PART ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.0. About the teacher’s guide
This book is a teacher’s guide for Creative Arts-Music in Lower Primary Two. It is designed to accompany Lower Primary Learner’s book and intends to help teachers in the implementation of competence-based curriculum specifically Creative Arts (Fine Art, Crafts and Music) syllabus. As the name says, it is a guide that teachers can refer to when preparing their lessons. Teachers may prefer to adopt the guidance provided but they are also expected to be more creative and consider their specific classes’ contexts and prepare accordingly.
1.1. The structure of the guide
This section provides a paragraph presenting the guide: overall structure, the structure of a unit and the structure of a lesson. A brief explanation is given on each component to guide the users.
1.2. Methodological guidance
1.2.1 Developing competences
Since 2015, Rwanda shifted from a knowledge based to a competency-based curriculum for pre-primary, primary and general secondary education. This called for changing the way of learning by shifting from teacher centered to a learnercentered approach. Teachers are not only responsible for knowledge transfer but also for fostering children’s learning achievement and creating safe and supportive learning environment. It implies also that a learner has to demonstrate what she/he is able to do using the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes acquired in a new or different given situation.
The competence-based curriculum employs an approach of teaching and learning based on separate skills rather than dwelling on only knowledge or the cognitive domain of learning. It focuses on what learner can do rather than what learner knows. Learners develop basic competences through specific subject unit competences with specific learning objectives broken down into knowledge, skills and attitudes.
These competences are developed through learning activities disseminated in learner centered rather than the traditional instructive approach. Learner is evaluated against some set standards to achieve before moving on.
In addition to specific subject competences, learners also develop generic
competences which are transferable throughout a range of learning areas and situations in life. Below are examples of generic competences learners can gain from Creative Arts (Fine Art, Crafts and Music).
Critical Thinking and problem solving
Music lesson will help learner to increase his/her critical thinking which will make him/her to be able to find solutions for different problems in his or her daily life.
Research and problem solving
This ability will help learner to solve problem by using basic knowledge and explaining issues based on basic information.
Creativity and Innovation
This ability will help a learner to be initiative to bring ideas based on basic knowledge, to be creative.
This ability will help a learner to communicate to each other freely and sharering ideas in proper verbal or written communication. So,teacher must make sure that the language is being used properly.
Teamwork, Cooperation, Personal and Interpersonal management and life skills
This ability help a learner to work together in groups, in every kind of work with proper values respecting each other’s right and ideas.
Gaining this ability will help a learner to update themselves without others help.
1.2.2 Addressing cross- cutting issues
Among the changes in the competence-based curriculum, there is the integration of cross -cutting issues as an integral part of the teaching learning process.
The eight cross-cutting issues identified in the national curriculum framework are the following: Gender, Peace and values education, Financial education,
Standardization culture, Inclusive education, Environment and sustainability, and Genocide studies.
Peace and Values Education
This will appear when teacher is teaching a song and learners are following
carefully without disturbing.
This appear when teacher form groups of both boys and girls and ensure equal participation of both during a given task. Inclusive education In case there are children with different impairment, teacher must respect and take care of them as their colleagues and given them special assistance for whom it is needed.
Here the teacher shows the beneficial part of learning music by showing them examples of many artists who gain income from singing in different parties and ceremonies.
1.2.3 Careering students with special edicational needs
In the classroom, learners learn in different ways depending on their learning pace, needs or any other special problem they might have. However, the teacher has the responsibility to know how to adopt his/her methodologies and approaches in order to meet the learning needs of each learner in the classroom. Also, teachers need to understand that learners with special needs, need to be taught differently or need some accommodations to enhance the learning environment. This will be done depending on the subject and the nature of the lesson.
In order to create a well-rounded learning atmosphere, teachers need to:
• Remember that learners learn in different ways so they have to offer a variety of activities (e.g. role-play, music and singing, word games and quizzes, outdoor activities, and practical works).
• Maintain an organized classroom ( art rooms) and limits distraction. This will help learners with special needs to stay on track during a lesson and follow instruction easily.
• Vary the pace of teaching to meet the needs of each learner. Some learners process information and learn more slowly than others.
• Break down instructions into smaller manageable tasks. Learners with special needs often have difficulty understanding long-winded or several instructions at once. It is better to use simple, concrete sentences in order to facilitate them to understand what you are asking.
• Use clear consistent language to explain the meaning ( demonstrate or show pictures) if you introduce new words or concepts.
• Make full use of facial expressions, gestures and body language.
• Pair a learner who has a disability with a friend. Let them do things together and learn from each other. Make sure the friend is not over protective and does not do everything. Both learners will benefit from this strategy.
• Use multi-sensory strategies. As all learners learn in different ways, it is important to make every lesson as multi-sensory as possible. Learners with learning disabilities might have difficulty in one area, while they might excel in another. For example, use both visual and auditory signs.
Below are general strategies related to each main category of disabilities and how to deal with every situation that may arise in the classroom. However, the list is not exhaustive because each learner is unique with different needs and that should be handled differently.
Strategy to help a learner with developmental impairment:
Use simple words and sentences when giving instructions.
