

    any other human being, with goals, dreams, strengths, and weaknesses. 

    Her life is centred on being a good person and being the most “engaging 

    and loving teacher” for her classes. For her, she is a teacher in and out. 

    For her students, she is their second Mom.


    • Comprehension questions 

    1. What was the first job of Janice?

    2. When did Janice decide to shift from one job to another?

    3. Which combination did Janice do after shifting from the first one?

    4. Mention the qualities of a teacher and long term goals of the 


    5. What are the weakest time to Janice? And on what did she say 

    her life was centered?

    6. Why do you think Janice was like a mother to her students?

    2.5.2. Application activity : Role play

    Role play recounting a career in classroom and explain some benefits of 

    the career recounted. 

    2.4. Talking about Qualifications and skills

    Pre-reading questions 

    Write about the following topic:

    Some people believe that educational qualifications will always bring 

    success in life. Other people say that educational qualifications do 

    not necessarily bring success.

    1. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

    2. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant 

    examples from your own experience or knowledge.

    Observe the pictures and read the text that follows and then answer the 

    questions below:



    Text: Why I want to become a special school teacher:

    When I was little, I wanted to have superpowers. I thought that strength 

    or ability to fly and be invisible would give me a chance to fight crime. 

    That was my way of making the difference in the world.

    Now, that I grew up and stand on a way of making important decisions I 

    realize that I want to be a Special Education Teacher. Now I believe that 

    this is really the best way to make a difference in the world we all live in.

    Why do I choose this path? There are a handful of reasons.

    First of all, I love kids. Being around them, coming up with ways to make

    school programs interesting for them and investing in their personalities, 

    not only their intelligence, are all among my biggest passions in life. I am 

    never bored with all the daunting responsibilities like administrative 

    tasks or paper work.

    As a schoolgirl, I used to work as an assistant Teacher at my parents’ 

    private school. And I know for sure what I am talking about when it 

    comes to overwhelming responsibilities. I saw my parents at work, and I 

    helped them with some of those tasks. And I want to do that one day too.

    Besides, I am a go-getter in nature. This means that coming up with 

    brilliant ideas, organizing schedules and running competitions will be 

    of no problem for me. I like adventures, and it will be a real pleasure to 

    turn an ordinary study process into an exciting adventure with the kids.

    Also, I am creative and curious, and I am always ready to share my 

    discoveries with kids. And that is a key to successful training and 


    And finally, I want to work as a Special Education Teacher meaning that 

    I won’t be around ordinary kids. I will work with extraordinary ones. I 

    believe that each of the students I will be lucky enough to train is special 

    in so many different ways. I realize the hardships of this work, but they 

    don’t scare or burden me. I find this job opportunity a real blessing. But 

    to get there, I have to start my education first. And that is why I am 

    applying to your college.

    I hope one day after I graduate, I will find my own Special Education 

    Establishment where kids would come not only to gain valuable knowledge 

    but also find friends, rediscover their passions, and fulfil their bravest 

    dreams. And all this is possible with my potential and your college’s 

    knowledge base. Adopted:

    Comprehension questions

    1. What was the dream of the author?

    2. Why did the author like the profession mentioned in the passage?

    3. Which category of children did the author wanted to work with?

    4. Give reasons why the author wanted to have his establishment.

    Text 2: Job advertisement 

    1. Pre-reading activity


    2. Read this job advertisement and answer questions that follow:

    Inyange Nursery School

    Inyange Primary school seeks to recruit a highly qualified candidate to 

    fill the vacant post of Head teacher.

    The head teacher vacancy requirements:

    1. qualification

    • Professional teaching certificate of secondary in Early childhood 

    and lower primary Education.

    2. Skills 

    • Good command of English, French and Kinyarwanda.

    • Computer literate in Microsoft word, Excel and PowerPoint 

    • Organizational skills

    • Interpersonal communication

    3. Experience

    • Have a minimum of two years working experience.

    4. Qualities

    • Team management

    • Working under pressure

    • Paying attention to details

    Applicants should be Rwandans, and should attach to the letter of 

    application photocopies of their academic certificates, national ID and 

    recent passport photos.

    Interested applicants can send their application letters, curriculum vitae 

    and academic papers to the following email: Inyange.nursery12@gmail.

    com. For further information, call us on the following number: 25267201

    Comprehension questions

    1. What is the vacant position? 

    2. Who advertised the job? 

    3. What educational background is required? 

    4. Identify the computer skills required? 

    5. Why is important for the applicant to have organizational and 

    interpersonal communication skills?

    6. How can an interested person apply for the job? 

    7. Where can an interested person apply for the job? 

    Text 3: Relationship between qualifications and Labour market

    Pre-reading activity 

    Read the following text and answer questions that follow


    Read this text and answer the questions that follow:

    Some people find academic degrees or other training essential milestones 

    for future success, while others believe that this does not guarantee future 

    success and there are other relevant factors just as crucial. Personally, I 

    take the opinion that success is not guaranteed.

    On the one hand, gaining educational qualifications is certainly a method 

    with which to gain success in certain areas of life. With regards to a 

    career, it makes a person more competitive as employers will generally 

    seek people who are well-qualified for the best and most richly rewarded 

    positions in their company. This is true for all types of work, be it as an 

    accountant or lawyer; or work in the building trade. It can also be viewed

    as bringing success in terms of one’s own development, as for some people 

    gaining more educational qualifications is not for work but instead leads 

    to a sense of personal accomplishment and fulfilment.

    On the other hand, it is not certain that success will follow. In terms 

    of work, many people study hard to become well-qualified but then fail 

    to reach the heights of success that they expected. This is because in 

    today’s world there is a high level of competition for many jobs and a 

    high number of graduates or qualified people. Not only this, there are 

    other skills needed aside from qualifications. ‘People skills’ are also 

    very important and so regardless of the level of qualifications, those 

    who cannot get along well with others may be less likely to achieve the 

    success they desire.

    In my opinion, therefore, educational qualifications can bring success in 

    life for many people, yet there are no guarantees this will be the case. 

    Other factors such as the current job market and personal skills are also 

    factors of importance.


    • Comprehension questions 

    1. Which method should be deployed in order to gain future success 

    descibed by the writer?

    2. Do you think having academic success guarantees a job well 


    3. Compare academic qualifications and job market as discussed in 

    the passage above.

    4. Mention other factors in addition to qualification that can ensure 

    success in the job.

    2.5. Language structure: The Present Perfect, Present 

    Perfect Continuous and past perfect

    A. Present prefect tense

    This tense connects the past with the present: completed or unchanging 

    actions or events. It cannot be used to make a reference to a particular 

    point or period (like last week, in January, at, etc.) 

    Generally, The present perfect tense is used when talking about:

    a)actions which took place in the past, but whose time is not precise or


    e.g. Have you been to Moscow? 


    e.g. Have you ever travelled by plane? 

    → Yes, I have. No, I haven’t. 

    → No, but I’m planning to. 

    c) news. 

    e.g. Our country has sent an Ambassador to DRC. 

    It is used for: 

    Completed actions or events at some time before now(no 

    particular time given) 

    Actions or events in periods of time not yet finished 


    Actions with ever, and never referring to any time up to now 

    Unchanging situations in periods of time up to now 

    Series of completed actions up to now 

    Future actions after some conjunctions: after, before, as soon 

    as, until, for, since, this week/month/year, etc. 

    B. The use of since and for with the present perfect tense

    a) Since 


    1. The population of DRC has increased since 1970. 

    2. Rwanda has been independent since 1962. (this means that Rwanda 

    became independent in 1962 and that it is still independent). 

    3. His Excellence the President of the Republic of Rwanda has ruled 

    the country since 2000. 

    4. You have been students here since January 2011. 

    b) For 

    Rwanda has been independent for 57 yearsin 2019.

    You have been students here for one month. 

    Our English teacher has taught us English for one month. 

    Formation and Usages of the Present Perfect:

    have + past participle of the main verb. 

    • We use the perfect tense with sinceto indicate the beginning of a 

    period of time.

    • We use the present perfect tense withforto indicate the duration of 

    aperiod of time. 

    • The use of just, almost, already and yetcan be used with the present 

    perfect to show how an action/event is related to present.

    Question: Have you written the other letter? 

    Different answers may be given: 

    • Yes, I have already written it. 

    • Yes, I have just written it. 

    • I have almost written it. 

    • No. I haven’t written it yet. 

    • No. I haven’t yet written it.

    • I am still writing it. 

    C. Formation and uses of the present perfect continuous

    The present perfect continuous talks about an action which started 

    before now and is still continuing. The main concern is the time the 

    action started. 

    a. How to form the present perfect continuous tense

    The present perfect continuous is formed using this formula: have/has( 

    Present simple of the verb to have) + been + main verb in (ing)form.


    • We have been studying to become lawyers.

    • They have been doing this job for three years now.

    • She has been waiting for her mother since yesterday!

    Note: Since and for help us to know the time interval an action has 


    Compare these sentences: 

    • Musafiri has been teaching since 2000. (Begun teaching that year 

    up to now.

    • Musafiri has been teaching for fifteen years. (Has spent fifteen years 


    b. When to use the present perfect continuous

    The present perfect continuous is used when talking about:

    1) An action which began in the near past and is still continuing. It 

    does not matter how long the near past is. e.g. He has been working 

    as a doctor for a very long time. (He still works as a doctor)

    2) The time interval and length of an action up to present using since 

    and for.


    • She has been lecturing since she finished her university.

    • We have been waiting for the new manager for five months.

    3) The present perfect continuous tense is also used when drawing 



    • His eyes are red. It is clear he has been crying after that difficult 

    job interview.

    • Look at his hands. He must have been cultivating for his entire 



    Study the information below and discuss what you have understood, 

    then write a summary with personal information. 

    D. Past Perfect Tense


    The past perfect tense is used to show that something happened before 

    another action in the past. It can also be used to show that something 

    happened before a specific time in the past.

    a. How to form the Past Perfect Tense:

     Had (past simple of have)+ Past participle of the main verb


    • She had met him before the interview

    • The plane had left by the time I got to the airport.

    • I had written the email before he apologized.

    • Kate had wanted to see the movie, but she did not have money for 

    the ticket.

    b. When to use the past perfect tense

    The present perfect continuous is used in several situations. When 

    talking about:

    An action that happened before another in the past:


    • She stayed up all night because she had received bad news.

    • They lost many of the games because they had not practiced enough.

    • You had studied Italian before you moved to Rome.

    When using the past perfect tense in this case, the most important thing 

    to consider is that one action happened before another in the past. The 

    order of events does not matter since the tense used shows clearly which 

    event happened first.

     An action that happened before a specific time in the past:

    • She had established her company before 2008.

    • They had gotten engaged before last year.

    • I had fallen asleep before eight o›clock.’’

    An action in reported speech.

    Examples :

    • The teacher asked if we had studied for the exam.

    • The boss had said it would be a long meeting.

    An action showing dissatisfaction with the past. 


    • We wished we had purchased the winning ticket.

    • She wished she had seen her friend.

    • The boy wished he had asked another question.

    An action that took place slightly before another action in the past. In 

    this case the word “just” is used. 


    • She had just left the scene when the ambulance arrived.

    • The bus had just left when we got to the stop.

    • I had just gone outside when it started to rain.

    Other cases in which the past perfect tense is used:

    • I had got the letter before new recruitment.

    • He understood the math test because he had been tutored all week.

    • I did not have any cash because I had lost my purse.

    • I had been to Mexico once.

    • If I had seen him, I would have told him the news about his 


    • Before he did his homework, he had stayed after school for help.

    • She had lived in California before moving to Texas.

    • She had visited several doctors before she found out what the 

    problem was with her hand.

    2.6. End unit assessment

    I The majority of the youth nowadays aren’t minding about skills, they only 

    wish to have degrees and go to the job market. Based on this statement

    Write a composition comparing qualifications and skills for labour 


    II. Choose the correct answer.

    1. We love this writer’s books. We(have been reading / had been 

    reading) them for years. 

    2. Her clothes were dirty because she (has been working / had been 

    working) in the garage. 

    3. Where have you been? We (had been waiting / have been waiting) 

    for you for ages. 

    4. He hasn’t decided on a career yet, but he (has been thinking / had 

    been thinking) about it lately.

    5. After she (has been playing / had been playing) the violin for ten 

    years, she joined an orchestra.

    III. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 

    Use the Present Perfect Continuous or the Past Perfect Continuous.

    1. How long ... your father...(work) for the company when he retired? 

    2. Mike has never had an accident and he ....(drive) for years. 

    3. She had no idea it was so late because she .... (not / watch) the 


    4. “ ... (you / take) your medicine regularly, Mrs Smith?” “Yes, 


    5. They eventually found the dog after they ...(look) for it all night. 

    IV. Complete the sentences with a suitable word or expression from the 

    following adverbs of time: for, by tomorrow, so far, the week before, since

    1. Our TV hasn’t been working ... last week. 

    2. The Browns invited us to dinner although we had only met ... .

    3. They will have finished painting the house ... .

    4. We had been writing ...nearly an hour when the bell rang. 

    5. They have interviewed three suspects ... .

    V. Put each of the following words in its correct place in the text below: 

    Successful, engineer, lives, teens, profession, choose, interests, 

    decisions, character, job, answer, career.

    It is very important for everybody to make the right choice of 1) __________. 

    And it is no wonder because there are a lot of honourable professions 

    to choose from, for example, the profession of a teacher, a doctor, a 

    computer-operator, an 2) __________, a journalist, an agronomist, a 

    miner, a fitter, etc. It is difficult for the young people of seventeen to give 

    a definite 3) __________. There are lots of people who take 4) __________ 

    about their professions and their career very easily. It is a matter of 

    fact that only few of them become successful in their careers and their 

    5) __________. Such people don’t gain much success in their professions 

    and their careers. The next point is that there is a big difference between 

    6) __________ and career. Job is just a place to work in and to earn your 

    living while 7) __________ involves planning out the journey, picking 

    up the necessary skills along the way to be successful, and purposely 

    deciding what your 8) __________, skills and work values are. Choosing a 

    career is a hot question for school-leavers. I know that leaving school is 

    the beginning of my independent life, the beginning of a far more serious 

    examination of my abilities and 9) __________. My parents and school 

    teachers helped me to 10) __________ my future profession. I would like 

    to become a teacher as my parents are. This profession is to my liking 

    though I understand that it is a difficult job, but I like people and my 

    long-term dream is to bring up and teach children. Some people never 

    pick a career. They continue drifting from job to job, without considering 

    where the drifting will lead. 11) __________ may change their career 

    interests or goals over time, but a well-chosen career usually leads to 

    more advanced and challenging opportunities. And let’s face it – you’re 

    likely to be working most of your life, so why not enjoy what you’re doing. 

    Finally, I’d like to advise you to choose your career carefully and then 

    you will be happy and 12) __________ in your future life. 

    https: //

    doc_docx/writing_ comprehension career/preintermediate-a2-



    Key unit competence:

    To use language in the context of social cohesion

    Introductory Activity Observe the following pictures and discuss


    In your discussion, include answers to the following questions: 

    1. What is happening in the above pictures? 

    2. What can make people to work together as shown in those 


    3. What do we call the harmony and good relationship among 

    members of community?

    3.1. Talking about personal values that enhance social 


    3.1. 1. Learning activities: Reading and Text analysis



    • The diagram on social cohesion

    Observe the diagram below and discuss


    After interpreting the above diagram, answer the following 


    1. Identify different values presented in the diagram.

    2. What are the values grouped under social relations?

    3. Which objective and subjective quality of life is mentioned in the 


    4. Based on different values described in the diagram, identify some 

    personal values that can enhance social cohesion. 

    5. Why do you think personal values can help in the enhancement 

    of social cohesion?

    • Text: Enhancing Social cohesion 

    What balances individual rights against those of society and appreciates 

    that a good relationship enables people to respect each other’s values is 

    known as social cohesion. This works towards the well-being of all its 

    members and acts as a bond linking people together for better growth. 

    For the society to achieve it, individual values play a big impact as 

    discussed within the following sections. 

    Firstly, let’s talk about Empathy which involves the ability to emotionally 

    understand what another person is experiencing. Essentially, it is putting 

    yourself in someone else’s position and feeling what they must be feeling. 

    When you see another person suffering, you might be able to instantly 

    envision yourself in the other person’s place and feel sympathy for what 

    they are going through. While people are generally pretty well-attuned 

    to their own feelings and emotions, getting into someone else’s head can 

    be a bit more difficult. The ability to feel empathy allows people to “walk 

    a mile in another’s shoes,” so to speak. It permits people to understand 

    the emotions that others are feeling. 

    For many, seeing another person in pain and responding with indifference 

    or even outright hostility seems utterly incomprehensible. But the fact 

    that some people do respond in such a way clearly demonstrates that 

    empathy is not necessarily a universal response to the suffering of 

    others. Secondly, there are just a few elemental forces that hold our world

    together. The one that’s the glue of society is also called trust. Its presence 

    cements relationships by allowing people to live and work together, feel 

    safe and belong to a group. Trust in a leader allows organizations and 

    communities to flourish.

    However, the absence of trust can cause fragmentation, conflict and even 

    war. That’s why we need to trust our leaders, our family members, our 

    friends and our co-workers, albeit in different ways. We may not show it 

    outwardly, but we are less likely to tell the formerly trusted person that 

    we are upset, to share what is important to us or to follow through on 

    commitments. As a result, we pull back from that person and no longer 

    feel part of their world. This loss of trust can be obvious or somewhat 

    hidden especially if we pretend to be present but inwardly disengage. 

    And those who have done something to lose our trust may not even know 


    Lastly by no means of least, It is about the action or process of forgiving 

    or being forgiven. When you are forgiven, you feel free to relate with 

    the person who forgave you. When you do it, you release yourself from 

    bitterness and therefore you can embrace those who had wronged you. 

    This fosters good relationship among members of the society thereby 

    fostering social cohesion. 



    Comprehension questions 

    1. Based on the author’s views, what do you understand by social 


    2. Which Personal values can enhance social cohesion as described 

    by the author?

    3. Using clear examples, explain some reasons as why the described 

    personal values may enhance social cohesion.

