Key unit competency:
By the end of the unit, you will be able to participate in activities promoting peace and conflict resolution.
3.1 Peace and its Principles
3.1.1 Meaning of peace
The story of our village
In a village of Nyakagarama, neighbours did not love each other. Nobody cared for the welfare or interest of another. It happened that the family of Mr Thomas were richer than their neighbours. As a result, all the neighbours hated him most. However, Mr Thomas allowed the neighbours to draw water at his home, borrow seats and tents when they had a function and helped them financially when they were in need. He could sacrifice his vehicle and time in helping his neighbours.
One day, thieves broke into his homestead. They stole all the tents, seats, water pipes and packed them into his lorry and left with his other car. To his surprise, the neighbours were very happy about the incident. Some of them could be heard saying they were now equal.
Days passed and there was no hope of getting the stolen property back. Mr Thomas’ neighbours had to walk long distances to look for water. Mr Thomas was no longer in a position to help them when they were in need. The neighbours suffered much and regretted why they didn’t show sympathy to Mr Thomas.
After a while, they realised their mistakes. They went back to Mr Thomas and apologised. They later agreed to work together for the peace and benefit of their community. Within a week, the stolen property was found and the culprits (thieves) were reported to the authority.
The absence of unpleasant thoughts and emotions against each other is peace. The Biblical understanding of peace is wholeness or completeness and unity. Peace refers to restored relationships, where conflicts are resolved and people go about their daily affairs freely without disturbances.
Peace does not merely mean absence of war. This is just one type of peace.
3.1.2 Types of peace
There are three types of peace. These are:
(i) Inner peace
This is the quiet, restfulness of the soul. It means the peace of the heart free from anger, hatred and violence.
(ii) Outer peace
This is concerned with the people we associate with and the environment we are in. It is the visible absence of war and other disturbances. This also implies the absence of evils and injustices.
(iii) World peace
This is for the global community as a whole. It is the struggle for the whole world to restore peace and campaign against all kinds of violence and terrorism. Peace is a concern for all human beings.
When you look at the three types of peace you will realise they are connected. Can you see the connection? For example, when we have inner peace we shall not keep hatred or ill feelings against others. Therefore, we shall be able to avoid conflicts and wars.
3.1.3 Peace principles
A society or an individual is considered to be at peace if there is a fulfillment of the following principles:
Tolerance - This is the ability to endure pain, acceptance or patience with the opinion and views of others. This enables one to put up with beliefs and behaviour that are different from their own. This should be true even if they do not approve of such behaviour. Tolerance reduces conflicts.
Unity - This is where people can live as one entity despite their tribal, religious, political or economic differences. This principle discourages discrimination and promotes cooperation.
Reconciliation - This is the act of getting two things to be compatible with one another. Reconciliation also refers to restoration of friendly relations. Before we reconcile, we must be willing to ask for forgiveness and also to forgive. Forgiveness is a process whereby the offended party gives up the right to enforce justice. Therefore, forgiveness involves a two way transaction; the humbling and asking for forgiveness by the offender and the release of the right of the offended to enforce justice.
Justice and rule of law - This involves fairness or impartiality especially with regard to punishing wrongdoers. The rule of law is enforced by law courts to ensure the accused persons are given fair trials and judgements.
Respect of human rights and dignity - This principle demands that nobody should violate the rights of others. All human beings have equal dignity. Respect for human rights promotes justice and peace.
Solidarity - This means to be united for a common goal or against a common enemy. The principle of solidarity ensures that people stand together in support of one another even in difficult situations.
Love and forgiveness - Love enables a person to care for the welfare of others. True love enables one to forgive those who offend them. This encourages reconciliation. Jesus taught his followers to love and forgive one another including their enemies.
It is upon every citizen to strive to ensure they uphold these fundamental principles. They will help them in their daily lives to promote peace in society.
People have to make deliberate efforts to build peace. Can you think about what you can do to promote peace in your school or at home?
3.1.4 Peace building
Components of peace building
Peace building is an intervention or measure that is put in place to prevent the start or re-occurrence of violent conflicts. Peace building should focus on pre-conflict and not post-conflict. The aim is to prevent a conflict from happening not resolving it after. When people engage in peace building measures, they can attain sustainable (long lasting) peace.
