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- Unit 1 :The geography of RwandaUnit 1 :The geography of Rwanda
You will develop these skills
• Use the present perfect tense.
• Use the passive voice.
• Use the present perfect tense with ‘since’
.• Identify and use paragraphs, headings and numbering
.• List and use vocabulary referring to the physical geography, population, farming and trade of Rwanda.
Rwanda is famous for its wildlife, like gorillas, zebra and giraffe. Have you been to see the mountain gorillas of Rwanda? What other geographical features of Rwanda do you know about?
Geography is the study of the physical features of the Earth and its atmosphere. It includes human activities, such as farming and mining, as these activities affect, and are affected by, the physical features of the Earth. Human activities include the distribution of populations and resources, and political and economic activities. In this unit, you will use and improve your English language to learn about the geography of Rwanda.
The land of a thousand hills
When we write a geographical description of a country, we must give it a title so that readers know what we are writing about. This is called the main heading. We then group our information into paragraphs so that similar information is together. This helps the writing make sense. Each paragraph starts on a new line. We may also use a subheading for each new section, to show the reader that it contains important new facts.
Read about the location of Rwanda
The Republic of Rwanda is a landlocked country located in the central African region. It is bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the West, Uganda in the North, Tanzania in the East and Burundi in the South. Rwanda covers an area of 26 338 km2, 1 390 km2 of which is water.
The capital city is called Kigali, and the country is composed of five provinces, namely:
•City of Kigali.
Activity 1: Discuss the location of Rwanda
1. Look at the map and find the province that you live in.
2. Name the main provincial town.
3. In your groups, discuss the different provinces and share what you know about them.
landlocked completely surrounded by land
Activity 2: Write about your province
Write a description of your province. Use a main heading and paragraphs. Make sure that you include the names of the province, the main provincial town, the neighbouring provinces and any mountains, lakes or rivers.
Use the present perfect tense
The present perfect tense is used to describe something that happened in the past, but the exact time it happened is not important. We also use this tense when we want to talk about unfinished actions that started in the past and continue to the present. We use the verbs ‘has’ or ‘have’ + past participle.
Read about the physical features of Rwanda
Rwanda is known as the land of a thousand hills. It has steep mountains and deep valleys. Most of Rwanda is situated over 1 520 m above sea level and its highest point is the Karisimbi volcanowhich is 4 507 m high. The Karisimbi volcano is situated in the Virunga mountain range, which runs to the North of Lake Kivu.
volcano a mountain from which molten lava, rock fragments, ash, dust, and gases from below the Earth’s surface are ejected
The vegetation of Rwanda is varied and includes grassland and savannahas well as steep, forested mountainsides. Rwanda has an abundance of wildlife including gorillas, hippos, chimpanzees, storks and cranes.
The main rivers of Rwanda are the Mwogo, Rukarara, Mukungwa, Base, Ruhondo, Akagera, Nyabarongo and the Akanyaru. Rwanda also contains many lakes. The main lakes are Lakes Kivu, Cyohoha, Muhazi, Ihema, Rweru, Burera, Ruhondo and Mugesera.
Activity 3: Use the present perfect tense
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences, using the present perfect tense.
1. _______ you been to see the gorillas?
2. My cousin from America _______ visited Rwanda.
3. I _______ walked around Lake Kiva.
4. I _______ not yet visited Lake Rweru and Lake Ihema.
5. Sentwali thinks that he _______ _______ a picture of the Karisimbi volcano.
savannah open, flat grasslands
Using the present perfect tense with ‘since’When we use the present perfect, we can specify a period of time before now by using the word ‘since’ and a point in time. For example:
• She has lived here since 1980.
• We have taught at this school since 1965.
• We have been learning English since we were in primary school.
Read about the population of Rwanda
The population of Rwanda was about 12 million in 2014. In 2010 the population was 10.5 million. It is believed that the population is now growing at a rapid rate of about 2.6%. Since 2002 the population has increased by 2% per annum. However, since 1995 the death rate has fallen by 3% per annum. It is also worth noting that the fertility rate in Rwanda is very high, since a Rwandan mother has five children on average. Rwanda is believed to be the most densely populated country in Africa. By 2015, males represented 49.1% of the total population and females represented 50.9%
The population is united by homogeneity of language and culture, which has created a group of people with socio-cultural pride and self-esteem.
Activity 4: Use the present perfect tense with ‘since’
1. Write down the two present perfect sentences from the passage above that use ‘since’.
2. Write a sentence about the birth rate and death rate in Rwanda using the present perfect tense with ‘since.’
3. Complete the following sentences with your own words:
a) Since the population has become a united homogenous group, _______.
b) The population of Rwanda has grown by 1.5 million since _______ .
4. Write sentences of your own about the population in Rwanda, using ‘since’ with the present perfect tense.
Read about the climate of Rwanda
Rwanda is located a few degrees South of the equator. The country is characterised by moderate temperatures and ample rainfall. The climate of Rwanda is influenced by the country's diverse physical features. The most mountainous province is the Northern Province, which is characterised by low temperatures and relatively high rainfall.
There are two rainy seasons, namely between March and May, and between September and December. The average rainfall is 110–190mm per month. The hottest months are always June, July and August. There is a dry spell during January and February. The average temperature is between 25°C and 27°C.
Activity 5: Interpret a graph
The following graph shows Kigali’s average temperature and rainfall. Examine the graph and answer the questions that follow.
1. What is the average temperature in January?
2. What is the hottest month of the year?
3. In which month does the most rain fall?
4. Give the name of the x-axis.
5. Give the name of the y-axes.
6. Write a short paragraph about average rainfall and temperature patterns at Kigali.
Use the passive voice
The passive voice happens when you make the object of an action into the subject of a sentence. For example, instead of writing: The seagull caught a fish, we can write: The fish was caught by the seagull.In the first sentence, ‘the seagull’ is the subject of the sentence and ‘the fish’ is the object of the sentence. In the second sentence, we have put ‘the fish’ first and made it into the subject of the sentence.A way to identify the passive voice is to look for a form of the verb 'to be' + past participle. If we change ‘the chicken crossed the road’ to ‘the road was crossed by the chicken’, we can identify the passive voice by ‘was crossed’. This is the verb 'to be' and the past participle of 'cross'.