    4. What can happen in the absence of trust among people?

    5. Which moral lesson have you drawn after reading the above text?

    3.1.2. Application activity :

    Picture interpretation

    1. Observe the picture and answer questions


    II. Match the following words with their definitions



     III. Your village has called a meeting to discuss about personal values 

    that enhance social cohesion among people.

    You are asked to take minutes as the secretary. Write the minutes 

    and present them to the public. 


    The minutes should include: 

    a. A title containing the date and place where the meeting was held. 

    b. A list of members who attended the meeting. 

    c. Agenda/ items to be discussed e.g. Minutes of previous meeting, 

    speech from chairman, problems that may arise if some values 

    are lacking among people.

    d. Body summarizing ideas for each item on the agenda. 

    e. Conclusion and date for the next meeting.

    3.2. Elaborating on Peace and Unity

    3.2.1. Learning activities Reading and Text analysis


    1. Which activity does Fig.1 represents and why is it important?

    2. What is the role of justice in peace building and Unity?

    3. At what extent do you measure peace and unite in Rwanda? Give 

    clear examples.

    • Text 1: Building peaceful Rwanda

    April 22 2014: Rwandan peace builder Jean de Dieu Basabose looks 

    at the commemorative events for the 20th anniversary of the Rwanda 

    genocide, and explains the importance of peace education in preventing 

    future genocides in Rwanda and beyond.

    On 7 April 2014, Rwanda commemorated the 20th anniversary of the 

    genocide committed against Tutsi in 1994. The theme for this year’s 

    commemoration was: Remember, Unite, Renew. The preparations for 

    the commemoration were marked by a series of events taking place in 

    Rwanda and around the world. One of the noticeable preparatory events 

    was the tour of the ‘Flame of Remembrance’ which was carried across the 

    country’s 30 districts. This event symbolizes courage, reconciliation and 

    hope for an enlightened and promising future.

    The anniversary events create opportunities to publicly honour the 

    memory of the victims of the genocide and to offer emotional support to 

    the survivors and advocate for their recovery and well-being. The annual 

    events are also an opportunity to bring people together, nationally 

    and internationally, in order to reflect on their role in preventing the 

    reoccurrence of genocide or other mass atrocities across the globe. The 

    commemoration calls on the world to reaffirm our commitment to never 

    let this happen again and shows that reconciliation through shared 

    human values and human resilience are possible. It is our responsibility 

    to nurture and promote our interconnectedness, restore human values 

    and build a just and peaceful human society for everyone.

    The role of peace education in rebuilding a peaceful Rwanda

    I work for Shalom Educating for Peace, a peace education organization 

    operating in Rwanda. Peace education can play a key role in building 

    a just future for Rwanda. In the run up to the commemorations in 

    Rwanda we hosted the third African Alliance for Peace Summit. The 

    conference was held in Kigali from 16-19 February. The dates were 

    chosen deliberately to take place during the period of 100 days before the 

    20th commemoration of the genocide. The conference was aligned with 

    the commemoration’s preparatory events and operated with the objective 

    of bringing together people to discuss ways to avoid the reoccurrence of 

    an atrocity such as the genocide.

    The theme of the summit was “Promoting Peace Education in our 

    Communities,” and brought together 62 participants from 11 countries 

    including Rwanda, Burundi, DR Congo, Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, Kenya, 

    Cameroon, Uganda, Zimbabwe, and South Africa.

    The purpose of the event was to examine how to prevent violence, wars, 

    genocide, and xenophobia by promoting peace education and sustaining 

    peace infrastructures, but it also enabled participants from different 

    parts of Africa and beyond to learn about what happened in Rwanda 

    in 1994 and how Rwandans have responded to the tremendously 

    challenging post-genocide context. The summit left its participants with 

    the conviction that genocide can be prevented with the development of 

    an effective peace education system. As a contribution to the prevention 

    of violence on the continent, participants at the summit formulated the 

    ‘Kigali Declaration’ in order to call on all African countries to invest in 

    educating its people for peace.

    The summit participants reflected on the necessity of building strong and 

    effective infrastructures for peace and promoting peace education within 

    our communities as a way to prevent the reoccurrence of the deplorable 

    past and to work proactively for a tangible “never again”.

    If we take a look at the 100 days leading up to the genocide, it is clear 

    that Rwanda suffered from the lack of education and other infrastructure 

    for peace. Youth were over-equipped with killing instruments traditional 

    arms, machetes, guns, etc. Violent meetings were organized around 

    the country. The media broadcasted violent messages, and hatred was 

    spread around the country. There were warning signs about a possible 

    genocide, and youth were indoctrinated in divisive and genocidal ideology. 

    Unrest, disorder, prejudice, despair, and instability were the common 

    characteristics of our communities.

    The period of terror that ensued lasted just 100 days, from April to July. 

    During those 100 days, Rwanda became a bloody land and more than one 

    million Rwandans perished. Ashamed of what happened in the country, 

    the world couldn’t repeat the “Never Again” slogan.

    In the aftermath of the genocide, it was clear that Rwanda didn’t die. 

    Instead, Rwandans have demonstrated the power of human resilience. 

    Firm recovery efforts have been made to rebuild the country. Antigenocide and pro-peace strategies have been established and adopted by 

    the people.

    Adopted from:

     Comprehension questions 

    1. Who explained the importance of peace building and when was 

    it reported?

    2. What was the theme when the commemoration reported take 


    3. Explain the role of media in genocide against Tutsi as reported in 

    the above extracted. 

    4. After reading the above extract from the newspaper, why do you 

    think youth should be encouraged to visit memorial sites our 

    country and participate in commemoration dialogues.

    • Text 2. A poem: Ancestral Honour

    We come together in unity, 

    as one big community, 

    finding commonality in our shared humanity,

    dancing and singing the traditional songs

    that once lit the fires of our ancestors’ dreams,

    as we spark our own shining out hope.

    Our elders carried dreams

    deep within their hearts,

    perhaps, left unrealized in their time.

    They worked to pave the way

    that we might know a better life.

    They risked their lives and livelihoods

    so that we might know tastes of paradise.

    We carry with us this dream

    of a brighter future

    for our families,

    of a world where all peoples

    may live in peace.

    That lives filled with hardship

    may be one day transformed

    into a society based on love,

    purpose, and progress.

    No matter our origins,

    our parents and grandparents

    all passed down wisdom and traditions

    gleaned from holy texts and personal experience.

    For it is our rituals and holidays that connect our peoples,

    and the values we learn from those that came before us

    that form the foundations of our identities

    upon which we can build an understanding of the world

    and in what ways we can change it for the better.

    Adopted from:

    • Comprehension questions

    1. What do we have in common?

    2. According to the poet, where do get the traditional songs?

    3. Why did the ancestors risk their lives?

    4. What was the main reason for ancestors?

    5. Where do we build our understanding of the world?

    3.2.2. Application activity

    • Vocabulary: Spelling and pronunciation 

    Using dictionary, provide the meaning and pronunciation of the words 

    given in the table below, the first one is done for you:



    3.3. Talking about national services programs in Rwanda

    3.3.1. Learning activities: Reading and text analysis

    • Pre-reading activity


    • Text: The graduates we want 

    National Service in higher learning institutions, published on October 

    02, 2014 by the New times, stated that the National Service is a 

    continuation of the spirit of promoting positive values among Rwandans, 

    especially the youth. The values include unity, patriotism, selflessness, 

    integrity, responsibility, volunteerism, humility, among others. Speaking

    at the launch, Prime Minister Anastase Murekezi said there is need to 

    maintain national service for the development of the country.

    “Let values you have learnt in Itorero help you build Rwanda rather than 

    betraying it,” Murekezi said, cautioning the youth against drug abuse 

    and other anti-social behaviour. The premier reaffirmed government’s 

    commitment to financing education of poor students while encouraging 

    banks to offer loans to bright students. Education minister Silas 

    Lwakabamba said his ministry will do everything possible to make sure 

    that students graduate with the values they can stand by and defend 

    wherever they are. Prof. Lwakabamba said today’s graduate should be far 

    different from the graduate in the colonial period, which he said produced 

    graduates who failed to fight for the values shared by all Rwandans.

    “They instead allowed themselves to be manipulated and the outcome 

    was the atrocities that befell our nation; the 1994 Genocide against the 

    Tutsi,” the minister said. “We do not want a graduate that is disconnected 

    from these values, the society and the family; we want graduates who 

    will lead by example and be a model to society wherever they will be. This 

    is the meaning of our theme, ‘Let me work well so that others may learn 

    from me’” The minister said his ministry recognises the role of higher 

    learning institutions in developing the right graduates.

    “Conventional knowledge that the education system provides cannot 

    be useful to our nation if it is not complemented by instilling Rwandan 

    values in our young people. That is why we have invested a lot of effort in 

    revising the primary and secondary school curricula so that the knowledge 

    we provide our youth is one that transforms the whole person,” he said. 

    The minister appealed to heads of higher learning institutions to provide 

    full support to National Service and ensure that it is institutionalized 

    and functional.

    Adopted from:

    • Comprehension questions 

    1. What positive values are mentioned by the reporter in the above 


    2. Which disruptive behaviors did the former Prime Minister talked 

    about in the news as reported?

    3. Give reasons that was given by the Minister for changing the 


    4. Explain the importance of National Service in Rwanda

    3.3.2. Application activity:

    Composition writing


    3.4. Language structure: Some forms of the verb

    Active and passive voice

    • Preparatory activities

    1. Using examples, justify the statement below.

     “In academic writing, People show interest in the person or object that 

    experiences an action rather than the person or object that performs the 

    action. In other words, the most important thing or person becomes the 

    subject of the sentence.”

    2. Study the following tables and answer the questions that follow



    1. Identify the rules used to change active sentences into passive voices.

    2. Why should we use the forms identified in the second column?


    I. “By” is used before the subject in the passive voice to introduce the 

    doer of the action. 

    Example: “Love addicted” was sung by Vamps.

    II. The passive voice is used without by if the doer of the action is not 



    • The streets are cleaned every day.

    • The policeman was murdered.

    • A new departmental store is being built.

    • The cloth is sold in yards.


    1. The places of the subject and object are interchanged i.e. the object 

    shifts to the place of the subject and the subject shifts to the place of the 

    object in the passive voice.

    Active voice: I write a letter.

     Passive voice: A letter is written by me.

    Subject (I) of sentence shifted to the place of object (letter) and object 

    (letter) shifted to the place of subject (I) in passive voice.


    1. Sometimes by is omitted in the passive voice when there is no subject 

    in the sentence used in passive voice because the doer of the action is 

    not known or when there is no need to know the doer of the action. 

    Example: The streets are cleaned every day.

     A policeman was murdered.

    2. The word “by” is not always used before the subject in passive voice.

    Sometime words like with, to, etc.” may also be used before the subject 

    in passive voice.


    Active voice: The water fills the tub.

    Passive voice: The tub is filled with water.

    Active voice: He knows me.

    Passive voice: I am known to him.

    B. Imperative Sentences


    A sentence that expresses either a command, a request, an advice, an 

    entreaty or desire is called imperative sentence.

    Characteristics of Imperative Sentences

    1. The object “you” is generally missing in Imperative Sentences. 

    The structure of such sentences in Passive Voice is: Let + object + be/

    not be + V3


    • Imperative sentence: Finish the work by tomorrow

    • Passive voice: Let this work be done by tomorrow.

    2. In sentences which express request, advice and order, such phrases 

    like, you are requested to/advised to /ordered to... are used

    Words like kindly/please are dropped.


    • Imperative form: work harder please!

    • Passive form: You are advised to work harder.

    C. Modal verbs: must, should

    Preparatory activities

    1. Describe some modals that may be used to express obligation or 

    something that a person has to do and when providing pieces of advice.

    2. Fill in the blanks using should, must and shouldn’t.

    a. I feel sad and lonely. You … see a doctor.

    b. I have no money. You … work harder.

    c. All schools in Rwanda … create peace and unity clubs.

    d. We … do our homework because it’s important.

    e. Jason has missed the train He …be late next time.

    f. In England all children … wear uniforms at school.

    g. Parents or guardians … teach their children Rwandan values.





    3.8. End unit assessment

    1. In about 250 words, write a speech you would give to fellow student 

    teachers of Year one about their responsibilities to build a cohesive society.

    2. Match the words in the table below with their meanings




    3. Complete the gaps with appropriate phonetics or words


    4. Vocabulary activity: Choose the right words to fill in gaps 


    Social ----1--------balances individual rights against those of society and 

    appreciates that a good ---2------------- enables people to respect each 

    other’s------3-------. Therefore, it works towards the well being of all its 

    members. For example, it fights exclusions and marginalization and 

    creates a sense of-------4--------. It also offers members of the group or 

    society the opportunity for upward mobility. This promotes and--------

    5------- results in both individual and national development. We often 

    demonstrate positive values in different ways. For example, by solving 

    problems that affect others, helping those in need, having a sense of -----

    ------in what we do, being honest or even being caring to others. All these 

    positive values contribute to ---------------. Finally, sensitize people to------

    ---------one another


    Key unit Competence:

    To use language in the context of personal finance and development

    Introductory ActivitE

     While interpreting the above pictures, answer the following questions:

    1. What is taking place on both figures above?

    2. What do you think the seller is doing and why?

    3. Do you think that the following activities have a relationship 

    with personal finance? Justify your answer

    4.1. Describing financial tools

    4.1.1. Learning activity: Reading and Text analysis

    Observe the pictures and discuss


    In the discussion try to answer the following questions:

    1. Identify different tools used in finance.

    2. What is the difference between chequebook and credit card?

    3. How do you measure the effectiveness of bank services using 

    electronic tools?

    4. Do you think there is any challenge of using financial tools? 

    Justify your answer

     Text 1: Financial tools a key to quick service

    Finance and investment jobs are perhaps some of the world’s most mindcrunching careers. These professions carry with them a lot of complicated 

    processes and activities. A lot of terms and formulas are so hard that 

    they can quickly be forgotten. One can easily get lost somewhere in the 

    middle. That’s why, over time, financial tools are being made to make 

    things easier. They either aid in creating dynamic worksheets or maybe as 

    simple as helping professionals in monitoring market developments. As 

    a child, I used to watch in amazement while my mom balanced the family 

    check book. She used a handheld calculator, a checkbook register

    and a stack of bills and receipts to keep our finances in order. She 

    had to call her broker to invest money in her business. She consulted a 

    paper mortgage amortization schedule when making extra payments 

    towards the debt. 

    Even when we first got a computer and my dad started using Quicken, 

    he still entered everything from his check register and then reconciled 

    it with his bank statements. I loved watching my parents with their 

    money, but at the same time, I don’t want to spend hours keeping track 

    of everything. 

    Using financial tools answered different questions that people kept 

    on asking themselves like how should they refinance their mortgage? 

    How much do they need to save for their children’s college education? 

    As accounting professionals, these are some of the questions that are 

    posed to us on a daily basis. We are providing these interactive financial 

    calculators and other tools to assist you with some of the day-to-day 

    questions and concerns that may arise. While those financial tools 

    discussed in the following paragraphs are not a substitute for financial 

    advice from a qualified professional, they can be used as a starting point 

    in your decision-making process. 

     First, A cheque is a document that orders a bank to pay a specific 

    amount of money from a person’s account to the person in whose name 

    the cheque has been issued. The person writing the cheque, known as 

    the drawer, has a transaction banking account (often called a current 

    account) where their money is held. The drawer writes the various details 

    including the monetary amount, date, and a payee on the cheque, and 

    signs it, ordering their bank to pay the payee. 

    Second, Business Credit Card Anita Campbell recommends opening a 

    business credit card in order to improve your business credit history

    gain access to higher credit limits for business borrowing, and receive 

    business-specific rewards and discounts.

    Third, the smoother and nimbler your billing process, the quicker 

    payments will be made and processed and the faster the cash will flow 

    into your business. With a quick, cloud-based billing system (try Fresh 

    Books or you can shorten the billing process and even increase 

    customer satisfaction. By implementing agile billing tools and processes, 

    you will both improve customers’ services and finance related activities.

    Lastly, as far as ICT is concerned in terms of financial tools, we cannot 

    forget Accounting Software because QuickBooks has long been the gold 

    standard for small business accounting, but online accounting solutions 

    such as Xero are recently gaining traction. Whatever program you 

    choose for your accounting, make it work for you by choosing a tool that’s 

    both as robust and as flexible as possible. Business News Daily’s 2015 

    Buyer’s Guide recommends you look for these features: basic accounting 

    tasks such as invoicing, expense tracking, and client/vendor contact 

    management; automation of billing and recurring payments, quote 

    and estimate creation, tax preparation, multiple-user access, payroll 

    processing, mobile access, and integration with programs such as pointof-sale software, credit card processing, and Google Apps.

    Adapted from:

    Comprehension questions 

    1. What is complicated in the profession of finance and accounting 

    according to the writer? 

    2. What questions people failed to answer in the absence of financial 


    3. Explain how to use the following financial tools as described by 

    the writer.

    a) A cheque

    b) A business credit card

    c) Billing tool

    4. Provide two examples of financial electronic tools.

    4.1.2. Application activity: Word meaning

    1. Find the meaning the following words using dictionaries and thesauruses

    a. Mortgage amortization

    b. Bank statements

    c. Receipts

    d. Invoicing

    e. expense tracking

    f. vendor 

    g. automation of billing

    h. payroll processing

    2. Make different sentences using the words below:

    a. A cheque 

    b. A credit card

    c. Receipt 

    d. Finance

    e. Billing machine 

    f. Investment 

    g. Saving 

    h. Bank

    4.2. Talking about Financial terms

    4.2.1. Learning activity: Reading and Text analysis

    Pre-reading activity


    • Text: Notes about financial terms

    Read the following notes and answer questions that follow:

    Interest rate

    Interest is the amount the bank (or other moneylender, which is any 

    person or organization that gives you money) will charge you or your 

    company for the money you borrow from them. 


    The noun investment refers to money that you put into your business, 

    property, stock, etc., in order to make a profit or earn interest.

    A credit card is a card that allows you to borrow money against a line 

    of credit, otherwise known as the card’s credit limit. You use the card to 

    make basic transactions, which are then reflected on your bill.