The tasks in peace building vary. They depend on the situation and the agent of peace building activities. They create an environment that is supportive of:
• Durable peace. • Reconciliation with opponents.
• Prevention of conflicts from the start. • Integration of civil society.
• Trauma counseling. • Economic development.
• Infrastructural development.
• Social stability and rule of law.
• Creation of democratic and legitimate institutions.
• Addressing underlying structural and societal issues.
• Addressing social, psychological and emotional conditions.
• Environmental awareness, conservation and sustainability.
Peace building in Rwanda
In groups of five, discuss the following questions:
1. What lessons can you learn from the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsis?
2. Identify the measures that the government put in place to prevent such an incident from occurring again.
Post 1994 Genocide against the Tutsis has been marked by efforts to rebuild the social fabric of Rwanda. The social fabric was destroyed before and during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsis.
An example of the organisations started to enhance peace building in Rwanda is ‘NEVER AGAIN Rwanda’. This is a peace building organisation that promotes mutual understanding and respect. It also promotes the use of non-violent conflict resolution processes among citizens. This brings order to build a long lasting peace.
Fig. 3.1: Never Again Rwanda
Activities in this programme are aimed at informing and educating the society. It shows how we can effectively prevent Genocide and work towards a sustainable peace.
NEVER AGAIN Rwanda, provides space for youth from different backgrounds. Here the youth voice their concerns about peace processes in their communities.
It also hosts peace building institutes twice a year. The institutes bring young people across the world together to discuss and learn about Genocide. Under Genocide they learn about history, prevention, transitional justice, good governance and development.
It also organises genocide commemoration efforts every year in April. This ensures that people remember and learn from the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsis.
Peace building programmes include organising essay writing competitions. In the competitions entrants write about peace related topics, long term peace and make proposals to overcome conflicts.
The Great Lakes peace building programme works to promote education and cross boarder dialogue for peace. This enables us to prevent conflicts and prepare future generations to cope with challenges. It also does research on conflict related issues, hosts radio programmes and builds capacities in civil society organisations.
3.1.5 The role of women in peace building
Identify women who have participated in enhancing and maintaining peace in the world, especially in our Rwandan society.
In the past, women played a limited role in the peace building process. They have played the following roles:
• Have been representatives in peace negotiations.
• Participated in political decision making processes.
• Participated in policy making, implementation and judicial positions.
• Participated in economic recovery and reconciliation programmes.
• Participated in political legislations and good governance.
It should be noted that female leaders have played a role on peace building in their countries. These women include Ellen Johnson Sirleaf of Liberia and Michele Bachelet of Chile. There is also Catherine Samba-Panza of the Central African Republic and Mother Teresa of India.
These women have used their prowess (gender) to harness the power of material symbolism. This is in the hope that a woman could best use words to bring peace in their societies affected by war and dictatorship.
In Rwanda, former Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana played a big role in negotiating for peace. She was in government before the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsis. Unfortunately she was assassinated at the beginning of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsis. She is remembered as a National heroine of our country.
Major organisations involved in peace building and peace keeping
Identify any organisation involved in peace building in our country. What impact has it created in our country?
There are a number of organisations, agencies and government entities that are involved in peace building. They are both local and international levels. They include the following:
A. Government entities:
• National Unity and Reconcilliation Commission (NURC)
• Ministry in charge of Security
• Itorero ry’Igihugu
• Peace Courts
• UN Peace Commission
• Never Again Rwanda
• Institute of Research and Dialogue for Peace
• AEGIS Trust
3.2 Peace and conflict in the society
3.2.1 Causes of conflict in society
(a) Causes of conflict in a family
In groups of five discuss the following questions. Thereafter, appoint one of the group members to write down your findings. After the discussion let one of the group members present their findings to the whole class.
1. Why do parents argue?
2. Identify the reasons why children hate their parents sometimes.
3. Suggest ways of uniting children whose parents and guardians are unable to handle.
4. How does one feel after being reconciled with the other person or party?
Some of the causes of conflicts in a family are:
• Religious differences
• Drug abuse
• Infertility of one of the partners
• Lack of discipline and respect among children
• Influence by the extended family members or in-laws
• Traditional cultural beliefs and custom
How does each of the causes mentioned lead to conflict?
A Case Study
(A quarrel between a brother and a sister. Their mothers are different but from the same father)
Gahigi : Good evening my sister?
