1.0. About the teacher’s guide

    This book is a teacher’s guide for Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts) in Lower Primary Two. It is designed to accompany Lower Primary Student’s book and intends to help teachers in the implementation of competence-based curriculum specifically Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts and Music) syllabus. As the name says, it is a guide that teachers can refer to when preparing their lessons. Teachers may prefer to adopt the guidance provided but they are also expected to be more creative and consider their specific classes’ contexts and prepare accordingly.

    1.1. The structure of the guide

    This section provides a paragraph presenting the guide: overall structure; the structure of a unit and the structure of a lesson. A brief explanation is given on each component to guide the users.

    1.2. Methodological guidance

    1.2.1. Developing competences

    Since 2015, Rwanda shifted from knowledge -based to a competence-based curriculum for pre-primary, primary and general secondary education. This called for changing the way of learning by shifting from teacher centered to a learner centered approach. Teachers are not only responsible for knowledge transfer but also for fostering children’s learning achievement and creating safe and supportive learning environment. It implies also that a learner has to demonstrate what he/she is able to do using the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes acquired in a new or different given situation.

    The competence-based curriculum employs an approach of teaching and learning based on discrete skills rather than dwelling on only knowledge or the cognitive domain of learning. It focuses on what learner can do rather than what learner knows. Learners develop basic competences through specific subject unit competences with specific learning objectives broken down into knowledge, skills and attitudes. These competences are developed through learning activities spread in learner centered rather than the traditional instructive approach. A Learner is evaluated against some set standards to achieve before moving on.

    In addition to specific subject competences, learners also develop generic competences which are transferable throughout a range of learning areas and situations in life. Below are examples of how generic competences can be developed in Creative Arts -Fine Art and Crafts.

    Critical Thinking and problem solving

    These activities require students to think critically about subject content. Groups can be organized to work in different ways e.g. taking turns, listening, taking decisions, allocating tasks, disagreeing constructively etc.

    • Observe and analyze example; mark out areas in the school and get different groups to record still life and nature living like insect, persons, animal, and bird life.

    • Identify a problem and design a approach to collect the information needed to solve the problem.

    • Make basic art equipments out of local available materials

    Research and problem solving

    In the subject of Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts and Music), you should get more information from:

    • Using internet and a Library

    • Creating a School Library

    • Collecting data through observation

    • Looking for art materials from nearest environment

    Creativity and Innovation

    This will be seen as long as learners do the following:

    • Drawing and painting.

    • Designing a Poster, motifs, and pattern, clay object and weaving crafts.

    • Write and Design different items from letter styles and illustrations.

    • Making practice in this subject.

    • Invent new ways of doing creative things.

    • Identify a problem which requires data collection to solve.

    • Identify local problems and devise ways to resolve them.

    Communication Skills

    • Telling a story related to the lesson of Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts and Music) needed to be studied.

    • Presenting ideas verbally or in writing.

    • Writing letters styles for different purposes.

    • Reading text related to Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts and Music).

    Teamwork, Cooperation, Personal and Interpersonal management and life skills;

    • Work in pairs: particularly useful for shared reading and comprehension in lower grades but also for planning research, problem solving, planning experiments. etc.

    • Small group work

    • Large group work

    • Data collection from the environment

    • Collect community photographs and artworks to make a class of the local community.

    Lifelong Learning

    • Take initiative to update knowledge and skills with minimum external support.

    • Cope with the evolution of knowledge and technology advances for personal fulfillment.

    • Seek out colleague who is more knowledgeable in areas that need personal improvement and development.

    • Exploit all opportunities available to improve knowledge and skills in Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts and Music).

    1.2.2 Addressing cross- cutting issues.

    Among the changes in the competence-based curriculum, there is the integration of cross -cutting issues as an integral part of the teaching and learning process. The eight cross-cutting issues identified in the national curriculum framework are the following:

    • Gender

    • Peace and values education

    • Financial education

    • Standardization culture

    • Inclusive education

    • Environment and sustainability

    • Genocide studies

    Some cross-cutting issues may seem specific or particular in Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts and Music) but the teacher needs to address all of them whenever an opportunity arises. In addition, learners should always be given an opportunity during the learning process to address these cross-cutting issues both within and out of the classroom.