Read about the economy of Rwanda
Trade in Rwanda
Rwanda has one of the fastest growing economies in Africa. It contains both modern cities, such as Kigali, and small rural villages where traditional farming methods are still used.
It is the most densely populated country in Africa and has minimal industry.Mining in Rwanda consists of extracting minerals such as tin, tantalum and tungsten.
The industrial sector is still small and Rwanda imports food products, machinery and equipment, construction materials, petroleum products and fertilisers. The main trading partners are Kenya, Germany, Uganda and Belgium.
Activity 6: Use the passive voice
Change the following sentences into the passive voice:
1. Rwanda imports food products.
2. People in Rwanda still use traditional farming methods.
3. Rwanda mines some minerals, such as tin.
4. Rwanda has a small industrial sector.
5. Rwanda contains few natural resources.
Agriculture in Rwanda
Rwandais a rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in agriculture. Coffee and tea are grown in the highlands where the high altitudes, steep slopes and volcanic soils provide favourable conditions. These cash crops are exported and account for 80% of agricultural exports. Other crops include bananas, beans, sorghum and potatoes.
Much of the farming in Rwanda is still subsistence farming.Cattle are reared in the grasslands and fish are caught in Lake Kivu. Other agricultural animals include goats, sheep, pigs, chickens and rabbits. Production systems are mostly traditional, although there are a few intensive dairy farms around Kigali.
agriculture the practice of farming
cash crops crops grown for sale
subsistence farming farming just to feed the family
intensive highly concentrated
Activity 7: Identify the passive voice
1. Identify the sentences in the text above that use the passive voice.
2. Discuss the importance of agriculture in Rwanda, using the passive voice.
Tourism in Rwanda
Rwanda has a developing tourism trade. People come from all over the world to experience its natural beauty, to see the gorillas and to visit the volcanoes, waterfalls and rainforests which are home to many different African animals.
Activity 8: Practise using the passive voice
Write four sentences about agriculture or tourism in Rwanda, using the passive voice in your sentences.
Activity 9: Read and understand
Copy and complete this table with information from the texts on pages 7 and 8. The first question has been done for you.
Vocabulary, pronunciation and spelling
Activity 10: Match words and their meanings
Use your dictionary to look up the words in the left-hand column of the table, and then match them to the correct description in the right-hand column. Make sure that you can pronounce the words correctlyWriting and understandingActivity 11: Write a leaflet for touristsThe Rwandan Tourism Board has asked you to prepare a leaflet about Rwanda that can be given to tourists.• Your leaflet must include information about the geographical features of interest to tourists, for example national parks, climate, lakes and volcanoes. You can refer to the map above for the names of important geographical features.• Organise you information so that your leaflet is easy to read and understand. You must make sure that you use headings, paragraphs and numbering.• Make use of the present perfect tense and passive voice.Ecotourism and environmental awarenessRwanda is an emerging ecotourism destination. Ecotourism is tourism that is directed towards encouraging people to visit exotic natural environments. It is a fairly new but very important industry. The money earned from ecotourism helps to supportconservation efforts and protect wildlife. It also provides jobs in areas where there are often high levels of unemployment. Another benefit of ecotourism is that tourists are educated about biodiversity, the need to protect endangered species and take care of the environment.The Nyungwe National Park (NNP) project is an example of a Rwandan ecotourism project. Known as Nyungwe Nziza, or ‘beautiful Nyungwe’, the project is helping to turn NNP into an ecotourism destination. This will help to create employment and provide income for local communities. It will also provide an economic incentive, in the form of revenue, to conserve the park’s rich biodiversity.The NNP is a rainforest located in South-Western Rwanda. It borders on Burundi in the South and Lake Kivu and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the West. The NNP includes the largest stretch of remaining mountain in East and Central Africa. It is home to about 310 different bird species, hundreds of butterflies and orchids, and over 75 different species of mammals – including 13 primates (about a quarter of all Africa’s primates).Activity 12: Discuss environmental awareness in Rwanda1. In your groups, find the NNP on a map.2. See how many other Rwandan national parks you can find and name.3. Analyse the environmental importance of ecotourism.4. Discuss what you think would be the long-term outcome if national parks were not protected and ecotourism was not encouraged.5. Research and find out how ecotourism helps both the national economy and local communities.Assessment1. Choose the correct option to complete the following sentences in the present perfect tense:a) He ________ passed his exam.havehashaven’thasn’tb) He ________ studied for the test.havehas hasn’thaven’t (2 marks)2. Fill in the missing word:a) Carene has been a professional singer ________ 1989.b) Joseph has been a pupil here ________ March. (2 marks)3. Rewrite the following sentences using the passive voice:a) We set the table.b) You do not write the letter.c) Does the police officer catch the thief?d) He opens the door. (4 marks)4. Rewrite the following using paragraphs, a main heading and subheadings: (6 marks)The land of 1000 hills and home of the mountain gorillas. We offer the following three tours to Rwanda’s national parks, where you can see Rwanda’s primates. Mountain Gorilla Safari – 4 Days. This is our shortest safari and captures the essence of Rwanda. It includes a visit to the mountain gorillas in Volcanoes National Park in Northern Rwanda. Rwanda Primate Explorer – 7 Days. This safari is a safari where you trek to the various primates found in Rwanda. You will see the mighty mountain gorilla, chimpanzees, the golden monkeys and the colobus, and there is a chance you will see even more species. Rwanda Discoverer – 7 Days. This safari includes both a visit to the gorillas and the chimps, as well as a visit to the savannahs of Akagera National Park in Eastern Rwanda, where a large variety of animals and birds are found.5. Write a brief description of the beauty of Rwanda. Make sure that you describe its physical features.Unit 1 :The geography of Rwanda
- Unit 2 : Education and personal developmentUnit 2 : Education and personal development
You will develop these skills
• Identify the use of the first conditional, second conditional and ‘could’.
• List the vocabulary of work and jobs.
When you leave school, you will have to find a job. Your career depends on your interests, qualifications and training. You need to plan now for what you would like to do in the future. It is important to try to find a job that suits your personality and gives you the opportunity to further your dreams and ambitions.
Ability at school and educational ambitions
Before we leave school, we need to decide on a career path.
Read about educational ambitions
Some pupils know exactly what they want to do as a career and start working towards it by getting the grades they need in the right subjects. Other pupils have a vague idea, and still others have absolutely no idea at all what they want to do when they leave school.