Uwase : I am fine my brother.
Gahigi : Since our father died last year, there are rumours going round that you want a share in our father’s
Uwase : That is not a rumour my brother! Truth be told, even if I am married, I rightfully deserve a share in
my father’s property.
Gahigi : Here, on earth, no! no! no! no!, it cannot work.
Uwase : We are living in the 21st Century. My children will not miss out going to school. Our constitution
promotes equality for all.
Gahigi : Did I choose a poor husband for you? It is good for you to go back and take care of your family.
Uwase : I have given you enough time to think about the whole issue. I will come next month to have my
share before you settle to marry.
1. State the causes of conflict between Gahigi and Uwase.
2. Discuss why you think Uwase should get a share in her father’s property.
(b) Causes of conflict in schools
Discuss the causes of conflict in your class.
Causes of conflicts in schools include:
• Teasing and bullying of weak or new students.
• Selfishness and failure to share the available resources equally.
• Hatred between students and their colleagues and sometimes teachers.
• Theft, that is, there are some students who have a tendency to steal from others.
• Gender differences. Some students and teachers think that one gender group is better than the other.
• Discrimination. Here you find that certain groups or individuals athink they are better than others.
• Corporal punishment. Some students may be punished beyond the required standard for the mistake
• Alcohol, drug and substance abuse by students. Students may get access to alcohol and drugs which
may affect their way of thinking.
• Rebellion by some students who may not want to obey school rules or their teachers.
(c) Causes of conflict in governments
Form two groups and dramatise causes of conflict in governments.
• Greed for power: This is a common cause of conflicts in most governments in Africa.
• Lack of respect to citizens: This is done especially by leaders to the people they lead.
Good leaders should respect and serve their citizens well.
• Pride and prejudice: Some people have pride in their tribes and do not respect the members of other
tribes. This happens especially to those working together in the government
• Discrimination: Gender differences and failure to recognise the role of women in society.
These may lead to conflicts between men and women. Discrimination based on race, religion and ethnicity brings clashes between people.
Commandments like laws are very important in society. The Ten Commandments guided the Israelites and helped them live in peace and harmony. These commandments were not changed by Jesus but he emphasised that the most important one is love
• In places of work conflicts are caused by poor remuneration of workers and poor working conditions.
Other causes of conflict include delayed payments and favoritism.
• Governance which is oppressive and autocratic can lead to conflicts.
Clash of political views and denying people opportunities to express themselves also cause conflicts.
• Political differences: Failure to realise and accept our differences especially political differences has led to wars and political instability in Africa and other regions.
All people were created equal!
God created both male and female. We were all created equal but gifted differently. There are those who are good at arts and there are those good at sciences.
(d) Conflicts in the society
There was once an organised sports competition between two groups. When they were about to enter the field, an argument arose. This was because of the scarcity of the available resources. One group was to be given sports shoes and the other one to wear vests. The ones with vests were not to wear sports shoes.
Supposing that you were the referee, what criteria would you have used to determine the group to be given sports shoes or vests?
The disagreement between the two groups is a type of conflict. There are many definitions of conflicts.
A conflict is a clash or disagreement between two opposing groups or individuals. Conflict can also be defined as opposing ideas and actions in different entities thus resulting in an antagonistic state.
A conflict is an inevitable part of life. Each of us possesses our own opinions, ideas and sets of beliefs. We have our own ways of looking at things and we act according to what we think is proper. Hence, we find ourselves in conflicts in different scenarios. Conflicts may involve groups of people, individuals or a struggle within ourselves. Consequently conflicts influence our actions and decisions in one way or the other.
Types of conflicts
Conflicts can be classified into the following four types.
1. Interpersonal conflicts
This refers to a conflict between two individuals. This is because people are different from one another. We have different personalities. For example, some people get easily irritated, some are emotional, while others are slow to anger.
2. Intra personal conflicts
These occur within an individual. The experience takes place in a person’s mind. This conflict is psychological as it involves the individual’s thoughts, values, principles and emotions. Intra personal conflict may be a simple one like making a decision between going or not going for lunch.
3. Intra group conflicts
This is a type of conflict that happens among individuals within a team or a group. The differences and misunderstanding among these individuals lead to an intra group conflict. For instance, group members might find themselves holding or expressing different opinions over an issue. Within a team conflicts can be handled carefully to reach a common objective. However, the level of differences in opinion may disrupt harmony among the members. This may require some guidance from a different party.