    This book of Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts and Music) has some learning activities through which some cross - cutting issues will be developed as shown in the table below:



    1.2.3. Attention to special educational needs specific to this subject

    In the classroom, learners learn in different ways depending on their learning speed, needs or any other special problem they might have. However, the teacher has the responsibility to know how to implement his/her methodologies and approaches in order to meet the learning needs for each student in the classroom. Also, teachers need to understand that learners with special needs, need to be taught differently or need some accommodations to improve the learning environment. This will be done depending on the subject and the nature of the lesson.

    In order to create a good learning atmosphere, teachers need to:

    • Remember that learners learn in different ways so they have to offer a variety of activities (e.g. role-play, music and singing, word games and exercises, outdoor activities, and practical works).

    • Maintain an organized classroom (or art rooms) and limit distraction. This will help learners with special needs to stay on track during lesson and follow instruction easily.

    • Vary the speed of teaching to meet the needs of each learner. Some learners process information and learn more slowly than others.

    • Break down instructions into smaller, manageable tasks. Learners with special needs often have difficulty understanding lengthy or several instructions at once. It is better to use simple, concrete sentences in order to enable them understand what you are asking.

    • Use clear simple language to explain the meaning (and demonstrate or show pictures) if you introduce new words or concepts.

    • Make full use of facial expressions, gestures and body language.

    • Pair a learner who has a disability with a friend. Let them do things together and learn from each other. Make sure the friend is not over protective and does not do everything. Both learners will benefit from this approach.

    • Use multi-sensory strategies. As all learners learn in different ways, it is important to make every lesson as multi-sensory as possible. Learners with learning disabilities might have difficulty in one area, while they might excel in another. For example, use both visual and audio signs.

    Below are general strategies related to each main type of disabilities and how to deal with every situation that may arise in the classroom. However, the list is not complete because each learner is unique with different needs and that should be handled differently.

    Strategy to help a learner with developmental impairment:

    Use simple words and sentences when giving instructions;

    • Use real objects that the learner can feel and handle. Rather than just working abstractly with pen and paper.

    • Break a task down into small steps or learning objectives. The learner should start with an activity that s/he can do already before moving on to something that is more difficult.

    • Slowly give the learner less help.

    • Let the learner work in the same group with those without disability.

    In the subject of Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts and Music), you should get more information from:

    • Using internet and a Library

    • Creating a School Library

    • Collecting data through observation

    • Looking for art materials from nearest environment

    Strategy to help a learner with visual impairment:

    • Help learners to use their other senses (hearing, touch, smell and taste) to play and carry out activities that will promote their learning and development;

    • Use simple, clear and consistent language.

    • Use tactile objects to help explain a concept.

    • If the learner has some sight, ask them what they can see.

    • Make sure the learner has a group of friends who are helpful and who

    allow him/ her to be as independent as possible.

    • Plan activities so that learners work in pairs or groups whenever possible.

    Strategy to help a learner with hearing impairment:

    Strategies to help learners with hearing disabilities or communication difficulties.

    • Always get the learner’ s attention before you begin to speak.

    • Encourage the learner to look at your face.

    • Use gestures, body language and facial expressions.

    • Use pictures and objects as much as possible.

    • Ask the parents/caregivers to show you the signs they use at home for communication use the same signs yourself and encourage other learners to also use them.

    • Keep background noise to a minimum.

    Strategies to help a learner with physical disabilities or movement difficulties:

    • Adapt activities so that learners who use wheelchairs or other movement aids, or other learners who have difficulty moving, can participate.

    • Ask parents/caregivers to assist with adjusting furniture e.g. The height of a table may need to be changed to make it easier for a learner to reach it or fit their legs or wheelchair.

    • Get advice from parents or a health professional about helpful devices.

    Revision of assessment strategies:

    Each unit in the teacher’s guide provides additional activities to help learners achieve the key unit competence. Results from assessment tell the teacher which learner needs remedial, consolidation or extension activities. These activities are designed to cater for the needs of all types of learners; slow, average and gifted learners respectively.