It is not a coincidence that the subjects we do well in at school are usually the ones we like best. These are the subjects that are easiest for us to master and to get good grades in. Sometimes we have to work really hard at a subject because we know we need to get a good grade in that subject to be able to study for our chosen career. It is important to make plans for the future while you are still at school. If you do not make plans, you will have no direction.
Activity 1: What are your favourite subjects?
In pairs, talk about your favourite school subjects. Your conversation will go something like this.
Read about skills and talents
There are many careers available from which to choose. You need to decide what your talents are, and choose a career where you can use these natural talents. What do you enjoy doing? What skills have you developed while doing the things you enjoy? For instance, perhaps you love flowers and plants and already know the names of most of the plants in your area. This love of plants could open up a large choice of careers for you. You could, perhaps, follow a career in botany (the scientific study of plants); horticulture(the science and art of growing fruit, vegetables and other plants); apiculture (the science of beekeeping); floriculture (the study of growing flowering plants) or floral design (the art of arranging flowers – a florist).
All these different occupations related to a single interest are called a ‘field’. As you can see, one field of work enables you to choose from a wide variety of jobs.It is important to choose a career field in which you can use your interests, abilities and natural talents. The subjects that you choose while you are at school will determine the career field that you go into and the careers that you can choose from.The following table shows the subjects needed for different career fields and some of the careers available within each career field.
Activity 2: Compare your subjects and career fields
In which subjects do you perform best? Which subjects do you enjoy the most? Make a list of these subjects and then compare your subjects to those in the table above to see which field you might consider going into.
The first conditional with ‘if’
Conditional sentences are used to speculate about what could happen. They are used to refer to a possible condition and its probable result in the present or future where the situation is real. For example: If it rains today, you will get wet.The ‘if’ clause (if it rains today) is in the simple present tense, and the main clause (you will get wet) is in the simple future tense.First conditional sentences are based on facts. Most conditional sentences contain the word ‘if’. We do not normally use ‘will’ or ‘would’ in the conditional clause, only in the main clause.
• If you help me with the dishes, I will help you with your homework.
• If I have enough money, I will go to Kigali.
Activity 3: Write conditional sentences
Complete the following first conditional sentences.
1. If you work hard, you will ______.
2. If you invite her, she will ______.
3. If I am late, I will ______.
4. If I win first prize, I will ______.
5. If you need me, you can ______.
Read a conversation about leaving school
Listen to the following dialogue between three Standard 4 pupils at Green Hills Academy. Three pupils can each read a part of the dialogue.
Keza: My teacher says that I must start thinking about what I want to do when I leave school. I’d like to become a doctor. If I get good grades, I will go to university. What jobs are you interested in doing, Mihigo?
Mihigo: I like writing, so I’d like to work as a journalist.
Ngabo: That sounds interesting. If you go to university, what will you study?
Mihigo: I will have to study English and Journalism and then try to get a junior job with a local newspaper. It is difficult to get a job as a journalist. What about you, Ngabo? What would you like to do professionally?
Ngabo: I would like to get experience in banking. If I go to university, I will study finance.
Keza: If you want to study finance, you will have to get good marks in Mathematics. It sounds like we all have to work very hard to get the right grades we need!
Activity 4: Describe your ambitions
1. In groups, talk about your educational ambitions and career opportunities. Use the phrases ‘I’d like’, ‘I’m interested in’ and ‘If you want to be a ______, you have to ______’.
2. Write three sentences about your educational ambitions, using an ‘if’ clause.
Read about job opportunities
Not everyone wants to go to university. Technical and vocational training are also important options because there are many jobs in Rwanda for skilled craftsmen.
In Rwanda, the government encourages the establishment of small and medium enterprises, locally known as Agakiriro, because they help to provide employment opportunities for artisans.
The term ‘Agakiriro’ is derived from Kinyarwanda word ‘Gukira’ which means ‘getting rich’. Agakiriro can therefore be understood as a place where one can get rich. People with small businesses who earn their living by making various products are referred to as Agakiriro artisans.
The following case study is an example of a young woman who made a successful career out of handcrafts.
CASE STUDY A successful career in handcrafts
Angelique Mukashema, a female member of Agakiriro in Nyabihu District, is a member of an association that makes beautiful bags and baskets from banana and other fibres.“These bags are very durable. We weave different fibres to make patterns of all colours, and the bags are beautiful. Our traditional woven baskets are also very popular with the tourists.All the ladies in the association have saved money and improved their families’ lives due to these handcrafts. I have installed biogas at home and bought four cows. One of the other ladies has build a new house. Now lots of others want to be trained so that they can make money too,” Angelique said.
Activity 5: Write about technical skills
Write sentences about technical skills, using the sentence: If you learn ______ , you will ______ . For example: If you learn plumbing, you will be able to fix leaky sinks.
Read about salaries
When you are deciding on a career, you will also have to consider what you could expect to earn in a particular career. In general, the longer you study, the higher your salary will be.
This is because you will have gained more knowledge and learned more skills. The following table shows some average salaries earned per annum in different occupations, as well as the level of education required.
Activity 6: Do research about careers
1. Research and find out what people earn in the following occupations:
• shop assistant
2. Make a table similar to the one above and fill it in with your findings.
3. Discuss different career options with your class.
Read a conversation about education
Read this conversation between a doctor (Dr George), a lawyer (Joan) and a teacher (Clever).
Dr George: Hello, Joan. Clever, meet Joan. Joan is the best lawyer we have in town. Joan, this is Clever, he is a teacher at Leafy Wood Academy.
Joan: Nice to meet you, Clever. What do you teach?
Clever: I teach Physics and Mathematics.
Dr George: Clever has been reminding me of our school days. He says that the education system has changed quite a bit since our school days.
Joan: Oh really? I don’t see any changes in the system. The country is still producing the same types of professionals: teachers, lawyers, doctors, engineers, nurses, counsellors ... Mind you, there are a few
Clever: You mean information technologies? Good observation, Joan! I must tell you, teaching these new technologies is demanding; it has taken over much of the time that we used to use for informal activities. Do you remember how we used to have time for a lot of handwork, cultural activities and a wide range of sports and art? We now have very limited time for these activities.