4. Intergroup conflicts
This takes place when misunderstanding arises among different teams within an organisation. For instance, the discipline department of a school can come into conflict with the academic department. This is due to the varied interests and a set of goals of these different groups. Also competition contributes to intergroup conflicts. There are other factors which fuel this type of conflict. Some of these factors may include rivalry for resources or the boundaries. This may be set by a group to others which establishes their own identity as a team.
However, conflicts should be avoided by all means. Conflicts should not be allowed to slow down productivity and give way to more conflicts. Conflict management will be needed to bring a resolution if a conflict is complex.
Examples of conflict in Africa
(a) Ethnic differences: Ethnic differences have caused many clashes in Africa.
For example in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo and Central African Republic.
(b) Militia groups: In Nigeria, a rebel group called Boko Haram has caused fear in the northern part of the country. The group is also a threat to the neighbouring countries such as Chad.
(c) Uprisings: In North Africa, uprisings caused the change of governments in countries such as Tunisia, Libya and Egypt.
(d) Post election clashes: In Kenya, the 2007/2008 post election violence started as the results of the disputed 2007 General Elections. This led to the killing of more than 1,300 people. There was also the displacement of more than 500, 000 people from their homes.
(e) Civil wars: Africa has had many cases of civil wars especially where secessionist movements try to set up independent states. For example, the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo was fighting for its own independence between 1960 and 1963.
Other causes of conflict in the society
List four examples of natural resources that cause conflicts in society.
Remember the family is the smallest unit of any society. Therefore, some of the causes of family conflicts apply here. Causes of conflict in society include:
• Poverty: Poverty is a major cause of conflicts in many societies. Greed and desire for material wealth leads to inequitable distribution of resources. Many people are greedy and are never satisfied with the little or the much they have. They will look for more and more to the extent of taking other people’s lives.
• Witchcraft: In many societies witchcraft is considered as a solution to problems. However, this is not true because it causes more problems to individuals and families. Witchcraft may lead to death and permanent rifts between members of the family and society.
• Competition for resources: This is especially in communities that share natural resources. There should be guidelines on how to share the available resources. For example, in Rwanda we need to protect our natural forests.
• Religious differences and intolerance: When people have a clash of religious beliefs or views, there may arise a conflict. This contributes to conflicts in some countries.
• Negative ethnicity: Some comunities have superiority complex leading to clashes with those they believe to be inferior
3.2.2 Consequences of conflicts in the society
Draw a picture showing the consequences of conflicts in our society.
The result of conflicts is always bad. We should therefore solve a conflict in time before we suffer the consequences. The following are some of the consequences of conflicts in the society:
• Increase in stress among people: When people’s needs are not met, they will end up being stressed and not settled.
• Strained relationships due to ill feelings: When a conflict is not solved well among the parties involved, the ill feelings always remain.
• Increase in possibilities of violence: Where there are conflicts among the people, there will always be a spirit of vengeance or revenge.
• Underdevelopment: This is especially in countries that have had long periods of war. War wastes a lot of resources such as human beings and money
• Diseases and catastrophes: They come up due to poor medical care as a result of wars.
• Poverty: It increases in many homes that have less time dedicated to work.
• The little money available is subjected to unproductive activities.
• Hunger and famine: Conflicts lead to loss of resources such as food crops.
• Divorce, separation and family breakups: Family conflicts if not solved early may end up to breaking up of families.
Fig. 3.10: A man and a woman arguing
• School drop outs and associated evils such as early marriages and child labour.
• Drug abuse and alcoholism: This reduces the rate of production especially among the youth.
• Increase in crime rate: Some conflicts make people hopeless and lonely. They therefore opt to other criminal activities such as robberies.
• Death and population decline: Conflicts such as war leads to loss of lives.
• Displacement of people in case of wars: For example, during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsis, many people were displaced.
• Destruction of property: Conflicts like civil wars lead to the loss of properties such as houses.
• Unemployment: Many people lose their jobs after being in conflict with their employers. In other cases, companies close down.
These negative effects of conflict can lead to disintegration of families and the society at large. It is important to provide a timely intervention to resolve the conflict.
Show me a peaceful nation I show you a healthy population
We should promote peace and values education at all levels.