    A transaction is an agreement between a buyer and a seller to exchange 

    goods, services or financial instruments

    A deposit is the act of placing cash (or cash equivalents) with some 

    entity, most commonly with a financial institution such as a bank.

    The deposit is a credit for the party (individual or organization) who 

    placed it, and it may be taken back (withdrawn) in accordance with the 

    terms agreed at time of deposit, transferred to some other party, or used 

    for a purchase at a later date.


    Profit describes the amount of revenue your company gains after excluding 

    expenses, costs, taxes, etc. The goal of every business is to make profit.

    Since we started advertising on the internet, our company’s profits have 

    increased by 20% over the last year


    In finance, we often hear the phrase profit and loss. Loss is when you lose 

    money. It’s the opposite of profit, and it’s a word that no one in finance 

    ever wants to hear. Still, it’s something that can happen when a company 

    makes less money than it spends


    An overdraft is when you spend more money than you have in your 

    bank account. The bank will often make you pay an overdraft fee if you 

    do this.

    Saving is income not spent, or deferred consumption. Methods 

    of saving include putting money aside in, for example, a deposit 

    account, a pension account, an investment fund, or as cash.

    Comprehension questions 

    1. What is the difference between debit and credit?

    2. Which term do we use when we spend more money than we have 

    in our bank account?

    3. After reading the notes above, which conclusion can draw?

    Text 2. A dialogue: A bank clerk and a bank customer

    Read this dialogue and answer the questions below:

    Bank Clerk: Good morning, welcome to the Grammar Bank. How can 

    I help you?

    Customer: Good morning. I would like to open a bank account.

    Bank Clerk: Sure thing. What kind of account would you like to 

    open? A savings account or a checking account?

    Customer: What is the difference?

    Bank Clerk: A checking account is designed to use for everyday 

    transactions. Yet; the money in a savings account is meant to stay in 

    the account and earn interest over time.

    Customer: I see, actually I want to apply for a credit card. That’s 

    why I need an account.

    Bank Clerk: Okay then, you probably want a checking account.

    Customer: Well, thank you. I›d like that.

    Bank Clerk: Sure, we will have you fill out an application form, please.

    Customer: No problem.

    Bank Clerk: How much of a credit limit were you looking for?

    Customer: I would like a $10,000 spending limit.

    Bank Clerk: Alright, we will see what we can do. We might be able to 

    get you one of ourgold cards with a $10,000 spending limit.

    Customer: Wonderful. Will I also collect points when I use the card?

    Bank Clerk: Sure, with our gold card you will get 10 reward points 

    for every dollar spent.

    Customer: Perfect, I have filled out the form. Do you need anything 


    Bank Clerk: You just need to deposit a minimum of $250 into your 

    new checking account.

    Customer: Very well, here you are.

    Bank Clerk: Thank you, your account is set up now and your credit

    card will be mailed to your address within 5 to 10 business days.

    Customer: Thank you for your help, have a good day.

    Bank Clerk: Thank you, you too.

    Comprehension questions 

    a. What is the name of the bank?

    b. Which name of the account did the customer want to open?

    c. Give a reason why the customer wanted to open an account.

    d. What is the value of gold card?

    e. How much money was the customer supposed to deposit on his 


    4.2.2. Application activity:

    1. Debate on the following topic, “Saving is better than investment.” 

    Find the debate guidelines in unity five of this book.

    2. Write sentences using the following financial terms: 

    a. Overdraft 

    b. A bank account

    c. Interest rate 

    d. Transaction 

    e. Spending

    4.3. Describing Financial Institutions

    4.3.1. Learning activities: Reading and Text analysis

    Pre-reading activity: Answer the question below:

    Picture interpretation 


    Look at the above pictures and then answer these questions:

    1. Do you think services given in Fig. 1-4 are the same? If yes or 

    no, justify your answer.

    2. What are the types of financial institutions do you know?

    3. Why is important to keep money at a bank?

    4. Give examples of tools used by financial institutionsse.

    Text 1: Financial institutions in Rwanda

    Read the following text and answer questions that follow:

    Efficient and stable investment activities present various opportunities 

    to developing countries. In fact, investment is associated with both 

    economic and social rewards. That is, investment not only plays an 

    important role in job creation but also has a role to play in provision of 

    both infrastructure and social services. However, finance is required for 

    a nation to reach a sustainable level of investment. To provide the needed 

    finance, there are varieties of institutions rendering financial services; 

    such institutions are called financial institutions. Banks are among such 

    institutions that render financial services. 

    They are mainly involved in financial intermediation, which involves 

    channelling funds from the surplus unit to the deficit unit of the economy, 

    thus transforming bank deposits into loans or credits, (Mugume, 

    2008). Banks have historically been viewed as playing a special role in 

    financial markets for two reasons. One is that they perform a critical 

    role in facilitating payments, the other is that they have long played an 

    important, although arguably less exclusive, role in channelling credit 

    (loan) to households and businesses (Gurley, et al, 2006). Financial 

    institutions are involved in the process of increasing the level of 

    investments of various economies, particularly the capital goods needed 

    for raising productivity. In developing countries like Rwanda, income is 

    very low and as such high level of investment cannot be made possible 

    without requiring a long period effort at saving. Credit facilities (loan) 

    have a vital role to play here, in raising the investment to the level 

    necessary to achieve a self-sustained growth. 

    Financial institution as it is responsible for the supply of money to the 

    market through the transfer of funds from investors to the companies in 

    the form of loans, deposits, and investments through its most common 

    types of financial institutions like commercial banks, investment 

    banks, brokerage firms, insurance companies, and asset management 

    funds. Other types include credit unions and finance firms. 

    Financial institutions are regulated to control thesupply of money in 

    the market and protect consumers. For example, in Rwanda, we have 

    different types of financial institutions such as commercial bank that 

    cannot only offers financial services to individuals and businesses but 

    also people may save money in a savings account and ask for a loan. 

    Commercial banks in Rwanda include: Access Bank Rwanda, Bank of 

    Kigali, I & M Bank, BPR (Bank Populaire du Rwanda), Cogebanque, 

    Ecobank and GT Bank, etc. 

    Then, investment bank buys shares in a business and sells them to 

    investors. The Development Bank of Rwanda (BRD) is an investment 

    bank that buys shares from businesses mainly in agriculture and tourism 

    whereas a microfinance company offers smaller loans to individuals or 

    businesses. The interest rates are cheaper than in a commercial bank. 

    Microfinance companies include: Urwego Opportunity Bank, Copedu, 

    Zigama Credit and Savings Bank, and so on. 

    The need to achieve sustained investment within any economy can 

    be possible amidst strong financial institution and precisely within 

    the existence of tailored credit facilities that are in accordance with 

    government policies and program in a bid to attaining the desired 

    investment objectives of a nation

    Then, investment bank buys shares in a business and sells them to 

    investors. The Development Bank of Rwanda (BRD) is an investment 

    bank that buys shares from businesses mainly in agriculture and tourism 

    whereas a microfinance company offers smaller loans to individuals or 

    businesses. The interest rates are cheaper than in a commercial bank. 

    Microfinance companies include: Urwego Opportunity Bank, Copedu, 

    Zigama Credit and Savings Bank, and so on. 

    The need to achieve sustained investment within any economy can 

    be possible amidst strong financial institution and precisely within 

    the existence of tailored credit facilities that are in accordance with 

    government policies and program in a bid to attaining the desired 

    investment objectives of a nation

    Generally, as far as the banking sector is concerned, it helps to make 

    loans available by mobilizing surplus funds from savers who have no 

    immediate needs of such funds and thus channel such funds in form of 

    credit to investors who have brilliant ideas on how to create additional 

    wealth in the economy but lack the necessary capital to execute the ideas


    Jean Samuragwa (Author), 2014, The contribution of Financial 

    Institutions in Promoting Private Investments in Rwanda, Munich, 

    GRIN Verlag,

    Comprehension questions

    1. Which opportunities do people gain from investment?

    2. What are the types of financial institutions are described in the 


    3. Provide the importance of banks as described by the author in 

    the passage. 

    4. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of financial 


    5. Why do you think that some people can prefer microfinance 

    companies than investment banks?

    6. Suggest some pieces of advice to people who do not use financial 



    2. Write two paragraphs talking about the role of financial institutions 

    in creating small businesses for youth

    4.4. Language structure: Use of quantifiers: many, some, a 

    little, little

    I Fill in the gaps with either some or any:

    1. There isn’t (_______) time to finish your lunch. We need to 

    leave now!

    2. We have _______ham sandwiches in the fridge if you’re hungry.

    3. Shall we bake _______ cupcakes for the party?

    4. Do you have _______ family in Italy?

    5. I won’t need to do _______more revision after my exams.

    6. There aren’t _______ shopping centres near my house.

    II. Fill in the gaps with either Little or a little.

    1. There is ___money on my bank account. So, I will at least buy 

    some drinks for you.

    2. David has ___sugar in my tea. I am not happy with the taste

    Notes: Some, any, much, many, fewandlittleare all words that come before 

    nouns to help explain them. Some and any are both “determiners” – they 

    tell us whether the noun phrase is general or specific. Some and any are 

    both “general determiners”, which means they refer to an indefinite or 

    unknown quantity of something

    Much, many, few and little are all “quantifiers”. Quantifiers are 

    used to give information about quantity (the number of something). 

    Both much and many suggest a large quantity of something, 

    whilst little and few mean: not as much, or not as many. However, 

    if you use a little or a few, this means: a small amount!

    Some vs. Any

    The words some and any are used when the exact number or amount of 

    something is not known, or when it’s not important. Some and any are 

    both used to refer to an indefinite quantity or number

    For example:

    There are some birds in our garden.

    (The number exact of the birds in the garden is not known or it doesn’t 

    matter how many birds are there) as opposed to:

    There are three birds in our garden.

    (The number of birds is important and exact

    Some and any are known as general determiners. They are used to modify 

    nouns, specifically to show that the noun phrase is general (rather than 

    specific). They can be used with

    a. Countable or uncountable nouns:

    We don’t have any time to get popcorns before the film starts.

    (Time is uncountable)

    We still have some apples on the tree. (Apples are countable)

    b. Singular or plural nouns:

    We don’t have any chicken left for dinner. (Chicken is singular)

    It’s such nice weather! Let’s invite some friends round for a 

    BBQ. (Friends is plural

    When is some used and when any is used?

    Although some and any are both used to describe an indefinite number, 

    they are used in different ways. So how do we use them correctly?

    - In general, some is used in positive sentences (which don’t contain the 

    word ‘not’):


    a. I would love to try some of that food! It looks delicious and cheap.

    b. I have bought some strawberries and cream to have for dessert.

    c. Some people think it’s better to eat healthily than to exercise a 


    - Any is used in negative sentences (which contain the word ‘not’):


    a. I don’t have any money to finance my small business.

    b. I don’t need any help with my homework because I can do it on 

    my own.

    c. I’m not hungry at the moment so I don’t want anything to eat.

    - Any is also used in questions:


    a. Have you got any idea how long applying for a loan in Bank of 

    Kigali may take?

    b. Do you have any brothers or sisters?

    c. It would be great to season these potatoes. Is there any salt and 


    d. Do you have any idea about Mary’s source of capital?

    A common, informal way of asking a question in spoken English is to say: 

    “any chance…”, rather than saying “Please could I…”. For example, 

    “Any chance I could borrow a fiver?” means: “Could I borrow five pounds?” 

    Remember you would only use this with your friends, family or anyone 

    else you know well! It is an informal expression


    - There are some exceptions to these rules. We can use some in questions 

    when offering something or making requests:

    Would you like some milk and sugar in your tea?

    Shall we invite some friends round?

    I left my wallet at home; can I borrow some money for lunch?

    - Any is used in positive sentences to mean “it doesn’t matter which…”:


     There’s no seating plan, so you can sit anywhere you like.

    Choose any pair of shoes you want. They’re all of the same price.

    I don’t mind which pair of shoes you buy for me. I’ll take any of them!

    Much vs. many

    Much and many are part of the family of “quantifiers”. They are used to 

    talk about quantities, amounts or degrees (along with ‘a lot of’ and ‘lots 

    of’) and suggest a large quantity of something.

    When are “much” and “many” they used?

    Many is used with plural, countable nouns (e.g. dogs, dollars, tables, 


    Much is used with singular, uncountable nouns (e.g. happiness, music, water, time).


    There aren’t many doctors in the hospital today. (doctors are countable)

    There isn’t much light in this room so let’s open the curtains. (light is 


    Too much money was spent on the Royal Wedding. (money is 


    N.B. Equipment, luggage and information are all uncountable nouns and 

    therefore will 

    always use much.


    1. How much equipment does your studio have?

    2. You have too much luggage to board the plane!’

    3. There isn’t much information on your CV. 

    4. Please make it more detailed…’.

    Much and many are usually used in questions and negative statements:


    How many bank accounts do you have?

    They are used with so, as or too:


    Peter has got too many friends.

    Sarah has so much money at the moment; she must be earning a lot!

    John makes as much money as Sarah.

    Too is often used before much and many to mean: ‘more than was needed’.


    I bought too much fruit at the market. 

    N.B. Equipment, luggage and information are all uncountable nouns and 

    therefore will always use much.

    For example, 

    How much equipment does your studio have?, 

    You have too much luggage to board the plane!, 

    There isn’t much information on your CV. Please make it more detailed….

    We usually use much and many with questions and negative statements:

    How many bank accounts do you have?

    How much time does it take to get to your house from here?

    We sometimes use much and many in positive statements when:

    They are used with so, as or too:

    Peter has got too many friends.

    Sarah has so much money at the moment; she must be earning a lot!

    John makes as much money as Sarah.

    Too is often used before much and many to mean: more than was needed. 

    For example, I bought too much fruit at the market. We’ll never eat it all 

    before it goes off! and There are too many people in the waiting room..

    We use ‘so’ rather than ‘very’ before much and many in positive statements 

    to emphasise a large quantity of something. So, you would say: We have 

    so much work to do today! and not We have very much work to do today!

    As much as or as many as are used to make a comparison and show that 

    something is the same as or equal to something else. For example, There 

    are as many participants at this meeting as there were at the previous 


    Generally, it is more common to use lots of/a lot of in positive statements. 

    This is more informal:

    The shop had a sale on so I spent lots of money!

    We have a lot of time so there’s no need to rush.

    Anna has lots of friends so she’s always busy.

    I think a lot of music sounds the same these days.

    If much or many are used before articles (a/an, the), demonstratives (this, 

    that), possessives (my, your) or pronouns (him, them), they are followed 

    by ‘of’:

    How much of this book have you read?

    Not many of the students come from privileged backgrounds?

    I couldn’t ride a bike for much of my childhood.

    How many of them are under the age of 18?

    In spoken English, certain words are often omitted or left out. For 

    example, we say this much or that much and use a hand gesture to 

    indicate the amount or size as in: I’ll have this much cake. (use fingers to 

    show the amount).

    It is also common to miss out the noun when it is obvious what is 

    being discussed. For example, – ‘Could I have some apples, please?’ – 

    ‘Sure! How many would you like?’ (no need to repeat the word ‘apples’).

    We’ll never eat it all before it goes off!

    There are too many people in the waiting room.

    We use so rather than very before much and many in positive statements 

    to emphasise a large quantity of something. So, you would say: We have 

    so much work to do today! and not We have much work to do today!

    As much as or as many as are used to make a comparison and show that 

    something is the same as or equal to something else. 


    There are as many participants at this meeting as there were at the 

    previous one.

    Generally, it is more common to use lots of/a lot of in positive statements

    This is more informal:

    a. The shop had a sale on so I spent lots of money!

    b. We have a lot of time so there’s no need to rush.

    c. Anna has lots of friends so she’s always busy.

    d. I think a lot of music sounds the same these days.

    If much or many are used before articles (a/an, the), demonstratives (this, 

    that), possessives (my, your) or pronouns (him, them), they are followed 

    by ‘of’:

    a. How much of this book have you read?

    b. Not many of the students come from privileged backgrounds?

    c. I couldn’t ride a bike for much of my childhood.

    d. How many of them are under the age of 18?

    In spoken English, certain words are often omitted or left out.

    For example, this much or that much can be said and use a hand gesture 

    to indicate the amount or size as in: I’ll have this much cake.(use fingers 

    to show the amount).

    It is also common to miss out the noun when it is obvious what is being 


    For example:

    • Can I have some apples, please? 

    • Sure! How many would you like? (no need to repeat the word apples).

    Few vs. little

    Little and few are “quantifiers”. When they are used on their own, they 

    have a negative meaning to suggest ‘not as much or not as many as might 

    be expected’.

    But be careful! When little and few are used with an article – a little or a 

    few– both words mean ‘some’ and have a positive meaning.

    When is few used and when is little used?

    Little is used with singular, uncountable nouns and few is used with 

    plural, countable nouns to mean ‘not as much’ or ‘not as many’

    For example:

    The play made little sense to me, but I’m glad you enjoyed it. (sense is 

    uncountable) = the play didn’t make much sense.

    She didn’t want to go, but she had little choice. (choice is uncountable) 

    = she didn’t have much choice.

    There are few people that I think would be qualified for the job. (people 

    is countable) = there aren’t many people qualified for the job.

    There are few tourists at this time of year so the beaches are nice and 

    quiet. (“tourists” is countable) = there aren’t many tourists.

    A little is used with singular, uncountable nouns and a few is used with 

    plural, countable nouns to mean ‘some’:

    We have a little time before the play starts so why don’t we get a drink?

    We have a little space in our car if you want a lift.

    There are a few good candidates that have applied so I’m sure we’ll find 

    someone for the job.

    We stayed in Spain a few days before going on to France.

    As well as having negative meanings, few and little on their own are also 

    quite formal and are generally not used very much in everyday spoken 

    English. It is more common to instead use a negative sentence with 

    ‘many’ or ‘much’. For example:

    The play made little sense to me, but I’m glad you enjoyed it. = The play 

    didn’t make much sense to me.

    She didn’t want to go, but she had little choice. = She didn’t have much 


    There are few people that I think would be qualified for the job. = There 

    aren’t many people

    There are few tourists at this time of year so the beaches are nice and 

    quiet. = There aren’t many tourists.