    • Easy activities should be given to learners with physical disability and mental disabilities.

    • Use tangible materials and textual for learners with visual impairment.

    During the assessment activities of this subject of Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts and Music) Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts and Music), teacher has to take into consideration the visual impaired learners. So, the tasks to be given can consider the level of visual impairment of learners in the classroom.

    1.2.4. Guidance on assessment

    Assessment is an important part of teaching and learning process. The main purpose of assessment is for improvement. Assessment for learning/ continuous/ formative assessment aims to improve learners’ learning and teacher’s teaching whereas assessment of learning/summative assessment aims to improve the whole school’s performance and education system in general.

    1.2.4. a. Continuous/ formative assessment

    An ongoing process arises out of interaction during teaching and learning process. It includes lesson evaluation and end of sub unit assessment. This formative assessment should play a big role in teaching and learning process.

    The teacher should encourage individual, peer and group evaluation of the work done in the classroom and uses suitable competence-based assessment approaches and methods.

    In this subject of Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts and Music), there are learning activities which help learners to acquire knowledge and skills in right ways. This helps learners for learning progress on different lessons.

    This type of assessment is done earlier to or during instruction and is intended to inform teachers about the learners’ previous knowledge and skills, in order to assist with planning.

    It is used to make decisions about different aspects, which includes learners’ grouping, unit and lesson plans and instructional strategies.

    The teacher will assess how well each learner masters both the subject and the generic competencies described in the syllabus, and from this, the teacher will gain a picture of the whole progress of the learner. The teacher will use one or a combination of the following:

    (a) observation

    (b) pen and paper

    (c) oral questionins

    1.2.4. b. Summative assessment

    The assessment can serve as summative or formative depending on its purpose. The end unit assessment will be considered as summative when it is done at end of unit.

    It will be formative assessment, when it is done in order to give information on the progress of students and from there decide what changes need to be done.

    The assessment done at the end of the term, end of year, is considered as a summative assessment so that the teacher, school and parents are informed of the achievement of educational objectives and think about improvement strategies. There is also an end of level/ cycle assessment in form of national examinations.

    Assigning students grades is an important component of teaching for ending unit assessment as well as final term exams. Assessments are emphasized on:

    • Skills

    • knowledge

    • Value

    • Attitudes

    1.2.5. Students’ learning styles and strategies to conduct teaching and learning process

    There are different teaching styles and techniques that should be catered for. The selection of teaching method should be done with the greatest care and some of the factors to be considered are:

    the uniqueness of subjects, the type of lessons; the particular learning objectives to be achieved, the allocated time to achieve the objectives, the instructional available materials, the physical/sitting arrangement of the classroom, the individual learners’ needs, the abilities and learning styles.

    There are mainly four different learning styles as explained below.

    Active and reflective learners

    Active learnerstend to retain and understand information best by doing something actively with it, discussing or applying it and explaining it to others. Reflective learners prefer to think about it quietly first.

    Sensing and natural learners

    Sensing learners tend to like learning facts whereas intuitive learners often prefer discovering possibilities and relationships. Sensing learners often like solving problems by well-established methods and dislike complications and surprises, while intuitive learners like innovation and dislike repetition.

    Visual and verbal learners

    Visual learners remember best what they see: pictures, diagrams, flow charts, time lines, films, demonstrations, etc. Verbal learners get more out of written words and spoken explanations.

    Progressive and global learners

    Progressive learners tend to gain understanding in direct steps, each step following logically the previous one.Global learners tend to learn in large jumps, absorbing material almost randomly without seeing connections, and then suddenly “getting it.”

    Additional activities can be added for learners who are quick and extensional activities for those who are slow.

    1.2.6. Teaching methods and techniques that promote the active learning

    The different student learning styles mentioned above can be catered for, if the teacher uses active learning whereby learners are really engaged in the learning process.

    What is Active learning?

    Active learning is a pedagogical approach that engages students in doing things and thinking about the things they are doing. In active learning, learners are encouraged to bring their own experience and knowledge into the learning process.

    The role of the teacher in active learning

    The teacher engages learners through active learning methods such as inquiry methods, group discussions, research, investigative activities and individual work activities.