• Use real objects that the learner can feel and handle. Rather than just working abstractly with pen and paper.
• Break a task down into small steps or learning objectives. The learner should start with an activity that she/he can do already before moving on to something that is more difficult.
• Gradually give the learner less help.
• Let the learner work in the same group with those without disability.
In the subject of Creative Arts (Fine Art, Crafts and Music), you should get more information from:
• Using internet and a Library
• Creating a School Library
• Collecting data through observation
• Looking for art materials from nearest environment
Strategy to help a learner with visual impairment:
• Help learners to use their other senses (hearing, touch, smell and taste) to play and carry out activities that will promote their learning and development
• Use simple, clear and consistent language.
• Use tactile objects to help to explain a concept.
• If the learner has some sight, ask them what they can see.
• Make sure the learner has a group of friends who are helpful and who allow him/ her to be as independent as possible.
• Plan activities so that learners work in pairs or groups when possible.
Strategy to help a learner with hearing impairment:
• Strategies to help learners with hearing disabilities or communication difficulties.
• Always get the learner’ s attention before you begin to speak.
• Encourage the learner to look at your face.
• Use gestures, body language and facial expressions.
• Use pictures and objects as much as possible.
• Ask the parents/caregivers to show you the signs they use at home for communication. Use the same signs yourself and encourage other learners to also use them.
• Keep background noise to a minimum.
Strategies to help a learner with physical disabilities or mobility difficulties:
• Adapt activities so that learners who use wheelchairs or other movement aids or other learners who have difficulty in moving can participate.
• Ask parents/caregivers to assist with adjustable furniture e.g. The height of a table may need to be changed to make it easier for a learner to reach it or fit their legs or wheelchair.
• Get advice from parents or health professionals about assistive devices.
Adaptation of assessment strategies:
Each unit in the teacher’s guide provides additional activities to help learners achieve the key unit competence. Results from assessment inform the teacher which learner needs remedial, consolidation or extension activities. These activities are designed to cater for the needs of all categories of learners who are slow, average and gifted learners respectively.
• Easy activities should be given to learners with physical disability and mental disabilities.
• Use tangible materials and recorded materials for learners with visual impairment.
During the assessment activities of this subject of Creative Arts (Fine Art, Crafts and Music), teacher has to take into consideration the visual impaired learners. So, the tasks to be given can consider the level of visual impairment of learners in the classroom.
1.2.4 Guidance on assessment
Assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning process. The main purpose of assessment is for improvement. Assessment for learning/ continuous/ formative assessment intends to improve learners’ learning and teacher’s teaching whereas assessment of learning/summative assessment intends to improve the entire school’s performance and education system in general.
1.2.5 Continuous/ formative assessment
An ongoing process arises out of interaction during teaching and learning prosses. It includes lesson evaluation and end of sub unit assessment. This formative assessment should play a big role in teaching and learning process.
The teacher should encourage individual, peer and group evaluation of the work done in the classroom and uses appropriate competence-based assessment approaches and methods.
In this subject of Creative Arts (Fine Art, Crafts and Music), there are learning activities which help learners to acquire knowledge and skills in right ways. This helps learners for learning progress on different lessons.
This type of assessment is done prior to or during instruction and is intended to inform teachers about the learners’ prior knowledge and skills, in order to assist with planning. It is used to make judgments about different aspects, which includes learners’ grouping, unit and lesson plans and instructional strategies.
The teacher will assess how well each learner masters both the subject and the generic competencies described in the syllabus, and from this, the teacher will gain a picture of the all-round progress of the learner. This kind of assessment in this teacher’s guide is of two types. Exercises that teachers give to the learners at the end of lesson and general assessment at the end of unit.
1.2.6 Summative assessment
The assessment can serve as summative or formative depending on its purpose.
The end unit assessment will be considered as summative when it is done at the end of the unit. When assessment is done in order to take decision in competence or what a learner is capable of doing. That assessment is measuring the level of the learner.
The first purpose of assessment is to see the level of learner and to see if the objective of the lesson is achieved. So, the assessment is prepared according to specific objectives of the lesson or according to the order of assessment in each topic.
The assessment done at the end of the term, end of year, is considered as a summative assessment so that the teacher, school and parents are informed of the achievement of educational objectives and think about improvement strategies. There is also an end of level/ cycle assessment in form of national examinations.
In this teacher’s guide, there are problems of all lessons which were taught in all topics consisting year two program. During assessment, teacher should consider the following key points.
• Selfconfidence in front of audience
• Correlation between feelings and message of song.
1.2.7 Learners’ learning styles and strategies to conduct teaching and learning process
There are different teaching styles and techniques that should be used and ways of achieving them. The selection of teaching method should be done with the greatest care and some of the factors to be considered are: the uniqueness of subjects, the type of lessons, the particular learning objectives to be achieved, the allocated time to achieve the objectives, the instructional available materials, the physical/sitting plan of the classroom, the individual learners’ needs, the abilities and learning styles.
There are mainly four different learning styles as explained below.
Active and reflective learners
Active learners tend to retain and understand information best by doing something actively with it, discussing or applying it and explaining it to others. Reflective learners prefer to think about it quietly first.