    Compare these different meanings:

    It’s snowing outside and I have few warm clothes on so I’m really cold!

    It’s snowing outside but I have a few warm clothes on so I’m ok.

    I have few friends in the city, so it can be quite lonely.

    I have a few friends in the city, so I’m settling in well

    End unit assessment

    A. Choose and underline the correct word to complete the sentences 


    1. How much/many/many of the guests ordered lunch?

    2. She has too much/many/much of ideas and can’t focus on one 

    thing at a time!

    3. We don’t have much of/much/many sunshine at this time of year.

    4. How many/much/much of people live in your block of flats?

    5. How many/much/much of the assignment have you completed so 


    6. How many/many of/much money will I need for 2 days in London?

    7. There has been many/much/much of debate about the new 


    8. Too many/much/much of people are driving in London and the 

    traffic is a nightmare.

    9. There isn’t much of/many/much time before our flight so let’s go 

    straight to the gate.

    10. My son doesn’t have many/much/much of friends at school.

    B. Fill in the gaps with either few, little, a few or a little:

    1. There’s _______ money in my pocket. Do not expect anything 

    from me.

    2. We have _______ options for our next holiday and they all look 


    3. You have _______ time before the next class if you want to get a 


    4. Let’s spend _______ days reviewing the proposal as I don’t want 

    to rush it.

    5. There’s _______ point in repeating yourself because she never 


    6. I have very _______ colleagues that I would trust in a crisis.

    7. _______ is known about the singer’s early life.

    8. Your dessert was delicious! Can I have _______ more, please?

    9. The staff training course takes _______ days to complete.

    C. Write about the importance of personal finance in economic and social 



    Key competence: To use language learnt in the context of health 

    and sanitation.

    Introductory Activity Picture observation


    Look at the pictures above, answer the questions below:

    1. What are the most common illnesses in Rwanda?

    2. State at least three transmissible diseases

    3. Which sickness can be caused by the insect in fig.2? 

    4. What do you think is described in fig.3?

    5. Mention at least on coronary disease you know. 

    6. The man in fig.4 is very fat. Do you think it is a health-related 

    problem? Explain. 

    5.1. Describing illnesses and diseases and pandemics


    5.1.1 Learning activity: Reading and Text analysis

    • Text: Types of diseases in Rwanda

    • Text: Types of diseases in Rwanda

    There are different types of diseases in Rwanda. Some diseases affect

    the majority of Rwandans. Others affect only a small number of the 

    population. The most common diseases in Rwanda today are malaria, 

    HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, typhoid or typhoid fever. Many Rwandans also 

    suffer from amoebic dysentery, Hepatitis B and C and the common cold

    Some transmissible diseases, like typhoid and amoebic dysentery, are 

    waterborne. This means you get these diseases when you drink water 

    that is not clean and boiled. Diseases like tuberculosis and the common 

    cold are airborne. The bacteria or viruses are ejected into the air via 

    coughs or sneezes. When you breathe in this air, you become infected

    Hepatitis B and C and HIV/AIDS are transmitted through body fluids. 

    Infections and diseases, such as hepatitis are most often carried through 

    the semen and blood of infected persons. Malaria is transmitted through 

    the bite of a female anopheles’ mosquito. It injects infected blood into 

    your body when it bites you.

    Transmissible diseases are caused by causative agents. Typhoid, amoebic 

    dysentery and tuberculosis are caused by bacteria. Hepatitis B and C, 

    HIV/ AIDS and the common cold are caused by viruses. Malaria is caused 

    by a parasite called plasmodia. 

    Other diseases are sometimes referred to as lifestyle diseases. These are 

    steadily increasing in Rwanda. The best examples are coronary disease, 

    cancer, diabetes, obesity and mental illnesses.

    Coronary diseases, diabetes, obesity and mental illnesses can be caused 

    by a combination of genetics and lifestyle. Cancer results from the 

    malfunctioning of body cells. The substances that cause cancer are called 

    carcinogens. A carcinogen may be a chemical substance, such as certain 

    molecules in tobacco smoke. The cause of cancer may be environmental 

    agents, viral or genetic factors. We should bear in mind, though, that in 

    the majority of cancer cases we cannot attribute the disease to a single 


    Comprehension questions

    1. List three of the most common diseases in Rwanda.

    2. What are transmissible diseases?

    3. What is a ‘causative agent’?

    4. What causes malaria?

    5. How can you avoid getting typhoid fever or amoebic dysentery?

    6. How can you avoid getting Hepatitis B or C and HIV/AIDS?

    7. Which diseases are steadily increasing in Rwanda?

    8. Name two lifestyle diseases. 

    9. What is meant by ‘lifestyle diseases’?

    10. What disease is caused by body cells that malfunction?

    • Vocabulary activities: 

    1. Use the dictionary and thesaurus to look up the missing meanings of 

    the words/phrases in the table below. Copy the table into your book and 

    fill in the blank spaces.


    2. Write one sentence for each word/phrase to illustrate how they are 


    5.1.2. Application activities:

    1. Write a paragraph explaining what transmissible diseases are and 

    how they can be prevented.


    • A paragraph is normally a body of sentences developing one main 

    point. Thus, each sentence of the paragraph should explain more on 

    the main point. They shouldn’t raise a different point. 

    • Every paragraph should have a topic sentence. A topic sentence 

    gives the main idea of a paragraph. It usually occurs as the first 

    sentence of the paragraph. 

    • Every sentence in a paragraph must be grammatically correct. 

    • After explanatory sentences which give details about the main topic, 

    there is always need to have a closing sentence. This should sum up 

    the topic in the paragraph. 

    • A good paragraph must focus on the main idea, presented logically 

    and should have a sense of coherence and completeness. 

    2. Debate on the following motion:

    Schools should conduct mandatory HIV testing on their students.

    • Definition of debate 

    A debate is a structured contest in form of oral arguments about an 

    issue or a topic. A formal debate involves two teams expressing their 

    arguments on the topic. Normally, there is a team which proposes or 

    argues in support of the topic while the second team is on the opposition 

    side. Each team consists of two or more main speakers

     The rules of debate

    The debate is always governed by a number of rules as explained below:

    • Each team is expected to advance two or three arguments, and two 

    to three rebuttal speeches. The proposing team gives its argument 

    first, followed by the rebuttals from the opposing team. There is 

    always a winding up speech or summarised argument by a selected 

    member of each team.

     The first speaker on each side is supposed to define the key words 

    or terms of the motion as the basis of advancing his or her points. 

    • If the opposing side challenges the correctness of a definition 

    advanced by the proposer, the opposing team provides its view on 

    the matter. 

    • Each team of the class debate must advocate or argue in support of 

    his or her view on the topic. 

    • In order to establish an assertion, a team must support its arguments 

    with enough evidence and logic to convince the judges. Facts must 

    be accurate. Visual materials are permissible to convince the judges. 

    • In case of a query, the question should be clear and relevant to the 

    motion of the debate.

    • As a matter of procedure, each speaker is expected to respond to 

    questions as soon as he or she concludes his or her presentation 

    speech. The speaker concerned may respond to the question 

    personally, although any other member of his or her team can come 

    in to assist. 

    • If anyone, whether in the audience or among the main speakers, 

    feels unconvinced by a speaker’s argument, he or she is at liberty to 

    interrupt the speaker by raising a point of information. However, 

    the chairman of the debate is also at liberty to either permit or 

    object to the point of interruption. 

    • The decision about the winning side will be entirely based on the 

    arguments made and points awarded by a team of juries or judges.

    Adapted from George H.W. Wilson (1957) Competitive Debate: Rules 

    and Techniques, New York: McCoy Musgrave

    tw/~karchung/debate1.htm retrieved on September 5th, 2019

    • Important prerequisites and tasks for debate

    Team members should: 

    • Research on the topic and prepare logical arguments. 

    • Gather supporting evidence and examples to back their arguments. 

    • Anticipate counter arguments and prepare rebuttals or responses. 

    • Plan the order of ideas or points with which to argue and support 

    their points of view. 

    5.2 Talking about sanitation and related tools

    5.2.1 Learning activity: Reading andText analysis

    Read the text below and answer the questions that below:

    • Text 1: Water and sanitation are human rights.


    Sanitation refers to conditions relating to public health, especially the 

    provision of clean drinking water and adequate sewage disposal. Universal 

    access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene services are priorities 

    in Rwanda. Washing hands is critically linked to improved nutrition, 

    good health, gender equality, economic growth, and environmental 


    Poor sanitary conditions promote diarrhoea and intestinal parasites 

    and environmental enteropathy and have complex and reciprocal links 

    to malnutrition in children. Existing evidence demonstrates that poor 

    sanitation and hygiene conditions can affect a child’s nutritional status 

    via at least three direct pathways (i) diarrheal diseases; (ii) intestinal 

    parasites; and (iii) environmental enteropathy. Malnutrition weakens 

    the body’s defences and makes children more vulnerable to diseases. At the 

    same time, diarrhoea and intestinal parasites contribute to malnutrition 

    by causing decreased food intake, impaired nutrient absorption and 

    direct nutrient losses

    In Rwanda, only 57 per cent of the population access safe drinking water 

    that is within 30 minutes of their home. When children are forced to 

    spend time collecting water, it keeps them out of school. This is an issue 

    especially for girls, who are often expected to take on the majority of 

    household tasks

    Even if water is available near the home, that water is often not safe 

    to drink. When children drink contaminated water, they risk severe 

    illness and even death from water borne diseases

     Basic sanitation means that every household has its own toilet and does 

    not share with another household. These toilets should also keep human 

    waste out of contact with people. Only 64 per cent of the population in 

    Rwanda have access to these sanitation services.

    Just 5 per cent of households in Rwanda have a place for family members 

    to wash their hands with soap. Hand washing with soap at critical 

    moments is essential for good health, especially in children.

    As a solution UNICEF’s WASH programme in Rwanda aims to ensure 

    that more households and communities use safe and sustainable water 

    and sanitation services, and that children and families practice good 


    UNICEF supports the Government of Rwanda to ensure that every 

    household: Uses safe and clean water near the home, a hygienic and 

    private latrine and practices hand washing with soap, especially after 

    using the toilet and before handling food. 

    Adapted from

    • Comprehension questions

    1. How do you think hand washing can be linked to improved 


    2. Explain the consequences of using dirty water.

    3. Which consequences school children who don’t have water near 

    their homes are likely to face?

    4. What does “basic sanitation” mean?

    5. What are the critical moments of washing hands?

    5.2.2 Application activities:Word and sentence formation

    • Vocabulary activities

    1. Give the meaning of the following words as used in the above passage. 

    a. hygiene… (paragraph one)

    b. enteropathy…(paragraph two)

    c. malnutrition…(paragraph two)

    d. nutrient…(paragraph two)

    e. contaminated water…(paragraph four)

    f. latrine…(paragraph seven)

    2. Write one sentence for each of the words to illustrate how they are 


    5.3 Language structure: Conditional


    Conditionals are sometimes called ‘if clauses’. They describe the result of 

    something that might happen ‘‘Real situations” (in the present or future) 

    or might have happened but didn’t ‘‘Unreal situations” (in the past). They 

    are made using different English verb tenses. There are four main kinds 

    of conditionals: The Zero, first, second and third conditional.

    Nevertheless, not all clauses introduced by “if” can express a condition:


    • Would you mind if I bring you more coffee? (Offer)

    • Gatera doesn’t know if Aunt Bintu comes or not. (Wonder), 

    • The old man wanted to know if people can get diseases from 

    Umuganura wine.(reported speech)

    A. The zero conditional: General truths

    The zero conditional is a structure using “if”, but which expresses no 

    condition at all. 

    This conditional is used when the result will always happen.

    if-clause (present simple), Main clauses (present simple)


    • If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils. 

    • If children drink dirty water, they get sick.

    • I f you touch fire, you get burned.

    • If bacterian get into the body, they cause infection

    B. The first conditional: Real/Possible(Present) and its Probable 


    (if + present simple, ... will + infinitive)

    Example: If you don’t wash your hands properly you will fall sick.

    The first conditional is used to talk about things which might happen in 

    the future. Of course, we can’t know what will happen in the future, but 

    this describes possible things, which could easily come true. 

    Here are more examples:

    • If it rains, I won’t go to the park.

    • If I study today, I’ll go to the party tonight.

    • If I have enough money, I’ll buy some new shoes.

    • She’ll be late if the train is delayed.

    • She’ll miss the bus if she doesn’t leave soon.

    • If I see her, I’ll tell her

    C. The second conditional: Imaginary/hypothetical condition 

    and its probable result.

    if-clause Main clause

    (past simple, ... would + infinitive)

    Example: If my hands were clean, I would test this food. 

    In formal writing ‘were’ is used instead of ‘was’ with ‘I’ and ‘he/she/it’. 

    The second conditional has two uses:

    First, we can use it to talk about things in the future that are probably 

    not going to be true. If one is imagining some dream for example.

    • If I won the lottery, I would buy a big house.(I probably won›t win 

    the lottery)

    • If I met the Queen of England, I would say hello.

    • She would travel all over the world if she were rich.

    • She would pass the exam if she ever studied.(She never studies, so 

    this won’t happen)

    Second, we can use it to talk about something in the present which is 

    impossible, because it’s not true. Have a look at the following examples:

    • If I had his number, I would call him. (I don›t have his number now, 

    so it›s impossible for me to call him).

    • If I were you, I wouldn’t go out with that man

    D.The third conditional: Impossible condition/unreal past 

    condition and its probable result in the Past

    If-clause with the Main clause

    (if + past perfect, ... would + have + past participle)


    If they had taken Kalisa to hospital on time,he would not have died.

    If-clause Main clause

    The third conditional talks about the past. It’s used to describe a situation 

    that didn’t happen, and to imagine the result of this situation.

    • If she had studied, she would have passed the exam, but, we really 

    know she didn’t study and so she didn’t pass)

    • If I hadn’t eaten so much, I wouldn’t have felt sick (but I did eat a 

    lot, and so I did feel sick).

    • If we had taken a taxi, we wouldn’t have missed the plane.

    • She would have become a teacher if she had gone to university.

    • Note: 

    Type III inverted form

    The Type III If-Clause can also be expressed by Removing ‘If ‘and 

    inverting the operator (first auxiliary verb) ‘had’ and the subject.


    If she had studied, she would have passed the exam.

    Had she studied; she would have passed the exam.

    Some expressions can replace if in the sub-clause, these are for example: 

    in case, suppose(that), supposing(that), on the condition(that),…



    5.4 Spelling and pronunciation

    Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the missing pronunciation of 

    the words/phrases in the table below. Copy the table into your book and 

    fill in the blank spaces and practise reading them. 


    5.5 End unit assessment

    i. Complete the Conditional Sentences using the correct form of 

    verbs in brackets.

    1. If we meet at 9:30, we…plenty of time. (have)

    2. Lisa would find the milk if she…in the fridge. (look)

    3. The zookeeper would have punished her with a fine if she…the 


    4. If you spoke louder, your classmates…you. (understand)

    5. Dan…safe if he drove slowly. (arrive)

    6. You…no trouble at school if you had done your homework. 


    7. If you…in this lake, you’ll shiver from cold. (swim)

    8. The door will unlock if you…the green button. (press)

    9. If Keza…her teacher, he’d have answered her questions. (ask)

    10. I…the office if I were you. (call)

    ii. Choose the right word to fill in blanks in the following paragraph 

    Hepatitis B and C and HIV/AIDS are transmitted through body…

    (muscles/fluids). Infections and diseases, such as hepatitis are most 

    often carried through the semen and blood of…(infected/healthy) 

    persons. Malaria is transmitted through the … (excrement/bite) of a 

    female anopheles… (fly/mosquito). It injects infected … (blood/semen) 

    into your body when it bites you.

    iii. Write a 200-word composition on a person you saw who got a 

    transmissible disease and use conditional sentences to explain 

    what they would have done to avoid that transmissible disease. 


    Key unit competences: 

    To use the language learnt in the context of Cultural heritage.

    Introductory Activity Picture observation and interpretation


    1. Give examples of some elements that can show our culture in 

    the past.

    2. Why is it important to preserve our culture?

    3. Compare today’s constructions with those in the past.

    4. Do you think the language can shape the culture of any society? 

    If yes or no, explain.

    5. Justify the advantages of our cultural practices to socio-economic 


    6. How do we preserve our cultural heritage?

    6.1. Talking about the role of language in a culture

    6.1.1. Learning activity: Reading and Text analysis

    • Text: The language and culture

    It has been seen that language is much more than the external expression 

    andcommunicationof internal thoughts formulated independently of their 

    verbalization. In demonstrating the inadequacy and inappropriateness 

    of such a view of language, attention has already been drawn to the ways 

    in which one’s native language is intimately and in all sorts of details 

    related to the rest of one’s life in a community and to smaller groups 

    within that community. This is true of all peoples and all languages; it is 

    a universal fact about language.

    Anthropologists speak of the relations between language and culture. It 

    is indeed more in accordance with reality to consider language as a part 

    of culture. Culture is here being used, as it is throughout this article, in 

    the anthropological sense, to refer to all aspects of human life insofar 

    as they are determined or conditioned by membership in a society. The 

    fact that people eat or drink is not in itself cultural; it is a biological 

    necessity for the preservation of life. That they eat particular foods and 

    refrain from eating other substances, though they may be perfectly 

    edible and nourishing, and that they eat and drink at particular times 

    of day and in certain places are matters of culture, something “acquired 

    by man as a member of society,” according to the classic definition of 

    culture by the English anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor. As thus 

    defined and envisaged, culture covers a very wide area of human life 

    and behaviour, and language is manifestly a part, probably the most 

    important part, of it

    Although the faculty of language acquisition and language use is 

    innate and inherited, and there is legitimate debate over the extent of 

    this innateness, every individual’s language is “acquired by man as a 

    member of society,” along with and at the same time as other aspects 

    of that society’s culture in which people are brought up. Society and 

    language are mutually indispensable. Language can have developed only 

    in a social setting; however, this may have been structured, and human 

    society in any form even remotely resembling what is known today or is 

    recorded in history could be maintained only among people utilizing and 

    understanding a language in common use.