Joan: Yes, of course I remember. At my school, we used to spend a lot of time knitting, having lessons in home management and also doing sports, music, dance and drama. You know what, if it were not for my parents’ insistence, I would be a chef right now. I was very much in love with the kitchen and catering.
Dr George: You don’t say! Do you regret having taken a different career path? However much I loved football, I never thought of taking it to a professional level. It just helped me to keep active and healthy. You cannot excel at school if you do not have a clear mind.
Joan: Come on, George, I do not regret anything. I love the courtroom, and I also enjoy compiling all the evidence needed to win a case. Now, Clever, tell me – I hear that the arts are being neglected. Is this true? If so, how are you going to produce more professionals?
Clever: That is not correct. Art subjects have not been neglected, but with the increase in technology, we need to equip the youth with more practical skills. Besides, there have been high rates of unemployment all over the world, and teaching technical and entrepreneurship skills will help to create more job creators.
Dr George: I completely agree with that. Our children need a great many technical and vocational skills in the competitive society of today.
Clever: Well, I have to go now. You both know that teachers have to be very time-conscious because of our busy schedules.
Dr George: Not very different from a doctor. I have an appointment with a patient in about an hour’s time. We can leave together. I will give you a ride.
Joan: Do not mind me. I have a free afternoon. I am going to the museum.
Activity 7: Answer comprehension questions
1. What are extra activities in schools?
2. Why do you think these activities are referred to as ‘informal’ in the conversation?
3. What has caused limited time for informal activities in schools?
4. Why do you think Joan is not a chef right now?
5. What academic subjects do you think Joan liked during her school days?
6. Who are job creators? What skills do you need to be a job creator?
7. Among the three, who is going to be resting after their departure?
8. Explain what Clever means when he says, “Teachers have to be very time conscious”.
The second conditional with ‘if
’The second type of conditional sentence is used to refer to a time that is now or any time, and a situation that is unreal. These sentences are not based on fact. The second conditional is used to refer to a hypothetical condition and its probable result. For example: If I had enough money, I would go to Kigali.In the second type of conditional sentences, the ‘if’ clause (If I had enough money) uses the simple past tense, and the main clause uses the present conditional tense (I would go to Kigali).
• If you worked hard, you would win.
• If you invited her, she would come.The difference between first conditional and second conditional is not a difference of time. Both structures can refer to the present or future; the second conditional simply suggests that a situation is impossible or imaginary.Look at the difference between these sentences.
Activity 8: Practise using the second conditional with ‘if
Complete the following sentences.
1. If I got a pay rise, ______ .
2. If you left your job, ______ .
3. If you were nicer to him, ______ .
4. If we had gone out earlier, ______ .
5. If I had revised, ______ .
Applying for jobs
Read about job advertisements
One way of looking for a job is to read job advertisements. These can be found in newspapers and on the Internet. When you read a job advertisement, you will see that it has two parts to it: the job description and the job specification.
The job specification indicates what is required of the person who will fill the job. It specifies:
• qualifications required
• personal qualities needed
• work experience required.
Trainee Manager requiredJob specification: Managers at all levels would be expected to show responsibility. The company is looking for people who have a minimum of one year’s previous experience and a qualification in marketing. They should have a flair for business, know how to sell, and be able to work in a team.
he job description refers to the content of the job itself and sets out the duties and responsibilities required of the person employed to do the job. It specifies:
• the title of the job
• the location of the job
• the duties of the job.
Job Description: Trainee Manager
Location: ABC Retail, Kigali branch
Duties: Promote sales at ABC Retail, Kigali; Engage with customers; Deal with customer complaints; Assist Store Manager with stock management; Assist Store Manager with training of junior staff.
CASE STUDY Secretary at Twiggs Technical College
Nadege is looking for a new job and she has come to you for help. She has noticed that Twiggs Technical College is looking for a new secretary, and would like to apply for the position. The job description is in the table below. Nadege completed secretarial college in December 2011. For the past six months, she has done the administration for her uncle’s textile company. Her job included working in MS Word, managing the accounts, receipts of payments, salary payments, updating a database with all the workers’ details, and learning to communicate with other employees.
Activity 9: Work with job advertisements
1. In your group, discuss whether Nadege is suitably qualified for the job and advise her as to whether or not she should apply.
2. Write an advertisement for a new teacher at your school. Your advertisement should include both a job description and a job specification.
Lifelong learning and career development
Read about personal development
Different career fields require different levels of schooling. You can use the library, Internet and other research methods to find the qualifications necessary to pursue your choice of career. Your school, local community services and university will also be able to assist you. From this research, you will be able to determine exactly which subjects you need to do at school, and whether you need to study further at college or university once you leave school.
Some careers give you the opportunity to start working with a basic education, and encourage you to further your studies while you are working in order to move up the ‘career ladder’. Other careers require you to have the highest possible qualification before you are able to find employment.
When you leave school and enter your career of choice, you will probably start on the lowest rung of the career ladder. In order to move up the career ladder, you must prove to your employers that you are capable of doing the job. Learning new skills enables you to move up the ladder more quickly. Some employers provide additional training during working hours; however, others expect you to train yourself in your own time.
Modern technology helps you to do your job more efficiently, so make sure you have the proper skills to use this technology. Often, your boss or your co-workers will show you how to use this equipment. If you become involved in different tasks, you will start to understand what the company you work for is trying to achieve. You will also enhance your efficiency and abilities, and increase your confidence and self-esteem. With each new aspect of the job, you will learn new skills and all these skills will help you to move up the career ladder. Opportunities often arise in the workplace where you can exhibit your skills and talents, and you can then move into a totally different branch of your career.It is important to keep learning. This is known as lifelong learning. It will improve your career and salary prospects, as well as help you to lead a satisfying life.
Vocabulary, pronunciation and spelling
Activity 10: Match words and their meanings
Use your dictionary to look up the words in the left-hand column of the table, and then match them to the correct description in the right-hand column. Make sure that you can pronounce the words correctly.
Writing and understanding
Activity 11: Write a report
Write a report about your ambitions and how you plan to further your education.
Jobs and gender
In many countries, women still do not have the same job and pay opportunities as men. In Rwanda, gender equality is written into the Constitution; Article 11 of the Constitution states that all Rwandans are equal regardless of gender, race or religion. In the past, many women only held jobs at the level of receptionists and personal assistants but this is changing rapidly, although women still find it difficult to access finance to start their own business.
