Topic outline

  • I.0. About the teacher’s guide

    This book is a teacher’s guide for Physical Education and Sports senior three. It is

    designed to help teachers in the implementation of competence based curriculum.

    As the name says, it is a guide that teachers can refer to when preparing their lessons.

    Teachers may prefer to adopt provided activities/games/exercises and related guidance

    but they are also expected to be more creative and consider their specific classes’

    contexts and prepare accordingly.

    I.1. Structure of the guide

    This section presents the overall structure of this guide, the unit and lesson structure

    to help teachers to understand the different sections of this guide and what they will

    find in each section.

    I.1.1. Overall structure

    The whole guide has three main parts as follows:

    General Introduction.

    This part provides general guidance on how to develop the generic competences,

    how to integrate cross cutting issues, how to cater for learners with special

    educational needs, active methods and techniques of teaching Physical Education

    and Sports and guidance on assessment.

    Sample lesson plan

    This part provides a sample lesson plan, developed and designed to help the

    teacher develop their own lesson plans.

    Unit development

    This is the core part of the guide. Each unit is developed following the structure below.

    The guide ends with references.

    Note that this teacher’s guide has some changes considering the pre-developed number

    of units in the syllabus. The first three units of the syllabus (Unit 1: Motor control, Unit 2:

    Body control and balance, Unit 3: Gymnastics) were fused to make the First unit called

    Physical Conditioning and will be taught in 3 periods. Then, the unit 9 (Goal ball) and

    the unit 10 (Sitting volleyball) were merged to make unit 7 called Adaptive Sport and

    will be taught in 3 periods. Another change is in the number of periods for unit 5 (Basket

    ball) which become 3 instead of 4 as set in syllabus. Every teacher of Physical Education

    and Sport is recommended to consider these changes while preparing their scheme of

    work.

    I.1.2. Structure of a unit


    Each unit is made of the following sections:

    Unit title: from the syllabus

    Key unit competence: from the syllabus


    Prerequisites (knowledge, skills, attitudes and values)

    This section indicates knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the success of the

    unit. The competence-based approach calls for connections between units/topics

    within a subject and interconnections between different subjects. The teacher will find

    an indication of those prerequisites and guidance on how to establish connections.

    Cross-cutting issues to be addressed

    This section suggests cross cutting issues that can be integrated depending on the unit

    content. It provides guidance on how to come up with the integration of the issue.

    Note that the issue indicated is a suggestion; teachers are free to take another crosscutting issue taking into consideration the learning environment.

    List of lessons/sub-heading

    This section presents in a table suggestion on the list of lessons, lesson objectives copied

    or adapted from the syllabus and duration for each lesson. Each lesson /subheading is

    then developed.

    End unit assessment

    This part provides guidance on how to conduct the end unit assessment in a practical

    way. It suggests activities/ games as well as guidance on criteria to be considered such

    as:

    • Cognitive skills(e.g.: level of concentration, memory, capacity of anticipation,

    problem solving);

    • Technical competences (e.g.: to throw the ball, to catch it, to dribble it, to pass it

    to others etc);

    • Strong emotional points such as self-confidence and feeling secure;

    • Social competences such as cooperation and solidarity;

    • Attitudes and values: e.g.: optimism, confidence, respect and impartiality.

    Additional activities

    This section provides additional games/exercises for the teacher to have a wide range

    I.1.3. Structure of each lesson


    Each lesson/sub-heading is made of the following sections:

    Lesson title 1: ……………………………..

    Introduction:

    This section gives a clear instruction to teacher on how to start the lesson

    Teaching resources

    This section suggests the teaching aids or other resources needed in line with the

    activities to achieve the learning objectives. Teachers are encouraged to replace the

    suggested teaching aids by the available ones in their respective schools and based on

    learning environment.

    Steps of the lesson

    This section provides activities/games/exercises and guidance step by step: introduction;

    lesson development and assessment.

    I.2. Importance of PES subject

    Physical Education and Sport enables learner global development:

    • Physically, PES subject facilitates biological maturation (muscle development,

    widening of heart cavity, better pulmonary ventilation, coordination and motion

    speed). It also helps to prevent and correct the morphological and physiological

    defects;

    • Intellectually, the learner acquires knowledge and ability of concentration: he/

    she observes, recalls, performs experiments, uses strategies, evolves and makes

    decisions;

    • Emotionally, the learner is deeply involved: he/she discovers his/her own

    potentials; develops self-confidence, gets enthusiasm and happiness; 

    • Socially, the learner makes friends through playing and develops attitude and

    competence of communicating, cooperating and building positive relations with

    others.

    • Game and sport provide learners with an excellent context of learning how

    to develop and protect their health and welfare. Through the game, a learner

    discovers that he/she has to take care of him/herself and of others;

    • PES is a powerful way of building personality because it promotes self-confidence

    and competition skills. It develops knowledge and self-monitoring, respect of the

    law, will, attention, courage, and communication with others;

    • This subject enables early detection and enhancement of sport talents for young

    learners;

    • When games are carefully planned taking into account learner’s age, they

    enable learners to acquire practical competences such as respect, honesty,

    comprehension, communication, empathy, problem solving, comprehension of

    rules foundation and the way of complying with them;

    • Success in play and sport activities is a source of self-confidence which contributes

    to the improvement of performance in other subjects even for students with low

    academic performance;

    • Games contribute to bridge psychological gaps which usually exist between

    learners and teachers: when teachers regularly play with their learners, the mood

    becomes much more cordial and learners become more open;

    • Recreational and sport activities provide learners with a real relaxation after

    hours of intensive concentration.

    I.3. Methodological guidance

    I.3.1. Developing competences

    Since 2015 Rwanda shifted from a knowledge based to a competency based curriculum

    for pre-primary, primary and general secondary education. This called for changing

    the way of learning by shifting from teacher centered to a learner centered approach.

    Teachers are not only responsible for knowledge transfer but also for fostering student’s

    learning achievement, and creating safe and supportive learning environment. It implies

    also that a learner has to demonstrate what he/she is able to do using the knowledge,

    skills, values and attitude acquired in a new or different or given situation.

    The competence-based curriculum uses an approach of teaching and learning based on

    discrete skills rather than dwelling on only knowledge or the cognitive domain of learning.

    It focuses on what learner can do rather than what learners know. Learners develop

    basic competences through specific subject unit competences with specific learning

    objectives broken down into knowledge, skills and attitudes. These competences are

    developed through learning activities disseminated in learner-centred rather than the

    traditional didactic approach. The student is evaluated against set standards to achieve

    before moving on.

    In addition to specific subject competences, learners also develop generic competences

    which are transferable throughout a range of learning areas and situations in life. Below

    are examples of how generic competences can be developed in Physical Education and

    Sports:


    I.3.2. Addressing cross-cutting issues


    Among the changes in the competence based curriculum is the integration of cross

    cutting issues as an integral part of the teaching learning process-as they relate to and

    must be considered within all subjects to be appropriately addressed. The eight cross

    cutting issues identified in the national curriculum framework are: Genocide Studies,

    Environment and Sustainability, Gender Education, Comprehensive Sexuality Education

    (CSE), Peace and Values Education, Financial Education, Standardization Culture and

    Inclusive Education.

    Some cross cutting issues may seem specific to particular learning areas or subjects but

    the teacher need to address all of them whenever an opportunity arises. In addition,

    learners should always be given an opportunity during the learning process to address

    these cross cutting issues both within and out of the classroom so as to progressively

    develop related attitudes and values. 


    Below are examples on how crosscutting issues can be addressed in PES:


    I.3.3. Special educational needs


    Learners or people with disabilities did not always have equal opportunities in society.

    As far as games and sports are concerned, these learners are often relegated to

    the passive role of spectators rather than players. Currently we are convinced that

    games and sports are very beneficial to people with physical, mental, emotional and

    psychological disabilities.

    What attitude to adopt?


    To promote the integration of learners with disabilities during recreational and sports

    activities, the following tips may help teachers / educators in the training of these

    learners:

    • Adopt an approach of sport and game which is based on skills, you focus on what

    learners are capable of doing. In this respect, you can introduce small changes in

    games and activities for learners with disabilities;

    • Be relaxed and natural when you are with people with disabilities. Do not treat them as if they need your pity or your charity. Do not think they necessarily need

    help. Let them do and say things themselves;

    • Avoid keeping learners living with disabilities out of the game: in a regular class,

    let them participate in other’s games. However, avoid being too demanding

    about the level of their performance.

    What can we modify?

    Within the framework of integration of learners in games, according to the nature and

    the gravity of impairment, learners can, in some cases, participate in games designed

    for all learners. In other cases, the teacher or educator should think about changes

    he/she can make to meet the special needs of learners he/she has in the group. He/

    she should also think about adaptation of the game, the playground, equipment and

    duration of the game.

    Below are some examples of adaptation to initiate:

    Adapt roles and rules

    • Make the game easier or harder by changing some rules;

    • Let learners play different roles and in different positions;

    • Allow players to play in different ways, for example, sitting instead of standing;

    • Simplify expectations of the game;

    • Simplify instructions.

    Adapt the playground

    • Change the size of the playground. Enlarge or reduce the playground ;

    • Change the distance: for example, put a target closer;

    • Change the height of a target;

    • Allow more or less space between players;

    • Let learners move from different spaces.

    Adapt the materials

    • Reduce the size or weight of materials;

    • Choose balls of various textures, bright colours or balls which make noise.

    Adapt the duration of the activity

    Reduce or extend the time allotted to the activity.

    Aspects to consider when you want to modify an activity.

    Ask yourself the following questions:

    • Does the modification damage the activity? This should not be the case;

    • Does the modification correspond to the ability and duration of learners’

    attention?

    • Will the learner with disability be able to play with others?

    • Is the activity proportional to ages of participants?

    • Does the activity respond to the needs of all participants?

    Strategies to help learners with physical disabilities or mobility
    difficulties:

    • Adapt activities so that students who use wheelchairs or other mobility aids, or

    other students, who have difficulty moving, can participate.

    • Ask for adaptation of furniture – e.g. the height of a table may need to be changed

    to make it easier for a student to reach it or fit their legs or wheelchair under.

    • Encourage peer support between students.

    • Get advice from parents or a health professional about assistive devices.

    Strategies to help learners with hearing disabilities or communication
    difficulties

    • Always get the student’s attention before you begin to speak.

    • Encourage the student to look at your face.

    • Use gestures, body language and facial expressions.

    • Use pictures and objects as much as possible.

    • Ask the parents/caregivers to show you the signs they use at home for

    communication – use the same signs yourself and encourage other students to

    also use them.

    • Keep background noise to a minimum.

    Strategies to help learners with visual disabilities

    • Help students to use their other senses (hearing, touch, smell and taste) to play

    and carry out activities that will promote their learning and development.

    • Use simple, clear and consistent language.

    • Use tactile objects to help explain a concept.

    • If the student has some sight, ask them what they can see. Get information from

    parents/caregivers on how the student manages their remaining sight at home.

    • Make sure the student has a group of friends who are helpful and who allow the

    student to be as independent as possible.

    • Plan activities so that students work in pairs or groups whenever possible.

    I.3.4. Guidance on assessment


    Assessment in PE must be a continuing process that arises out of interaction during

    teaching and learning process. It includes lesson evaluation during R-C-A after each

    session and end of unit assessment. This formative assessment should play a big role

    in teaching and learning process. The teacher should encourage individual, peer and

    group evaluation of the activity done.

    In this step the teacher sets exercises to assess abilities, skills, knowledge and attitudes

    of individual learner basing on unit or lesson objectives. During assessment activity,

    learners perform exercises individually or work in teams. The teacher avoids intervening

    directly. In fact, results from this assessment inform the teacher on next steps for the

    whole class and individuals. In some cases the teacher can end up with giving remedial

    and extra activities.

    I.3.5. Teaching methods and techniques

    A. Suitable Methods / techniques to teach PES

    Physical Education and Sports is taught in the class rooms (e.g. using a projector and

    videos to teach steps of performing a technique, a system of game play, using a chalk

    board to teach rules of the game… ), in the play fields/courts ,in the gymnasiums, in the

    tracks and fields and in the swimming pools.

    Teaching methods include:

    • Demonstration method: A teacher makes him/herself a demonstration or asks a

    learner to do a demonstration. It is advised not to do a demonstration if you are

    not sure to do it better than every individual learner.

    Verbal Explanation: A teacher describes/explains activities he/she want learners

    to perform.

    • Practice session: Learners are given time to practice exercises intended to develop the desired skills.

    • Supervision: During a PE lesson the teacher plays a role of supervision where he/

    she must move around in field and make corrections for individual learner during

    exercises.

    • Correction: Corrections are done starting by group correction to individual

    correction. Corrections for inaccuracy in performing given techniques are done

    immediately.

    • Evaluation: Let learners do their own evaluation for each other, then help them

    by giving some advice using encouraging words. Evaluation is a continued activity

    throughout the physical exercises.

    • Discussion: Discussions are used before and after teaching and learning activities

    in open talks to motivate and develop attitude and values in learners

    • Application: Use of learnt physical education and sport skills in different situations

    to solve a given problem.

    • Videos and Pictures: Use of videos, show clearly a given tasks.


    Physical education in small schools or schools with limited facilities


    • Where schools have specific problems related to a lack of indoor and outdoor

    space, consideration might be given to:

    • The use of the classrooms, corridors and school grounds for orienteering exercises

    • The provision of markings on the playground for athletic activities and smallsided games

    • The use of local facilities, e.g. community centers, parish halls, youth clubs,

    colleges, higher learning institutions etc.

    • Co-operation with other primary or secondary schools in sharing facilities

    • Allocating more time to physical education in good weather

    • Visiting an outdoor education centre providing facilities for many worthwhile

    activities.

    B. Steps of a Physical Education lesson

    A physical education and sports lesson using play-based approach follows these steps:

    Opening discussions; warm-up activities; main activity or game itself; cool down and

    final discussions focusing on reflect, connect and apply 

    Introduction

    Step 1: Opening discussions


    The opening discussions prepare learners for the learning experience. Discussions

    encourage them to think about the learning objective of the play. Opening discussions

    include 1 to 2 quick questions to stimulate learners’ curiosity and engagement.

    Strategies for good discussions:

    • Set appropriate arrangement for good discussions: e.g. semi-circle, circle,

    U-shape

    • Set ground rules which create a safe atmosphere for learners

    • Prepare learners for discussions

    • Ensure interactive and inclusive discussions

    • Acknowledge each learner’s contribution

    • Ensure classroom management and control

    Step 2: Warm-up activities

    A warm-up is performed before a game/play. It helps the body activation and prepare

    itself for a physical exercise and reduces the chance of injury. The warm-up should be a

    combination of rhythmic exercise which begins to raise the heart rate and raise muscle

    temperature, and static stretching through a full range of motion.

    Lesson Development

    This has two steps(step3,4) as follow:

    Step 3: Main activity or game itself

    A game/play is chosen according to the age of learners and skills you want to develop.

    Adapt the games to the differences among learners.

    Step 4: Cool down

    A cool down activity is an easy exercise that allows the body to gradually transition to

    a resting or near-resting state.

    Assessment

    Assessment in PE lesson is done when learners are performing exercises/activities/

    games. At this level, through the R-C-A discussions the teacher allows learners to do

    their self evaluation and provide the feed-back.

    Step 5: R-C-A discussions Reflect-Connect-Apply is a teaching and learning

    strategy that leads learners through a 3-step discussion about their experience:

    • Reflect on the game/play. The teacher asks questions about their experience and

    feelings during the game. Examples: What was interesting? What was easy? What

    was challenging? What strategies have you used to win? How did you feel in case

    of success or failure?

    • Connect to life experiences and lesson content. The teacher asks questions like:

    How does this game connect to what you already know, believe or feel? Does it

    reinforce or expand your view? The teacher also asks questions that connect the

    game to lesson content

    • Apply acquired experience to another situation. The teacher asks questions like,

    “How could you use what you have learned from this experience? How could you

    use your new learning to benefit yourself, others, your community?” Learning is

    transferred and applied.

    RCA is based on the work of educationalists such as Freire, Brown, Piaget, Brantford

    and others who support the concept of an educational process that is active, relevant,

    reflective, collaborative and applied, and has its roots in experiential learning theory

    (Kolb, 1984).

    Play-based learning technique is closely linked to the Experiential Learning Cycle. It

    starts with a game or play-based activity and ends with a closing Reflect, Connect and

    Apply (RCA) discussion linked to the subject matter. 



    PART II. SAMPLE LESSON PLAN







    • 1.1 Key unit competence


      Perform muscular exercises and gymnastic movement with agility and flexibility.

      1.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills

      Learners of senior three will learn better physical conditioning if they can perform

      muscular and different gymnastic exercises with agility and flexibility.

      1.3. Cross- cutting issues to be addressed
      Gender Education

      In teaching and learning process, the teacher must prepare and provide physical

      activities that engage both girls and boys equally to exploit their full potential and

      talents without any discrimination or prejudice.

      Inclusive education

      The teacher as a facilitator must consider different special education needs and select

      activities to adapt his teaching approaches to learners. This creates a positive attitude

      and helps all learners to participate actively and develop their competence levels.

      Financial education

      The teacher should integrate Financial Education into his teaching/learning activity by

      providing the local and no cost teaching material where possible. He must encourage

      learners to make their own materials that can help them to develop competences not

      only in sport but also in their life.

      Standardization culture

      The teacher must select the standardized materials to use in his teaching/learning

      process. It is necessary to provide appropriate materials required to the levels of

      learners and help them to develop culture of checking the quality of sport materials

      before their use to prevent injuries and other accident.