    Cultures determine the means in which individual’s process and cope with 

    information, as it provides the frame of reference as per the concepts and 

    objectives that make a language. Meanings of particular words depend 

    on the historical relation that is ascribed to the object being described. 

    Verbal and non-verbal communication also affect the way in which 

    culture is shaped. It can express the differences in culture quite clearly, as 

    different groups interpret non-verbal communication differently. This is a 

    fact expressed in many different ways by media outlets, and is celebrated 

    rather than ridiculed. Verbal and non-verbal communication can help 

    define the way in which intercultural communication can interact, and is 

    of significance as it allows for individuals to learn the difference existing 

    in various cultures as per their gestures and body language.

    Every language can represent the role of culture through its own 

    reflection of reality it presents. The versions differ as every nation has 

    had to face a different set of problems to arise at their current state. There 

    are different set of values and beliefs attached to each, and they are all 

    equally important, and as far as language is concerned, is supposed to 

    be just as important as it is a reflection of the nation’s identity. The role 

    of culture in language and its bearings as per its evolution are highly 

    significant and felt every day in each culture.

    Adopted from:

    Comprehension questions 

    1. What is a language according to the writer?

    2. What Anthropologists speak about the relationship between the 

    language and culture?

    3. How does Sir Edward Burnett Tylor relate culture and language?

    4. Give reasons why a language is important to the culture as 

    discussed by the writer in the passage.

    5. After reading this text, which advice can you give to people who 

    misuse their language?

    6.1.2. Application activity

    Write two paragraphs talking about the importance of language in a 


    6.2. Talking about the importance of cultural preservation 

    and national cultural heritage

    6.2.1. Learning activity: Reading and Text analysis

    • Text1: Preserve your culture 

    Cultural heritage and the history of a nation are of great value and 

    unique. They constitute identity that can be introduced to the world. 

    Cultural heritage affirms our identity as a people because it creates 

    a comprehensive framework for the preservation of cultural heritage 

    including cultural sites, old buildings, monuments, shrines, landmarks, 

    the agriculture, landscapes associated with it, books, artefacts, 

    objects, pictures, photographs, art, and oral tradition that have cultural 

    significance and historical value. Culture and its heritage reflect and 

    shape values, beliefs, and aspirations, thereby defining a people’s 

    national identity. 

    In today’s context we refer to cultural identity which means (feeling of) 

    identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he or she 

    is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. It is necessary to 

    give awareness of Cultural Heritage and the ethics of its care in study 

    curriculum and to identify tools that can be developed to help communities 

    for better understanding and conservation of their heritage. 

    In large cities especially, it can be easy to feel lost and alone among so 

    many other cultures and backgrounds. New York City, for example, is 

    a huge melting pot of people from all over the world. There are large 

    communities based around certain cultural heritages, including Irish, 

    Italian, Asian, and others. Another benefit that comes from preserving 

    cultural heritage as a whole is the communal support. Those that identify 

    strongly with a certain heritage are often more likely to help out others 

    in that same community

    Cultural heritage allows the people to know about other people who 

    have the same kind of background and mind sets. The United Nations 

    Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2002) 

    described that “cultural heritage allows identifying each other by 

    distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of 

    society or a social group, and that it encompasses, in addition to art and 

    literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions 

    and beliefs”. Through cultural heritage we can know easily the people of 

    other community by identifying the culture and similar mind sets. For 

    example, if someone wears a gho or a kira than we can easily know that 

    he/she is a Bhutanese. Therefore, Cultural heritage allows us to identify 

    various cultures.

    However, not everyone feels a connection with their cultural heritage, 

    but many people do. What is it about cultural heritage that draws these 

    people to it? Some may think traditions are archaic and no longer 

    relevant, and that they are unnecessary during these

    modern times. Perhaps for some, they are not; but for others, exploring 

    cultural heritage offers a robust variety of benefits. It can give people 

    a connection to certain social values, beliefs, religions and customs. It 

    allows them to identify with others of similarmind sets and backgrounds. 

    Cultural heritage can provide an automatic sense of unity and belonging 

    within a group and allows us to better understand previous generations 

    and the history of where we come from.

    All in all, Culture Heritage is important in our day to day life. It is 

    being made up of practices and traditions that are passed on from our 

    parents to children or passed from the family, community and place 

    where people have been raised. As a small country, preserving unique 

    culture and tradition provides strong equipment for independence. For 

    this reason, all citizens should be aware that cultural heritage provides 

    an independent and sovereign nation. It is our responsibility to keep our 

    world history intact for the future generation so that they can get the 

    same opportunity to learn about the past and their own roots.

    Adapted from:

    • Comprehension questions 

    1. Identify some of the elements of our culture that we should 


    2. Give reasons why people can get lost when they are in big cities.

    3. Explain why not everyone feels a connection with their cultural 


    4. Why do you think that the culture is unique as mentioned in the 


    5. What is the importance of national heritage and cultural 

    preservation in teaching and learning situation?

    • Text 2: A poem: The African Heritage

    Years ago, our forefathers had a vision

    That one day, their descendants will bear the title of their own

    To represent their ancient glory

    And value it at heart.

    Praising the mediums like our fathers did

    And ululating in procedure.

    With thunder storming ahead as drumbeats play

    Women dance with pride while men praise in the music

    The spirits play their part.

    Our old Africa!

    Years when people lived communally

    Joint with the same totem

    The same spirit the same beliefs

    The Zulu, the Kololo,

    The Ndebele, the Ngoni

    Families of massive intrepid.

    United by norms of the heart.

    They prayed for rain and the rain came.

    They prayed for victory

    There, they sang war cries

    To fight for their dignity

    To fight against the same blood

    The blood from the same father.

    Defeating and loosing they all still conquered the dignity

    For they were undefeatable.

    Likewise is this same sacred greatness

    That our fathers deserve to be honoured.

    Likewise is this same ancient glory

    That our forefathers deserve to be respected.

    Likewise are the norms,

    The reasons our fathers are remembered.

    Years ago as they were practiced.

    Years ago in the African Heritage.

    Thus we shall preserve our past

    To embrace our future.

    Long Live Africa!!!

    Comprehension questions

    1. What was the vision of our forefathers?

    2. How were people’s relationships in the old Africa?

    3. Why do we need to preserve our past according to the poet?

    4. Which elements of the culture did the poet mention in the poem?

    5. Which lesson can we learn from the people of ancient times?

    6.2.2. Application activities

    Word meaning, sentence formation and debate

    I. Find the meaning of the following words as they are used in the text 

    using dictionaries.


    II. Make different sentences using the words below:

    a. Forefathers 

    b. Descendants 

    c. Ancient

    d. Ululating

    e. Glory

    f. Communally

    g. Embrace

    h. Totem

    i. Dignity

    j. Melting pot of people

    III. Debate on the importance of preservation of culture and national 

    heritage. Use the guidelines given in unit five of this book about debate.

    6.3. Cultural Rwandan School (Itorero)

    6.3.1. Learning activity:

    Reading and Text analysis


    While interpreting the above picture, answer these questions:

    1. Which activities are taking place as presented in the figure 


    2. Why do you think the government needs to organize those 


    3. Do you have similar activities in your school? If yes, what do 

    you do in those kinds of activities?

    Text: The national school(Itorero)

    Historically in Rwanda the national school (Itorero) was the channel 

    through which the nation could convey messages to the people regarding 

    culture in areas such as, language, patriotism, social relations, sports, 

    dancing and songs, defence of the nation etc. As a result, young citizens 

    could grow with an understanding and attachment to their culture. The 

    participants were encouraged to discuss different national programs and 

    the positive values of Rwandan culture. The Itorero tradition also provided 

    the formative training for leaders of the nation. Itorero participants 

    understood that cultural values could help them develop their judgment, 

    psychology, work and mutual support, life and collaboration with others.

    National fighters and grassroots leaders were selected from Intore, 

    as participants in Itorero. Apart from military training participants 

    could benefit from other training in body to body struggle, splaying 

    away, jumping, racing, javelin throwing, shooting, endurance etc. 

    Participants also benefited from receiving other cultural training 

    including: patriotism, attachment to the Rwandan spirit, wisdom, 

    heroism, unity, taboos, eloquence, hunting, not to be deserters, etc. All 

    Itorero activities couldn’t be done simultaneously. These were planned 

    by the trainer of Itorero, it was up to them to decide the daily programme 

    of events and their priority. Every new comer in Itorero had to undergo 

    a kind of initiation.

    It was said that Intore were different from other people, especially in 

    matter of expression and behaviour because they had the benefit of 

    understanding the usefulness of friendly relations, quick responses in 

    fair Kinyarwanda, how to behave within younger generations equals and 

    adults, etc.…

    Traditionally in Rwanda, Itorero was an education centre where 

    Rwandans were mentored on civic education and good relationships 

    with other people. Itorero had no discrimination or segregation; and 

    this was the means by which Rwandans expanded and developed their 

    country. Colonization gradually suppressed Itorero. The Itorero that 

    remained, as well as those created later, differed from the traditional 

    Itorero as they changed their mission and only focused on dancing. This 

    situation impacted on relationships among Rwandans and the way the 

    country was governed; discrimination and genocide ideology spread.

    As a consequence, the Rwandan society was destroyed and many 

    Rwandans fled the country to live in exile. The ultimate consequence of 

    this was the genocide in 1994 in which more than one-million people died 

    and left a society of poor and disabled people as well as many refugees.

    Despite the many achievements in terms of building the Rwandan 

    society after the Tutsi genocide of 1994, the government also struggled 

    to bring back values lost and solve the problem of mindset among 

    Rwandans. This has hindered the pace of development. In order to 

    achieve planned activities, it is necessary for all Rwandans, to have a 

    good understanding, changes in mindset, way of thinking, behaviour, 

    day to day working process and collaboration. There needs to be pride 

    in solving our own problems without the help of others and promote the 

    culture of performance contracts

    The national school (Itorero) is introduced at a time when there are 

    other national institutions and programmes in place to sensitize 

    people on civic education in the framework of promoting human rights, 

    democracy, good governance, unity and reconciliation, and self-economic 

    and social development. The national school (Itorero) will contribute 

    by solving problems related to mind-set, bad behaviour, bad practices, 

    through applying Rwandan cultural values. It is in this framework, the 

    national school (Itorero) will help Rwandans to understand and change 

    by applying Rwandan cultural values including: Patriotism and love for 

    citizens, Promoting the Rwandan spirit, fair behaviour, heroism and 

    elimination of taboos. 

    The national school (Itorero) will help in the promotion of unity and 

    mutual help in a Rwandan society that is characterized by a culture built 

    on values that make Rwanda a respected, valuable country, with dignity 

    on the international arena, a great nation for its citizens and visitors, 

    and a continuously progressing country, comfortable for all. 

    • Comprehension question

    1. What was the mission of Itorero in Rwanda?

    2. How understanding cultural values can help the youth?

    3. What are the cultural trainings the youth can benefit from 


    4. Explain the contribution of Itorero after the genocide against 

    Tutsi of 1994 in Rwanda.

    5. What do you think of the introduction of Iterero in formal schools 


    6.3.2. Application activity: 

    Word meaning and paragraph writing

    1. Explain the following words as they are used in the passage using 


    a. Dignity 

    b. Mind set

    c. Ideology

    d. Civic education 

    e. Patriotism

    f. Grassroots 

    g. Racing 

    h. Endurance 

    i. Taboos

    j. Eloquence 

    2. Make different sentences using the words below:

    a. Patriotism 

    b. Love for citizens, 

    c. Promoting the Rwandan spirit, 

    d. Good behaviour

    e. Heroism 

    f. Eliminate taboos

    3. Write a paragraph talking about the importance of Itorero for young 

    generation in Rwanda

    6.3.3. Language structure: Use of past simple tense

    Identify, in the following text, (a) the verbs and tense used; and classify 

    them based on their types (regular or irregular verbs). 

    • Text (extract from “ The national school (Itorero)”

    Historically in Rwanda the national school (Itorero) was a Rwandans’ 

    school; it was the channel through which the nation could convey messages 

    to the people regarding national culture in areas such as, language, 

    patriotism, social relations, sports, dancing and songs, defence of the 

    nation etc.

    It was said that Intore were different from other people, especially in 

    matter of expression and behaviour because they had the benefit of 

    understanding the usefulness of friendly relations, quick response and 

    in good Kinyarwanda, how to behave within younger generations, equals 

    and adults, etc… Therefore, it is very clear that Itorero played a big role 

    in our culture development


    A. Simple Past Tense

    Definition and uses

    The past simple tense, also called the simple past, is used for past 

    actions that happened either at a specific time, which can either be 

    given by a time phrase (yesterday, last year, etc.) or understood from the 

    context. regular verbs add -ed to the base form, or -d if the verbs end 

    with -e. Irregular verbs can change in many different ways. The verb 

    form is the same for all persons. It is used for

    a. Actions finished in the past 


    i. I visited our Museum last week.

    ii. Andrew watched TV yesterday.

    iii. My friends went to Nkumba last month in Itorero.

    iv. My parents ate a lot of sorghum bread when they were young.

    b. Series of completed actions in the past

    First, I got up, then I had breakfast.

    On Sunday my brother and I went to a king palace. There we met our 

    friends. We learnt different traditional practices and joined national 

    Itorero in the afternoon. Too bad that we had to go home in the evening.

    We didn’t want to go to school on Monday.

    c. Together with the Past Progressive/Continuous – the Simple 

    Past interrupted an action which was in progress in the past.

    They were playing cards when the telephone rang.

    1st action → Past Progressive → were playing

    2nd action → Simple Past → rang

    While Dennis was reading outside, it started to rain.

    1st action → Past Progressive → was reading

    2nd action → Simple Past → started

    • Rules

    We have rules about how to change the tense of a verb. There are two 

    types of verbs: regular verbs and irregular verbs, and this help us figure 

    out how to change a verb to past tense.

    c. Regular & Irregular Verbs

    Regular verbs are verbs that follow a set pattern when one changes their 

    tense. If you want to change a regular verb to simple past tense, all you 

    have to do is add ‹-ed’ onto the end of the verb. For example, ‘walk’ is the 

    present tense and becomes ‘walked,’ which is the simple past tense form 

    of ‘walk;’ and ‘wait’ is the present tense and becomes ‘waited,’ which is 

    the simple past tense form of ‘wait.’

    Not all verbs fit this pattern. Irregular verbs have different past tense 

    forms. Since they don›t follow any pattern, a person has to learn and 

    memorize them. Some examples of irregular verbs include:

    ‘’Bring’’ which is present tense and becomes ‘brought’ in its simple past 

    tense form

    ‘Run’ is the present tense and becomes ‘ran’ in the simple past tense 


    And lastly, we have ‘go,’ which is the present tense form, and it becomes 

    went’ in its simple past tense form


    d. Spelling of the Simple Past

    About regular verbs 

    Most regular verbs take a –d after a final vowel (e.g. like→liked) or an 

    –ed after a final consonant (e.g. work→ worked). 

    Verbs ending in 1 stressed vowel + 1 consonant: stop→ stopped; plan→ 


    Verbs ending in consonant + -y: study→ studied; try→ tried 

    Pronunciation of –d / -ed and –ied

    We pronounce /d/ after vowels and voiced sounds (/b/, /g/, /v/, /δ/ 

    (breath→ breathed), /l/, /dg/, /m/, /n/, etc.: e.g. played /pleid/ agreed 

    /ә’gri:d/ lived /livd/ used /ju:zd/ 

    We pronounce /t/ after /P/, /K/, /F/, /θ/ (th), /s/, /ζ/ (wash), /t ζ/ (watch) 

    e.g. stopped /stαpt/ worked /wә:kt/ ; watched

    • Exercises with the simple past tense: 

    1. Change the verbs in brackets to the simple past. Be careful with 


    1. Last year, we --------three weeks in Kigali Museum studying the 

    traditional practices of Rwanda.

    2. They all (go) ___ shopping

    3. I never (imagine) ____ I would see you in this cultural concert.

    4. We (book) ___ two tickets for the show

    5. He (collect) ___ his children from school.

    6. Were you (frighten) ___ of the dark when you were young?

    7. We (grow) ___ this tree from a seed.

    8. I (feel) so tired that I went straight to bed.

    2. Write a paragraph describing our cultural heritage paying attention 

    to the use of past simple tense

    B. Used to

    We can use “used to” to talk about a past habit or situation.

    • An example for a situation: “He used to live in London” (but he 

    doesn’t now)

    • An example for a habit: “He used to go on holiday to Scotland every 

    year” (but he doesn’t now)

    “Used to” is the same for all subjects, and you follow it with the 

    infinitive without “to”:

    • I / You / He / She / We / They used to smoke

    To make the negative, use “didn’t” + use + to + verb. (Remove the final 

    /d/ ending from “used”.)

    • I / He didn’t use to smoke.

    To make the question, use “did” as the auxiliary, and take the final /d/ 

    ending off “used”:

    • Did you / she use to smoke?

    Be used to + doing

    There’s a big difference between used to do – to talk about past habits 

    or situations and is used to doing – to talk about familiarity with a 

    place, or activity.

    The form is subject + verb to be + used to + verb in the ing form / noun

    • I am / was used to studying English every day.

    • I am used to his jokes.” (example with a noun).

    • You are / were used to studying English every day.

    You can replace the verb “to be” by the verb “get” to talk about the process 

    of becoming used to something (rather than the state of being used to 


    • If you live in England, you will get used to driving on the left! (= it 

    will no longer be a problem for you).

    • He finally got used to Winter season.

    C. Used to + infinitive’ and ‘be/get used to

    Used to + infinitive and be/get used to + ‘ing’ form look similar but they 

    are completely different

    a. Used to + infinitive

    Used to + a verb in infinitive form is used in a sentence to talk about 

    things that happened in the past, when actions or situations no longer 



    • She used to be a long-distance runner when she was younger.

    • I used to eat meat but I became a vegetarian 5 years ago. 

    The negative form of used to + a verb in infinitive form is didn’t use to 

    + the infinitive form of the verb.

    The interrogative form of used to + a verb in infinitive form is Did you 

    use to + infinitive form of the verb ?