In Rwanda, the government has made a commitment to promoting gender equality. According to the 2009 Social Watch Gender Equity Index, Rwanda was equal second in the world in its efforts towards gender equality. Only Sweden had a higher score. Rwanda was the first country in the world to have more than 50% female members of parliament. The government has set a target for women to make up 40% of all those in decision-making positions by 2020.
These goals are in line with the United Nation’s third Millennium Development Goal, the promotion of gender equality. This covers many aspects that affect women’s lives, from access to education, to accessing finance, to participation in decision-making processes, to reducing gender-based violence.
Activity 12: Discuss women’s roles in Rwanda
In your group, find answers to the following questions.
1. What are the United Nations’ eight Millennium Development Goals?
2. Discuss the business world in your district. How many women entrepreneurs can you think of?
3. In a traditional society, what are the roles of women?
1. Complete the following sentences, using the correct modal verb.
a) If I get home late tonight, I ______ not eat.
b) If Jan could run 100 metres in 10 seconds, he ______ be an athlete.
c) If Simon catches a fish today, we ______ eat it.
d) She ______ buy a new car if she won the lottery.
e) If it rained in the Sahara Desert, everyone ______ be very surprised.
f) If it rains tonight, we ______ go to the cinema.
g) If your dog spoke, you ______ sell it to the circus.
h) If we play football on Saturday, I ______ be tired on Sunday.i) You ______ become fat if you eat too much.
j) If I ______ you, I wouldn’t accept that job. It sounds terrible! (10 marks)
2. Explain briefly why some jobs command higher salaries than others. (5 marks)
3. Analyse your talents and describe what careers you believe would suit you. (5 marks)
Total (20)Unit 2 : Education and personal development
- Unit 3 : Ancient EgyptUnit 3 : Ancient Egypt
You will develop these skills
• Use the past simple and past perfect tenses and the passive voice.
• Use vocabulary related to historical Ancient Egypt, prehistoric Egypt, the pyramids and Ancient Egyptian expertise.
The study of Ancient Egypt is a fascinating one. It is the study of a civilisation that began over five thousand years ago and lasted for over three thousand years. Although the beginnings of Egyptian history are usually given as about 3100 B.C., remains have been found of nomadic people from many thousands of years before this date.
When we study Ancient Egypt, we are studying a civilisation that lived in the past and no longer exists today. Therefore, we need to make use of the past tenses to discuss and write about it. We will also need to learn some new vocabulary to equip us on our journey of discovery.
Did you know?
Historians use the abbreviations B.C. (Before Christ) and A.D. (Anno Domini i.e. ‘Year of our Lord’) to distinguish dates.
Who were the Ancient Egyptians?
Read about prehistoric Egypt
Even before the beginnings of the Egyptian civilisation as we know it, the early Egyptians had been farmers. They had herded cattle. Before they developed agriculture, they fished in the Nile River. They had made stone tools. They made pots. Until the Egyptians built their palaces, the prehistoric Egyptians did not have any large buildings.
Long ago, the region we know as the Sahara Desert was a fertilesavannah. Many different nomadic tribes wandered across it, finding plenty to hunt and eat. This remained unchanged for 4000 years, but around 5000 B.C., the climate changed and the Sahara started to dry out. This forced the wandering tribes down into the fertile Nile Valley. Over time they had learned to settle and farm.
Evidence shows the existence of prehistoric settlements in Egypt for about 2 000 years before the time of the pharaohs. It is important to remember how important the Nile River was to the Ancient Egyptian civilisation, and how much it had influenced the development of their culture.
Activity 1: Hold a debate about climate change
Hold a debate about the statement: Climate change was an important factor in the development of Ancient Egypt. Elect two teams, one to argue for the statement, and one to argue against the statement.
Use the past simple tense
We use the past simple tense to talk about an action that was completed in a time before now. The length of time of the action is not important. The important thing is that the action is over. The action could have happened in the recent past or in the distant past.
• My father died last year.
• Jean-Paul caught the train to South Africa in 2012.
• We lived in Kigali until 2013.You always use the simple past tense when you say when something happened, so it is associated with certain past time expressions. We usually make the positive by adding ‘-ed’ to the infinitive. For example, ‘walk’ becomes ‘walked’. We make the verb negative by adding ‘did not’ (didn’t).
Activity 2: Practise the simple past tense
Put the following sentences into the past simple, using the correct form of the verb in brackets:
1. We ______ (talk) on the phone yesterday.
2. The two boys _______ (do) not eat the cake.
3. They __________ (be) very hungry by lunchtime.
4. He _________ (walk) all the way home alone.5. She _________ (do) her homework on Tuesday.
Read about the beginnings of the Egyptian civilisation
After the tribes had settled in the Nile Valley and begun to live in small communities, they came into conflict with each other. The country polarised into two opposing kingdoms – the North (Lower Egypt) and the South (Upper Egypt). We cannot be sure of the exact date, but around 3100 B.C. the two countries were united under one ruler by Pharaoh Menes. This was the start of the three thousand year civilisation we know as Ancient Egypt.
he history of Ancient Egypt is divided into different periods of time. The most important of these were the Old Kingdom (3100–2180 B.C.), the Middle Kingdom (2055–1650 B.C.) and the New Kingdom (1550–1069 B.C.) Towards the end of each of these periods, the authority of the king broke down and Egypt fragmented into many small kingdoms, only to be reunited when a strong ruler became pharaoh.
With the rise of the Greek and Roman civilisations, Egypt came under foreign rule and was no longer powerful. The Romans introduced Christianity, which led to the decline of the Ancient Egyptian religion and society.
Past simple tense
We use the past simple tense a lot when we talk or write about historical events. For example: Egypt fragmented into many small kingdoms. Can you pick out other examples of sentences in the past simple tense in the reading above?
Use the past perfect tense
We use the past perfect tense most often for the following:
• Actions that happened before a past event.
• For example: When I got home yesterday, my mother had already cooked dinner.
• Reported speech.
• For example: My father told me that he had cooked dinner but he had not.
• ‘If’ (conditional) sentences.
• For example: If I had known that my mother had already cooked dinner, I would have been home earlier.The past perfect tense in English is made up of two parts: the past tense of the verb ‘to have (had)’ + the past participle of the main verb.