      Environment and sustainability

      The teacher should provide materials and deliver the lesson by encouraging learners

      to protect the environment and proper use of materials. The teacher helps them to

      develop fair play avoiding violence in the game.

      Peace and values education

      The teacher helps learners to develop fair play and avoiding violence and conflict in the

      game by setting clear and relevant instructions. He should provide the activities that

      help learners to develop their competence peacefully.

      Comprehensive sexuality education

      A teacher provides physical activities and sets instructions that prevent sexual

      harassment, any kind of gender based violence like sexual abuse and “bad touches”.

      1.4. List of lessons and assessment



      Lesson 1: Motor control and balance exercises
      a. Prerequisites

      Learners of senior three will learn better motor control and balance exercises if they

      can execute muscular development exercises, create physical exercises and explain the

      importance of physical exercises to the body.

      b. Teaching resources

      Playground, whistle, rope, stick, mat

      c. Introduction
      Opening discussions

      Ask questions related to physical and muscular development exercises based on motor

      control and balance.

      Example of questions

      What sports do you like to practice?

      What is the importance of motor exercises?

      Why is it necessary to do body balance exercises?

      What are other reasons of motor development?


      Warm-up activities


      Organizing learners and telling them to perform exercises of activating the body by

      jogging around the ground with different speed, jump, swing the arms alternatively

      forward and backward, clap hands, roll and throw with or without the ball, specifically

      according to the lesson and teacher’s instructions. Let one of learners to lead stretching

      exercise systematically according to the target. 


                                             Learners are performing warm up exercises

      d. Lesson development

      Motor control and balance exercises include balance techniques, jumping rope, push

      up, suppleness and dancing techniques.

      For each technique :

      • Show learners how to execute the basic skills

      • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

      support

      Balance technique

      • Standing on one leg while arms are opened at 90 degrees

      • Changing the leg after 10 seconds

      • Stand in bending position while arms are joined straightly in front direction

      • Keep free leg straightly in backward position.

      • Stand on one leg while arms are joined upward

      • Keep the free leg in front direction makes 90 degrees

      • Changing the leg after 10 seconds. 



      Jumping rope technique

      • Organizing learners in rows with ropes

      • Moving forward while jumping the ropes passed over the head

      • Increase speed according to teacher’s signals on a distance of 50 meters and turn





      Push up technique

      • Organizing learners in distant rows

      • Lie on ventral position

      • Put palms on the flow

      • Maintain the position while arms are straight and lift their body and balance on

      palms

      • Bend the elbows and lowering the entire body until upper arms are parallel to

      the floor

      • Push back-up



      Suppleness technique


      • Tell learners to perform stretching exercises focusing on different parts of the

      body. Cervical, pelvic, scapular, thoracic areas, abdomen, upper and lower limbs

      to develop suppleness.

      • Tell learners to perform exercises of balancing by standing on one leg while arms

      are opened at 90 degrees and change the leg after 10 seconds. 

      • Tell learners to perform exercises of balancing by extending legs while arms are

      opened at 90 degrees and keeping head up.

      • Tell learners to make flexion of legs and decrease angles’ size according to

      teacher’s signals.

      • Tell learners to make flexion of left leg while the right one is opened straightly

      and change the side according to teacher’s signals.


      Dancing technique

      • Organizing learners in rows

      • Tell learners to listen to traditional and modern dances using selected music

      using radio

      • Tell learners to make movement following the rhythm of the song

      • Tell learners to perform traditional and modern dances using selected music and

      make more repetitions


      Cool-down activities

      March on the ground while arms are relaxing and moving in different directions,

      swing the arms forward and backward, clap hands, jog, stretch, jump change activity

      according to teacher’s signals.

      E. Assessment

      Final discussion
      Reflect

      • What are challenges/ advantages to perform motor control and balance exercises?

      • How did you proceed to achieve physical and muscular development exercises?

      Connect

      • What are other conditions do you need physical and muscular work?

      • What are other conditions do you need suppleness and balance?

      Apply

      • How will you use suppleness and balance in your daily life?

      • How will you perform physical and muscular activity in your daily life?


      Lesson 2: Gymnastic exercises


      a. Prerequisites

      Learners of senior three will learn better gymnastic exercises if they can carry out

      different gymnastic exercises on ground and with apparatus, demonstrate the best

      way of making gymnastic movements, identify gymnastic exercises and describe their

      movement’s actions.

      b. Teaching resource

      Playground, whistle, tree, balls, circle, clubs, ribbon, mats, parallel and horizontal bars,

      gymnasium.

      c. Introduction

      Opening discussions

      Ask questions related to gymnastic exercises and their importance to the body

      Example of questions

      What sport do you like to practice?

      What is the importance of gymnastic exercises?

      Why is it necessary to perform gymnastic exercises?

      What are other reasons of using gymnastic exercises?

      Warm-up activities

      Let learners perform warm up exercises and stretch their body parts specifically refer

      to stretching of lesson one

      d. Lesson development

      Gymnastic exercises comprise rolling forward and backwards techniques.

      For each technique:

      • Show learners how to execute the basic skills.

      • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

      support.

      Technique 1: Rolling backward


      1. Stand: stand up with legs and back straight, hands at your sides

      2. Crouch: crouch down onto your knees

      3. Begin to roll. Roll backward onto your back

      4. Gather your legs. Put your hands just below your hips t hold your legs up into the

      air.

      5. Flop your legs down

      6. Stand up

      Increasing the number of repetitions one after another,


      Technique 2: Rolling forward


      1. Stand: stand up with legs and back straight, hands at your sides

      2. Crouch: crouch down onto your knees

      3. Begin to roll. Roll forward onto your back

      4. Gather your legs. Put your hands just below your hips to hold your legs up into

      the air.

      5. Flop your legs down

      6. Stand up

      Increasing the number of repetitions one after another


      Cool-down activities


      Tell learners to march on the ground while arms are relaxing and moving in different

      directions of the ground and clap twice according to teacher’s signals.

      e. Assessment

      Final discussion

      Reflect


      • What are challenges/ advantages to perform gymnastic exercises?

      • How did you proceed to achieve rolling exercises?

      Connect

      • What are other conditions do you need to roll?

      Apply

      • What is the usefulness of rolling in your daily life?

      • How will you use rolling in your daily life?

      1.5. Additional information for teachers

      Provide and select all needed materials to facilitate learners to improve their

      competence’s level

      Check the use of those materials and experiment before being presented to learners

      Make a serious research to provide a quality and relevant physical exercise in the safe

      environment

      Let learners perform exercises systematically from simple to complex and use materials

      where it is necessary according to the specific lesson needs.

      Organize learners to perform adequate static /dynamic stretching exercises.

      1.6. End unit assessment

      Perform muscular and gymnastic exercises of balance, jumping, push up, dancing,

      suppleness and rolling technically with flexibility and agility.

      1.7. Additional activities

      • Frequent physical conditioning exercises of balance, jumping, push up, dancing,

      suppleness and rolling technically.

      • Regular practices in groups to help each other’s performance.

      • 2.1. Key unit competence

         After this unit, learners will be able to refine different types of running, jumping, and

        throwing techniques with abilities.

        2.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills

        Learners of senior three will learn better athletics if they can run different races, jump

        different types and perform throwing techniques.

        2.3. Cross- cutting issues to be addressed

        Gender

        Prepare and provide physical activities that engage both girls and boys equally to

        exploit their full potential and talents without any discrimination or prejudice.

        Inclusive education

        Consider different special education needs and select activities to adapt his teaching

        approaches to learners. This creates a positive attitude and helps all learners to

        participate actively and develop their competence levels

        Financial education

        Integrate Financial Education into teaching/learning activity by providing the local

        and no cost teaching material where possible. Encourage learners to make their own

        materials that can help them to develop competences not only in sports but also in

        their life.

        Standardization culture

        Select standardized materials to use in his teaching/learning process .It is necessary

        to provide appropriate materials required to the levels of learners and help them to

        develop culture of checking the quality of sport materials before their use to prevent

        injuries and other accident.

        Environment and sustainability

        Provide materials and deliver the lesson with encouraging learners to protect the

        learning environment and well use of materials. Help them to develop fair play and

        avoid violence in their games.

        Peace and values education

         Help learners to develop fair play by avoiding violence and conflict in the game. Set

        clear and relevant instructions. Provide activities that help learners to develop their

        competence peacefully.

        Comprehensive sexuality education

        A teacher provides physical activities and sets instructions that prevent sexual

        harassment, any kind of gender based violence like sexual abuse and “bad touches”.


        Lesson 1: Exercises of sprint, middle distance running, relays and hurdles
        a. Prerequisites

        Learners of senior three will learn better exercises of speed running if they can perform

        different running with maximum speed

        b. Teaching resources

        Play ground, whistle, stones, mats, batons, starting block, and athletic rules.

        c. Introduction

        Opening discussions

         Ask questions related to exercises of speed running and explain their importance to

        the body and to the society.

        Example of questions

        What sport do you like to practice?

        What is the importance of running in your plays?

        What are other reasons of run without playing?

        Warm-up activities

        Tell learners to make four lines and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

        around the ground with increasing speed according to teacher’s signals. Asking one of

        them to lead stretching exercises

        d. Lesson development

        Speed running comprises sprint, relay and sprint hurdles. Each running technique is

        performed by following steps: Block placement and adjustment, on your marks”, “Set”

        position, drive” and acceleration

        For each technique:

        1. Crouch start

        Show learners how to execute the basic skills

        Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary support

         Block placement and adjustment

        • Placing the 1 ½ front block behind starting line

        • Placing the 1 ½ rear block behind front block 

        • Maintaining the Front block set flatter 

        • Adjusting the rear block set steeper




        “On your marks” position

        1. Place the both feet behind the starting line on the starting blocks

        2. Hands should be slightly wider than shoulder with

        3. Arms should be straight but not locked at the elbow

        4. The fingers must be behind the starting line

        5. The fingers should form a bridge with the thumbs pointing towards one another

        6. The head and the neck should be in line with the spine

        7. Eyes are kept looking straight down 


        “Set” position

        1. Hips raised to a position slightly higher than the shoulder

        2. There should be angle of 900 at the front knee

        3. There should be an angle of 1200 on the rear knee

        4. The head and neck should be in line with the spine

        5. Flexing the trunk inclined forward

        6. Keeping the shoulders slightly ahead of the hands

        7. Eyes focused on the track one or two meters ahead 


         Drive”

        1. The sprinter begins in a crouched position, in the starting blocks, and pushes 

        forward while leaning ahead

        2. The sprinter should lean with his whole body rather than bending at the hips

        3. The sprinter must maintain the maximum velocity as long as possible up to the

        final stage


        Acceleration

        • Developing movement of the front foot

        • Maintaining forward lean

        • Maintaining the position of lower legs

        • Increase the stride length and frequency

        • Maintain straighten trunk gradually

        Techniques of Sprint hurdles

        • Usually eight strides to the first hurdle (take off leg is in the front position in

        starting blocks).

        • Up right body position is achieved earlier than in sprint start

        • The athlete is leaning towards the hurdle and driving the right knee at the hurdle

        • The leading arm is driven forward and up (ideally to forehead height)

        • Executing clearance movement for an excellent landing


        Technique of alternate exchanges of the baton

        • The first runner carriers the baton in the right hand,

        • The second runner receives the baton in the left hand,

        • The third runner receives the baton in the right hand,

        • The fourth runner receives the baton in the left hand


        Techniques of zone and check marks

        • Exchanging the baton

        • Make an acceleration in their relative zones

        • Checking marks placement

        • Keep foot length from the start zone 


        Techniques of acceleration with the baton

        • Maintaining a consistent acceleration of the out-going runner

        • Making verbal command to the athlete for presenting the receiving arm 


        Techniques of passing the baton

        • Visual and non-visual keeping on the athlete

        • Push pass of the baton

        • Perform upsweep up-sweep

        • Perform down- sweep


        2. Standing start ( middle distance running)

        “On your marks” position

        1. Stand with one foot forward and one foot back (left or right)

        2. Make sure that the front foot is pointed forward, it should be behind and not

        touching the starting line

        3. The back foot is also pointed forward, with the heel raised off the ground.

        4. The toes of back foot should be about one foot- length behind the heel of front

        foot.

        5. The feet should be shoulder- width apart, rather than one directly behind the

        other.

        6. Look forward to the finish line.

        7. The arms can be relaxed in this stance.

        8. Flex at the hips and knees, weight every distributed over both feet.

        9. Look downwards the front foot.

        10.Place the opposite arm and leg forward.

        “Go”, the sound of any apparatus

        1. Push off with both feet, springing away from the starting line.

        2. Drive with a big, strong arm action.

        3. Keep the eyes down so that all of the power is being directed through the top

        of the head.

        4. Push, push, push!

        5. Gradually rise up to the full sprinting position. 


        Cool-down activities

        Tell learners to march on the ground while arms are relaxing and moving in different

        directions of the ground and raise hands twice according to teacher’s signals.

        e. Assessment

        Final discussion

        Reflect

        What did you do to achieve proposed exercises?

        Connect

        What are other conditions that engage you to run with speed?

        Apply

        How will you use running speed in your daily life?


        Lesson 2: Exercises of long distance running

        a. Prerequisites

        Learners of senior three will learn better endurance running if they can perform

        different running exercises with endurance

        b. Teaching resources

        Play ground, whistle, mats and athletic rules

        c. Introduction

        Opening discussion

        The teacher asks questions related to exercises of endurance running and explain their

        importance to the body and to society

        Example of questions

        • What sport do you like to practice?

        • What is the importance of endurance running?

        • What are other reasons of endurance running without playing?

        Warm-up activities

        Tell learners to make four lines and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

        around the ground with maintaining a medium speed. Asking one of them to lead

        stretching exercises.

        d. Lesson development

        Endurance running comprises starting position, middle and long distance running

        For each technique :

        • Show learners how to execute the basic skills

        • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

        support

        Technique 1: Standing Starting position “on your marks” position

        • Place the foot in supportive and flight position

        • Start position with weight over the front foot

        • Maintain the arm position

        • Maintain a correct placement of the foot

        • Keep head up and eyes looking forward

        Technique 2: Run

        • Push off with both feet, springing away from the starting line.

        • Drive with a big, strong arm action.

        • Keep the eyes look forward so that all of the power is being directed through the

        top of the head.

        • Push, push, push!

        • Gradually rise up to the full sprinting position


                                  Cool-down activities


        Tell learners to march on the ground while arms are relaxing and moving in different

        directions of the ground and raise hands twice according to teacher’s signals.

        e. Assessment
        Final discussion

        Reflect

        What did you do to achieve endurance running exercises?

        Connect

        What are other conditions that engage you to run a middle and long distance?

        Apply

         How will you use middle and long distance running in your daily life?


        Lesson 3: Exercises of jumping


        a. Prerequisites

        Learners of senior three will learn better exercises of jumping if they can perform

        different types of jumping exercises.

        b. Teaching resources

        Playground, whistle, mats, decameter, athletic rules.

        c. Introduction

        Opening discussions

         The teacher asks questions related to exercises of jumping and explain their importance.

        Example of questions

        • What sports do you like to practice?

        • What is the importance of jumping ?

        • Which types of jumping can you perform?

        • What are other reasons of jumping?

        Warm-up activities

        Tell learners to make four lines and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

        around the ground. They increase speed and jump according to teacher’s signals.

        Ask one of learners to lead stretching exercises.

        d. Lesson development

        This lesson comprises techniques of long jump, triple jump and high jump.

        For each technique :

        • Show learners how to execute the basic skills;

        • Let learners practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

        support;

        • Control how learners perform jumping exercises with techniques.

        Technique 1: Long jump

        Approach :

        1. Begin the run with their left/right foot forward. This foot is used to push down,

        to start the forward movement.

        2. The athlete should also be leaning forward.

        3. After a few strides the athlete should be in the full upright sprinting position.

        4. Keeping the acceleration through the board, to convey your maximum

        controlled horizontal velocity, into vertical velocity.

        5. The last step is short to help maintain speed. In this step the foot should be

        out in front of the athlete’s body, and flat on the ground. Flexion occurs at the

        joints of this leg but the centre of gravity is lifted.

        The take off :

        1. Our take off leg is the one that stays on the ground to support your weight

        2. If you are right –handed, your take off, leg will be your left leg.

        3. The aim is to attain height so that you can stay in flight longer and further.

        4. Place the foot flat on the ground for take -off.

        5. Taking off heel- first will reduce your speed, while taking off on the toes

        decreases stability and increases risk of injury.

        Flight:

        1. Bring your arm forward as if you are trying to reach for your toes.

        Landing:

        1. It is imperative not to fall backward into the landing pit.

        2. Bring your heels up and your head towards or sideways after landing on their

        heels.
        Technique 2: Triple jump

        Triple jump or ‘hop, stop and jump’ can be broken down into three phases; the approach,

        take off, and landing.

        The Approach:

        • 12-18 step run ups are most common, with more experienced athletes using the

        longest.

        • The approach should provide velocity, accuracy, and get the athlete to a good

        physical position.

        • Gradual acceleration is a key aspect of the approach, reaching maximal controlled

        speed when reaching the board.

        • The approach phase is split into 4 smaller parts, the start, drive phase, continuation

        phase, and the transition phase.

        The Start

        • Athletes either start with what is known as the crouch or rollover technique.