    N.B. To talk about present habits we use the present simple and an 

    adverb of frequency (usually, always, often, never, etc.)

    Example: We often eat at the Japanese restaurant in the city centre.

    a. To be/to get used to + noun/pronoun


    • If you are used to something, you are accustomed to it. You don’t 

    find it unusual.

    • If you get used to something or you are getting used to something 

    you are becoming accustomed to it, it was strange, now it’s not so 


    • I found Slovak food very strange at first but I’m used to it now.

    • I’m getting used to driving on the right.

    Both to be used to and get used to are followed by a noun (or pronoun) or the 

    gerund (the ‘ing’ form) of a verb.


    • I can’t get used to getting up so early. I’m tired all the time.

    • He’s not used to the weather here yet. He’s finding it very cold.

    N.B. To be/get used to can be used in past, present and future tenses


    • You might find it strange at first but you’ll soon get used to it.

    • He wasn’t used to the heat and he caught sunstroke


    Write a paragraph on the Rwandan Culture paying attention to the 

    use of used to. Read more about the guidelines on writing paragraphs 

    in unit five of this book.

    6.4. End unit assessment

    1. Carry out the following exercise on vocabulary related to culture by 

    choosing the right words from these: conflicts, acceptable, behaviour, 

    global, diversity, emigrants, misconceptions, stereotype, shock, 

    technology to fill gaps in the text below:

    One of the problems …face is cultural …which is a condition of 

    confusion and anxiety affecting a person suddenly exposed to a new 


    Some people think that a country with cultural …may face cultural …, 

    think that such a country may benefit from the variety and richness 

    of its culture.

    A …is a false, distorted assumption associated with a group of people.

    For some cultures, it is not culturally … to burp in front of people.

    Racial … is the result of cultural…

    The world has become a …village thanks to …


    2. Complete the following story with the verb in bracket in the correct 


    Stars who died young:

    James Dean

    James Dean(die)… in a terrible car accident in 1955. He (be) … only 

    twenty-four when he (die) … but he was already a big Hollywood star. 

    Dean (love) … sports cars and he used to drive very fast – he didn’t 

    like slow cars

    On 30 September 1955, Dean(leave) Los Angeles in his Porsche sports 

    car. He(stop)… at Salinas and then continued towards Palm Springs. 

    He was driving west on US Highway 466 when another car (crash) … 

    into him at a junction.

    He wasn’t wearing a seat belt and when the crash happened, he (die) 

    … instantly.

    3. Complete the following extract with correct verb-tense from the 


    Traditionally in Rwanda, Itorero------(be) an education centre where 

    Rwandans were mentored on civic education and good relationships with 

    other people. Itorero--------------- (have) no discrimination or segregation; 

    and this was the means by which Rwandans -----------------(expand) 

    and --------------(develop) their country. Colonization gradually------- 

    (suppress) Itorero. The Itorero that ----------(remain), as well as 

    those--------- (create)later, differed from the traditional Itorero as they-

    ----- (change) their mission and only ----------(focus) on dancing. 

    This situation------------- (impact) on relationships among Rwandans 

    and the way the country was governed; discrimination and genocide 

    ideology spread.

    4. Write a composition talking about the role of a teacher in cultural 

    preservation and national heritage.


    Key unit competence: To use the language learnt in the context of 

    environment conservation and sustainability

    Introductory Activity Picture interpretation


    Observe the above pictures and answer the following questions: 

    1. What Fig 1,2,3,4 represent? 

    2. Provide the main elements of our physical environment.

    3. Why is it important to protect our environment?

    4. Which methods can we use to conserve our environmental 


    7.1. Talking about physical elements of environment

    7.1.1. Learning activity: Reading and Text Analysis

    Read the text below and answer questions that follow:

    • Text: The physical environment

    The physical environment can be defined as that which operates on an 

    ongoing basis regardless of the persons in it. This physical environment 

    then affects the actions of and outcomes concerning the people within it. 

    The physical environment includes land, air, water, plants and animals, 

    buildings and other infrastructure, and all of the natural resources 

    that provide our basic needs and opportunities for social and economic 


    Say, for example, you are playing sport and it is a windy day. You have 

    to adjust your game to ensure that you allow for the way the wind is 

    blowing. All processes and behaviours take place within specific physical 

    environments. Within a classroom for example lighting, acoustics, size, 

    comfort, safety, access to technology, etc. create and add to a physical 

    environment that is either conducive to learning or perhaps distracting.

    Therefore, a simple definition of any physical environment would be 

    your natural surroundings including whether it is clean or dirty and the 

    things within it and how they interact to create a ‹space.›

    It is also known as the whole physical and biological system surrounding 

    man and other organisms along with various factors influencing them. 

    The factors are soil, air, water, light, temperature etc. These are called 

    A biotic factors. Besides a biotic factors, the environment is very much 

    influenced by biotic factors which include all forms of life like plants, 

    animals, microorganisms etc. Man is thus an inseparable part of the 

    environment. Man and Environment have very close relationship with 

    each other. The social life of man is affected by environment. This is the 

    reason for various types of social and cultural activities around the world. 

    The hilly people have different life styles than people in the plain area. 

    Similarly, people around the world differ in their food, cloth, festivals etc. 

    All these are influenced by the factors around him.

    Natural vegetation, such as forest cover, is usually the most benign 

    of land uses, with higher infiltration and reduced runoff rates. The 

    opposites of forest cover are urbanized areas, where large surface areas 

    are impermeable, and pipes and sewer networks augment the natural 

    channels. The impervious surfaces in urban areas reduce infiltration 

    and can reduce the recharge of groundwater. In addition, urban runoff 

    contributes to poor water quality.

    Agricultural activities are major forms of land use, including row 

    crops, rangelands, animal farms, aquaculture, and other agribusiness 

    activities. Cropping activities involve soil and water manipulation 

    through tillage and irrigation, thereby affecting runoff water and 

    groundwater resources. If improperly used, fertilizer and plant protection 

    chemicals in agricultural operations can affect water resources and 


    Urban and agricultural land uses contribute to what is termed nonpoint 

    source pollution in watersheds. Nonpoint-source pollution is defined 

    as diffuse (spread-out) sources of contamination from a wide area 

    of a landscape, often difficult to be attributed to a single location. 

    Transportation infrastructure (e.g., roads and airports) is another type of 

    land use that affects water resources through road runoff and alterations 

    to components of the hydrologic cycle.

    Therefore, a cleanliness and beauty of the environment is also important 

    for people’s sense of wellbeing. For many people, access to an attractive 

    physical environment contributes greatly to their contentedness with life. 

    A healthy environment also provides recreational opportunities, allowing 

    people to take part in activities they value. The clean, green environment 

    is also integral part of national identity, and guardianship of the land 

    and other aspects of the physical environment is seen as important part 

    of social wellbeing.

    Comprehension questions

    1. What is physical environment according to the author?

    2. Which activities people can do on land?

    3. Why the writers say that physical environment affects human 


    4. Do you think physical environment can influence the food people 

    eat? Explain.

    5. Explain the importance of healthy environment as described in 

    the passage.

    7.1.2. Application activity: 


    7.2. Describing environmental features and their roles

    7.2.1. Learning activity: Reading and Text analysis

    Read the following text and answer questions given: 

    • A text: Environmental Features 

    Rwanda has a temperate tropical highland climate, with lower 

    temperatures than are typical for equatorial countries due to its 

    high elevation. Kigali, in the centre of the country, has a typical daily 

    temperature range between 12 °C (54 °F) and 27 °C (81 °F), with little 

    variation through the year. There are some temperature variations 

    across the country; the mountainous west and north are generally cooler 

    than the lower-lying east. 

    There are two rainy seasons in the year. The first runs from February to 

    June and the second from September to December. These are separated 

    by two dry seasons: the major one from June to September, during which 

    there is often no rain at all, and a shorter and less severe one from 

    December to February. Rainfall varies geographically, with the west 

    and northwest of the country receiving more precipitation annually 

    than the east and southeast.

    Mountains dominate central and western Rwanda. These mountains are 

    part of the Albertine Rift Mountains that flank the Albertine branch of 

    theEast African Rift. This branch runs from north to south along Rwanda’s 

    western border. The highest peaks are found in the Virunga volcano 

    chain in the northwest; this includes Mount Karisimbi, Rwanda’s highest 

    point, at 4,507 metres (14,787 ft). 

    Rwanda has many lakes, the largest being Lake Kivu. This lake occupies 

    the floor of the Albertine Rift along most of the length of Rwanda›s 

    western border, and with a maximum depth of 480 metres (1,575 ft), it 

    is one of the twenty deepest lakes in the world. Other sizeable lakes 

    include Burera, Ruhondo, Muhazi, Rweru, and Ihema, the last being the 

    largest of a string of lakes in the eastern plains of Akagera National 

    Park. Therefore, it is very important to care for our environment because 

    as some the features show without it there is no life as discussed in the 

    following paragraphs

    No trees, no forests! No forests, no rainfall! No rainfall, no water! No 

    water, no power! No power, no industry! No industry, no jobs! No jobs, no 

    money! No jobs, no money! No money, no food! No food, no life!

    Perceptibly, forests are very important as this sequence show. Destroying 

    forests has serious environmental, economic and social consequences. 

    Anyone in drought areas should remember that we have suffered 

    crippling droughts as well as water and power rationing in some parts 

    of Africa. Recovering from these disasters takes a long time.

    In counties which heavily depend on agricultural produce both for local 

    consumption and for export, rain is very important. Trees attract rain 

    and we should do everything possible to preserve them. We should even 

    plant more.

    Trees also prevent soil erosion and flooding. Soil erosion carries away the 

    productive soil while flooding leads to loss of life and property.

    In Kenya’s Western province, Busia district, Budalangi constituency

    and its surroundings, the inhabitants cannot build permanent homes 

    because they know in the month of April they have to move to high 

    grounds because of flooding that causes loss of property and even life.

    In addition, forests provide catchment areas for some largest rivers 

    and lakes. From these rivers and lakes, we get water for domestic use, 

    irrigation and we can also get sea food. On the rivers are dams from 

    which electricity is tapped or generated.

    For example, River Nile is a major hydro power generation that serves 

    Uganda, Kenya and Rwanda. Did you know that Lake Victoria has its 

    major tributaries in Kenya and these tributaries emanate from the Mau 


    Due to human activities in the forest, the tributaries are reducing water. 

    As a result Lake Victoria on the Kenyan side is reducing in water flow 

    and if the situation is not checked, this will affect the people of Egypt who 

    rely entirely on irrigation from River Nile whose source is Lake Victoria.

    Moreover, forests play a significant role in our atmosphere. By absorbing 

    carbon dioxide from the air, they act as a filter thus leaving our air 

    fresh and clean. Forests are also the most important defence against 

    climatic changes such as global warming. If we destroy the forests the 

    chain is broken as well as our lives.

    Comprehension questions

    1. Why does Rwanda have a temperate tropical highland climate 

    with lower temperatures?

    2. Give and explain the rain seasons we have in a year.

    3. What is the importance of some environment features mentioned 

    in the passage?

    4. Which countries are served by hydro power generation from 

    River Nile?

    5. What are the lakes do we have in our country and why are they 


    6. Which daily temperature do we have in Kigali city as mentioned 

    in the passage?

    7.2.2. Application activity Vocabulary and composition writing

    1. Explain the following words as they are used in the passage

    a. Temperatures

    b. crippling 

    c. droughts

    d. precipitation

    e. rainfall 

    f. constituency

    g. floor

    h. catchment 

    i. filter 

    j. carbon dioxide 

    2. Write a composition talking about the environment features of your 

    district. Read guidelines of writing an essay in unit five of this book.

    7.3. Describing different ways of protecting environment

    7.3.1. Learning activity: Observing pictures and Reading



    1. What do you see in Fig.1 and what do you think the person 

    people in Fig.2 is doing?

    2. Which strategies can we use to protect our environment?

    3. Why is important to protect our environment?

    4. Suggest some pieces of advice to people who only care for 

    their businesses by building big industries and other related 

    harmful activities.

    B. Reading and exploitation of texts

    Read the text below and answer questions given.

    • Text 1: Protect your environment 

    Many people say there is a need to protect the environment, but do not 

    really make any effort to do anything about it. Are you one of these 

    people? What can we do to encourage people to take action to protect the 


    Most people are increasingly aware of the need to protect our environment. 

    Despite this, not many of us are really taking steps to reduce our impact 

    on the planet. In this text, I will suggest some steps each of us can take 

    and some ways to motivate others to do the same.

    Many environmental problems seem so big that only governments, local 

    authorities or big companies can deal with them. One example is globa

    warming. We need government action to reduce emissions from coal 

    and oil burning power stations and to develop safer sources of power. 

    These require tough regulations and huge investment. The loss of forests 

    and other habitat is another problem. How can we as individuals stop 

    the destruction of the Amazon or Indonesian rain forests? Yet another 

    example is waste. When people live in cities, other ways may be recycling, 

    picking up trash, no polluting and decrease pollution overall, saving 

    animal habitats and so much more. 

    We should care for the environment because it’s our real home, we live in 

    it and we don’t want a nasty living of trash everywhere with stenches

    also animals can die from our trashes such in beaches, they can get stuck 

    in the can plastics. We need to recycle because recycling takes trash and 

    processes it in some way to make a useful product. Composting falls 

    into this category. Glass, plastics, paper, steel, and cardboard are other 

    materials that may be recycled. The added benefit of compost is that 

    it can be done in your own backyard. We still need to recycle all the 

    plastic that we use because it gets melted and reused again for more 

    supply for our needs.

    When we don’t recycle, we have less plastic reusing than before and cause 

    a lot more money and man labor time to recycle it for us in the landfills. 

    Also, most of it gets burned to dispose of it all because we have no room 

    for all the landfills and they cost too much to have. Really, we should all 

    try to reuse before recycling but either works just fine. So, when we 

    reuse our belongings like finding alternate uses for trash rather than 


    Share unused portions with neighbours or charities. Donate books 

    to the library; give old clothing to charity, etc. Now we also need to 

    reduce which is includes reducing the amount of total waste by steps 

    such as buying only the amount you need, persuading manufacturers to 

    reduce the amount of packaging they use. It also includes steps such as 

    mowing your lawn with a mulching mower and leaving the clippings on 

    the grass. “Waste” is never generated. So, we don’t want to buy too much 

    of anything for ourselves everyone needs the same things such as water 

    bottles, plastic bags, and much more. And for mountainous places, it is 

    important that people can make terraces, planting also some trees which 

    may protect the soil. 

    In conclusion, our choices, however small, do have a real impact. If each 

    of us made took two or three simple steps to live more simply, imagine 

    the positive effect on the planet!

    Comprehension questions 

    1. Which problems did the writer say that they can be dealt with 


    2. What are the strategies identified by the writer about 

    environmental protection?

    3. Give reasons why the environment must be protected.

    4. Which materials do we need to recycle in our environment?

    5. How can we protect the soil from high mounts?

    • Text 2. A poem on environmental protection

    Read the following poem and answer questions 

    We spoil our Earth

    Is it really worth?

    Polluting the air

    is that really fair?

    Can Smoke and Dust

    Turn Earth into Hearth?

    Clean the Air

    Show that we care

    Secure our future

    Say Cheese!

    Plant more trees

    For Earth to Breathe

    Plants and Animals

    Love them all

    Be generous

    Live life tall

    Conserve water

    Be a nice daughter

    Harvest sunlight

    For a life that is bright

    Plastic may be cool

    But don’t be a fool

    It will make you ill

    Tell the whole school

    Recycle everything

    Don’t waste anything

    If you want no tension

    Go for environment protection

    By KaarviKhullar

    • Comprehension questions

    1. Which strategies did the poet mention so as to protect our 


    2. Why do you think that poet advised us not to be fool though 

    plastic is cool?

    3. What can a person do if he/she wants no tension?

    4. Provide the message given by the poet to schools.

    5. Explain the following words as they are used in the poem. Use 


    f. Global warming 

    g. Pollution 

    h. Stenches

    i. Backyard 

    j. Portions

    k. Charity

    l. Recycling

    7.3.2. Application activities Debate and composition writing

    1. Debate the following topic or motion: Read the guidelines on 

    how to conduct a debate in unit five of this book. “Human 

    activities have brought more harm than good on our Earth”.

    2. Write two paragraphs describing different ways of protecting 

    environment. Read the guidelines on writing a paragraph in 

    unit five of this book

    7.3.3. Language structure: Use of expressions of purpose

    1. Read the following paragraphs and identify expressions of purpose used 

    The trees’ roots suck water deep from under the ground to as low as 200 

    feet. They hold the soil together so that erosion is prevented. They absorb 

    rain during rainy days in order to help plants grow well.

    Mary lives in Gakenke District which is a mountainous area. Last 

    year, she planted different trees so as to protect the soil. However, her 

    neighbours did not do the same and affected her soil later. The local 

    leaders sensitize every person to make terraces and some irrigation so 

    that they could not get affected by soil erosion again. 

    Last week, Land manager at sector level visited them and said that in 

    order to avoid soil erosion people should also get water from their houses 

    in addition to other methods used. 

    • Notes

    Expressions of purpose: to, in order to and so as to

    a. In order to

    We can use ‘in order to’ or ‘so as to’ instead of ‘to + infinitive’. This just 

    makes it a bit clearer that we are talking about goals or intentions and 

    it’s also a bit more formal. It doesn’t change the meaning.

    • I went to London in order to study Environmental education. 

    • I went to London so as to study Environmental education.

    Use to, so as to, and in order to express purpose in the affirmative 



    • He is looking for a part time job to save some pocket money.

    • She wakes up early in order to be on time to work.

    • They visited him so as to offer their condolences for the death of his 


    Use so as not to and in order not to express purpose in the negative form.


    • They woke up early in order not to be late.

    • She exercises regularly so as not to get fat.

    • He helped the new policewoman so as not to fail in her first mission.

    b. Purpose with so that

    You can also express purpose with so that. In this case you generally 

    need to use a modal


    • He turned down the music so thathe wouldn›t disturb the neighbours.

    • He got a visa so that he can travel to the USA.