Activity 3: Use the past perfect tense
Complete the following sentences:
1. I got home very late last night. Everyone ________ ______ to bed.
2. Before coming to Rwanda, I ________ never _________ gorillas.
3. As soon as he _______ ________ his homework, he went to bed.
4. The film was not very good, but I didn’t want to leave until it _________ __________.
5. She ______ just _______ into the bath when the doorbell rang.
6. Now reread the first paragraph about prehistoric Egypt and see how many past perfect sentences you can find.
Read about the pharaohs
The pharaohs were the god kings of Ancient Egypt, who ruled between 3150 B.C. and 30 B.C. The pharaoh was the political and religious leader of the Egyptian people, holding the titles of Lord of the Two Lands and High Priest of Every Temple. As Lord of the Two Lands, the pharaoh was the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt. The pharaoh was not only the political ruler, but also seen as a god.
Historians divide up the timeline of Ancient Egyptian history by the dynasties of the pharaohs. A dynastywas the period when one family maintained power and handed down the throne to an heir. There are believed to be 31 dynasties over the 3 000 years of Ancient Egyptian history.
Activity 4: Answer comprehension questions on Ancient Egypt
1. Look at the map of Egypt and name one city in Upper Egypt and one city in Lower Egypt.
2. Name the three main periods of time used to describe the Ancient Egyptian civilisation.
3. What is meant by the word ‘dynasty’?
4. Briefly describe the role of the pharaoh.
5. What effect did the rise of the Greek and Roman civilisations have on Egypt?
Read about the economy of Ancient Egypt
The early Egyptians were farmers. The annual flooding of the Nile River made the soil very fertile and Egypt was able to grow better harvests than her neighbours. The main crops of Egypt were wheat, barley, lettuce, beans, onions, figs, melons and cucumbers. Many farmers also grew flax, which was used to produce linen.
There was no money system. Products were bartered and workers were paid in wheat, barley and craft products such as pottery and clothes. Crafts were produced in small workshops.
Trade was important to Egypt. They traded with countries around the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Aegean Sea. The main exportswere gold and other minerals, wheat, barley and papyrus sheets. The main imports were silver, iron, ivory, cattle and spices. Egypt also had deposits of minerals, such as limestone, copper, gold, tin and sandstone.
Read about the religious beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians
Egyptian society was based on the concept of ma’at, which meant balance and order. Life was ruled by the Nile’s annual flood and the daily rising of the sun in the East and setting in the West.
Religion was very important to the Ancient Egyptians. Egyptians did not question the beliefs which had been handed down to them; they did not want to change their society. Their main aim was to try to maintain conditions which they believed had existed at the dawn of creation.
The religion of Ancient Egypt was a polytheistic religion, with one short period of monotheism. Many of the gods and goddesses were depicted with animal forms. Hathor was an important goddess because she was believed to receive the sun, Re, each night and protect him so that he could be reborn in the morning. She is often depicted as a cow.
Osiris was god of the underworld and king of the dead. He was also in charge of the flooding of the Nile and of the growth of vegetation. For this reason, he is often shown with a green face or body. He was believed to have brought civilisation and agriculture to the Egyptians.
Isis was the wife of Osiris and the symbol of the perfect wife and mother. The son of Isis and Osiris was Horus, who was shown as a falcon. It was believed that he was reborn in each new pharaoh. After death, the pharaoh became Osiris and would help the Egyptians in the afterlife. Due to this belief, the pharaoh held an immenseamount of power. In addition, the priests in Ancient Egypt were also very powerful.
Activity 5: Write sentences in the past perfect tense
Use the information on the religious beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians to write five sentences about their beliefs, using the past perfect tense.
Use the passive voice
The passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important, or it is not known, who or what is performing the action. For example: My book was stolen. In this example, the focus is on the fact that my book was stolen; I do not know who did it. The same sentence in the active voice would be: Someone stole my book.
Sometimes we use the passive voice because it is more polite than the active voice. For example: A mistake was made. This is gentler or more polite than saying: He made a mistake.
If we want to say who or what performs the action while using the passive voice, we use the preposition ‘by’. When we know who performed the action and are interested in him, it is always better to switch to the active voice instead. For example: This house was built by my father. The same sentence in the active voice would be: My father built this house.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, it is important to note the following:
• The passive sentence starts with the object.
• The finite form of the verb is changed (‘to be’ + past participle).
• The subject of the sentence follows the verb (or is dropped).
• If a subject is used, it is preceded by the preposition ‘by’.
Activity 6: Change the active voice to the passive voice
Rewrite the following sentences in the passive voice:
1. Jean-Marc is writing a letter.
2. My mother is baking a cake.
3. My friend is mending his bicycle tyre.
4. My friend is having a birthday party on Saturday.
5. Our cat caught a large rat.
Read about building the pyramids
The Egyptians believed that preserving the body guaranteed the soul’s survival in the afterlife. Usually, a pharaoh would start on the construction of his burial pyramid early on in his reign because they took many years to complete. Large pyramidswere constructed as tombs for the pharaohs in the Old Kingdom.
The tombs contained decorations of the pharaoh’s journey in the afterlife and texts from the Book of the Dead. The pharaohs were buried with treasures made of gold and jewels. Later, to avoid grave robbers, the pharaohs were buried in secret tombs cut into rock. Many of these can still be visited in the famous Valley of the Kings. Scholars are still not completely sure how the pyramids were constructed. Even using today's modern machinery, they would be difficult to construct. We know that the pyramids were built using labourers who worked very hard. They were not slaves, but may have been farmers who worked on the pyramids while the Nile was in flood, when they could not work in their fields.
First, the area where the pyramid was to be built was levelled. Huge blocks of stone were cut in quarries, often some distance from the location of the pyramid, and then dragged into place using rampsand levers. The pyramids were built one layer at a time. In the middle, a burial chamber with a secret entrance was constructed.
When the pyramid was finished, it was covered in an outer layer of white stones. These stones were cut very precisely, to give a smooth slope to the pyramid. The stones were made of highly polished limestone that reflected the sun’s rays.