Sensing and intuitive learners
Sensing learners tend to like learning facts whereas intuitive learners often prefer discovering possibilities and relationships. Sensing learners often like solving problems by well-established methods and dislike complications and surprises, while intuitive learners like innovation and dislike repetition.
Visual and verbal learners
Visual learners remember best what they see like pictures, diagrams, flow charts, time lines, films, demonstrations, etc. Verbal learners get more out of written words and spoken explanations.
Sequential and global learners
Sequential learners tend to gain understanding in direct steps, each step following logically the previous one. Global learners tend to learn in large jumps, absorbing material almost randomly without seeing connections, and then suddenly “getting it.” Additional activities can be added for learners who are quick and extensional activities for those who are slow.
1.2.8 Teaching methods and techniques that promote the active learning
The different learning styles mentioned above can be catered for, if the teacher use active learning whereby learners are really engaged in the learning process.
What is Active learning?
Active learning is a educational approach that engages learners in doing things and thinking about the things they are doing. In active learning, learners are encouraged to bring their own experience and knowledge into the learning process.
The role of the teacher in active learning
The teacher engages learners through active learning methods such as inquiry methods, group discussions, research, investigative activities, group and individual work activities.
• She/he encourages individual, peer and group evaluation of the work done in the classroom and uses appropriate competence-based assessment approaches and methods.
• She/he provides supervised opportunities for learners to develop different competences by giving tasks that enhance critical thinking, problem solving, research, creativity and innovation, communication and cooperation.
• Teacher supports and facilitates the learning process by valuing learners’ contributions in the class activities.
The role of learners in active learning
Learners are key in the active learning process. They are not empty vessels to fill but people with ideas, capacity and skills to build on for effective learning.
A learner engaged in active learning:
• Communicate and share relevant information with other learners through presentations, discussions, group work and other learner-centred activities (imitating, research and exploration).
• Actively participates and takes responsibility for their own learning.
• Develops knowledge and skills in active ways.
• Carries out research/investigation by consulting books , online documents ,
resourceful people and presents his findings.
• Ensures the effective contribution of each group member in assigned tasks
through clear explanation and arguments, critical thinking, responsibility and confidence in public speaking.
• Giving conclusions based on the findings from the learning activities.
1.2.9 Main steps for a lesson in active learning approach
All the principles and characteristics of the active learning process mentioned above are reflected in steps of a lesson as displayed below. Generally, the lesson is divided into three main parts whereby each one is divided into smaller steps to make sure that learners are involved in the learning process.
Below are those main parts and their small steps:
Introduction is a part where the teacher makes connection between the current and previous lesson through appropriate technique. The teacher opens short discussions to encourage learners to think about the previous learning experience and connect it with the current instructional objective. The teacher reviews the previous knowledge, skills and attitudes, which have a link with the new concepts to create good foundation and logical sequencings.
b. Development of the new lesson
The development of a lesson that introduces a new concept will go through the following small steps: discovery activities, presentation of learners’ findings, exploitation, synthesis/summary and exercises/application activities, explained below:
• The teacher discusses convincingly with learners to take responsibility of their learning.
• She/he distributes the task/activity and gives instructions related to the tasks (working in groups, pairs, or individual in order to help them to discover knowledge to be learned).
• The teacher let the learners work collaboratively on the task.
• During this period the teacher refrains to intervene directly on the knowledge.
• S/he then monitors how the learners are progressing towards the knowledge to be learned and lift those who are still behind (but without communicating to them the knowledge).
Presentation of learners’ productions
• In this period, the teacher invites representatives of groups to present the learners’ productions/findings.
• After three/four or an acceptable number of presentations, the teacher decides to engage the class into exploitation of the learners’ productions.
Exploitation of learner’s productions
• The teacher asks the learners to evaluate the productions which are correct, incomplete or false.
• Then the teacher judges the reasoning of the learners’ products, corrects those that are false, completes those that are incomplete, and confirms those that are correct.
Institutionalization (summary/conclusion/ and examples)
The teacher summarizes the learned knowledge and gives examples that illustrate the learned content.
• Exercises of applying processes and products/objects related to learned unit/subunit. Exercises in real life contexts.
• Teacher guides learners to make the connection of what they learnt to real life situations. At this level, the role of the teacher is to monitor the fixation of process and product/object being learned.
In this step, the teacher asks some questions to assess achievement of instructional objective.
• During the assessment activity, learners work individually on the task/ activity.
• The teacher avoids intervening directly. In fact, results from this assessment inform the teacher on the next steps for the whole class and individuals.
• In some cases, the teacher can end with a homework assignment.
PART TWO: SAMPLE LESSON PLAN
The teacher’s guide provides more than one lesson plan taking into consideration the type of lesson in the subject using the CBC format.
Teaching requires good preparation to be effective. This is the only way that learning can be enhanced and assured. The teacher will find his/her work easier if she/he goes to class well prepared with the lesson content organized in logical manner. Even the experienced Creative Arts (Fine Art, Crafts and Music) teacher needs a lesson plan in order to use the lesson time effectively.
Below is a sample of a lesson plan
School name ………………………………………. Academic year: …………...