    • He decided to stay in England for a while so that he could practice 

    his English language


    A: Choose the correct expression of purpose

    1. Concentrate on your exercise … make any mistakes.

    a. So as not to

    b. to

    c. So that 

    2. You have to wake up … be on time.

    a. To

    b. In order not to

    c. So that 

    3. You have to register … participate in the forum.

    a. In order to

    b. So as not to

    c. So that

    4. She left work early … be at home when he arrives.

    a. So as not to

    b. To 

    c. So that 

    5. Ships carry life boats … the crew can escape when the ship sinks.

    a. So as not to

    b. To 

    c. So that 

    6. These men risk their lives-… we may live more safely.

    a. to

    b. in order not to

    c. so that 

    B: Using expression of purpose, write a paragraph talking about 

    the role of physical environment in socio-economic sector.

    7.1. End unit assessment

    A. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the missing pronunciation 

    of the words/phrases in the table below. Copy the table into your 

    book and fill in the blank spaces and practice reading them.



    B. Suppose that you are appointed to be trainer in a given district 

    and the training agenda is all about environment conservation 

    and sustainability. The following are issues to be addressed in the 


    a. Strategies to keep different materials lying around in the 


    b. Ways to protect our soil from erosion.

    c. Challenge of deforestation in the community.

    d. A problem of water from houses

    Write an essay describing how you will address the above issues to be 

    presented to the Land manager. Make sure you pay attention to the use 

    of expression of purpose in your writing. Words limit (300 words).

    C. Rewrite the sentences below using to, in order not to, so that… 

    a. I sent her a bunch of flowers because I wanted to make it up with 


    b. I entered Mr Green’s office because I wished to talk to him about 


    c. I came back because I had to take care of my parents. 

    d. She winked at me because she wanted to let me know that she 

    was joking. 

    e. I have come because I’d like to give you a piece of advice on 

    environmental protection.

    A. D. Match the beginnings of the sentences to the correct endings



    Key Unit Competence

    To use a language learnt in the context of 

    education and personal development

    Introductory Activity Picture interpretation


    Observe the pictures above and answer the following questions

    1. What do you think the figures above represent?

    2. Do you think it important for pre-school children to also 

    cerebrate the graduation day as it is in Fig. 1? Why?

    3. Explain the relationship between education and personal 


    4. Explain how a disabled child in Fig. 2 can benefit the same 

    education as those without disabilities

    8.1. Describing the ability at school

    8.1.1. Learning activity: Reading and Text analysis


    Observe the above pictures and answer these questions:

    1. What is taking place in Fig. 1-2? 

    2. Why is it important to get parents involved in education 


    3. Compare and contrast the roles of teachers and parents in 

    teaching/ learning

    • Text: Conversation between a parent and a teacher\

    Teacher: Hello Madam. Please have a seat.

    Parent: Thank you so much.

    Teacher: Yes please, tell me.

    Parent: Actually, I wanted to know about the progress of my child.

    Teacher: Karan is doing well in all the subjects he practices a lot.

    Teacher: He needs more attention on that.

    Parent: Sure, we will focus on him but I think that more attention should 

    be given to him in his class so that he can score good grades.

    Teacher: Don’t worry, I had a word with his mathematics teacher and I 

    discussed his problem with her.

    Parent: Thank you so much.

    Teacher: Please don’t mention that.

    Parent: I have one more request. If you could please update me with his 

    progress in the last month.

    Teacher: Sure, you can have a word with me anytime or we can also fix 

    a meeting.

    Parent: Sure.

    Teacher: Rest don’t worry, he is under our guidance and we will take care 

    of him.

    Parent: Thank you, madam.

    Comprehension questions

    1. What was the purpose of the conversation?

    2. Why did the parent worry about her child?

    3. Why is it important for parents to collaborate with school leaders 

    and teachers?

    4. Suppose that you are the teacher of that child, what could your 

    advice the parent as far as her child score progresses.

    8.1.2. Application activity 


    Ravi: Thank you very much, sir.

    Mr. Malhotra: Thank you, sir! I’m extremely grateful for the time you 

    have given us and the interest you have taken.

    Adapted from:


    • Comprehension questions

    1. What is the relationship between Mr. Malhotra and Ravi?

    2. Why did Mr. Malhotra come to that college?

    3. Which school did Ravi attend before and how many aggregates 

    did he get?

    4. What subject did Ravi want to take in that new school?

    5. Did the Principal allow Ravi to come and study? If yes or no, 


    2. Match the following words with their meanings


    3. Write a paragraph talking about the subject that you are good at in 

    your class. Use the guidelines given in unit five of this book

    8.2. Describing educational ambitions

    8.2.1. Learning activity: Reading and text analysis

    • Text: My journey to becoming a teacher

    Different people have different ambitions in life such as doctors, 

    engineers, pilots, soldiers, etc. But I always wanted to be a teacher 

    because I feel really blissful when I teach people around me. From my 

    childhood, I teach whatever I learn in school. By teaching people around 

    us, we can uplift the society. My father is a professor in a science college 

    and my mother who was a teacher in school earlier now runs a nursery in 

    our house. The two large rooms upstairs are occupied for nursery school.

    My mother feels immensely happy when she teaches such tiny tots who 

    are not aware of anything. She holds their hands and teaches them “A, B, 

    C, D” and also plays with them many games by taking them to our garden 

    along with one more teacher. I see that my mother feels really happy 

    when she is teaching such innocent children and so I also want to become 

    a teacher like her. I want to become a teacher in a reputed international 

    school to teach the students new methods of learning. English is always 

    my favourite subject and also, I love to teach social studies. I have 

    introduced new methods of teaching grammar and vocabulary. I always 

    love reading books and I have read many novels pertaining to children’s 

    activities and hence I began liking the language. 

    To become a teacher, I should first become a graduate in arts and then 

    study education as a major subject. I love teaching in school than in 

    college because the atmosphere in school is really pleasing. Being in a 

    children’s company, just gives me pleasure. I love playing with children 

    and teaching them something that I have learnt in kindergarten. When 

    I become a teacher, I will always teach children mannerism and values 

    too so that they can become good citizens of the future. As a teacher, my 

    duty is not only to teach English and Social studies, but also teach the 

    students the way of life. 

    My teacher always guides us and teaches us the value of mannerism in 

    daily life. After becoming a teacher, I will start preparing notes on English 

    and Social studies so that the students can easily learn the subjects. 


    8.2.2. Application activity

    1. Find the meaning of the following words using dictionaries and 


    a. Ambitions 

    b. Uplift

    c. Reputation 

    d. Pertaining 

    e. Kindergarten

    f. Mannerism 

    g. Sacred

    h. Strict

    i. Flogging or screaming 

    j. Compassionate 

    k. Scale

    2. Write a composition talking about what you wanted to become in 

    future and include reasons

    8.3. Talking about Education and society

    8.3.1. Learning activity:Reading Comprehension

    • Text: Education and society

    Education plays a major role in the growth and progress of a society. It isone 

    of the key components that can make or break a culture’s advancement. 

    If citizens of a society are educated, they can provide significant 

    contributions in the fields of arts, literature, science, technology, and 

    others, and help establish a well-rounded and stimulating community. 

    Below are some of the best reasons why education is an essential thing 

    to any society

    Once you have earned your college degree, you are expected to start 

    your journey to the real life get a job, pay taxes, and so on. Your parents 

    and the people around you may have already been picturing you sitting 

    behind an executive desk on an ergonomic chair from Office Chairs 

    Only, made of only the best materials (as it really matters what you 

    choose when it comes to comfort).

    Actually, because of several years of schooling, you should be able to make 

    sound decisions on various stuff, such as if you should get a car or a house, 

    which expenses to prioritize, how to pay off your school loans, and more. 

    Moreover, you should be able to help the community by participating in 

    projects to improve your neighbourhood, such as organizing programs 

    to aid the less fortunate citizens, encourage the children and teens to 

    study, and other social activities. 

    Also, looking for a job is not easy. Depending on your field, you may 

    have to contend with dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of other fresh 

    graduates for a low-paying entry-level position. But, if you possess the 

    right qualifications, i.e. you have a solid educational background (and 

    with some amount of luck), the likelihood of you landing your dream job 

    becomes higher.

    A lot of high-paying, specialized jobs today require people with more 

    higher education accomplishments and varied experiences. Therefore, if 

    you want to increase your chances of standing out from a large pool of 

    applicants, go to school and get as many credentials as you can.

    To earn six figures a year is something that many people want but not 

    really get. However, achieving it requires a mixture of hard work, 

    perseverance, dedication, competence, efficiency, and luck. In order 

    to find a job that can give you a comfortable lifestyle, you have to have 

    the qualifications that will make companies and employers hire you. 

    This will likely happen if you are well-educated and possess the right 

    sets of skills to perform the responsibilities and tasks that they ask for 

    that particular position.

    • Comprehension questions

    1. Which contribution do you educated people can provide to the 


    2. Suppose that the education is preparing the people without 

    taking into consideration the societal needs. 

    a. Which effect do you think this can cause?

    b. If you were an education planner or a policy maker, what can 

    you do? 

    3. What can happen if the people living in a given society are not 


    4. Which qualities should a person possess in order to get a good job 

    as discussed in the passage?

    5. What is the moral lesson picked from the above passage?

    8.3.2. Application activity Sentence writing

    1. Explain the following words as they are used in the passage using 

    dictionaries and internet.

    a. well-rounded

    b. ergonomic chair

    c. earn six figures a year

    d. perseverance

    e. dedication,

    3. Debate the following topic or motion:

     “Society without educated people cannot develop”.

    4. Make sentences using the following words 

    a. education 

    b. society

    c. employers 

    d. citizens 

    e. hard work

    f. companies 

    5. Read the following poem and discuss 

    • Text: A poem about Education: The Key to Life 


    the light of our life

    A gift of academic rife


    the key to a bright and rewarding future

    A glue that joins our dreams like a suture


    A path to divine success

    A smooth drive to our greatness


    gives our thinking a different appearance

    And helps drive away all our ignorance


    It leads us to the path of prosperity

    And gives our tomorrow a sounding security


    the process of teaching and learning

    Which will help us in our future earning


    shaping our true character is the motto

    Leading to a successful life it is the major factor


    The progressive discovery of our true self

    And exploitation of the potentials of oneself


    a better safeguard of liberty than a standing army

    A life boat that see us through our days of stormy


    A torch of academic brilliance

    And backbone of inner resilience


    the key to unlock the golden door of freedom

    And stage our rise to stardom


    A life sustaining material

    Without it we can’t lead a life which is congenial


    not all about bookish knowledge

    But it is also about practical knowledge


    makes a person stand up on his on toes

    And helps a person to fight with all his foes


    A fundamental foundation

    For any country state or nation


    A thick line between right and wrong

    A ladder that takes us to the height where we belong


    Mother of all profession

    That helps acquire all our possession

    Education is our right

    For in it our future is bright

    By Stanley Oguh

    • Comprehension questions

    a. What does the poet compare with education?

    b. Which is the motto of education according to the poet?

    c. How did the poet relate education and the nation?

    d. Why do you think education is a key to life as stated by the poet?

    8.4. Talking about Sexual behaviour

    8.4.1. Learning activity: Reading and text analysis

    Observe the picture, read and answer questions

    Picture observation and interpretation


    1. What do you think people in fig.1 are doing?

    2. Which kind of behaviour can you relate with such activities?

    3. Do you appreciate such behaviour? If yes or no, explain

    • Text: Sexual behaviour

    Human sexuality refers to people’s sexual interest in and attraction to 

    others; it is the capacity to have erotic or sexual feelings and experiences. 

    Sexuality differs from biological sex, in that sexuality refers to the 

    capacity for sexual feelings and attraction, while biological sex refers to 

    how one’s anatomy, physiology, hormones, and genetics are classified 

    (typically as male, female, or intersex). 

    Sexuality is also separate from gender identity, which is a person’s sense 

    of their own gender, or socio-cultural classification (i.e., man, woman, or 

    another gender) based on biological sex (i.e., male or female). It is also 

    distinct from although it shapes sexual orientation or one’s emotional 

    and sexual attraction to a particular sex or gender.

    Sexuality may be experienced and expressed in a variety of ways, including 

    thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviours, 

    practices, roles, and relationships. These manifests themselves not only 

    in biological, physical, and emotional ways, but also in socio cultural 

    ways, which have to do with the effects of human society and culture on 

    one’s sexuality. 

    Some researchers believe that sexual behaviour is determined by genetics; 

    however, others assert that it is largely moulded by the environment. 

    Human sexuality impacts, and is impacted by, cultural, political, legal, 

    and philosophical aspects of life and can interact with issues of morality, 

    ethics, theology, spirituality, or religion.

    Briefly, as long as sexual behaviour is concerned , sexuality education

    will come in so as to help all young people who need to get positive 

    information and opportunities to think about, question, and discuss issues 

    related to relationships, gender, sexual identities, sexual orientation, 

    sexual behaviour, sexual and reproductive health, and societal messages. 

    Sexuality education provides a framework in which this can happen and it 

    is really a part of health education, vital for young people’s development, 

    learning, and overall well-being. Learning in this area also contributes to 

    academic success and positive mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual 


    • Comprehension questions

    1. What is sexuality according to the writer?

    2. Explain some ways through which sexuality may get expressed.

    3. What will be the role of sexuality education in addressing issues 

    of sexual behaviour?

    8.4.2. Application activity Composition writing

    Write a composition talking about sexual behaviours among youth and 

    the role of sexual education.

    8.5. Life skills

    Pre-reading activity


    In an ever-growing technology and data driven world, much of the 

    focus in education has understandably taken a shift toward STEM-based 

    (science, technology, engineering, and math) initiatives that will prepare 

    students for the coursework and careers of the future. But life skills how 

    well-equipped students are to make good decisions and solve problems 

    in their academic and professional careers as well as their personal lives 

    should also play a critical role in a well-rounded and comprehensive 


    Think of life skills as the building blocks or framework that allow students 

    to apply the knowledge they acquire in school to real world problems and 

    situations. Also referred to as “soft skills” in a professional context, the 

    ability to think abstractly and approach problems from multiple angles 

    to find practical solutions, and the skill to communicate clearly and 

    effectively are just as important as technical knowledge in a particular 

    field or academic subject.

    According to Macmillan Education, “In a constantly changing 

    environment, having life skills is an essential part of being able to meet 

    the challenges of everyday life. The dramatic changes in global economies 

    over the past five years have been matched with the transformation in 

    technology and these are all impacting on education, the workplace, and 

    our home life.”

    But life skills go well beyond choosing a major in college or impressing

    a potential employer in the future. Life skills provide children with 

    important tools for development, such as independent thinking, how to 

    socialize and make new friends, and how to take action in situations 

    where their parents or teachers may not be around to help or intervene 

    (dealing with a bully or personal insecurities and fears, for example.) 

    Unlike motor skills and basic intelligence, executive function and decisionmaking skills are not innate but learned.

    Examples of life skills include: Self-reflection, Critical thinking, 

    Problem solving and Interpersonal skills, etc. Building life skills is 

    essentially an exercise in helping children develop sound judgment and 

    good habits for long-term stability, wellness, and success.

    Parents can take an active role in teaching life-skills at home with 

    projects that provide real world examples and lessons in decision making 

    and problem solving. They can be as simple as assigning household 

    chores and budgeting exercises through an allowance, to caring for 

    a pet or volunteering in the community. Fun and simple-to-organize 

    activities, like game nights (or afternoons) with family and friends with 

    an educational focus that also encourage working in teams, can help to 

    build social and interpersonal skills.

    In addition to brushing their own teeth and learning how to tie their 

    shoes and get dressed, young children should know what to do in common 

    situations as well as emergencies, such as: How to get to and from home 

    and school, who to call in an emergency (memorize phone numbers), 

    How to safely cross the street, what to do if they are bullied or witness 

    bullying, how to safely use kitchen appliances and prepare basic meals 

    and how to do the laundry.

    The acquisition of problem-solving and reasoning abilities is a fluid and 

    ongoing process, and working with children early in their development to 

    lay the framework with examples that they can understand and apply on 

    their own is a good place to start. For boarding students, the experience 

    is even more intense. Daily house chores, weekend work projects and 

    weekly house meetings all create the sense of responsibility over their 

    lives and spaces that many schools and jobs are seeking. Add to that 

    the expectations to cook, clean up after themselves, and budget their 

    personal expenses and most students end up fulfilling many of the item 

    on those life skills lists.

    • Comprehension question

    1. What is life skills according to the author?

    2. Compare and contrast life skills from other skills developed from 

    other subjects.

    3. Give examples of life skills as described by the author.

    4. Is it important to develop life skills from early childhood 

    education? Justify your answer

    8.5.2. Application activity Vocabulary work

    1. Explain the following words using dictionaries as used in the 


    a. Chores

    b. Witness bullying

    c. Laundry

    d. Impress 

    e. Soft skills

    f. Data driven world

    2. Write two paragraphs about the importance of life skills.

    8.5. Language Structure: conditional clause type I &II

    • Learning activity

    Read the following sentences and complete the gap accordingly 

    1. If people are well educated, the society ----------------- (develop) in 

    all sectors.

    2. I would take my daughter to IPRC, If I------------------- (be) in your 


    3. If we were policy-makers, we------------------ (establish) career 

    development centres. 

    4. If they all do their best, the party -------------- (be) great.

    5. If I have a child, --------------- (develop) his/her life skills as much 

    as possible.

    • Note:

    Conditional tenses are used to speculate about what could happen, what 

    might have happened, and what we wish would happen. In English, most 

    sentences using the conditional contain the word if. Many conditional 

    forms in English are used in sentences that include verbs in one of the 

    past tenses. This usage is referred to as “the unreal past” because we use 

    a past tense but we are not actually referring to something that happened 

    in the past. There are five main ways of constructing conditional sentences 

    in English.

    In all cases, these sentences are made up of an if clause and a main 

    clause. In many negative conditional sentences, there is an equivalent 

    sentence construction using «unless» instead of «if». Let’s discuss some 

    types of conditional below

    A. Conditional Sentence Type 1

    → It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.