Past simple passive
The past simple passive is used to talk or write about something that was done by someone at sometime in the past. For example: The walls were made of highly polished limestone. (Here, it is not known who performed the action. The stones for the pyramids were dragged by the labourers. (Here, the subject – the labourers – is preceded by the preposition ‘by’.)
Activity 7: Write a report about the building of the pyramids
Research and write a short report of under 200 words about the pyramids. Your report should explain when the pyramids were built, whom they were built for, and how they were built. Include diagrams wherever possible. Make sure you use the past simple passive wherever possible.
Read about the achievements of the Ancient Egyptians
As well as building great pyramids and temples, the Ancient Egyptians were also responsible for many other achievements.
One of the most important achievements of the Ancient Egyptians was writing. They wrote in hieroglyphics, a form of picture writing. Writing allowed the Egyptians to keep accurate records and maintain control of their large empire. The ordinary people were not literate. Hieroglyphics were inscribed on temple walls, telling about the achievements of the pharaohs.
The Egyptians could make sheets of parchment paper from the papyrus plant. This was used for important documents and religious texts.
The Egyptians kept the process of making the parchment a secret so that they could sell it to other civilisations, such as Ancient Greece. The Ancient Egyptians were very knowledgeable about medicine. They had a wide variety of medicines and cures. Some of their medicines were strange. For example, they used honey and human brains to cure eye infections. Many of their medicines were accompanied by spells to ward off the evil spirits making the person sick. Because the Nile River was so important in the lives of the Egyptians, they were very good shipbuilders. They originally built small boats from papyrus reeds, but later began to build large ships from cedar wood imported from Lebanon.
The Egyptians had a good understanding of engineering, mathematics and geometry. This enabled them to build the pyramids and other large buildings. Mathematics and numbers allowed them to keep track of business transactions.
One of the amazing achievements of the Egyptians was inventing the calendar. This enabled them to know at what time of the year the Nile River would flood. Another scientific achievement was inventing the Nileometer. Nileometers were very important to the Egyptians. With a Nileometer, the Egyptians could measure the rising water levels of the Nile River so that they could predict a possible flood and take action before lives or crops were endangered.
The Ancient Egyptians were good astronomers. They were very knowledgeable about the movements of the stars and planets. They needed this knowledge for several reasons. The movement of the Sun from East to West was important to their belief in life, death and rebirth. Knowledge of the seasons allowed them to know the flood cycles of the Nile River so as to plant crops at the right time. Astronomy enabled them to construct their temples and pyramids in relation to the stars, zodiac and constellations.
The third conditional
The third conditional is used to talk about something in the past that did not happen. We make the third conditional by using the past perfect tense after ‘if’. ‘Would have’ and the past participle are used in the other half of the sentence.
• If they had not had a problem with grave robbers, the Egyptians would have kept on building pyramids.
• The Egyptians would not have had paper if they had not learned how to make it from papyrus.
Activity 8: Discuss the achievements of the Ancient Egyptians
1. Discuss the achievements of the Ancient Egyptians.
2. How important was the relationship between knowledge and achievement?
3. Try to use the third conditional in your discussions with each other.
Activity 9: Write about the achievements of the Ancient Egyptians
Write a paragraph about the achievements of the Ancient Egyptians, making use of abstract nouns with ‘allowed to’ and ‘enabled to’, as well as ‘could’.
Vocabulary, pronunciation and spelling
Activity 10: Use your dictionary
Writing and understanding
Activity 11: Write about life in Ancient Egypt
Write a short essay of about 200 words entitled, ‘If I had lived in Ancient Egypt ...’.
Religious tolerance: What can we learn from the Ancient Egyptians?
We have learned that the Ancient Egyptians were polytheistic and worshipped many different gods. One home might have had a shrine to a particular god or goddess, such as Isis, and the neighbouring home might have had a shrine to another deity, such as Horus. There was no conflict over differences of worship.
Activity 12: Discuss religious tolerance
1. In your groups, brainstorm and list all the different forms and places of worship in your district.
2. Why do you think we should respect each other’s religious beliefs?
1. Choose the correct words or phrase from the following to complete each sentence: could, be able to, lead to, allow to, enabled to
a) I need to get good grades in Science so that I will ____ ____ ____ study medicine.
b) My friend asked if she _______ come to the cinema with us.
c) The annual flooding of the Nile _______ the Egyptians _______ grow crops.
d) Smoking cigarettes can ____ ____ lung cancer.
e) I do not know if my parents will _______ me _______ go out tonight. (5 marks)
2. Match each word in the left-hand column to its meaning in the right-hand column:
3. Use the correct past simple form of the verb in brackets to complete the following sentences:
a) They _______ (walk) to the shops yesterday.
b) He told me that he _______ (do not) use your bicycle without asking.
c) The sunset _______ (be) beautiful last night. (3 marks)
4. Use the correct past perfect form of the verb in brackets to complete the following sentences:
a) I did not have any money because I ____ ____ (leave) my wallet at home.
b) Eugenie ____ ____ (wanted) a guitar, but she received a book.
c) My father ____ ____ (own) this house for ten years before he sold it. (3 marks)
5. Change the following sentences from the active voice to the passive voice:
a) Harry ate six mangoes at dinner.
b) Magnificent gorillas roam the mountainous highlands of Rwanda.
c) My mom read the novel in one day.
d) Who taught you to ride a bike? (4 marks)
Total (20)Unit 3 : Ancient Egypt
- Unit 4 : Ecology and MathematicsUnit 4 : Ecology and Mathematics
You will develop these skills
• Use abstract nouns.
• Use the passive voice (present simple tense).
• Use countable and uncountable nouns.
• Use vocabulary of soil and plant topics.
Ecology is the relationship between plants, animals and the environment. In nature, living organisms depend on each other for life. Therefore, every organism in our environment is important in one way or the other. For example, mosquitoes are a direct threat to humans because they transmit diseases like malaria. However, the same mosquitoes and their larvae are a source of food to some fish, and fish are essential in our diet. Everything is interconnected, and when something happens to one organism, it has an effect on other organisms.
The composition and contents of soil
Read about the composition of soil
Soil is often called the ‘skin of the Earth’. It is the loose upper layer of the Earth’s surface, where plants grow. Soil is made up of a mixture of organic material (decayed plants and animals) and broken bits of rocks and minerals. It can take up to 1 000 years for just 2 cm of soil to form.