From individuals, families and the society at large.
Conflicts should not be understood solely as an inherently negative and destructive occurrence. They should also be considered as potentially positive and productive for change. In some societies, conflicts bring about positive changes especially in governments. Conflicts can be seen as an opportunity for learning and understanding our differences. We can live harmoniously despite conflicts as long as we know how to responsibly manage these struggles.
3.3 Biblical teachings on peace and conflict
In groups of five, visit the library and read about peace from the reference books. Thereafter, brainstorm on the main points. Write down your points and present them to the whole class.
You can also refer to John 14:27.
According to the Bible, God is the source of peace. There is no other source of peace. It describes peace as that which surpasses human understanding.
When Adam and Eve disobeyed God, it brought conflict between themselves and God. Before disobedience, human beings lived in perfect peace.
Peace, according to the book of Isaiah comes to those who trust in the Lord. They will have a perfect peace because their minds are steadfast (Isaiah 26:3).
The beatitudes that Jesus taught present peace as a source of blessings. For instance, happy are the peace makers for they shall be called children of God
Jesus came so that mankind could have an everlasting peace, despite tribulations (hard times and many trials). He was a peaceful Messiah. He entered Jerusalem riding on a donkey which was a symbol of peace. Christians should always be happy since Christ has overcome the world.
The peace that Jesus gives Christians is different from the one the world gives. As he was about to ascend to heaven he said ‘I leave you peace not as the world gives’. Let not your heart be troubled neither let it be afraid (John 14:27).
The story of Cain and Abel shows brothers competing for favours from God (Genesis 4:1-24). They competed to the extent of one killing the other. Wickedness caused conflict leading to curse.
We should pray and put our request to God who has a perfect peace that surpasses all understanding. His peace will guard our hearts and minds through Jesus Christ (Philippians 4:7).
Christian believers can sleep at night knowing that they are at peace with God. But the wicked do not have that kind of peace.
King Ahab wanted to own Naboth’s vineyard because it was near his palace. Naboth refused to give him the ancestral land. King Ahab and his wife Jezebel planned and killed Naboth so that they can get his land (1st Kings 21).
Peace is a free gift from God that He can give anytime, anywhere and in every way, (2nd Thessalonians 3:16).
Life is sacred!
In the Bible Cain killed Abel. He later lived a miserable life. As Christians, we should not kill each other, regardless of gender, tribe, religion, age or wealth. We should love and care for each other, just as God loves us.
3.4 Conflict resolution and prevention
The story of Mugwaneza and Gasimba
Mugwaneza and Gasimba were still fighting in the field when Akaliza arrived. They were fighting over a lost pen they found in the field. Each one of them claimed that the pen belonged to them. Nobody wanted to lose the fight.
Akaliza stopped them from fighting and requested them to give her the pen. Because she was a friend and classmate to both, they gave her the pen. Then she asked them who was the real owner but both claimed ownership. She told them that she, as the mediator, would take the pen. Gasimba became happy that neither of them would get the pen. Mugwaneza looked innocent as she said she did not have a pen to use in class.
Akaliza decided to take the pen to class without the two. She went entered the classroom and asked other students about the pen. Those close to Mugwaneza confirmed that the pen belonged to her. She called the two and gave the pen to Mugwaneza because she was convinced that the pen belonged to her. After that clear evidence, Gasimba said that he only admired the pen. He therefore agreed to buy five pens for her as they shook hands.
1. From the above story did you know that it was good to be honest? Explain
2. Identify the evidence that the two classmates in conflict were eventually reconciled.
The way in which two or more parties find a peaceful solution to a disagreement among them is called conflict resolution. The conflicts may be personal, financial, political or emotional. When a dispute arises often the best course of action is to resolve it. This is called reconciliation. The story of Mugwenza and Gasimba is a good example of conflict resolution. What steps did Akaliza take to help her two friends resolve their conflict?
Conflicts can be resolved in the following ways:
Firstly, understand the conflict. You cannot solve a conflict unless you know the origin and cause of the conflict. Understand your interests, what you want, what you need, your concerns, hopes and fears. Ensure that you also prepare for possible outcomes.
Communicate with the opposition. It is important to communicate with the opposing parties to know their interests and fears.
Brainstorm for possible solutions. Think carefully how you will set up a meeting very quickly to save the situation.