    Form: if + Simple Present, will-Future


    Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple 

    Present und will-Future on how to form negative sentences.

    Example: If I don’t see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening.

    When is the Conditional sentences type I used?

    Conditional sentences type I refer to the future. An action in the future 

    will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don’t 

    know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but 

    the conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to happen.

    Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.

    I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I 

    am quite sure, however, that I will find it.

    Example: If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.

    I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that 

    he loves Ferraris. So, I think it is very likely that sooner or later he will 

    have the money to buy a Ferrari.


    Some friends are planning a graduation party. Everybody wants to 

    be part of it, but nobody’s really keen on preparing and organizing the 

    party. So everybody comes up with a few conditions, just to make sure 

    that the others will also do something.

    I Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I.

    1. If Caroline and Sue prepare the salad, Phil … (decorate) the 


    2. If Sue cuts the onions for the salad, Caroline … (pee) the 


    3. Jane will hoover the sitting room if Aaron and Tim … 

    (move) the furniture.

    4. If Bob tidies up the kitchen, Anita … (clean) the toilet.

    5. Elaine will buy the drinks if somebody… (help)her carry the 


    6. If Alan and Rebecca organise the food, Mary and Conor …. 

    (make) the sandwiches.

    7. If Bob looks after the barbecue, Sue …. (let) the guests in.

    8. Frank will play the DJ if the others …. (bring)along their CDs.

    9. Alan will mix the drinks if Jane …. (give) him some of her 

    cocktail recipes.

    10. If they all do their best, the party … (be) great.

    II. Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type I) by putting the verbs 




    In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use ‚were – even if the pronoun 

    is I, he, she or it –.

    Example: If I were you, I would not do this

    When is sentence type II used?

    Conditional sentences type II refer to situations in the present. An 

    action could happen if the present situation were different. I don’t 

    really expect the situation to change, however. I just imagine what 

    would happen if …


    a. If I found her address, I would send her an invitation. 

    b. If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.

    • I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked 

    everywhere for her address, but I cannot find it. So now I think it is 

    rather unlikely that I will eventually find her address.

    • I know John very well and I know that he doesn’t have much money, 

    but he loves Ferraris. He would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). 

    But I think it is very unlikely that he will have the money to buy 

    one in the near future




    End unit assessment



    Key unit competence To use language learnt in the context of Sciences 

    and Technology.

    Introductory Activity Picture observation and interpretation


    Observe the above pictures then answer these questions

    1. Discuss the use of the devices in fig.1. 

    2. The people in fig.2 are around the table sharing a drink but 

    they are not talking to one another because they are busy 

    chatting. Do you think it is a good practice? Explain.

    3. Explain the use of the devices in fig.3.

    4. Explain the use of the devices in fig.4.

    9.1. Talking about words and expressions used in the 

    context of science and technology

    9.1.1. Learning activity: Reading and text analysis

    • Text1

    : Technology and Medicine

    Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:

    A large number of digital innovations are revolutionizing healthcare and 

    technology in medicine is here to stay. Numerous innovations and 

    new solutions are already on the market and they have all improved 

    healthcare drastically. Today, multiple medical issues such as congestive 

    heart failure, diabetes, medication noncompliance, even stressful 

    isolation, are researched and solved with remarkable new technologies. 

    The following are some areas researchers are targeting:The first area 

    targeted by researchers is heart failure. One of the most common and 

    costly diagnoses is that of heart failure, with a mortality rate closer 

    to cancer. It includes three types of sensors – wristband, necklace and 

    watch – which are used for testing. This type of diagnosis gives both 

    patients and doctors continuous information on how a compromised 

    heart is functioning.

    The second area targeted by researchers is 3D printing. These days, 

    medical researchers are considering the potential of 3D printing in 

    medicine. For example, Kaiser Permanente’s Los Angeles Medical Center 

    is perfecting the use of 3D printers to replicate multidimensional models 

    of problematic areas inside patients. Surgeons can handle the models 

    and simulate a variety of possible operation replicas before performing 

    the actual surgery. Alternatively, 3D printing can be used in reproducing 

    bones or other organs in the human body.

    The second area targeted by researchers is the area of mobile applications. 

    Today, mobile applications are available for everything. In the healthcare 

    sector, this is especially true. Doctors and patients are discovering new 

    ways to use technology to monitor personal health. Nowadays, tracking 

    daily sleep patterns, counting calories, researching treatment options, 

    and even monitoring heart rate is possible.

    Thirdly, remote monitoring technology is one of the most useful 

    and practical innovations in recent years. The systems can be used by 

    patients in the comfort of their homes to reduce the time and financial 

    cost of recurring visits to the doctor. By using a small device designed to 

    measure a particular health issue, doctors can analyse a patient’s data 

    remotely without the need for them to come down to the hospital.

    This must be the reason why the Government of Rwanda recognized that 

    there is a need to strengthen science, technology and research and is 

    engaged in many National and Regional initiatives to help build this 


     Comprehension questions

    1. State four medical issues that are researched and solved with 

    remarkable new technologies.

    2. What are the three areas targeted by researchers mentioned in 

    the passage?

    3. State and explain the use of the three types of sensors mentioned 

    in the passage. 

    4. Explain how 3D printing technology helps surgeons in their work. 

    5. Evaluate the use of mobile applications in healthcare sector.

    6. Assess the importance of remote monitoring technology in 

    healthcare sector

    • Vocabulary activity

    Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the missing meanings of the 

    words/phrases in the table below. Copy the table into your book and fill 

    in the blank spaces.



    • Text 2: Body systems

    Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:

    Our bodies consist of a number of biological systems that carry out specific 

    functions necessary for everyday life.

    The job of the circulatory system is to move blood, nutrients, oxygen, 

    carbon dioxide, and hormones, around the body. It consists of the heart, 

    blood, blood vessels, arteries and veins.

    The digestive system consists of a series of connected organs that 

    together, allow the body to break down and absorb food, and remove 

    waste. It includes the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, 

    large intestine, rectum, and anus. The liver and pancreas also play a role 

    in the digestive system because they produce digestive juices.

    The endocrine system consists of eight major glands that secrete 

    hormones into the blood. These hormones, in turn, travel to different 

    tissues and regulate various bodily functions, such as metabolism, 

    growth and sexual function

    The immune system is the body›s defence against bacteria, viruses

    and other pathogens that may be harmful. It includes lymph nodes, 

    the spleen, bone marrow, lymphocytes (including B-cells and T-cells), the 

    thymus and leukocytes, which are white blood cells.

    The lymphatic system includes lymph nodes, lymph ducts and lymph 

    vessels, and also plays a role in the body›s defences. Its main job is to 

    make and move lymph, a clear fluid that contains white blood cells, which 

    help the body fight infection. The lymphatic system also removes excess 

    lymph fluid from bodily tissues, and returns it to the blood.

    The nervous system controls both voluntary action (like conscious 

    movement) and involuntary actions (like breathing), and sends signals 

    to different parts of the body. The central nervous system includes the 

    brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves 

    that connect every other part of the body to the central nervous system.

    The body’s muscular system consists of about 650 muscles that aid in 

    movement, blood flow and other bodily functions. There are three types 

    of muscle: skeletal muscle which is connected to bone and helps with 

    voluntary movement, smooth muscle which is found inside organs and 

    helps to move substances through organs, and cardiac muscle which is 

    found in the heart and helps pump blood

    The reproductive system allows humans to reproduce. The male 

    reproductive system includes the penis and the testes which produce 

    sperm. The female reproductive system consists of the vagina, the uterus 

    and the ovaries which produce eggs. During conception, a sperm cell 

    fuses with an egg cell, which creates a fertilized egg that implants and 

    grows in the uterus.

    Our bodies are supported by the skeletal system, which consists of 

    206 bones that are connected by tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The 

    skeleton not only helps us move, but it’s also involved in the production 

    of blood cells and the storage of calcium. The teeth are also part of the 

    skeletal system, but they aren’t considered bones.

    The respiratory system allows us to take in vital oxygen and expel 

    carbon dioxide in a process we call breathing. It consists mainly of the 

    trachea, the diaphragm and the lungs.

    Theurinary system helps eliminate a waste product called urea from the 

    body, which is produced when certain foods are broken down. The whole 

    system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter 

    muscles and the urethra. Urine produced by the kidneys travels down 

    the urethras to the bladder, and exits the body through the urethra

    The skin, or integumentary system, is the body’s largest organ. 

    It protects us from the outside world, and is our first defence against 

    bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. Our skin also helps regulate body 

    temperature and eliminate waste through perspiration. In addition to 

    skin, the integumentary system includes hair and nails

    Adapted from

    • Comprehension questions

    1. What biological systems are mentioned in the passage?

    2. Which biological system helps oxygen to move around in the 


    3. What is the role of the liver and pancreas in the digestive system?

    4. Which biological system regulates metabolism, growth and 

    sexual function?

    5. Which biological system protects from falling sick?

    6. Do you think our nervous system has anything to do with our 

    sight? Justify your answer.

    7. State the three types of muscles and explain their functions.

    8. What is the role of urinary system?

    9. What is the body’s largest organ? 

    10. Hair and nails belong to which biological system? 

    • Vocabulary activity

    Use a dictionary, thesaurus or Internet to look up meaning of the following 

    words/phrases as they are used in the above passage. (The words are 

    highlighted in the text)

    a. Hormones

    b. Metabolism

    c. Bacteria

    d. Viruses

    e. Pathogens

    f. Leukocytes

    g. Tissues 

    h. Spinal cord

    i. Cardiac

    j. Conception

    k. Perspiration

    9.1.2. Application activity Composition writing

    1. Have you ever been in a hospital? Write a short composition 

    describing a technological tool you saw there. If you never 

    went there, you can describe a tool you have heard of or read 


    2. Write a short composition on the importance of physical 

    exercise for our body systems.

    9.2. Describing the role of ICT devices and their side effects

    9.2.1. Learning activity    Reading and text analysis

    • Text1: The positive and negative impacts of ICT

    Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:

    As it is known from time immemorial that everything in life is like the 

    two sides of a coin, there is always a positive and negative side of every 

    phenomenon. But whether the effect is positive or negative the effects 

    of Information Communication Technology (ICT) is far reaching and 

    cannot be overemphasized. The Effects of ICT lens looks at how our 

    lives have been changed, for better and for worse, by the impact of ICT. 

    It includes both positive effects and negative effects.

    One of the positive effects of ICT is access to information. Possibly 

    the greatest effect of ICT on individuals is the huge increase in access 

    to information and services that has accompanied the growth of the 

    Internet. Some of the positive aspects of this increased access are better, 

    and often cheaper communications, such as phone calls and Instant 

    messaging. In addition, the use of ICT to access information has brought 

    new opportunities for leisure and entertainment.

    Another positive effect of ICT is easy access to education. With ICT there 

    are new ways of learning, such as interactive multi-media and virtual 

    reality. ICT has also created new job opportunities, such as flexible and 

    mobile working, virtual offices and jobs in the communication industry 

    among others.

    ICT can be used for processes that had previously been out of the reach 

    of most individuals, such as photography, where digital cameras, photoediting software and high-quality printers have enabled people to produce 

    results that would previously require a photographic studio.

    ICT can be used to help people overcome disabilities. For example, screen 

    magnification or screen reading software enables partially sighted or 

    blind people to work with ordinary text rather than Braille.

    As far as negative effects are concerned, ICT has caused Job loss, reduced 

    personal interaction and reduced physical activity. 

    As for Job loss, one of the largest negative effects of ICT can be the loss 

    of a person’s job. This has both economic consequences, loss of income, 

    and social consequences, loss of status and self-esteem. Job losses 

    may occur for several reasons, including the replacement of manual 

    operations by automation. This can happen when, for example, robots 

    replace people on an assembly line. People can also lose jobs due to Job 

    export. This is when Data processing work is sent to other countries 

    where operating costs are lower. Multiple workers can also be replaced 

    by a smaller number of people who are able to do the same amount of 

    work using machines.

    Personal interaction and physical activity have also been negatively 

    affected by ICT. Being able to work from home is usually regarded as 

    being a positive effect of using ICT, but there can be negative aspects 

    as well. Most people need some form of social interaction and physical 


    Adapted from

    • Comprehension questions

    1. What do you understand by “everything in life is like the two 

    sides of a coin”?

    2. What strengthened the huge increase in access to information?

    3. Explain how ICT has created new job opportunities.

    4. Using an example, explain how ICT has enabled people to do 

    processes that had previously been out of the reach of most 


    5. In which ways can ICT make people lose their jobs?

    Vocabulary activity

    Use a dictionary, thesaurus or Internet to look up the meaning of the 

    following words/phrases as they are used in the above passage. (The 

    words are highlighted in the text)

    a. phenomenon

    b. Overemphasized

    c. Lens

    d. Information

    e. Internet

    f. Leisure

    g. Entertainment

    h. Virtual reality.

    i. Manual operations

    j. Automation

    k. Job export

    Application activities: Sentence writing, Composition and Debate

    1. Use each of the above words in a sentence of your own to 

    illustrate how they are used.

    2. Writer a 100-word composition on smartphone addiction. 

    3. Debate:

    Referring to the notes on debating techniques in unit 5, debate the 

    following motion.

    “This house believes that ICT has done more harm than good” 

    9.3. Language structure: Word formation


    In linguistics (particularly morphology and lexicology), word 

    formation refers to the ways in which new words are made on the basis of 

    other words or morphemes. This is also called derivational morphology. 

    Most English vocabulary arises by making new lexemes out of old ones. 

    This can be done either by adding an affix to previously existing forms, 

    altering their word class, or combining them to produce compounds. 

    Below are some types of word formation processes.

    A. Derivation

    Derivation is the creation of words by modification of a root without the 

    addition of other roots. Often the effect is a change in part of speech.


    • Empty-emptiness (adjective was changed into a noun)

    B. Affixation

    (This is like a subtype of derivation)

    Affixation is the process of adding a morpheme or affix to a word to 

    create either a different form of that word or a new word with a different 

    meaning; affixation is the most common way of making new words in 

    English. An affix is a word element of English grammar used to alter 

    the meaning or form of a word and comes in the form of either a prefix or 

    a suffix. There two primary types of affixation that are prefixation (the 

    addition of a prefix) and suffixation (the addition of a suffix). 

    C. Prefixation

    Prefixation is a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme is 

    attached to the front of a root or stem. The kind of affix involved in this 

    process is called a prefix. Prefixes include examples like “un-,” “self-,” 

    and “re-,”


    The prefix un- attaches to the front of the stem selfish to form the 

    word unselfish.

    Other examples include

    D. Suffixation

    Suffixation is a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme is 

    attached to the end of a stem. The kind of affix involved in this process is 

    called a suffix. Suffixes come in the form of ending elements like “-hood,” 

    “-ing,” “-ness,”, “-ed…”

    • Communicate-communicator

    Think of the 26 common suffixes in the table as clues to the meaning 

    of words. Keep in mind, though, that the meaning of words is best 

    determined by studying the contexts in which they are used as well as 

    the parts of the words themselves.

    E. Noun Suffixes


    F. Verbs suffixes


    G. Adjective Suffixes


    The examples above are adopted from



    1. Use prefixes to find the opposite of these verbs:

    a. Use

    b. Agree

    c. Engage

    d. Behave 

    e. Understand

    f. Fold

    g. Spell

    h. Connect

    i. Close 

    2. Complete the sentences by writing the correct prefix from the table 

    below in the blank space. You can use a dictionary to help you


    e. I couldn’t find any…in his theory. (weak)

    f. He wants to be a…when he grows up. (mathematics)

    g. There were only a…of people at the match. (hand)

    h. The road was too narrow, so they had to…it. (wide)

    i. I think that you should…your decision. It may not be the best 

    thing to do. (consider)

    j. You need a…of motivation, organization and hard work to realize 

    your dreams.(combine

    End unit assessment

    1. Use a prefix or a suffix to make a new word out of the word in 

    brackets. Complete the sentence with it


    a. I can’t answer this question. It’s…(possible).

    b. Don’t stand near the water. It’s too… (danger).

    c. I don’t like this fish. It’s not very well… (cook).

    d. Kate started crying because she was so…(happy)

    e. If you have a haircut it will change your…(appear)

    f. Paul never waits in queues. He is too…(patient)

    g. Thank you for your advice. You have been very…(help).

    h. Stealing other people’s money is…(honest)

    i. Our science … is very young. (teach)

    j. Harry didn’t think the book was very…(interest).

    k. A million pounds was given to the hospital by an…person 


    l. When you…this paragraph, make it a bit shorter (write)

    m.That was a great film. It was really…(enjoy)

    n. Mary was wearing a/an…hat (usual)

    o. I like this town. The people are very…(friend)

    p. I don’t think you’re right. I…with you completely (agree)

    2. Identify at least five words formed through the process of 

    affixation in the following paragraph. 

    One of the positive effects of ICT is access to information. Possibly 

    the greatest effect of ICT on individuals is the huge increase in access 

    to information and services that has accompanied the growth of the 

    Internet. Some of the positive aspects of this increased access are better 

    and often cheaper communication means, such as phone calls and 

    instant messaging. In addition, the use of ICT to access information 

    has brought new opportunities for leisure and entertainment.

    3. Write a short composition on advantages and disadvantages of 

    social media in society. 


    1. Barbara T. Hoffman, Art and cultural heritage: law, policy, and 

    practice, Cambridge University Press, 2006

    2. Tanselle, G. Thomas (1998), Literature and Artifacts, 

    Charlottesville, VA: Bibliographical Society of the University of 


    3. ICOMOS, International Cultural Tourism Charter (2002). 

    Principles and Guidelines For Managing Tourism at Places of 

    Cultural and Heritage Significance.

    4. Culture in development (2009),http://www.cultureindevelopment.

    nl/Cultural_Heritage/What _is_cutural_Heritage

    5. Importance of Cultural Heritage (2013). Retrieved from: http://

    6. The Importance of culture Heritage (2015), http://www.

    7. Tourism in India (2008), Retrieved from:

    wiki/ tourism_in_India

    8. The constitution of the kingdom of Bhutan (2005), Retrieved 



    9. Phuentsho, S. (2015). Cultural Heritage Course pack: Khyentse 

    library. Taktse