        • The crouch start does exactly what it says. The athlete starts with the front knee

        over the toes of the same leg. The upper body is bent over so that the shoulders

        are down by the thigh of the front leg. Hips should be at least in line with the

        shoulders if not above them. From here the run begins with a forceful push up

        and out. This position does not allow the athlete to see the board or sand which

        can be seen as a disadvantage.

        • The rollover start allows the athlete to stand much more upright. Then a rocking

        motion takes place shifting the weight to the back foot and back. As the weight is

        shifted forward the athlete flexes at the waist and bends forward before pushing

        forcefully up and out into the first step.

        The Drive Phase

        • The development of momentum is the key aspect of the drive phase

        • The strides should be long and powerful in this phase because most of the

        acceleration should take place here.

        • The athlete should also drive into an upright position around 6 strides into the

        run.Look directly at the board in this phase.

        The Continuation Phase

        • Consists of more acceleration but it is less obvious than in the drive phase.

        • This phase goes right up to the last 4 strides of the approach, where the transition

        phase begins.

        • Keep the head more upright but still have the board within sight.

        The Transition Phase

        • To gain success in the triple jump this phase of the approach must be spot on.

        • It is vitally important for the athlete to keep accelerating through this phase.

        Over accelerating, or decelerating will cause problems for the athlete.

        • The penultimate step does not really change as it does in other jumping events

        because of the lower takeoff angle needed in the triple jump.

        • In the final steps the body should be pushed upward, with the angle of the shin

        in comparison with the ground almost vertical.

        • Keep the head upright throughout this phase and eye contact with the board is

        lost. However if an athlete eye has been kept on the board until this point the

        location of it should be planted in their head.

        The Take-off:

        • On the board the take-off foot should be planted almost flat, directly under the

        body’s centre of mass, with the shin vertical.

        • The ankle must stay strong through flexion at the ball of the foot.

        • The athlete should maintain contact with the board until the shin has moved

        forward, so that the knee is over the toes.

        • The next part is to extend the hip to push off the board.

        • If the takeoff is executed correctly the athlete’s body should be well in front of

        the takeoff foot before the foot leaves the board.

        • The thigh of the other leg should be brought forward, but this does not mean

        lifting the knee.

        • The arms should either keep pumping or both arms should be brought forward

        as the athlete leaves the board.

        The 3 Phases:

        a. Hop

        • The main point of the hop is to take off and land on the same foot, whilst gaining

        distance, maintaining horizontal velocity and making sure the body is in a position

        to complete the next phase.

        • After the takeoff the first stage of the hop is to bring the thigh forward with the

        foot coming up close to the bum.

        • The lower part of the takeoff leg then prepares to make contact with the ground

        by moving down and forward.

        • The free leg plays an important part in reducing forward rotation and maintaining

        good balance. To do this the hip has to extend, knee straightens, which allows

        the leg to extend and fall.

        b. Step

        • The main point of the step phase is to land on the other foot to which was used

        to take off from the board and during the hop phase.

        • However as with the hop, maintaining horizontal velocity, gaining distance, and

        preparing for the next phase are important.

        • A swing of the free leg is very important within this phase. The leg has to come

        from behind to finish in a lengthened position just in front of the body as it makes

        contact with the ground.

        • The step needs a high takeoff angle, higher than the hop. So because the athlete

        is already moving horizontally due to the previous stages they should concentrate

        all their energy on pushing vertically.

        c. Jump

        • The final phase is the jump where the athlete should still attempt to gain distance,

        maintain horizontal velocity and prepare the body for the landing.

        • The success of this phase really depends upon how the athlete has performed in

        the previous phases.

        • Most athletes will use the hang technique, with arms stretched over their head,

        and legs hanging down to control the forward rotation. Some athletes may

        attempt the hitch-kick with the free leg, but in the triple jump they have little

        time in the air.

        The Landing:

        • Throughout the whole of this phase the athlete’s head and torso should be

        upright.

        • The arms start to move down from above the athlete’s head.

        • Both legs come forward, landing slightly heel first.

        • When the athlete lands they need to continue the forward movement by flexing

        the hips and knees. This will allow the athlete’s bum to reach their heels.

        • As this happens the athlete must kick their feet out of the sand, so their bum can

        land in the footprints, to maintain the distance.

        Technique 3: High jump

        Preparation

        • Perform approach by accelerating;

        • Develop maximum velocity and curve running;

        • Carry out take-off movement;

        • Develop take-off velocity (Vertical)

        • Take-off time (short) ;

        • Maintain position of feet;

        • Move leading arm and positioning hips (Raised over the bar).


        The landing area for high jump


        Bar rotation (scissor techinique)

        • Carry out fosbury flop movement

        • Execute take-off body position

        • Rotate around vertical axis

        • Make arch and un-arch the body

        • Coordinate movement of legs, arms, hips

        • Make position of knees


        The fosbury flop technique

        Landing

        • Keep head drawn towards the chest;

        • Land on the shoulders and back ;

        • Keep knees part for touching down.

        Cool-down activities

        Telling learners to march on the ground while arms are relaxing and moving in different

        directions of the ground and raise hands twice according to teacher’s signals.

        e. Assessment

        Final discussion

        Reflect

        What did you do to achieve jumping exercises?

        Connect

        What are challenges did you meet while jumping ?

        How did you proceed to overcome those challenges ?

        What are other conditions that engage you to jump?

        Apply

        How will you use jumping in your daily life?


        Lesson 4: Exercises of throwing


        a. Prerequisites

        Learners of senior three will learn better throwing if they can perform different exercises

        of throwing objects.

        b. Teaching resources

        Playground, discus, javelin, sticks, balls, whistle, mats, decameter, athletic rules.

        c. Introduction

        Opening discussions

         The teacher asks questions related to throwing and explain their importance.

        Example of questions

        • What sports do you like to practice?

        • What is the importance of throwing in sport?

        • Which types of throwing can you perform?

        • What are other reasons of throwing without playing?

        Warm-up activities

        The teacher tells learners to make four lines and perform exercises of activating the

        body by jogging around the ground. They can rotate arms according to teacher’s signals

        and instructions. The teacher asks one of them to lead stretching exercises.

        d. Lesson development

        This lesson comprises techniques of javelin throwing, discus throwing, shot put and

        hammer throwing.

        For each technique :

        • Show learners how to execute the basic skills;

        • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

        support;

        • Control how learners perform throwing exercises with techniques.

        Technique 1: Javelin throw

        Javelin grip

        • Applying grip of javelin by placing thumb and first fingers;

        • Laying the javelin diagonally in the hand ;

        • Positioning palm faces upward with relaxing grip hand.


        Javelin throw

        Javelin Technique

        The following sequence is written for a right-handed thrower.

        1. Start

        • The athlete stands with the javelin in their right hand held around head height

        facing the direction of the throw.

        • Shoulders and hips are square to the front

        • As the athlete moves forward they build from a jog to a run

        • Beginners are recommended to start with 9-11 paces, whereas most elite athletes

        will use a run up of between 25-30 meters.

        2. Run

        • A couple of paces before the crossovers begin the athlete will start to draw the

        javelin back behind them.

        • Most athletes have a marker on the track where they start the crossover phase.

        • Generally around the (elite) fifth pace before the throwing position is achieved.

        • This is initiated by the right leg going out and across the left leg.

        3. Crossovers

        • At the beginning of the crossovers the athlete starts to move sideways and the

        left hip starts to face the direction of the throw.

        • The left arm goes back across the body as legs cross.

        • And the javelin is drawn back fully by the throwing arm.

        • The penultimate step is the impulse step when the right knee (leg) pushes off to

        achieve the plant and then release (last push off of the right leg) with the rhythm

        1-2,3

        • Left foot is 1 and impulse step with the right leg is 2, and 3 is the left leg.

        • Give enough time between 1 & 2 otherwise athlete will run forward into the throw

        releasing in front of the left leg.

        • As the athlete comes out of the crossover, the correct throwing position of the

        javelin and body is essential to allow an efficient transfer of energy from the

        athlete to the implement.

        • Position of Javelin and shoulders ; alignment should be parallel with javelin

        slightly higher.

        • Left (lead) leg foot on ground heel down left arm bent in front.

        • The throwing arm held as far back as possible

        4. Release

        • Left arm action upon landing of lead (left) leg is to pull the (left hand) fist to the

        left shoulder as if performing a single arm curl.

        • Don’t be to aggressive as this can cause over rotation.

        • Right arm action needs to bump the Javelin through the point of the throw to

        allow efficient transfer of energy

        • Visualization of right arm/shoulder pronation – body resembles a bow.

        • Left (block) leg pointing towards infield, right leg back then rotate right hip (toe/

        heel block) and the feeling is like trying to smack a wall with a hammer (similar to

        cracking a whip) with release point just in front of the head and left (block) foot.

        • Block in order to achieve acceleration so the javelin is released in double support

        phase (both feet on the ground)

        • Don’t run through so that the release beyond the left foot.

        5. Reverse

        Because of the forces generated the athletes body is forced up and over the straight left (block) leg and after release the athlete continues forward with the right leg coming

        forward to prevent foul.



        Sector of throw javelin



        Technique 2: Shot put

        The shot put gripping

        • Applying how to grip the shot put by maintaining shot rest

        • Place parallel fingers and slightly spread

        • Hold the shot on the front part of the neck

        • Maintain the elbow out to the body 


        Preparation

        • Carrying out start upright at the rear of the circle

        • Back to the stop board

        • Bending trunk forward parallel to the ground

        • Balancing the body in the single support

        • Supporting the leg bent while

        • Make the free leg drawn towards the back of the circle

        Gliding

        • Glide off the right foot to its heel

        • Place it in the centre

        • Coordinate landing feet simultaneously

        • Land left foot on the ball 

        • Maintain landing feet on the ground

        Rotation

        • Executing preparation with non support and maintaining foot placement;

        • Delivering with increasing power position, accelerating and making final arm

        movement;

        • Recovering with changing legs quickly after the release by bending right leg,

        lowering upper body, swinging the left leg backwards and keeping eyes look

        down.
        Sector of throwing


        Technique 3: Discus throw

        Discus gripping

        • Making preparation by holding the discuss

        • Facing back to the throwing direction

        • Bending knees slightly

        • Keeping the weight on the balls of the feet

        • Keeping arms nearly to the shoulder height 


        Foot placement

        • Making preparation with non-support

        • Providing support and maintaining momentum

        • Delivering by the maintenance of power position and acceleration

        • Recovering with changing legs quickly after the release

        • Bending right leg lowering upper body

        • Swinging the left leg backwards and keeping eyes look down 


        Sector of throwing discuss


        Cool-down activities

        Telling learners to march on the ground while arms are relaxing and moving in different

        directions of the ground and raise hands twice according to teacher’s signals.

        e. Assessment

        Final discussion

        Reflect

        What did you do to achieve throwing exercises?

        Connect

        What are other conditions that engage you to throw?

        Apply

        How will you use throwing in your daily life?

        2.5 . Additional information for teachers

        • Prepare learning area and consider favorable weather condition to conduct

        teaching.

        • Place learners in columns, lines or semi circles and other positions in way of facing

        all of them while spreading information and delivering the lesson.

        • Chose and provide update materials according to the class size, locally availability

        and simply to be used without any case of injury or accident.

        • It is necessary to have the first aid kit to use in case of accident.

        • Provide teaching materials and makes experiment before their use in the lesson.

        • Invite learners to make demonstration of proposed physical activities and provide

        necessary support.

        • The high speed is necessary for a nice take off.

        • Height from the ground should be moderate.

        • After landing move forward and leave the pit.

        • After throwing, the thrower should wait under all thrown or instructed to collect

        the implement by the coach.

        • Left handed thrower should be placed to left and right handed thrower to the

        right side of a group.

        2.6. End unit assessment

        • Perform exercises of speed running, middle and long running and relay running

        with techniques

        • Perform exercises of long jump, triple jump, huddles and high jump with

        techniques

        • Perform exercises of javelin throw, shot put throw, discus throw and hammer

        throw with techniques.

        2.7 . Additional activities

        • Regular exercises of running, jumping and throwing races with more repetitions.

        • Regular participation in mass sport at school and in their villages.

        • 3.1. Key unit competence

          After this unit, learners will be able to refine defensive and offensive strategies and

          techniques used in football and adhere to rules of the game.

          3.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills

          Learners of senior three will learn better football if they can apply various defensive

          and offensive strategies and techniques during a football game, express the role of

          playing as a team member and apply rules of the game.

          3.3. Cross- cutting issues to be addressed

          Gender education

          In teaching and learning process, prepare and provide physical activities that engage

          both girls and boys equally to exploit their full potential and talents without any

          discrimination or prejudice.

          Inclusive education

          Consider different special education needs and select activities to adapt teaching

          approaches to learners. This creates a positive attitude and helps all learners to

          participate actively and develop their competence levels.

          Financial education

           Provide local and no cost teaching material where possible. Encourage learners to make

          their own materials that can help them to develop competences not only in sports but

          also in their life.

          Standardization culture

          Choose standardized materials to be used in teaching/learning process. It is necessary

          to provide appropriate materials required to the levels of learners and help them to

          develop culture of checking quality of sport materials before their use to prevent

          injuries and other accident.

          Environment and sustainability

          Encourage learners to protect the environment and well use of materials. Help them to

          develop fair play and avoid violence in their games

          Peace and values education

          Help learners to avoid conflicts in their games by setting clear and relevant instructions

          Provide activities that help learners to develop their competence peacefully

          Comprehensive sexuality education

          Provide physical activities by setting instructions that prevent sexual harassment and

          any kind of gender based violence like sexual abuse and “bad touches”

          3.4.List of lessons and assessment


          Lesson 1: Playing football adhering to rules
          a. Prerequisites

          Learners of senior three will learn better playing football if they can interpret rules of

          the game.

          b. Teaching resources

          Playground, balls, whistle, cones, equipment, chasubles, goalposts.

          c. Introduction

          Opening discussions

          The teacher asks questions related to football game and its rules explain their

          importance to the body and to society.

          Warm-up activities

          Tell learners to make four lines and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

          around the ground with maintaining a medium speed.

          Warming up with a ball in groups. Ask one of them to lead stretching exercises.

          d. Lesson development

          This lesson of playing football adhering to rules comprises the reminding to rules and

          football techniques in a game situation

          For each technique:

          • Show learners how to execute the basic skills

          • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

          support.

          • Control how learners perform the playing techniques adhering to rules.

          Reminding football rules

          • Explain rules of football that can be followed during a game situation by describing

          different sizes of the ball based on age of players.

          • Describe the measurement of the playing field and the number of players

          • Discuss the duration of the match and the number of football game officials.

          • Describe the fouls and infractions that can be committed in the game and their

          relative punishments or sanctions.

          • Discuss on how the goal is scoring.

          The game situation

          Let learners play football with the adherence to rules. The teacher facilitates the game

          by sharing responsibilities where two teams are playing while outfield teams judge the

          progress by identifying different fouls and their penalties during the game (offside,

          penalty, simulation, free kick, referees positions, assistant referees movements, how to

          conduct or rise the flag). The teams exchange responsibilities accordingly.


          Cool-down activities

          Tell learners to march on the ground, relaxing arms and legs with moving in different

          direction together and raise hands twice according to teacher’s signals.

           E. Assessment


          Final discussion

          Reflect

          What did you do to win the match exercises?

          Connect

          What are other conditions that engage you to respect rules or instructions?

          Apply

          How will you use rules in your daily life?

          Lesson 2: Techniques and tactics in attack and defense

          a. Prerequisites

          Learners of senior three will learn better techniques and tactics in attack and defense if

          they can play football game

          b. Teaching resources

          Playground, balls, whistle, cones, equipment, chasubles, goalposts

          c. Introduction


          Opening discussions

          Ask questions related to techniques and tactics of playing football and explain their

          importance in the game.

          Warm-up activities

          Tell learners to make four lines and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

          around the ground with maintaining a medium speed. Warming up with balls in groups.

          Ask one of them to lead stretching exercises.

          d. Lesson development

          This lesson comprises techniques and tactics in attack and defense.

          For each technique and tactic:

          • Show learners how to execute the basic skills;

          • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

          support;

          • Control how learners perform attack and defense with techniques;

          Techniques of attack 

          1. Passing techniques

          • Placing the non-striking foot next to the ball, pointing at their target and locking

          the striking ankle with relaxing the body;

          • Keeping head up to find a teammate and then look back to the ball before

          striking it;

          • Following through with the striking foot in the direction of the target;




          2. Techniques of controlling the ball

          • Keeping the head relaxed and watch the ball carefully to judge its speed and

          height.

          • Moving both feet quickly while the body is in front of the ball regularly.

          • Deciding early the body part that will control the ball and relax it.

          • Cushioning the ball by withdrawing the body part controlling the ball and keep

          it close to the body after controlling.


          3. Shooting techniques

          • Keep eyes on the ball and head up to focus the target then look back to the ball

          before shooting.

          • Approach the ball slightly from the side and place the non-striking foot directly

          to the side of the ball.

          • Strike the centre of the ball for rising it too high and keep the upper body still

          and strike through the ball.




          4.Heading techniques

          • Taking position by placing both feet in a balanced position, with knees bent and

          weight centered.

          • Keeping the eyes open and focus until the contact of the ball

          • Keeping the upper body straight, neck and back muscles braced and close the

          mouth

          • Moving the head back slightly to reach forward with the hands at chest height.

          • Releasing the stored power into the ball and pull the hands back to the chest as

          in a quick rowing movement with thrusting the head forward.

          • Striking the ball with the forehead, between eyebrows and hair line.

          • Following through toward the target.