Look for a win-win solution or compromise.
Choose the best resolution. Listen to all alternatives before you make the best resolution.
Use a third party or mediator. Look for a person who is neutral who is not in your group to mediate. This may be a lawyer, a relative or a church leader.
Explore alternatives. Think of alternatives before you meet your opponent. You should think of an alternative which is realistic and practical.
Cope with stressful situations and pressure tactics. Learn how to cope with situations in case the opponent is stubborn or does not cooperate.
The Christian way of solving conflicts involves prayer. Our Lord’s Prayer is a good example because it demands us to forgive those who wrong us.
A Genocide perpetrator before the Gacaca court
“My name is Theodate Mukankubana. I am from Sector Nyamata. I stand before you this afternoon to confess my role in 1994 Genocide against the Tutsis. It was on May 22nd 1994 when a group of my friends came to my house. They were armed with machetes, stones and arrows. They convinced me that we go to my neighbour Mihigo’s house and kill him and his family. I tried to convince them not to kill him but instead they became violent with me. Finally, I was forced to go. We found Mihigo and his two little children in the house. It was terrible killing that family with whom we had shared a lot before. Mihigo died shouting my name for help, Theodate! Theodate! Theodate, don’t kill me. But we had to kill him and his wife. Lucky enough, the children were hiding on a tree outside their house.
Since then I am continually disturbed within myself. I therefore ask for forgiveness before God and before you the loving people of Rwanda.”
1. What lesson can you learn from the story?
2. If you were asked to respond to Theodate, what would you tell him?
3. What advice can you give to the children who survived?
If a Christian has a conflict with a fellow Christian he should follow the following steps to resolve it:
Tell the one you are conflicting with about your dissatisfaction.
If he or she does not listen to you take with you one or two other people.
If he or she refuses to listen take the matter to church elders or council.
To resolve a conflict, stop judging others. First judge yourself before you start judging others.
Humble yourself before God. We are supposed to submit to God, resist the devil and repent all of our sins.
Today some of the conflicts can be settled in courts of laws by judges and magistrates. They can also be settled by traditional courts like Gacaca or Abunzi. Originally, Gacaca gathering were meant to restore peace and harmony within communities. It was about people acknowledging their wrongs and seeking justice to the victims.
In conflict resolution the best solution is to find the solution that is best for both of you. Although this is not always possible, you should use all the possible means to have the conflict resolved. Gacaca has promoted unity among the people of Rwanda since the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsis. The perpetrators stand before the court and they agree to the Genocide claims against them. They are allowed to ask for forgiveness and when the local people are convinced, they will forgive them.
Most of the conflicts in society are related to political power and the economic resources. There should be a study of peace and values education. This is important in the establishment of peace and moral values in society. Conflict resolution is crucial in healing the wounds of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsis. It will also help in preventing such occurrence in the future. This also helps in
cultural standardisation and quality principles.
• Peace can be defined as harmonious relationship within oneself, with others or in the world as a whole.
• Fundamental principles of peace: These are principles for a society to be considered at peace. They include tolerance, unity, reconciliation respect of human rights and dignity and solidarity.
• Conflict resolution and peace building: The major aim of conflict resolution is to prevent a conflict from happening.
• The role of women in peace building: Women have played a key role in peace building throughout the world. Some of them include Mother Teresa, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Agatha Uwilingiyiamana.
• Conflicts in the society: Conflicts in the society may include interpersonal, intra personal and intergroup. Conflicts in the society come because of poverty, witchcraft and negative ethnicity.
• Causes of conflict in a family: These causes include poverty, unfaithfulness and religious differences.
• Causes of conflict in government: They include greed for power and discrimination.
• Causes of conflicts in school: They include gender differences, alcohol, drug and substance abuse.
• Biblical teachings on peace and conflicts: The Bible is a source of peace, for instance Jesus preached about peace and forgiveness. There are also conflicts, for instance King Ahab wanted to take Naboth’s vineyard.
• Conflict resolution and prevention: A conflict should be prevented from happening. If it has happened, it should be resolved as early as possible. Always follow the right steps to resolve a conflict well.
1. There are many definitions of peace. Write down your best.
2. What is a Gacaca court?
3. Give the major causes and effects of conflict in society.
4. Describe ways of resolving conflict as a Christian.
5. Explain any three causes of conflict in government.