    • He/she encourages individual, peer and group evaluation of the work done 

    in the classroom and uses suitable competence-based assessment approaches and methods.

    • He provides supervised opportunities for learners to develop different competences by giving tasks that develop critical thinking, problem solving, research, creativity and innovation, communication and cooperation.

    • Teacher supports and facilitates the learning process by valuing learners’ contributions in the class activities.

    The role of learners in active learning

    Learners are key in the active learning process. They are not empty vessels to fill but people with ideas, capacity and skills to build on for effective learning.

    A learner engaged in active learning:

    • Communicates and shares relevant information with other learners through presentations, discussions, group work and other learner-centred activities (role play, case studies, project work, research and investigation).

    • Actively participates and takes responsibility for their own learning.

    • Develops knowledge and skills in active ways.

    • Carries out research/investigation by consulting print or online documents and resourceful people, and presents his findings.

    • Ensures the effective contribution of each group member in assigned tasks through clear explanation and arguments, critical thinking, responsibility and confidence in public speaking

    • Draws conclusions based on the findings from the learning activities

    1.2.7. Main steps for a lesson in active learning approach

    All the principles and characteristics of the active learning process highlighted above are reflected in steps of a lesson as displayed below. Generally, the lesson is divided into three main parts whereby each one is divided into smaller steps to make sure that learners are involved in the learning process. Below are the main part and their small steps:

    a. Introduction

    Introduction is a part where the teacher makes connection between the current and previous lesson through suitable method. The teacher opens short discussions to encourage learners to think about the previous knowledge and connect it with the current instructional objective. The teacher reviews the previous knowledge, skills and attitudes, which have a link with the new concepts to create good foundation and logical sequencings.

    b. Development of the new lesson

    The development of a lesson that introduces a new concept will go through the following small steps: discovery activities, presentation of learners’ findings, exploitation, synthesis/summary and exercises/application activities, explained below:

    b.1. Discovery activity

    Step 1

    • The teacher discusses convincingly with learners to take responsibility of their learning.

    • He/she distributes the task/activity and gives instructions related to the tasks (working in groups, pairs, or individual to start collaborative learning, to discover knowledge to be learned).

    Step 2

    • The Teacher let the learners work collaboratively on the task

    • During this period the teacher refrains to intervene directly on the knowledge.

    • He/she then monitors how the learners are progressing towards the knowledge to be learned and improve those who are still behind (but without communicating to them the knowledge) .

    b.2. Presentation of learners’ productions

    • In this period, the teacher invites representatives of groups to present the students’ productions/findings.

    • After three/four, an acceptable number of presentations, the teacher decides to engage the class into exploitation of the learners’ productions.

    b.3. Exploitation of learner’s productions

    • The teacher asks the learners to evaluate the productions which ones are correct, incomplete or false.

    • Then the teacher judges the reasoning of the learners ’products, corrects those that are false, completes those that are incomplete, and confirms those that are correct.

    b. 4. Institutionalization (summary/conclusion and examples)

    The teacher summarizes the learned knowledge and gives examples that illustrate the learned content.

    b.5. Exercises / Application activities

    • Exercises of applying processes and products/objects related to learned unit/subunit. Exercises in real life contexts

    • Teacher guides learners to make the connection of what they learnt to real life situations. At this level, the role of the teacher is to monitor the fixation of process and product/object being learned

    c. Assessment

    In this step, the teacher asks some questions to assess achievement of instructional objective.

    • During the assessment activity, learners work individually on the task/ activity.

    • The teacher avoids intervening directly. In fact, results from this assessment inform the teacher on the next steps for the whole class and individuals.

    • In some cases, the teacher can end with a homework assignment


    The teacher’s guide provides more than one lesson plan taking into consideration the type of lesson in the subject using the CBC format.

    Teaching requires good preparation to be effective. This is the only way that learning can be improved and assured. The teacher will find his/her work easier if she/he goes to class well prepared with the lesson content organized in logical way. Even the experienced Creative Arts (Fine Art & Crafts and Music) teacher needs a lesson plan in order to use the lesson time effectively. Below is a sample of a lesson plan.

    School name: ....................................... Names of teacher: .................................