          5. Dribbling techniques

          • Taking short steps to drive the ball with the inside, outside or instep of the foot

          • Alternating feet and keep the ball close to the body.

          • Making the awareness with the ball, the space on the field and any defender



                        Controlling and dribbling the ball with different body parts

          Techniques of defense

          1. Tackling techniques

          • Place the non-striking foot directly next to the ball and lock the ankle joint of the

          tackling foot.

          • Bend the knees slightly to take the force of tackling and lean the head and body over the ball.

          • Tighten the upper body by clenching hands and contact the centre of the ball

          with the inside of the foot before the opponent contact

          • Win the duel on the midfield and pressuring the opponents to make mistakes

          • Intercept the ball towards the opponent according to its speed

          • Tackle the ball based on game rules and regulations

          • Kick the ball using the regular body parts to defend the goal

          2. Goal keeping techniques

          • Defending the opponent’s high cross and stopping shots

          • Defending the one on one in the game situation

          • Keeping eyes on the opponent penalties’ shooter to discover the direction of the

          ball headed

          • Manifesting developed reflexes and agility in the game



                                  Different ways of catching and controlling the ball

          Tactics

          1. Counter - attack technique

          • Quickly running with the ball for unbalancing the opponent’s defense.

          • Executing a long and deep pass to the front attacker.

          • Timing the reception and control the ball to ensure the quick game .

          • Shooting on finishing to score the goal


          2. The team formations

          Introducing the attacking or defensive style they wish to play for winning the game

          Describing the 4-4-2 positions of players on the field

          The 4-4-2 formation is the most famous and widely used in Football. It gives a team

          the most balance. It means that a team has four defenders, four midfielders and two

          attackers. It is a very solid formation. The defenders are protecting the goalkeeper and

          supporting the rest of the team. The midfielders are supporting the defenders and

          attackers. It can easily be adapted into a 4-3-3, 3-5-2 or 5-3-2 formation.


          Describing the 4-3-3 positions of players on the field

          The attacking formation 4-3-3 allows a team to have three attackers while still having

          a strong midfield and defense. The midfielders must work harder. But it gives a team

          the opportunity to pass the ball wide instead of going through the centre. One or two

          attackers usually play just behind the main forward to help support the midfield and collect the ball. The 4-3-3 can easily switch back to a 4-4-2 formation.


          Describing the 4-4-1-1 positions of players on the field

          Similar to the 4-4-2, the second attacker plays just behind the main forward and links up

          with the midfield. This variation causes problems for the opposing defense. The second

          attacker is harder to mark because she/he is free to move anywhere on the field in an

          attacking position. This player is usually the most creative on a team.


          Describing the 4-5-1 positions of players on the field

          The 4-5-1 formation is becoming more popular in world football. It is a solid defensive

          strategy because at times 10 players will be behind the ball. It is used by teams against

          very strong opponents to reduce scoring chances. It is a good formation for keeping

          possession and breaking down an attack. But it is not good for creating goal-scoring

          opportunities because the single attacker is alone and unsupported.


          Describing the 3-4-3 positions of players on the field

          The 3-4-3 is a strong attacking formation. A third attacking midfielder plays just behind

          the two forwards and links up with the midfield. A more defensive midfielder will play in

          front of the defenders to support them when the team does not have the ball.


          Describing the 4-3-2-1 positions of players on the field

          The 4-3-2-1, or Christmas tree formation, is similar to the popular 4-4-2 and 4-5-1

          formations. A single forward is supported by two attackers who link up with the

          midfield. It is a strong attacking formation. It is used by teams who have good, creative

          players and hard working midfielders.


          Cool-down activities

          Telling learners to march on the ground relaxing arms and legs with moving in different

          direction together and raise hands according to teacher’s signals.

          e. Assessment


          Final discussion

          Reflect:

          What did you do to achieve attacking and defending techniques?

          Connect

          What are other conditions that engage you to use techniques?

          What are other conditions in that you need referees?

          Apply

          How will you serve the society as referee?

          How will you use techniques in your daily life?

          Lesson 3: Fouls and their sanctions during the game

          a. Prerequisites

          Learners of senior three will learn better fouls and their penalties if they can play

          football game and identify fouls and penalties.

          b. Teaching resources

          Play ground, balls, whistle, cones, equipment, chasubles (pinny), goals, yellow card, red

          card, FIFA rule book.

          c. Introduction

          Opening discussions

          Asks questions related to fouls and their penalties sanctions that can be committed by

          football players in a game.

          Warm-up activities

          Let learners make two rows and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

          around the ground with maintaining a medium speed. Warm up with balls in groups.

          Ask one of them to lead stretching exercises.

          d. Lesson development

          This lesson comprises football fouls and their penalties

          For each foul

          Explain learners how it can be committed and its relative sanction.

          Fouls and their sanctions during a football game

          1. Fouls that merit direct free kick

          • charges;

          • jumps at ;

          • kicks or attempts to kick;

          • pushes ;

          • strikes or attempts to strike (including head-butt) ;

          • tackles or challenges;

          • trips or attempts to trip

          If an offence involves contact it is penalized by a direct free kick or penalty kick;

          Careless is when a player shows a lack of attention or consideration when making a

          challenge or acts without precaution. No disciplinary sanction is needed;

          Reckless is when a player acts with disregard to the danger to, or consequences for, an

          opponent and must be cautioned;

          Using excessive force is when a player exceeds the necessary use.

          A direct free kick is awarded if a player commits any of the following offences:

          • handles the ball deliberately (except for the goalkeeper within their penalty

          area);

          • holds an opponent;

          • impedes an opponent;

          • spits an opponent.

          2. Fouls that merit indirect free kick

          (A yellow card is shown by the referee to indicate that a player has been officially

          cautioned)

          a. When a goalkeeper, inside his own penalty area:

          • Controlling the ball with his hands for more than six seconds before releasing it

          from his possession;

          • Touching the ball again with his hands after he has released it from his possession

          and before it has touched another player;

          • Touching the ball with his hands after it has been deliberately kicked to him by a

          teammate, or thrown to him from a throw-in (the back-pass rule).

          b. When any player in the opinion of the referee:

          • Playing in a dangerous manner;

          • Impeding the progress of an opponent when the ball is not within playing distance

          of either player;

          • Preventing the goalkeeper from releasing the ball from his hands;

          • Committing any other offence, not previously mentioned in Law 12, for which

          play is stopped to caution or send off a player;

          • Some technical breaches of the rules, such as the offside offence, result in play

          being restarted with an indirect free kick, though these are not considered fouls

          and will never be punished by a caution or dismissal..

          Misconduct that merits a yellow card (caution)

          A player is cautioned and shown a yellow card in case of:

          • Unsporting behavior;

          • Dissenting by word or action;

          • Persistent infringement of the Laws of the Game;

          • Delaying the restart of play;

          • Failing to respect the required distance (9.15m) when play is restarted with a

          corner kick, throw-in or free kick;

          • Entering or re-entering the field of play without the referee’s permission;

          • Deliberately leaving the field of play without the referee’s permission.


          3. Fouls that merit red card (removal)

          The misconduct for which a player may be sent off are:

          • Serious foul play and violent conduct;

          • Spitting at an opponent or any other person;

          • Denying the opposing team a goal or an obvious goal scoring opportunity by

          deliberately handling the ball (this does not apply to a goalkeeper within his own

          penalty area);

          • Denying an obvious goal scoring opportunity to an opponent moving towards

          the player’s goal by an offence punishable by a free kick or a penalty kick (in 2016

          it was changed to caution as long as it is not violent in nature);

          • Using offensive, insulting or abusive language and/or gestures;

          • Receiving a second caution in the same match.


          Cool-down activities

          Tell learners to march on the ground relaxing, arms and legs with moving in different

          directions together and raise hands according to teacher’s signals.

          e. Assessment

          Final discussion

          Ask questions corresponding to the lesson for developing values in learners.

          Reflect:

          What do you do to play a fair game?

          Connect

          What are other conditions that you merit sanctions/punishment?

          What are other conditions in that you need referees?

          Apply

          How will you correct fouls and misconduct in your daily life?

          How will you serve the society as referee?

          3.5. Additional information for teachers

          1. Referees position on the field of play

          The Referee can go anywhere on the football field with keeping close to the ball for

          making a quick decisions and correctly. He has two assistant referees where each one

          is responsible for one end of the field. One patrols from the halfway line to one goal

          line on one side of the field while the other patrols from the halfway line to the other

          goal line on the opposite side of the field. The assistant referees raise a flag and decide

          on corner kicks, throw-ins, the ball goes out of play, when there is an offside, a foul has

          been committed that the referee has not seen.


          If a player commits a direct free kick offence within his own penalty area, a penalty kick

          is awarded irrespective of the position of the ball, provided the ball is in play.

          2. Other offences

          Not all infractions of the Laws are fouls.

          Non-foul infractions may be dealt with as technical infractions (e.g. as breaching the

          rules governing the restarts of play) or misconduct (these are punishable by a caution

          or sending-off). Note that persistent infringement of the Laws is an offence for which

          the player may be cautioned.

          What constitutes caution able unsporting behavior is generally at the referee’s

          discretion, though the interpretation and guidelines which accompany the Laws list

          a number of examples. These include simulation intended to deceive the referee, or

          attempting to score by handling the ball. Fouls which are committed recklessly or 

          fouls which are committed with the intention of breaking up a promising attack are

          also considered unsporting behavior and punishable with a yellow card. Fouls which

          are committed with excessive force, however, or which deny an obvious goal scoring

          opportunity for the player fouled (i.e. a professional foul), are punishable by a red card.

          A player is shown a red card to indicate his dismissal from the game. Law 12 of the Laws

          of the Game lists the categories of misconduct for which a player may be sent off.

          3.6 . End unit assessment

          Defend and attack using strategies and techniques of football while adhering to rules

          in the game situation.

          Assess how learners perform techniques of attack and defense adhering to rules.

          3.7. Additional activities

          • Distribute balls to learners for regular familiarization with the ball;

          • Competition between small groups and choose their own referees and assistant

          referees ;

          • Competition between classes and forming school teams and participate in

          interschool competitions.

          • 4.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills

            Learners of senior three will learn better volleyball if they can use different defensive

            and offensive volleyball techniques in various game situations, apply basic rule, state

            and explain different offensive and defensive techniques and strategies.

            4.3. Cross- cutting issues to be addressed
            Gender education

            In teaching and learning process, the teacher must prepare and provide physical

            activities that engage both girls and boys to exploit their full potential and talents

            without any discrimination or prejudice.

            Inclusive education

            The teacher as a facilitator, he/she must consider different special education needs and

            select activities to adapt his teaching approaches to learners. This creates a positive

            attitude and helps all learners to participate actively and develop their competence

            levels.

            Financial education

            The teacher should integrate Financial Education into his teaching/learning activity by

            providing the local and no cost teaching material where possible. He must encourage

            learners to make their own materials that can help them to develop competences not

            only in sport but also in their life.

            Standardization culture

            The teacher must choose and select the standardized materials to use in his teaching/

            learning process .It is necessary to provide appropriate materials required to the levels

            of learners and help them to develop culture of checking the quality of sport materials

            before their use to prevent injuries and other accident.

            Environment and sustainability

            The teacher should provide materials and deliver the lesson with encouraging learners

            to protect the environment and well use of materials.

            Peace and values education

            Help learners to develop fair play and avoid violence and conflict in the game by setting

            clear and relevant instructions. Provide the activities that help learners to develop

            their competence peacefully. The teacher helps them to develop fair play and avoiding

            violence in the game.

            Comprehensive sexuality education

            Provide physical activities and set instructions that prevent sexual harassment, any kind

            of gender based violence like sexual abuse and “bad touches.”

            4.4. List of lessons and assessment


            Lesson 1: Volleyball techniques and tactics in attack

            a. Prerequisites

            Learners of senior three will learn better volleyball techniques and tactics in attack if

            they can play volley ball.

            b. Teaching resources

            Playground, balls, whistle, cones, equipment, chasuble (pinny), net, rope and trees.

            c. Introduction

            Opening discussions

             Ask questions related to volleyball techniques and tactics in attack and their importance.

            Warm-up activities

            Let learners to make two rows and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

            around the ground with maintaining a medium speed. Warming up specifically with

            balls in groups. Ask one of learners to lead systematic stretching exercises.

            d. Lesson development

            This lesson comprises techniques and tactics of attack in volleyball.

            For each technique and tactic:

            • Show learners how to execute the basic skills;

            • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

            support;

            • Control how learners perform attack with techniques.

            Techniques of attack in position 4

            • Attacking with precise of line attack according to the long pass ;

            • Attacking with correct diagonal attack according to the long pass;

            • Attacking with precise end line attack according to the long pass.


            Techniques of attack in position 3

            • Attacking with precise of line attack according to the short pass;

            • Attacking with correct diagonal attack according to the short pass ;

            • Attacking with precise of end line attack according to the short pass.


            Techniques of attack in position 2

            • Attacking with precise of line attack according to the medium pass

            • Attacking with correct diagonal attack according to the medium pass

            • Attacking with precise of end line attack according to the medium pass 


            Techniques of passing the ball

            1. Overhead pass

            • Positioning legs on court according the teammate positions;

            • Positioning hands and shoulders according to the height of the ball;

            • Passing the ball according to the desired direction and distance ;

            • Following through and holding position according to the target .


            2. Forearm pass

            • Positioning legs according to the ball trajectory and desired direction ;

            • Positioning arms and shoulders according to the ball trajectory and desired

            direction;

            • Passing the ball according to the blocking and attacking side ;

            • Following through the ball according to the target.


            3. Set pass

            • Positioning the body on court according to the net set up;

            • Orientating the ball according to the attacker position ;

            • Contacting the ball according volley ball rules and regulations .

            Tactics of receiving the ball

            1. Receiving the ball with forearm right side

            • Receiving the ball with forearm right side according to the attack situation;

            • Receiving the ball systematically with forearm right side according to the service;

            • Receiving the ball correctly with right forearm according to the ball orientation .


            2. Receiving the ball with forearm left side

            • Receiving the ball with forearm left side according to the attack situation ;

            • Receiving the ball systematically with forearm left side according to the service;

            • Receiving the ball correctly with left forearm according to the ball orientation .


            3. Receiving the ball with forearm front forward

            • Receiving the ball with forearm front side according to the attack situation;

            • Receiving the ball with systematically with forearm front side according to the

            service;

            • Receiving the ball correctly with front forearm according to the ball orientation. 


            Techniques of simple underhand service

            • Positioning feet together;

            • Step the left foot forward to begin;

            • Shift body weight from front leg to back leg;

            • Hold ball in left hand, out in front of striking hand;

            • Bend slightly at the elbow and waist;

            • Hold striking hand in a fist position forearm turned upward or to the side;

            • Bring the striking hand back and then quickly forward to serve the ball;

            • Follow through but the striking arm does not cross in front of body.


            Technique of simple floater serve

            • Positioning the body for ball set up according the requirements of the floater

            serve techniques;

            • Tossing and contacting the ball with the serving arm according to the height limit

            of the floater serve;

            • Orientating the ball according to the opponent’s side and defense’s formation.


            Technique of simple overhead topspin serve

            • Tossing the ball in the air according to the height of the server;

            • Jumping movement according to the serving zone limits;

            • Contacting the ball with the serving arm according to the timing of the server; 

            • Orientating the ball according to the opponent’s side and defense’s formation.


            Volleyball tactics
            1. Digging tactics

            • Moving according to the court and playing position;

            • Organizing the defensive patterns according to the ball trajectory;

            • Taking a ready posture in anticipation according to the physical condition of

            player. 


            2. Blocking tactics

            • Blocking carefully according to the pass and attacker techniques;

            • Blocking with preservation of net according to the fitness of the blocker ;

            • Blocking according to the prescribed defense system with back line players


            3. Setting tactics

            • Passing with precision according to the strategic demands.

            • Passing carefully to deliver the pass according to the qualities of attacker.

            • Passing to the convenient attacker according to the blocking side and points .

            4. Receiving tactics

            • Moving and taking position according to the opponent server’s position.

            • Taking position according to the teammates placement.

            • Receiving and directing the ball to the setter according to his/her position on

            court .

            5. Serving tactics

            • Serving strategically according to the weakness of opponent player’s position.

            • Positioning the forward players according to the opponent receiving strategy .

            • Executing service according to the setter position .


            6. Spiking tactics

            • Moving according to the type of setting .

            • Contacting the ball according to its height .

            • Orienting the ball according to the opponent defending system and strategy. 

            When a team regains the serve, all the players move one position clockwise. This means

            that all players have to play both in front court and in the back court.


            Cool-down activities

            Let learners to march on the ground relaxing, arms and legs with moving in different

            direction together and raise hands according to teacher’s signals.

            e. Assessment


            Final discussion


            Reflect:

            What do you do to play a fair game?

            Connect

            What are other conditions that need techniques and tactics?

            Apply

            How will you use learnt techniques and tactics in your life to serve the society.

            Lesson2: Volleyball techniques and tactics in defense with rules

            a. Prerequisites

            Learners of senior three will learn better this lesson if they can play volley ball.

            b. Teaching resources

            Playground, balls, whistle, cones, equipment, chasuble, net, rope and trees.

            c. Introduction

            Opening discussions

             Ask questions related to volleyball techniques and tactics in defense.

            Warm-up activities

            Let learners make two rows and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

            around the ground with maintaining a medium speed. Warm up specifically with balls in

            groups. Ask one of them to lead systematic stretching exercises.

            d. Lesson development

            This lesson comprises techniques and tactics of defense in volleyball and rules.