Factors that help to form soil include:
• Living organisms: This includes organisms such as plants, animals, fungi and bacteria.
• Topography: This is the shape or slope of the surface of land where the soil is forming.
• Climate: The climate and weather forming affect how the soil forms.
• Core material: The core material is the minerals and rocks that are slowly disintegrating to form the soil.
Nouns can be abstract or concrete. Concrete nouns are tangible. This means that you can experience them with your five senses: you can touch them, hear them, feel them, taste them or smell them. Abstract nouns refer to intangible things, such as feelings, ideals, concepts and qualities.
Example: I have a dream. ‘Dream’ is an abstract noun because you cannot taste it, see it, feel it, hear it or smell it.Here are other examples of abstract nouns:
Activity 1: Change adjectives to abstract nouns
Complete the following sentences by changing the adjective in brackets into an abstract noun.
1. He is a man of ______ . (courageous)
2. The people in this part of the country live in ______ . (poor)
3. ______ to animals is a punishable offence. (cruel)
4. The man showed great _____ of character. (strong)
5. I have great ______ in welcoming you. (pleasing)
Activity 2: Label a diagram
When we draw a diagram to explain something, we must make sure that the diagram is easy to understand. Using labels helps the reader to identify the different parts of the diagram.
1. In your group, use the diagram on page 44 to discuss the composition of the Earth’s surface.
2. Working alone, do research and draw a diagram to show the different parts of the Earth’s crust.
3. Label your diagram.
Read about the composition of soil
Soil is made up of several things, such as inorganic materials (silica, silicate and oxides), as well as living organisms, bacteria, air, water and organic matter.
Many different bacteria, algae and fungi do important jobs that make life possible. Without these basic forms of life, more complex life forms could not survive. Bacteria help to break down the organic matter in the soil. Air in the soil provides oxygen for living organisms.
When plants decay, they break down in the soil to form rotting organic matter called humus. This increases the nutrients available for more plants to grow.
Soil contains all the nutrients needed by plants to survive. Some areas, such as deserts, have very poor soils. In these areas, it is difficult for plant life to take hold. Tropical rain forests also have poor soils. This is because most of the nutrients have already been taken out of the soil by the plants.
Activity 3: Understand the composition of soil
We use the passive voice to show interest in the person or object that is experiencing an action, rather than the person or object that is performingthe action. In the reading on the composition of soil, there are several sentences where the passive voice is used, for example: Soil is made up of several things. In the active voice, this sentence would be: Several things make up soil. Can you find more sentences in the passive voice?
Activity 4: Write a description of the composition of soil
Copy the following paragraph into your exercise book and fill in the blanks. Plants obtain _______ from the soil. Soil is the outer, loose layer that covers the surface of the _______. Soil quality depends, not only on the chemical composition of the soil, but also on the _______ (regional surface features) and the presence of _______ organisms. The four major components of soil are _______ mineral matter, _______ matter, water and air. Soil is the base of life on Earth because it has most of the important _______ in which plants need to grow. Those plants in turn feed animals and _______. Soil is also where much of our fresh _______ is stored. Fresh water travels through the soil being _______ as it goes. It often ends up in underground _______ called aquifers, where we can get it when we need it.
Read about soil erosion
Soil erosion occurs when the topsoil disappears for some reason. Erosion can occur naturally as a result of wind or water, or as a result of human activities. It becomes a problem when human activity causes erosion to occur much faster than under natural conditions.
Soil plays a very important role in supporting life on Earth. When soil is eroded, it affects the ecology of the area where erosion has occurred. Plants use soil, not only for nutrients, but also to anchor themselves in the ground using their roots. Many animals, fungi and bacteria rely on soil as a place to live.
The atmosphere is affected because changes in the soil affect the rate at which gases, such as carbon dioxide, are released into the air. The quality of water is affected because the soil helps to filter and clean our water.
Activity 5: Describe the process of soil erosion
Write sentences about what will happen if too many goats are allowed to graze on a hillside. Make sure you organise your sentences in the right order.
Read about the effects of soil erosion
When the topsoil is eroded from an area, the area loses its most nutrient-rich layer, and therefore the ability of the soil to produce crops is reduced.
When the organic matter that is found within the top layer of soil is removed, the soil can no longer ‘hold’ water. This means that the area is more susceptible to extreme weather conditions such as droughts. As the soil is eroded and runs down to waterways, river banks can be eroded, causing rivers to break their banks during heavy rains. This causes flooding and more damage to the surrounding area.
Wind can also cause soil erosion by moving topsoil. Wind can also damage young seedlings by blasting them with sand and other small particles. Wind can uncover and expose some seedlings, while at the same time covering other seedlings with too much soil.
Soil erosion can be caused by human activities such as over-farming and overgrazing, or by natural phenomena such as wind. Over-farming occurs when farmers use their land too extensively without giving it time to rest and replenish. Instead of rotating crops so that the nitrogen is replenished in the soil, some farmers exhaust the land.
Overgrazing occurs when farmers keep too many animals for the available vegetation. All the vegetation is eaten by the animals. There are no roots left to hold the soil together, and no leaves to make humus. This leaves the land bare and exposed to wind and rain. In East Africa this is a serious concern, especially in the highland areas of Rwanda and Burundi.When land is over-farmed, the soil quality deteriorates. Poor-quality soil also means that farmers need to use artificial fertilisers, which can contaminate underground water.
When soil from farmers’ fields is carried away by water, it carries with it the contaminants. This runoff pollutes drinking water and disturbs the ecosystems of lakes and wetlands. This is harmful for the fish and wildlife that depend on these waters for their food and habitat.
Activity 6: Identify the stages of soil erosion
Look at the pictures below and then match each one to the correct sentence.
1. All the vegetation has been eaten, the land is overgrazed and there is nothing to stop soil erosion. The land becomes a desert.
2. When the land cannot sustain the cattle, sheep and goats are grazed there instead.
3. The soil is fertile and lots of plants grow in it.
4. Cattle are grazed and the smaller plants are eaten.
In the next section, you will learn more about plants.
Activity 7: Identify the ratio of plants to other species on Earth
The pie chart below shows the different kingdoms of living species on Earth.
1. Which is the largest species of living organisms on Earth?
2. Which is the smallest group of organisms?
3. Which is the second smallest group of organisms?
4. To which group do human beings belong?