            For each technique and tactic

            • Show learners how to execute the basic skills.

            • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

            support.

            • Let learners discuss on rules and you provide correct explanations.

            • Control how learners perform volleyball defense with techniques.

            Volleyball defensive position

            1. Middle hitter defense

            • Develop an oriented movement according to the opponent pass .

            • Making arms and legs position on the court according to the height and ball

            trajectory .

            2. Right side hitter defense

            • Move to the right side of the court for the front players.

            • Place the right side defender according to the ball trajectory.

            • Place the back player to cover the rest of the court according to the ball direction. 


            3. Left hitter defense

            • Deciding moves and gestures of the left side players according to the ball height

            and direction .

            • Placing left hitter defender according to the point contact of the ball.

            • Placing the back players according to  the ball trajectory. 


            Volleyball blocking techniques

            • Handling the ball according to the height of the setting.

            • Moving feet according to the attack zone and movements.

            • Taking position of the feet and body balance according to the position of the

            attacker.

            • Timing the attack and react according to the movement of the attacker.

            • Taking the blocking Taking the blocking position according to the timin.

            • Jumping and arm/hand positioning adequately according to the attack height.

            • Opening hands and spread fingers according to the attacker’s power .

            • Orienting the ball according to the direction of the attack.

            • Landing on both feet carefully according to the core body balance 


            Volley ball rules

            • Describe volleyball court;

            • Describe net and posts;

            • Describe the ball;

            • Identify participants;

            • Describe points, set and match winner;

            • Describe preparation of the match and structure of play;

            • Describe playing action;

            • Identify game interruptions, delay and intervals;

            • Describe libero player;

            • Identify participants’ conducts;

            • Identify referees, their responsibilities’ and officials signals.

            4.5. Additional information for teachers

            Describe volleyball rules and leadership skills as team captain.

            Volleyball court

            1. Volleyball court


            The field must be rectangular and symmetrical. The court length is 18m and 9m wide

            and be surrounded by a free area of at least 3 m wide on all sides. Lines are 5cm wide

            and must be light in color different from the court.

            In each camp there is a line of attack, the outer edge is drawn in 3 meters from the axis

            of the center line and which marks the front area (players cannot take back pulse in the

            that front area to attack once they are in back area .

            The height of the net is 2.43m high for men, 2.24m high for women and 2.13 m or lower

            for children aged 12 years or younger for high young player

            2. The ball

            It is spherical, flexible, light-colored synthetic leather cover. Smaller and lighter than

            a basketball, the volleyball is 63.5 to 68.6 cm in circumference and weighs 255 to 283,

            internal pressure: 0.30 to 0.325 kg/cm3.

            3. Team and how to play

            • A six-person volleyball team includes three front-row players, who stand near the

            net (4-3-2) from left to right position and three back-row players (5-6-1) from left

            to right position.

            • When a team gains possession of the serve, its players rotate their positions,

            moving clockwise. For example, the player who was in the right-front position

            moves into the right-back, or serving, position.

            • The server starting the game stands anywhere behind the end line. Only one

            attempt is allowed on the serve.

            • By hitting the ball back and forth over the net, with the hands, forearms, head, or any part of the body, play is continued until one team fails to keep the ball in play

            (in the air) or until a rule violation is committed.

            • The ball must be returned by a team over the net after no more than three hits,

            and no player may hit the ball twice in succession.

            • The return over the net must be done without catching, holding, or carrying the

            ball, without a player touching the net, and without entering the opponents’

            area.

            • A player keeps serving as long as his or her team continues to win points. The

            serve must rotate to a new player each time a team wins back the service.

            4. Scoring system.

            Officially, a volleyball match is won by the team that wins the best of five sets or (3

            wined sets). All sets are rally scored. In the rally score system, a point is awarded on

            each service or side out. This means that a receiving team’s error or penalty results in a

            point. Likewise, a serving team’s error or penalty results in a point and the ball for the

            receiving team to serve. It isn’t necessary for the winning team to be serving when the

            winning point is scored.

            A set is won by the team which first scores 25 points with a minimum lead of two points.

            In the case of a 24-24 tie, play is continued until a two point lead is achieved.

            The deciding set of any match (3rd or 5th game) is played to 15 points. The winner is

            the first team to achieve 15 points with a minimum lead of two points. Play is continued

            until a two point lead is achieved.

            A default game results if a team cannot field six players or fails to begin play after the

            referee request. Default games are scored either 25-0 or 15-0 depending on the set

            being played. In a set to 25 points, if a default is due to injury, the losing team keeps its

            points and the winning team is credited with at least 25 points or up to 27 if necessary

            to provide a two point victory.

            5. Officials

            In competitive volleyball include a referee, scorer, umpire, and line judges.

            1st Referee

            The first Referee is in full control of the match including settling all questions of rules

            and those things not covered by rules. The first Referee has the right to overrule all

            other officials. The first Referee also has the power to impose sanctions on players. The

            first Referee is positioned at one end of the net; with her/his head above the net. After

            blowing a whistle to stop play, the first Referee uses hand signals to indicate who won

            the point, the fault committed, or replay.

            2nd Referee

            The second Referee is concerned with such matters as service order of each team,

            keeping time, assisting in making calls, supervision of substitutions, signaling the end

            of play, and replacing the first Referee, if necessary. The second Referee is positioned

            on the floor at the opposite end of the net from the first referee

            Scorekeeper:

            The scorekeeper sits on the side of the court opposite the 1st Referee and records

            all scores, makes sure the serving order and rotation are correct, keeps track of

            substitutions and time outs, and keeps track of protests. The scorekeeper also indicates

            when a team has scored an 8th point in a deciding game so that sides can be switched.

            6. Rights and Responsibilities of the Participants

            Only the playing captain or coach may ask for a time-out or substitution and only when

            the ball is not in play. Only the playing captain may speak to the referees. And the

            team captain is responsible for the conduct and discipline of his team. It is the only one

            allowed to speak to the referees when the ball is offside for an explanation.

            7. Players Equipment

            Uniforms must be similar; each player wears a jersey, shorts and socks of the same

            color. The Libero, if used, will wear uniform of contrasting color.

            8. Misconduct

            Individual sanctions may be assessed against a player or coach for a variety of

            unsportsman like actions during or between games including: shouting at an opponent;

            addressing officials about their decisions; trying to distract an opponent; or coaching in

            a disruptive manner.

            a. Yellow or Warning Card

            This is given for minor unsporting offenses. A second yellow card to an individual will

            result in an automatic red card. It goes together with 1 point for other team.

            b. Red or Penalty Card

            This is given for serious offenses. If a team is serving and receives a red card, they will

            lose the serve. If the team receiving serve get a red card, their opponent will receive a

            point.

            c. Expulsion

            This is given for extremely offensive behavior. The player is out for the rest of the game.

             No additional penalty is given.

            d. Disqualification:

            This is called when a player receives a second expulsion during a match or when physical

            aggression is shown toward an official, another player, or a spectator. The player is

            ordered from the playing area for the balance of the match. No other penalty is given.


            4.6 . End unit assessment

            Organize volleyball matches competition between teams and assess learners’ abilities

            to apply volleyball techniques and tactics such as: service, dig, pass, spike, set, and

            block. Let them refereeing the match and observe the respect of volleyball rules and

            the leadership skills of the team captain.

            4.7. Additional activities

            • Reduce rules for slow learners and allow them to play the ball regularly.

            • Organize competitions between small groups and choose their own

            referees and assistant referees

            • Competition between classes and forming school teams and participate

            in interschool competitions and refereeing matches

            • 5.1. Key unit competence

              After this unit, learners will be able to refine defensive and offensive basketball

              techniques in various game situations and adhere to rules of the game.

              5.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills

              Learners of senior three will learn better basketball if they can use different defensive

              and offensive basketball techniques in various game situations, apply basic rule, state

              and explain different offensive and defensive techniques and strategies.

              5.3. Cross - cutting issues to be addressed


              Gender education

              In teaching and learning process, prepare and provide physical activities that engage

              both girls and boys to exploit their full potential and talents without any discrimination

              or prejudice.

              Inclusive education

              Consider different special education needs and select activities to adapt teaching

              approaches to all learners. This creates a positive attitude and helps all learners to

              participate actively and develop their competence levels.

              Financial education

              Integrate Financial Education into teaching/learning activity by providing the local

              and no cost teaching material where possible. Encourage learners to make their own

              materials that can help them to develop competences not only in sport but also in their

              daily life.

              Standardization culture

              Choose and select the standardized materials to use in teaching/learning process .It is

              necessary to provide appropriate materials required to the levels of learners and help 

              them to develop culture of checking the quality of sport materials before their use to

              prevent injuries and other accident.

              Environment and sustainability

              Provide materials and deliver the lesson with encouraging learners to protect the

              environment and well use of materials. Help them to develop fair play and avoiding

              violence in the game.

              Peace and values education

              Help learners to develop fair play and avoiding violence and conflict in the game by

              setting clear and relevant instructions. Provide activities that help learners to develop

              their competence peacefully.

              Comprehensive sexuality education

              Provides physical activities and sets instructions that prevent sexual harassment, any

              kind of gender based violence like sexual abuse and “bad touches”.

              5.4. List of lessons and assessment


              Lesson 1: Basketball tactics and techniques in attack

              a. Prerequisites

              Learners of senior three will learn better basketball techniques and tactics in attack if

              they can perform basketball skills adhering to rules.

              b. Teaching resources

              Playground, basketballs, whistles, cones, equipment, chasubles (pinny), trees, rim.

              c. Introduction

              Opening discussions

              Ask questions related to basketball techniques and tactics in attack and their importance

              to player

              Warm-up activities

              Let learners to make two rows and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

              around the ground with maintaining a medium speed. Warming up specifically with

              balls in group.

              Ask one of them to lead systematic stretching exercises.

              d. Lesson development

              This lesson comprises techniques and tactics of attack in basketball.

              For each technique and tactic:

              • Show learners how to execute the basic skills

              • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

              support

              • Control how learners perform attack with tactics and techniques.

              Techniques of passing and receiving the ball

              • Pushing the ball according to the receiver’s position

              • Catching the ball according to the height and speed


              Techniques of dribbling the ball

              • Maintain standing position with wide stance of feet

              • Bounce the ball in regular distance of the body

              • Keep your head up and eyes forward

              • Manipulate the ball with left or right hand


                                                  Picture of dribble in movement, zigzag
              Techniques of shooting a ball

              • Keep position and maintain body balance

              • Hold the ball in the correct way

              • Keep eyes on the target

              • Release the ball according to the target



              Individual tactics in attack

              • Taking and maintain triple treat position ready to pass, shoot or dribble

              • Using player’s body gestures

              • Keep head up and eyes on opponent and teammates

              • Move on respective position accordingly 


              Teaching triple treat position

              • Feet spacing

              • Bend the knees

              • Heap up

              • Use correct pivot feet

              Collective tactics in attack

              • Move on the court to create free space

              • Cooperate with teammates in offensive strategies

              • Change direction according to offensive system 


              Cool-down activities

              Let learners to march on the ground relaxing , arms and legs with moving in different

              direction together and swing the arms alternatively forward and backward according

              to teacher’s signals.

              e. Assessment
              Final discussion

              Reflect

              What do you do to play a fair game?

              Connect

              What are other conditions that need techniques and tactics?

              Apply

              How will you use learnt techniques and tactics in your life to serve the society

              Lesson 2: Basketball tactics and techniques in defense

              a. Prerequisites

              Learners of senior three will learn better this lesson if they can perform basketball skills

              adhering to rules.

              b. Teaching resources

              Playground, basketballs, whistles, cones, equipment, chasubles (pinny), trees, rim.

              c. Introduction

              Opening discussions

              Ask questions related to basketball techniques and tactics in defense

              Warm-up activities

              Let learners make two rows and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

              around the ground with maintaining a medium speed. Warm up specifically with balls in

              groups. Ask one of them to lead systematic stretching exercises.

              d. Lesson development

              This lesson comprises techniques and tactics of defense in basketball and rules

              For each technique and tactic

              • Show learners how to execute the basic skills

              • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

              support

              • Let learners discuss on rules and you provide correct explanations

              • Control how learners perform basketball defense with techniques and tactics

              Techniques of defending the opponent with the ball

              • Take the position according to opponent with the ball

              • Target the ball and maintain the body balance

              • Defend between the ball and the basket wide


              Tactics of defending the opponent without the ball

              • Orient one hand toward the ball and other hand toward the opponent

              • Prevent the opponent to receive or have the ball

              • Keep eyes on the opponent to the outside, toward the sideline and keeping him

              away from the lane 


              Techniques of moving in defense

              • Make steps when sliding in defensive movement

              • Move according to the opponent action

              • Execute defensive rebound


              5.5. Additional information for teachers

              BASKET BALL BASIC RULES

              1. To shoot the basketball through the hoop as often as possible

              • Each time this happens 2 points will be added to your team’s score.

              • 3 Points will be awarded if the basketball is shot from outside the three-point line.

              • 1 point will be awarded if the basket is shot from the free-throw line.

              2. Each team has a maximum of 5 players on the court at any time. Substitutes are made

              by the Coach to replace players on the court. They are substituted or subbed-off.

              This can only be done at certain times in the game and the referee will let you know

              when it is ok. This can take place as often as the coach likes.

              3. The team who has control of the basketball is on offence. The team without the ball

              is on defense. Both parts of the game are equally important. Teams on defense are

              trying to stop the offence from shooting a hoop. The defense should always try to

              stay between the basket and the players they are guarding.

              4. There are two ways for the ball to be moved up the court on offence , by dribbling

              the ball, which is by bouncing the ball with one hand only on it, or by passing it to

              another of your team members. Passing is a lot faster and ensures all team members

              enjoy the fun of the game.

              5. While stationary (not passing or dribbling) the player holding the ball must always

              keep one of their feet on the floor, this is called the pivot foot. Players can only lift

              their foot if they wish to dribble, pass or shoot the ball. The pivot foot can twist but

              must remain in contact with the floor and in the same place. If players move their

              foot / feet without dribbling, passing or shooting they are penalized and the ball

              given to the other team, this is called travel.

              6. The ball must stay within the court of play (inside sidelines and baselines); otherwise

              it goes to the other team.

              7. No player may contact an opposition team member; this is called a foul. If a foul

              takes place while a player is shooting for a basket, the shooter is given free shots

              from the free-throw line.

              • If the basket (while being fouled) is scored, 2 points are awarded and 1 free-throw

              is taken.

              • If the basket misses. 2 free-throws are given.

              • If a player receives 5 fouls during a game they must leave the court and can take

              no more part in the game

              8. Duration: Generally in junior and senior competition a game is made up of four

              quarters of ten minutes each.

              9. Timeouts: A time-out is an interruption of the game requested by the coach or

              assistant coach to talk to their players; When a timeout is called players must hurry

              to the sideline to talk with their coach. Each time-out shall last 1 minute.

              Each team may be granted:

              • •2 time-outs during the first half,

              • •3 time-outs during the second half with a maximum of 2 of these time-outs in

              the last 2 minutes of the second half,

              • •1 time-out during each extra period.

              Note: Unused time-outs may not be carried over to the next half or extra period.

              10.Rebounding: Players should assume that every basket shot will miss. Getting

              possession of the ball after a missed shot is called a rebound. When 2 players get

              possession of the ball at the same time this is called a jump ball. A jump ball starts

              the beginning of a game and after half time.

              FOULS AND VIOLATIONS IN BASKETBALL

              1. Personal fouls: Personal fouls include any type of illegal physical contact.

              Hitting, Pushing , Slapping , Holding

              Illegal pick/screen: when an offensive player is moving. When an offensive player

              sticks out a limb and makes physical contact with a defender in an attempt to block

              the path of the defender.

              2. Personal foul penalties: If a player is shooting while a being fouled, then he gets two

              free throws if his shot doesn’t go in, but only one free throw if his shot does go in.


              Three free throws are awarded if the player is fouled while shooting for a threepoint goal and they miss their shot. If a player is fouled while shooting a three-point

              shot and makes it anyway, he is awarded one free throw. Thus, he could score four

              points on the play.

              3. Inbounds: If fouled while not shooting, the ball is given to the team the foul was

              committed upon. They get the ball at the nearest side or baseline, out of bounds,

              and have 5 seconds to pass the ball onto the court.

              4. One and one: If the team committing the foul has seven or more fouls in the game,

              then the player who was fouled is awarded one free throw. If he makes his first shot,

              then he is awarded another free throw.

              5. Ten or more fouls: If the team committing the foul has ten or more fouls, then the

              fouled player receives two free throws.

              6. Charging: An offensive foul that is committed when a player pushes or runs over a

              defensive player. The ball is given to the team that the foul was committed upon.

              7. Blocking: Blocking is illegal personal contact resulting from a defender not

              establishing position in time to prevent an opponent’s drive to the basket.

              8. Flagrant foul: Violent contact with an opponent. This includes hitting, kicking,

              and punching. This type of foul results in free throws plus the offense retaining

              possession of the ball after the free throws.

              9. Intentional foul: When a player makes physical contact with another player with no

              reasonable effort to steal the ball. It is a judgment call for the officials.

              10.Technical foul: A player or a coach can commit this type of foul. It does not

              involve player contact or the ball but is instead about the manners of the game.

              Foul language, obscenity, obscene gestures, and even arguing can be considered

              a technical foul, as can technical details regarding filling in the scorebook

              improperly or dunking during warm-ups.

              Violations


              1. Walking/Traveling: Taking more than a step and a half without dribbling the ball is

              traveling. Moving your pivot foot once you’ve stopped dribbling is traveling.

              2. Carrying/palming: When a player dribbles the ball with his hand too far to the side of

              or, sometimes, even under the ball.

              3. Double Dribble: Dribbling the ball with both hands on the ball at the same time or

              picking up the dribble and then dribbling again is a double dribble.

              4. Held ball: Occasionally, two or more opposing players will gain possession of the ball

              at the same time. In order to avoid a prolonged and/or violent tussle, the referee

              stops the action and awards the ball to one team or the other on a rotating basis. 

              5. Goaltending: If a defensive player interferes with a shot while it is on the way down

              toward the basket, while it is on the way up toward the basket after having touched

              the backboard, or while it’s in the cylinder above the rim, it is goaltending and the

              shot counts. If committed by an offensive player, it is a violation and the ball is

              awarded to the opposing team for a throw-in.

              6. Backcourt violation: Once the offense has brought the ball across the mid-court line,

              they cannot go back across the line during possession. If they do, the ball is awarded

              to the other team to pass inbounds.

              7. Time restrictions: A player passing the ball inbounds has five seconds to pass the ball.

              If he does not, then the ball is awarded to the other team. Other time restrictions

              include the rule that a player cannot have the ball for more than five seconds when

              being closely guarded and, in some states and levels, shot-clock restrictions requiring

              a team to attempt a shot within a given time frame.

              5.6. End unit assessment

              • Organize basketball competition between teams and assess learners’ abilities to

              apply basketball techniques and tactics such as pass, receive, shoot, moves, body

              gestures and team collaboration.

              • Let them refereeing the match and observe the respect of basketball rules

              5.7. Additional activities

              • Reduce rules for slow learners and allow them to play the ball regularly

              • Organize competitions between small groups and choose their own referees

              • Organize competition between classes and forming school teams and participate

              in interschool competitions and refereeing matches.



              • 6.1. Key unit competence

                After this unit, learners will be able to refine defensive and offensive handball techniques

                in various game situations and adhere to rules of the game.

                6.2. Prerequisite

                 Learners of senior three will learn better handball if they can use different defensive

                and offensive handball techniques in various game situations and interpret rules of the

                game.

                6.3. Cross- cutting issues to be addressed
                Gender Education

                In teaching and learning process, prepare and provide physical activities that engage

                both girls and boys to exploit their full potential and talents without any discrimination

                or prejudice.

                Inclusive education

                Consider different special education needs and select activities to adapt teaching

                approaches to all learners. This creates a positive attitude and helps all learners to

                participate actively and develop their competence levels.

                Financial education

                Integrate Financial Education into teaching/learning activity by providing the local

                and no cost teaching material where possible. Encourage learners to make their own

                materials that can help them to develop competences not only in sport but also in their

                daily life.

                Standardization culture

                Choose and select the standardized materials to use in teaching/learning process .It is

                necessary to provide appropriate materials required to the levels of learners and help 

                them to develop culture of checking the quality of sport materials before their use to

                prevent injuries and other accident.

                Environment and sustainability

                Provide materials and deliver the lesson with encouraging learners to protect the

                environment and well use of materials. Help them to develop fair play and avoiding

                violence in the game.

                Peace and values education

                 Help learners to develop fair play and avoiding violence and conflict in the game by

                setting clear and relevant instructions. Provide activities that help learners to develop

                their competence peacefully.

                Comprehensive sexuality education

                Provides physical activities and sets instructions that prevent sexual harassment, any

                kind of gender based violence like sexual abuse and “bad touches”.

                6.4 . List of lessons and assessment



                Lesson 1: Handball attacking techniques


                a. Prerequisites

                Learners of senior three will learn better handball attacking techniques if they can

                perform playing skills adhering to rules

                b. Teaching resources

                Playground, balls, whistle, cones, equipment, chasuble (pinny), trees, goals posts, nets.

                c. Introduction

                Opening discussions

                Ask questions related to handball techniques of attack and their importance to players.

                Warm-up activities

                Let learners to make two rows and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

                around the ground with maintaining a medium speed. Warm up specifically with balls in

                group. Ask one of them to lead systematic stretching exercises.

                d. Lesson development

                This lesson comprises techniques of attack in handball and tactics

                For each technique and tactic:

                • Show learners how to execute the basic skills

                • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

                support

                • Control how learners perform attack with technique

                Techniques of chest pass

                • Hold the ball with in right way

                • Position legs according to the passing arm

                • Orient passing arm according to the teammate’s position

                • Release the ball and orient the receiver’s chest 


                                                 Techniques of bounce pass

                • Hold the ball in right way

                • Position legs according to the passing arm

                • Delimitate distance where to bounce the ball according to the receiver’s position

                • Bounce the ball considering the receiver’s distance

                Techniques of jump pass

                • Hold the ball in the right way

                • Maintain the eye contact

                • Execute run up according to the receiver’s position

                • Take off considering the opponent’s position

                • Release the ball according to the receiver’s position

                • Maintain balance before landing according to the level of jumping

                Techniques of dribbling the ball

                • Hold the ball in right way

                • Position legs according to the dribbling arm

                • Keep head up and eyes forward the target/ direction

                • Precise area of dribbling with controlling the ball


                Techniques of shooting the ball
                Techniques of jump shot

                • Hold the ball in the regular way

                • Make run up covering to the distance of target

                • Make alternate steps following hand ball rules.

                • Jump in the air while raising shooting arm up toward the target.

                • Execute the strong shoot to the target. 


                Techniques of running shot

                • Hold the ball in the right way

                • Make run up along the distance of target

                • Make steps following hand ball rules

                • Execute the strong shoot to the targeted angles 


                Techniques of diving shot

                • Hold the ball in the right way

                • Increase running speed and investigate the position of the goalkeeper

                • Take body diving position following types of shots

                • Execute shot of the ball focusing the target. 



                Techniques of standing shot(stem shot)

                • Increasing running speed and investigate the position of the goalkeeper

                • Taking standing position following types of shots 

                • Shooting the ball with maximum power to the target


                Handball tactics

                Tactic of transition attack

                • Move on wing player’s position to win the opponent’s defense

                • Move on back player’s position to win the opponent’s defense

                • Move on pivot player’s to win the opponent’s defense


                Tactic of crossing attack

                • Perform crossing of wing and half player to win the opponent’s defending system

                • Execute crossing of half and center player to win the opponent’s defending

                system

                • Develop crossing of center and wing player to win the opponent’s defending

                system -Perform crossing of back court players to win the opponent’s defending

                system 


                Tactic of combination attack

                • Attacking in collaboration between right side players, pivot and the center

                player to win the opponent’s defending system

                • Attacking in collaboration between left side players, pivot and the center player

                to win the opponent’s defending system

                • Attacking in collaboration between back court players with the pivot player to

                win the opponent’s defending system 


                Tactic of fast breaks

                • Running to the wingers or pivot position for first wave depending on goalkeeper’s

                throw

                • Developing movement of halves/pivot/wingers for the second wave depending

                on goalkeeper’s throw

                • Attacking for third wave refer to the opponent team defenders position. 


                Cool-down activities

                Let learners march on the ground relaxing , arms and legs with moving in different

                directions together and raise hands according to teacher’s signals.

                e. Assessment

                Final discussion


                Reflect

                What do you do to play a fair game?

                Connect

                What are other conditions that need techniques and tactics?

                Apply

                 How will you use techniques of handball in your life to serve the society?

                Lesson 2: Handball defensive plays and position

                a. Prerequisites

                Learners of senior three will learn better this lesson if they can perform handball playing

                skills adhering to rules

                b. Teaching resources

                Playground, balls, whistle, cones, equipment, chasuble (pinny), trees, goals posts, nets.

                c. Introduction

                Opening discussions

                Ask questions related to Handball defensive plays and position

                Warm-up activities

                Let learners make two rows and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

                around the ground with maintaining a medium speed. Warming up specifically with

                balls in groups. Ask one of them to lead systematic stretching exercises.

                d. Lesson development

                This lesson comprises techniques of handball defensive plays and position

                For each technique:

                • Show learners how to execute the basic skills

                • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

                support

                • Let learners discuss on rules and you provide correct explanations

                • Control how learners perform handball defensive plays and taking position

                Techniques of defending with block

                • Take handball defensive position

                • Keep eyes on the attacker with the ball

                • Jump depending on the opponent with high or long jump shots

                • Time jumps toward the direction of the shots

                • Direct hands to the shooting opponent’s hand

                • Block the shot accordingly


                Picture showing hand ball block of high shot, long shot, jump shot

                Techniques of goal keeping

                • Face the shooter

                • Reduce the angle of vision of the shooter by extending arms with palms wide

                open

                • Lock down eyes on the ball

                • Maintain positioning depending on the opponent pivot, wing, back player with

                the ball and various throws and shots



                • Position on toes for saves nine meter ones to increase flexibility rate 

                • Move arms, legs or trunk according to the direction of the shots



                • Jump forward for saving the ball according to the height, level of the shots and

                the defensive situation to reduce the shooter’s angle

                • Perform throw off and throw in considering the teammate’s position


                Tactics of handball defense

                • Making zone defense with 6-0, 5-1, 4-2 and 3-2-1 formation depending on the

                opponent’s attacking system.

                Defending with man to man marking depending on the opponent’s attacking system,

                the remaining playing time and the inferiority number of the opponent’s team

                Combining defense of 5-0 +1, 4-0 +2 and 3-0 +3 formation depending on the opponent’s

                attacking system 

                6.5. Additional information for teachers

                Rules & Regulations of Team Handball

                • The field of play must have two goals in the center of each end and a ball. Handball

                court rules determine the pitch dimensions. It should measure 40 meters by 20

                meters (131 by 66 feet).

                • The goal line at each end (6 meter line) divides an area between the goalkeeper

                and the rest of the outfield players.

                • Each defending goalkeeper is the only player allowed to stand on the floor in the

                goal zone.


                Handball Basic Rules of Equipment

                • A semi-circle area gets marked off outside each goal area (often called the crease

                or the zone).

                • A semi-circle with dashed markings is the free throw line (9 meters from goal).

                • The ball must be a size which fits inside players’ hands. Handball balls are usually

                made from leather or synthetic material. The full handball equipment list includes

                three regulation sizes of balls.

                Note: One of these ball specifications gets used during the basic rules in handball:

                • A ball for 8 years children and over (circumference of 50-52 cm).

                • Balls for women and males aged 12 to 16 years (circumference of 54-56cm).

                • Balls for males aged 16 years and over (circumference of 58-60cm).

                Handball Players Rules

                The standard handball game rules feature two teams with seven (7) players on each

                side. There can be 7 ‘rolling substitutes’ per team. That means there is no need to

                consult the referee when making substitutions.

                The rules and regulations of handball player positions allow six outfielders and one

                goalkeeper. Team members should wear uniforms for official games and tournament

                competitions.

                General Handball Regulations

                According to the basic handball rules and regulations list a game lasts for 60 minutes.

                It gets divided into two periods of 30 minutes each (reduced to 20 minutes for younger

                players).

                There should be a maximum of 15 minute interval between the two halves. Within each

                period, each team is allowed to take a time out of one (1) minute.

                Handball rules allow outfield players to touch the ball with any part of their body (above

                the knee).

                Kicking is not allowed in handball because players cannot legally kick the ball.

                Players can pass, hold possession, dribble, or shoot once they are in possession of the

                ball.

                Handball dribbling rules allow a player to dribble the ball. They can also take three steps

                for up to three seconds without dribbling.

                Taking more than 3 steps, or longer than 3 seconds, is one of the handball terms called

                ‘walking’. In this case the player would lose possession of the ball.

                Double dribble is against the rules and regulations in handball. It means a player cannot

                receive the ball, bounce it, and then hold the ball and bounce it again.

                The goalkeeper is the only player permitted to come into contact with the floor inside

                the 6 meter zone (goal area).

                Exceptions occur when a player jumps into the area and shoots the ball before landing

                in the goal area. This might take place while having a shot on goal.

                Goalkeepers can go outside of the goal area. But they must not keep possession of the

                ball while they are outside the goal area.

                The fast-flowing game permits some body contact. In most cases it occurs when

                defenders try to stop attackers approaching to the goal area.

                Handball fouls include:

                1) Tripping, 2) Pushing, 3) Hitting, 4) Clinching, 5) Charging and 6) Holding

                Free-throws get awarded for slight infringements of the rules and regulations of

                handball. All defenders must stay 3 meters (9.84 feet) away from the person taking

                the free-throw.

                Penalty-throws get awarded for any rules’ infringement that denies a clear scoring

                opportunity.

                Throw-ins get awarded after the ball crosses a side line. They get taken by the handball

                team which did not touch it last.

                Corners get taken by the attacking side when a defender knocks the ball over the goal

                line, unless it goes in the goal net to score a point. The player puts one foot on the

                corner of the side line and the goal line, and then passes the ball back in to play.

                Goal-throws occur when the ball comes off a goalkeeper and crosses the goal line. In

                this case the goalkeeper takes the throw from within their own area.

                Scoring in Handball

                You score a goal by throwing the ball from outside the zone into the goal (or while

                ‘jumping’). As a rule, a lot of goals get scored. Handball teams often score between 20

                and 35 goals each.

                Handball Umpires and Officials

                Handball rules and regulations get officiated by referees. They can award players

                with either a yellow card (warning), suspension (2 minutes sitting out), or a red card

                (dismissal). It depends on the seriousness of the infringement or offense committed.

                Winning a Game of Handball

                Winning a game in the rules of handball means you have scored more goals than your

                opponent. Extra periods of overtime will get played if the game ends in a draw (a

                maximum of two 5 minute periods).

                Note: A shoot-out gets used to determine the result of the game if the scores are still

                level after extra time.

                6.6. End unit assessment

                 Organize handball competition between teams and assess learners’ abilities to apply

                handball techniques and tactics such as pass, receive, shoot, moves, individual and

                collective tactics of attack and defense. Let them refereeing the match and observe

                the respect of handball rules.

                6.7. Additional activities

                Reduce rules for slow learners and allow them to play the ball regularly

                Organize competitions between small groups and choose their own referees

                Competition between classes and forming school teams and participate in interschool

                competitions and refereeing matches

                • 7.1. Key unit competence

                  After this unit, learners will be able to apply techniques and tactics of adaptive sports

                  and adhere to rules of the game.

                  7 .2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills

                  Learners of senior three will learn adaptive sports if they can use their able body parts

                  to perform different techniques in various game situations apply basic rules, state and

                  explain their importance to the society.

                  7 .3. Cross- cutting issues to be addressed

                  Gender education

                  In teaching and learning process, prepare and provide physical activities that engage

                  both girls and boys to exploit their full potential and talents without any discrimination

                  or prejudice.

                  Inclusive education

                  Consider different special education needs and select activities to adapt teaching

                  approaches to all learners. This creates a positive attitude and helps all learners to

                  participate actively and develop their competence levels.

                  Financial education

                  Integrate financial education into teaching/learning activity by providing the local

                  and no cost teaching material where possible. Encourage learners to make their own

                  materials that can help them to develop competences not only in sport but also in their

                  daily life.

                  Standardization culture

                  Choose and select the standardized materials to use in teaching/learning process .It is

                  necessary to provide appropriate materials required to the levels of learners and help them to develop culture of checking the quality of sport materials before their use to

                  prevent injuries and other accident.

                  Environment and sustainability

                  Provide materials and deliver the lesson with encouraging learners to protect the

                  environment and well use of materials. Help them to develop fair play and avoiding

                  violence in the game.

                  Peace and values education

                  Help learners to develop fair play and avoiding violence and conflict in the game by

                  setting clear and relevant instructions. Provide activities that help learners to develop

                  their competence peacefully.

                  Comprehensive sexuality education

                  Provides physical activities and sets instructions that prevent sexual harassment, any

                  kind of gender based violence like sexual abuse and “bad touches”.

                  7.4. List of lessons and assessment


                  Lesson 1: Goal ball techniques

                  a. Prerequisites

                  Learners of senior three will learn better goal ball techniques if they can perform skills

                  adhering to rules accordingly.

                  b. Teaching resources

                  Playground, rooms, whistles, stop watch, blindfolds, goal posts, bell balls.

                  c. Introduction

                  Opening discussions

                   Ask questions related to goal ball techniques their importance to player and the society.

                  Warm-up activities

                  Let learners make two rows and perform exercises of body activation by jogging on

                  place with maintaining a medium speed and change exercise according to teacher’s

                  instructions.

                  Warming up specifically with bell balls in group. Help them to lead systematic stretching

                  exercises.

                  d. Lesson development

                  This lesson comprises techniques of goal ball in attack and defense

                  For each technique:

                  • Tell and show learners how to execute the basic skills

                  • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

                  support

                  • Control how learners perform techniques adhering to rules

                  Techniques of throwing /rolling the ball

                  • Take standing position

                  • Keep head up and forward in throwing direction

                  • Hold the ball in throwing hand and support it

                  • Step forward

                  • Take the ball backward

                  • Bring the ball forward powerfully

                  • Release the ball and throwing through

                  Techniques of defense

                  • Take the knee position facing the attacking direction

                  • Crouch and dive to stop the ball according to it direction

                  • Block the ball in a lying position according to it direction

                  • Catch the ball

                  RULES OF THE GOALBALL GAME


                  1. Introduction

                  Goal ball is an extremely simple game to learn, but can take years to master. It allows

                  you to use senses that you don’t normally rely on such as hand/eye coordination, which

                  allows one to develop different styles of playing and strategies. It provides a high level

                  of intrigue, as well as a physical demanding game.

                  2. History

                  Goal ball was invented in 1946 by an Austrian Hanz Lorencezen and a German, Sett

                  Reindle. It was used for sport and rehabilitation for the post WW II blind veterans. The

                  game of goal ball developed over the years, gaining international acceptances and

                  became a paralympics Sport in 1980.

                  3. Equipment

                  To play goal ball you will need a goal ball, 76cm in diameter, and 1.250g in weight, tactile

                  tape (duct tape), and pair of blacked out ski goggles (blind folds), which are to be used

                  as eyeshades. You may also want to acquire some knee and elbow pads to protect

                  against burses and floor burns.

                  4. The Court

                  The court is a standard gymnasium volleyball court, which measures (9m wide x 18m

                  long). There are two team areas at either end of the court, which measure (3m wide x

                  9mlong). Inside the team areas, there are player orientation marks consisting of two

                  1.5m wing lines and one 0.50m centre line.


                  5. Preparing the Court

                  In preparing the court you will want to use standard duct tape. It is general practice to

                  make the court two layers thick, that being one on top of the other, giving the court a

                  superior tactile feel allowing players to easily find their positions.

                  6. Importance

                  You may want to use a non-stick tape underneath the duct tape to prevent it from

                  ripping up any varnish or painted lines on the floor. Lines to be taped, are the entire

                  team areas with the players orientation lines. The over throw lines, centre line, and

                  the out side lines of the neutral area only have to be taped if they don’t exist on your

                  volleyball court. These lines only have to be one layer thick because they are used

                  primarily by the referees.

                  7. The Objective

                  The object of the game is to simply roll the ball on the floor, in a bowling motion and

                  have the ball completely cross over the opposing team’s goal line, scoring a point.

                  8. Basic Rules

                  Game Time - A regular Goal ball game is 20 minutes, consisting of two 10 minute halves.

                  There is a 3 minute half time, in order for the teams to switch ends.

                  First Ball - A coin toss determines which team will receive the first ball, with the opposing

                  team receiving the ball after half time. Each team is allowed three, 45 seconds, time

                  outs in a game.

                  Eyeshades - In order to maintain an equal advantage, all team members, must wear

                  eyeshades at all times, during the game. After the game has started, a player may only

                  adjust his or her eyeshades, by raising your arm up in the air, and calling eyeshades.

                  Only then, after the referee tells the person to turn around, may the person adjust their

                  eyeshades.

                  Time limits - Upon receiving control of the ball, a team has only 10 seconds to throw the

                  ball back at the opposing team. If not, it is considered a team penalty.

                  Throwing - The ball must be rolled on the floor. When throwing the ball, it must touch

                  the floor before the over throw line or it is considered to be a high ball. This would

                  constitute a penalty and nullifies any goal scored from that throw. So keep in mind, that

                  the ball must be bowled or rolled along the floor rather then thrown.

                  Defending - Players must stay with in the team area when defending. When stopping

                  the ball, some part of the players body must be touching the team area or it is called:

                  Illegal defense and constitutes a penalty.

                  Play - The audible command “play” must be called by the referee to start or restart

                  the game. After any official stoppage in the game, “play” must be called to restart the

                  game. For example: the start of the game, after an out of bounds ball, a blocked out

                  ball, a penalty situation, or a Goal.

                  Losing Possession of the Ball - There are 3 ways to lose possession of the ball. This

                  means your team will lose the ball and the opposing team gets to throw. The 3 ways

                  are:

                  1. Premature Throw: This is when a player, throws the ball before he/she is allowed to

                  or before “play” has been called.

                  2. Pass Out: If a player passes the ball to another team mate and the pass is missed, with

                  the ball going over the outside lines, this is called a “Pass Out”.

                  3. Ball Over: This takes place, when a defending player stops the ball, and it bounces off

                  that player and rolls over the centre line.

                  Goal - A goal counts when the ball passes completely over the 9m back (goal) line of

                  either team area. It is a goal no matter, how it crosses the line, if it was thrown by the

                  opposing team, and or thrown or carried over by your own team members.

                  9. Penalties

                  Penalty situations are for the more competitive players. The rules above outline what

                  justifies a penalty. Basically there are two kinds of penalties:

                  Team Penalties:

                   - Ten seconds, - Team delay of game , - Team unsportsmanlike conduct

                   - Illegal coaching

                  Personal Penalties:

                  - High ball, - Three throws, - Eyeshades, 

                  - Personal unsportsmanlike conduct

                   - Personal delay of game, - Long ball , - Illegal defense

                  In a penalty situation, only one player will remain on the court, defending the entire

                  goal by himself/herself for one penalty shot. This person who stays on is determined by

                  the penalty called. If it is a personal penalty, then it is the one that incurred the penalty

                  that remains on the court. However, if it is a Team Penalty that has been called, then, it

                  is the last person that shot, who remains on the court to defend the goal.

                  10. Players Positions

                  In Goal ball there are two types of positions on a team, there is one Centre and two

                  Wingers.

                  11. Defensively

                  The wingers’ main responsibility is to cover the wing line. That is, the 1.5m lines on

                  either end of the team area and parallel to the goal line. His second responsibility is to

                  back up his centre player.

                  The defending winger should stand with his feet at the end of the wing line in a

                  crouched or a squatting position. When he hears the oncoming ball and has determined

                  it’s course, he should line down in the direction of the oncoming ball, either going left

                  or right, always remembering to lie down in line with the wing line, that is parallel to

                  the goal line.

                  The player must always remember, to stretch out fully with arms and legs straight,

                  becoming almost an extension of the wing line, covering as much of the goal line as

                  possible. The players arms, should be straight, but in front of the players face, with the

                  head tilted back, protecting the players face from any contact with the ball.

                  The Centre defends the same as a winger, always diving onto the floor, fully stretched

                  out, covering as much of the court as possible. The Centre player will play on the front

                  line of the team area, orientating himself with the 0.15m centre line.

                  This marking tells the centre, that he is at the middle of the front line. The centre either

                  dives left or right, along the front line in the direction of the oncoming ball, always

                  keeping, some part of his body in the team area.

                  12. Throwing

                  When throwing the ball back at the defending team, one must always, feel the floor

                  marking first, so that they are squared off and facing, the direction in which they wish

                  to throw. Once they are aware of their position, they are ready to throw the ball. They

                  can take a step or two, and bowl, or roll the ball, along the floor, in the direction of the

                  opposing team. Remember, you have only have eight seconds after stopping the ball, to throw it back.

                  13. Strategies

                  There are many strategies to the game of Goal ball. You can throw the ball hard and

                  fast, or soft and slow. You can throw the ball cross court form corner to corner, or

                  even curve it by placing a spin on the ball before releasing it. These techniques all have

                  advantages and disadvantages which always leave new things to master the game and

                  makes it both interesting and fun to play.

                  14. Refereeing

                  The main job of the referee is to inform the players of what is transpiring and to keep

                  control of the game in doing so. The calls the referees make must be loud and clear, so

                  that all the players understand the calls and so that there is no confusion. Some of the

                  calls that a referee must know are:

                  Play - This is the audible command that will start or restart the game after any official

                  stoppages in play.

                  Dead Ball - Is when the ball has stopped moving and the players are unaware of

                  it’s location, usually in the teams own area The ball is then returned to the closes

                  player, usually the winger.

                  Out - This to inform the players, that the ball was thrown out of bounds. When the

                  ball is given back to the players, the referee must sat “Play” before the team throws

                  to restart the game.

                  Block out - This is when one of the defending team players stops the ball, but knocks

                  it out of bounds while trying to stop it. Again “Play” must be used to restart the

                  game.

                  Ball Over - Is called when the ball has gone over the goal cross bar, which is 1.5

                  meters above the goal line.

                  Pass out - Is created when a player passes the ball to a fellow team mate, and the

                  pass is missed, with the ball going out of bounds. Then the opposing team gets the

                  ball. Note: If the ball rolls into the goal, it is considered a goal, and then the same

                  team gets the ball.

                  Eyeshades - That is when a player takes off his eyeshades or adjusts them, with out

                  the permission from the referee.

                  High ball - Is when a player throws the ball and it does not touch the floor within the

                  three meters in front of the team area.

                  Ten Seconds - This is when a team takes longer then 10 seconds to throw the ball,

                  after having had control of the ball. It’s considered a team penalty.

                  Three Throws - Is when a single player has thrown the ball three consecutive times

                  in a row. This is deemed as a personal penalty.

                  Goal - This is of course, when a goal is scored and the scoring team, receives a point.

                  Half - This lets the players know it is half time. (3 minute rest)

                  Game - Informing the teams that the game is over.

                  Time out - Allows the team that called “Time Out” to have a 45 second time out.

                  Substitution - Stoppage in the game, to switch team members, with new ones

                  coming in. This can only be done when your team has control of the ball or there an

                  “Official” stoppage in play.

                  Cool-down activities

                  Let learners march on places relaxing arms and legs in different directions, swing the

                  arm alternatively according to teacher’s signals.

                  e. Assessment

                  Final discussion

                  Reflect

                  • How did you feel playing? What was most difficult action to do?

                  Connect

                  • What are the differences between goal ball and other sports?

                  • Is it easy to become an elite goal ball player?

                  Apply

                  • What skills and abilities must one gain to become an elite goal ball player?

                  • What difficulties might these players face in daily living situations?

                  • How might they overcome those difficulties? 

                  Game - Informing the teams that the game is over.

                  Time out - Allows the team that called “Time Out” to have a 45 second time out.

                  Substitution - Stoppage in the game, to switch team members, with new ones

                  coming in. This can only be done when your team has control of the ball or there an

                  “Official” stoppage in play.

                  Cool-down activities

                  Let learners march on places relaxing arms and legs in different directions, swing the

                  arm alternatively according to teacher’s signals.

                  e. Assessment

                  Final discussion

                  Reflect

                  • How did you feel playing? What was most difficult action to do?

                  Connect

                  • What are the differences between goal ball and other sports?

                  • Is it easy to become an elite goal ball player?

                  Apply

                  • What skills and abilities must one gain to become an elite goal ball player?

                  • What difficulties might these players face in daily living situations?

                  • How might they overcome those difficulties? 

                  • Stretch that arm forward at the level of pelvis

                  • Launch the ball high and hit it from bottom with right hand to make it “flying”.

                  Techniques of overhand Serve

                  • Take seated /sitting position

                  • Throw the ball high and hits it but without fold hand completely

                  Techniques of blocking

                  • Take up seated /sitting position

                  • Keep eyes on the attacker

                  • Keep arms high, palms facing the net

                  • Keep a half arm’s length away from the net


                  Techniques of passing the ball

                  • Bring hands together above the head.

                  • Face palms toward the ceiling with fingertips touching.

                  • Form a triangle with thumbs and index fingers, opening up the rest of hands.

                  • Separate hands so that volleyball would fit nicely in the pocket.

                  • Relax hands as the ball drops into them.

                  • Extend arms and wrists, pushing the ball up immediately after the ball contacts

                  fingertips.

                  • Follow through with a complete arm extension as the ball is released

                  • Pass with precision according to the strategic demands 

                  • Pass carefully to deliver the pass according to the qualities of attacker

                  • Pass to the convenient attacker according to the blocking side and points


                  When the receiving team has gained the right to serve, the players rotate one position

                  clockwise


                  Basic tactics (exchange and penetration)

                  System: 3-3 (b)

                  This system is similar to 3-3 (a) & (b) which was outlined in Level 2, but here the 3

                  identified setters set from positions 1 and 6, penetrating both times from back court

                  into front court. Of course you can start with 3-3 (a) or (b), and then progress to this in

                  a rally when an easy ball is played over by the opponent.


                  System: 4-2 (b)

                  This system is used by most of the world’s leading teams. It has 2 setters, who between

                  them set on all rotations, and 4 attackers. As with 4-2 (a), these two players need to be

                  placed opposite each other in the line-up.

                  From this framework the setters can then switch/penetrate from either of their

                  positions to enable them to set from the teams preferred position.

                  What is common is that the would set from position 3, position 2 and then penetrate

                  from position 1 as is shown by the graphic below:


                  System: 5-1

                  A 5-1 system will create a more consistent set for a team’s offense since only one

                  player will be doing the setting whether he/she is in the front or back row. Aside from

                  creating consistency with the serve for a team’s hitters, a 5-1 system also creates more

                  consistency in leadership on the court. With one primary setter, one player is controlling

                  the offense.

                  This system can be done setting from the position that the setter is in, or by adding

                  switching/penetration so that the setter sets from any position. The most difficult

                  rotations are usually from position 4 and position 5, so it is always good to have a back

                  up option for when the setter is in these two positions. 


                  E. Assessment

                  Final discussion

                  Reflect

                  How did you feel playing? What was most difficult action to do?

                  Connect

                  • What are the differences between sitting and standing volleyball?

                  • Is it easy to become an elite sitting volleyball player?

                  Apply

                  • What skills and abilities must one gain to become an elite Sitting Volleyball player?

                  • What difficulties might these players face in daily living situations?

                  • How might they overcome those difficulties?

                  7.5 . Additional information for teachers

                  Basic sitting volleyball rules

                  Court:

                  The court is separated into two equal parts divided by a centre line, each side measuring

                  5m x 6m.

                   The height of the net

                  Placed vertically over the centre line there is a net whose top is set at the height of 1.15

                  m for men and 1.05 m for women.

                  To win a set

                  A set (except the deciding, 5th set) is won by the team which first scores 25 points with

                  a minimum lead of two points. In the case of a 24–24 tie, play is continued until a twopoint lead is achieved (26–24; 27–25; …).

                  Players

                  There are only six players allowed on the court at one time. Teams may have up to 12

                  athletes.

                  How to play

                  Compared with the standing volleyball, it is permitted to block an opponent’s service.

                  Contact of the feet or the legs with the opposing team’s side of the court are allowed,

                  on condition that the play of the opposing team is not obstructed. Contact with the

                  hands is allowed with the condition that one part of the hand is either in contact with

                  the central line or exactly above it.

                  Upon performing an attacking hit, the pelvis of the front zone’s player must touch the

                  ground.

                  A defense player can take attacking action which means to send or spike the ball from

                  whatever height behind the attacking zone, as long as the pelvis does not touch or pass

                  over the attacking line. After the hit, the player can touch the attacking zone.

                  Throughout the game, the players who are involved in a defensive effort must have

                  contact with the ground with some part of the body between the pelvis and the

                  shoulders.

                  In certain cases of defensive action at the back end of the court, for example while

                  “saving the ball”, the players are allowed to lose contact with the ground for a short

                  time.

                  But they are not allowed to stand up, lift up their body or take steps.

                  Sitting Volleyball can be played by people both with and without a disability, of all ages

                  and gender in any combination.

                  7.6. End unit assessment

                  Organize netball competitions between teams and assess learners’ abilities to apply

                  techniques Let them refereeing the match and observe the respect of netball rules.

                  7.7. Additional activities

                  • Reduce rules for slow learners and allow them to play the ball regularly

                  • Organize competitions between small groups and choose their own referees

                  • Organize competition between classes, forming school teams and participate in

                  interschool competitions and refereeing matches.


                  • 8.1. Key unit competence

                    After this unit, learners will be able to refine techniques and tactics of netball and

                    adhere to rules of the game.

                    8.2. Prerequisite knowledge and skills

                    Learners of senior three will learn better netball if they can use different defensive

                    and offensive netball techniques in various game situations, apply basic rule, state and

                    explain different offensive and defensive techniques.

                    8.3. Cross- cutting issues to be addressed

                    Gender education

                    In teaching and learning process, prepare and provide physical activities that engage

                    both girls and boys to exploit their full potential and talents without any discrimination

                    or prejudice.

                    Inclusive education

                    Consider different special education needs and select activities to adapt teaching

                    approaches to all learners. This creates a positive attitude and helps all learners to

                    participate actively and develop their competence levels.

                    Financial education

                    Integrate Financial Education into teaching/learning activity by providing the local

                    and no cost teaching material where possible. Encourage learners to make their own

                    materials that can help them to develop competences not only in sport but also in their

                    daily life.

                    Standardization culture

                    Choose and select the standardized materials to use in teaching/learning process .It is

                    necessary to provide appropriate materials required to the levels of learners and help them to develop culture of checking the quality of sport materials before their use to

                    prevent injuries and other accident.

                    Environment and sustainability

                    Provide materials and deliver the lesson with encouraging learners to protect the

                    environment and well use of materials. Help them to develop fair play and avoiding

                    violence in the game.

                    Peace and values education

                     Help learners to develop fair play and avoiding violence and conflict in the game by

                    setting clear and relevant instructions. Provide activities that help learners to develop

                    their competence peacefully.

                    Comprehensive sexuality education

                    Provides physical activities and sets instructions that prevent sexual harassment, any

                    kind of gender based violence like sexual abuse and “bad touches”. 

                    8.4 . List of lessons and assessment


                    Lesson 1: Netball techniques of attack

                    a. Prerequisites

                    Learners of senior three will learn better netball techniques of attack if they can perform

                    netball skills adhering to rules

                    b. Teaching resources

                    Playground, teaching room, whistles, stop watch, balls, cones, chasubles, ring

                    c. Introduction

                    Opening discussions

                     Ask questions related to netball techniques of attack and their importance to player

                    Warm-up activities

                    Let learners make two rows and perform exercises of body activation by jogging around

                    the ground with maintaining a medium speed. Warming up specifically with balls in

                    group. Ask one of them to lead systematic stretching exercises.

                    d. Lesson development

                    This lesson comprises techniques of attack in netball

                    For each technique:

                    • Show learners how to execute the basic skills

                    • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

                    support

                    • Control how learners perform netball attack with techniques

                    Techniques of shoulder pass

                    • Position feet staggered one foot ahead of the other

                    • Hold the ball in one hand at the shoulder

                    • Extend arm with the ball behind the shoulder

                    • Push the ball weight transferred to the forward foot

                    • Throw the ball with a final snap of fingers and wrists

                    • Turn the body forward as the throwing arm swings across the body


                    Techniques of chest pass

                    • Place one foot in front of the other and slightly apart

                    • Face the direction of the throw

                    • Hold the ball at the chest level

                    • Focus eyes on target where you want to throw

                    • Hold the ball close to the chest

                    • Push from both hands on to the target

                    • Follow through with the rest of the body forward

                    • Forward the hind leg to maintain balance

                    • Transfer the weight of the body to the foot opposite to the throwing arm


                    Techniques of bounce pass

                    • Position feet staggered one foot ahead of the other

                    • Hold the ball in both hands with fingers spread over as it is a chest pass

                    • Keep eyes on the receiver

                    • Push arms forward and down wards

                    • Release the ball to strike the ground near the receiver to be received at the hips

                    level

                    • Move the hind foot forward to maintain balance

                    • Extend the hands and fingers in the direction of the ball


                    Techniques of lob pass / overhead pass

                    • Balance on feet

                    • Place the weak foot in front of other in the direction of the throw

                    • Keep body weight on the hind foot

                    • Hold the ball in both hands with fingers behind and thumbs under

                    • Extend arms from behind and over the head

                    • Flexing hands and fingers as the ball is released

                    • Transfer the weight of the body to the forward leg

                    • Extend the arms fully and relax fingers

                    • Move behind foot forward in the throwing direction 


                    Techniques of under arm pass

                    • Execute standing position with weak foot in front

                    • Take both arms back with elbow straight as the knees bend

                    • Crouch the body and the weight taken on the back foot

                    • Push the ball in forward direction

                    • Transfer the weight of the body forward

                    • Release the ball as the arms past he side of the leg

                    Techniques of shooting

                    • Stand with foot opposite the hand in front

                    • Hold the ball so that it rests on fingers

                    • Spread fingers underneath the ball, thumbs under the ball

                    • Lock wrists to maintain shooting position

                    • Hold the ball above the head in order to see the ring

                    • Keep eyes on the ring until the ball is released

                    • Bend the elbows to bring the ball to the head level

                    • Bend the knees and push the ball upwards with arms

                    • Remain body weight over feet until the ball is released

                    • Use an up and over action with arm, wrists and fingers

                    • Picture of learners perform shooting in two, threes, fours 


                    Techniques of landing on one foot

                    • Receive the ball and step with the other foot in any direction

                    • Pass the ball before being re grounded

                    • Pivot on the landing foot any number of times side ways

                    • Lifting the pivot but pass the ball before re ground it

                    • Jump from the landing foot on to the other and jump again and pass the ball

                    before being re grounded

                    • Step with the other foot and jump with releasing the ball before being re grounded


                    Techniques of landing on both feet

                    • Receive the ball and land with either foot in any direction any number of times

                    • Step with either foot in any direction lift the other foot and throw or pass before

                    being re grounded

                    • Pass the ball before re grounding the other foot

                    • Jump from both feet on to either foot and throw the ball before re grounding any

                    • Step with either foot and jump. It is necessary to pass or shoot before re

                    grounding either foot


                    Cool-down activities

                    Let learners to march on the ground relaxing , arms and legs with moving in different

                    direction together and raise hands according to teacher’s signals

                    e. Assessment

                    Final discussion

                    Reflect

                    What do you do to play a fair game?

                    Connect

                    What are other conditions that need techniques?

                    Apply

                    How will you use learnt techniques and in your life to serve the society


                    Lesson 2: Netball techniques of defense
                    a. Prerequisites

                    Learners will learn better this lesson if they can perform netball skills adhering to basic

                    rules of attack.

                    b. Teaching resources

                    Playground, teaching room, whistles, stop watch, balls, cones, chasubles, ring

                    c. Introduction

                    Opening discussions

                     Ask questions related to netball techniques of defense

                    Warm-up activities

                    Let learners make two rows and perform exercises of activating the body by jogging

                    around the ground with maintaining a medium speed. Warming up specifically with

                    balls in groups. Ask one of them to lead systematic stretching exercises.

                    d. Lesson development

                    This lesson comprises netball techniques of defense

                    For each technique:

                    • Show learners how to execute the basic skills

                    • Let learners to practice based on instructions, materials and provide necessary

                    support

                    • Let learners discuss on rules and you provide correct explanations

                    • Control how learners perform netball techniques of defense in a game situation

                    adhering to rules.

                    Basic techniques in defense

                    • Turning half with right foot forward-defender’s back towards the attacker

                    • Intercept the ball with half foot forward defenders faces the attacker

                    • Defending facing the attacker

                    • Timing the jump while elbow is lowered and jump before the ball is pushed

                    Basic techniques of intercepting the ball

                    • Watching the ball closely from the time it leaves the thrower’s hands

                    • Paying attention to the opponent and reach out for the ball

                    • Trust out arms and make interception

                    Techniques of close marking

                    • Take position between the ball and the opponent

                    • Monitor the opponent’s movement and the ball

                    • Maintain body weight on the balls of the feet- not flat footed

                    • Make knees slightly flexed

                    • Make short quick steps according to the opponent movements

                    • Look at the ball and at the opponent

                    • Extend hands in the ball direction without body contact

                    • Take up position one meter away from landing foot of the opponent

                    • Investigate the shooter’s direction of passing and intercept the ball

                    Techniques of close marking and interception

                    • Make a mark close on the opponent

                    • Stand between the ball and opponent with preventing contact

                    • Stand with a half turned to face across the opponent the left shoulder cover the

                    right

                    • Face in the opposite direction with right shoulder covering the left

                    • Stand with front foot nearer the opponent, the hind turns slightly away from her/

                    him

                    • Keep the weight on the ball of the foot and bending knees ready to move or jump

                    in an direction 


                    8.5. Additional information for teachers

                    Netball Rules

                    The following is an overview of the rules of the game of netball as outlined in the Official

                    Netball Rules, published by the International Federation of Netball Associations (IFNA).

                     The aim is to provide you with a basic understanding of the rules to be able to play the

                    game safely and enjoyably.

                    Please use this section as a reference to answer any questions you may have about

                    umpiring decisions. If you’re still not sure, please ask one of our umpires on your match

                    night.

                    The team

                    Teams shall consist of 7 players. There must be at least 5 players, one of whom must

                    play centre, to enable the fixture to go ahead.

                    Substitutions

                    Substitutions can only be made at half time or when a player is injured. There is no limit

                    to the number of substitutions that a team can make.

                    If you start a match with 5 or 6 players but more members of your team arrive after the

                    game has started, they must wait until the next centre pass before being allowed to

                    join the game.

                    Playing positions and their roles on the court

                    There are seven playing positions in a team. Each has an important role to play for their 

                    team:

                    Goal Shooter (GS): To score goals and to work in and around the circle with the GA

                    Goal Attack (GA): To feed and work with GS and to score goals

                    Wing Attack (WA): To feed the circle players giving them shooting opportunities

                    Centre (C): To take the centre pass and to link the defense and the attack

                    Wing Defense (WD): To look for interceptions and prevent the WA from feeding the

                    circle

                    Goal Defense (GD): To win the ball and reduce the effectiveness of the GA

                    Goal Keeper (GK) : To work with the GD and to prevent the GA/GS from scoring goals


                    Netball playing position

                    Starting the game – centre pass

                    The first centre pass is decided between the two captains by the toss of a coin. The

                    centre passes then alternate between the teams, regardless of which team has scored.

                    Before the whistle, all players must start in the goal thirds except the two centers.

                    The centre with the ball must be wholly within the centre circle and must obey the

                    footwork rule after the whistle has been blown. The opposing centre stands anywhere

                    within the centre third and is free to move.

                    After the whistle the centre pass must be caught or touched by a player standing in or

                    landing wholly within the centre third.

                    A player must not break at the centre pass, which is moving into the centre third before

                    the whistle is blown for the centre pass.

                    A free pass would be awarded to the opposing team in any of these instances above.

                    Players must get onside quickly at the centre pass. The centre with the ball must hurry

                    back to the centre circle and step straight in. If she waits for her players to get back

                    onside, this is called “delaying play”.

                    This would result in the Centre receiving a caution, a penalty being given and advanced

                    up the court.

                    Footwork in the centre circle

                    The footwork rule still applies in the centre circle. As soon as the centre steps into the

                    circle, their leading leg becomes their landing foot and the footwork rule then applies.

                    That is, if they lift or move their landing foot and place it back down again, a free pass

                    will be awarded to the opposing team due to footwork.

                    The umpire will blow the whistle to start play once the centre has placed one foot

                    wholly in the circle.

                    Offside rule

                    A player with or without the ball cannot move into an area of the court that is not

                    designated for their position.

                    This will result in a free pass being awarded to the opposing team.

                    Footwork

                    A player can receive the ball:

                    • with both feet grounded or jump to catch the ball and land on two feet

                    simultaneously. You may then take a step in any direction with one foot (but not

                    both) and pivot on the spot with the other foot. Once one foot is moved, the

                    other is considered to be the landing foot.

                    • with one foot grounded or jump to catch the ball and land on one foot. The

                    landing foot cannot be moved, other than to pivot on the spot, while the other

                    foot can be moved in any direction. Once the landing foot is lifted, it must not be

                    re-grounded until the ball is released. Hopping or dragging the landing foot is not

                    allowed.

                    If you break the footwork rule, a free pass will be awarded to the opposing team.

                    Obstruction

                    A player attempting to intercept or defend the ball must be at least 0.9m (3feets) away

                    from the player with the ball. This distance is measured from the landing foot of the

                    player in possession of the ball. The defender may jump to intercept or defend the ball

                    from this 0.9m (3feets) feet distance but you must ensure if you do jump to defend

                    a ball, you don’t land any nearer that 3ft or this is obstruction (i.e. shortening your

                    distance).

                    A penalty pass will be awarded if you obstruct a player as described above.

                    Obstruction of a player not in possession of the ball

                    Your arms can be outstretched when you are marking your player off the ball if you are

                    trying to:

                    • To catch, deflect or intercept a pass

                    • To obtain a rebound from an unsuccessful shot at goal

                    • Momentarily signal for a pass or indicate the intended direction of movement

                    These instances are not classed as obstruction but you will be penalized if you mark a

                    player with your arms out or potentially if you stand under the post with your arms up

                    while waiting for a rebound (although the umpire may choose to play advantage if the

                    opposition aren’t being impeded).

                    Contact and Contest

                    ‘When attacking, defending or playing the ball, opposing players may come into physical

                    contact with each other. Provided the players do not interfere with each other’s play

                    or use their bodies to gain an unfair advantage over their opponent, it is deemed to be

                    ‘contest’ and play continues. ‘Contact’ occurs when a player’s actions interfere with an

                    opponent’s play whether these are accidental or deliberate.

                    Interference may occur in the following ways:

                    • Physical contact using any part of the body to limit an opponent’s ability to move

                    freely (this includes, but is not limited to, pushing, tripping, holding or leaning on

                    an opponent).

                    • Knocking or hitting a player including when shooting for goal

                    • Placing hand/s on the ball held by an opponent

                    • Hitting the ball held by an opponent or removing it from an opponent’s possession

                    • While holding the ball, pushing it into an opponent

                    A player causes contact by:

                    • Landing in a place already occupied by an opponent before the movement began

                    • Moving into the path of an opponent who’s committed to a particular landing

                    space

                    Generally, an attacker is moving into a space to receive the ball and a defender is drawn

                    into causing contact when trying to intercept. If the attacker was in that space first, the

                    decision goes their way and against the defender. A defender must be able to intercept

                    the ball cleanly.

                    However, no contact is allowed off the ball. This includes attackers pushing off, backing

                    into or pushing through a defender to get into space to receive the ball. If the defender

                    was in that space first, then the decision goes their way and against the attacker.

                    Inevitable contact is described as:

                    • Player/s, whether moving or stationary, may not position so closely to an opponent that this player is unable to move without contacting.

                     Simultaneous contact is described as:

                    • If two opposing players contact simultaneously a toss up is taken between the

                    two players concerned.

                    The umpire’s role is to watch the game and determine what is ‘contact’ and what is

                    ‘contest’ . It may not always seem obvious to you as a player why a particular decision

                    has been made or why advantage has been played but please respect the decisions that

                    they make.

                    If interference occurs, the umpire will state:

                    • which player the penalty is against;

                    • that a penalty pass has been awarded to the opposition.

                    The umpire should stand at the position at the side of the court where they want the

                    penalty to be taken from. If you’re ever unsure where to take the penalty from, you

                    need to look at the positioning of the umpire for guidance.

                    Failure to set the penalty correctly in this way will result in a reversal of the penalty and

                    a free pass to the opposing team.

                    A lot of contact disrupts the flow of the game. It also puts your team at a tactical

                    disadvantage because when a player is taken out of play on a penalty, they are not able

                    to contribute to the team’s defense. It’s far better to pull out of a challenge if you think

                    you’re going to contact the player and concentrate on defending the next pass instead.

                    Penalties against a player

                    The infringer must stand out of play. This means the infringer must:

                    • Move quickly to the position indicated;

                    • Stand beside but away from the player taking the penalty so as not to impede

                    that player;

                    • Remain in this position and not move or take any part in play (including verbal

                    comments) until the ball has been released.

                    Once the player taking the penalty pass is in the correct position, the player may choose

                    either to play the ball immediately or to wait for the infringer to stand out of play. If the

                    player chooses to play the ball immediately:

                    • The infringer may not take part in play until the ball has been released or make

                    any attempt to intercept the penalty pass;

                    • The penalty pass will be retaken if the infringer interferes with it.

                    Please observe the above rule if a penalty is given against you!

                    Taking free passes and penalties

                    You have 3 seconds from setting the free pass/penalty in which to take it. If you decide

                    that another player would be better taking it, you must place the ball back on the floor.

                    Do not walk towards the other player to pass it to them (footwork) or hand it to them

                    (short pass).

                    Any player allowed in that area may take the free pass/penalty.

                    Shooting

                    Only the GS and GA are able to score goals for your team. They must be wholly inside

                    the goal circle to shoot.

                    Throw in

                    The ball is thrown back into play from the point where it went off the court. It is out of

                    court when it contacts anything outside the court area (except the goalpost).

                    When taking a throw in, a player places her foot up to but not on the sideline or backline

                    of the court. The lines are part of the court. If any part of your foot is touching the line

                    or you step into the court in the process of taking the throw in, this is deemed to be a

                    foul throw. At least one foot must be within 15cm of the line though.

                    This includes walking on the court to pass the ball to another player if you decide that

                    they should take the throw in. In this instance, you should leave the ball on the floor

                    outside the court for the player to then pick up.

                    You have 3 seconds from when you take up your position at the side of the court in

                    which to throw the ball.

                    You must also wait until all players are back on the court before taking the throw in.

                    If any of the above occurs, a throw in to the opposing team will be awarded.

                    Over a third

                    The ball cannot be thrown over a complete third of the court without being

                    touched or caught by a player (i.e. it cannot cross two transverse lines).

                    A free pass shall be taken from the area where the ball crossed the second transverse

                    line (i.e. where the ball shouldn’t have been).

                    Replayed ball

                    A player may not replay the ball. Specifically you can’t:

                    • Lose control of the ball and pick it up again if it has not been touched by another

                    player;

                    • Catch a rebound from a shot on goal if the ball has not touched the post or

                    another player;

                    • Toss the ball into the air and catch it again without it being touched by another

                    player.

                    Jewellery

                    Players must remove all jewellery before the start of a match to avoid injury to you as a

                    player and your opposition. This rule includes all ear piercings, including piercings high

                    on the ear lobe. Covering piercings up with a plaster is not adequate!

                    The only exception is a wedding band or a medical alert bracelet which can be worn but

                    must be taped up.

                    Failure to remove jewellery will result in a player not being allowed on court.

                    Nails

                    Nails must be kept short. As a guideline, nails should be no longer than 1mm long and

                    should not be seen from the underside of the finger. This is to protect other players

                    from injury.

                    This is not a popular rule but it will be strictly enforced to avoid any unnecessary injuries

                    occurring to players taking part in the league.

                    Players will not be allowed to start a match with long nails.

                    Guidelines on enforcing the rules

                    Although we’re all out to have some fun playing netball, unfortunately there are rules

                    of the game that we need to stick to.!

                    For the first week or two, the umpires may be lenient and give you a second chance

                    to correct a technical fault (such as stepping onto the court as you take a throw in),

                    instead of giving the free pass to the opposing team. Umpires will also explain any

                    decisions that you don’t understand if you ask them politely, although they may ask

                    you to wait until half or full time to allow them to concentrate fully on the game being

                    played.

                    The rules will be followed more closely as the league progresses and as you all progress

                    as players. The exception to this are rules which affect players’ safety, such as contact

                    and obstruction, which will be enforced from the start of the league.

                    8.6 . End unit assessment

                    • Organize netball competitions between teams and assess learners’ abilities to

                    apply techniques Let them refereeing the match and observe the respect of

                    netball rules.

                    8.7. Additional activities

                    • Reduce rules for slow learners and allow them to play the ball regular

                    • Organize competitions between small groups and choose their own referees

                    • Organize competition between classes, forming school teams and participate in

                    interschool competitions and refereeing matches.