Topic outline

  • Iriburiro

    Twaguteguriye iki gitabo kigendeye ku nteganyanyigisho nshya y’Ikinyarwanda yateguwe n’Ikigo Gishinzwe Guteza Imbere Uburezi mu Rwanda (REB) muri 2015 kugira ngo ubashe kwiyungura ubuhanga, unagire ubumenyi ngiro bugufasha gushyira mu bikorwa intego ndetse n’ibyifuzo by’Igihugu cyanecyane mu byerekeranye no gushimangira ubunyarwanda, iterambere rirambye, umudendezo n’ubuzima buzira umuze. Ni ngombwa ko tugusobanurira ibyo kizagufashamo, ibirimo n’imikoreshereze yacyo.

    Gukoresha iki gitabo mu buzima bwawe bwa buri munsi, haba ku ishuri haba se iwanyu mu rugo, bizagufasha muri byinshi. Uko uzagenda ugisoma kenshi, kizagufasha kongera ubushobozi bwawe mu gushungura uko bikwiye, ibitekerezo wumvise cyangwa wasomye ugaragaza ko wasobanukiwe n’ubutumwa; kuvuga udategwa, utanga ibitekerezo bigaragaza uko wumva ibintu kandi utanga ingingo zishyigikira cyangwa zivuguruza ibitekerezo by’abandi ku nsanganyamatsiko zinyuranye; gusoma udategwa inyandiko zinyuranye, inkuru zishingiye ku biriho cyangwa ibihimbano, no kumva insanganyamatsiko z’ingenzi, ibitekerezo, ibyabaye, abavugwa mu nkuru n’uturango tw’ururimi rwakoreshejwe unitoza gutekereza neza, gusesengura no gutandukanya ingeri zinyuranye z’ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda; guhanga imyandiko irambuye ku nsanganyamatsiko zatoranyijwe ukurikiranya neza ibitekerezo; gukoresha amagambo n’imvugo biboneye wubahiriza amategeko y’imyandikire, imyubakire y’interuro, imiterere n’isura y’umwandiko; kwandika ibitekerezo byawe ku buryo bufututse no guhitamo ibyo uvuga n’uburyo ubivugamo bitewe n’icyo ugamije n’abo ubwira; gusesengura imiterere y’ururimi no gukoresha uko bikwiye ubwoko bunyuranye bw’amagambo mu nteruro; gusoma no kwandika uko bikwiye amagambo n’interuro by’Ikinyarwanda wubahiriza imyandikire n’imivugirwe yemewe; gusobanura no gukoresha amategeko y’ikibonezamvugo wize mu kubaka interuro n’imyandiko.

    Iki gitabo k’Ikinyarwanda kigabanyijemo imitwe ikenda ikubiyemo insanganyamatsiko zivuga ku buringanire n’ubwuzuzanye, ubuzima, kubungabunga umuco nyarwanda, ibidukikije, ibyiza bitatse u Rwanda, umuco w’amahoro, itumanaho, ubufatanye no gukorera hamwe no ku burezi n’uburere bibereye Umunyarwanda u Rwanda rwifuza. Izi nsanganyamatsiko zimakajwe mu myandiko uzasoma winezeza ari na ko wiyungura ubumenyi, ubumenyi ngiro n’ubukesha cyangwa ukayishingiraho wiga ikibonezamvugo k’Ikinyarwanda, usesengura uturemajambo tw’inshinga, utw’amazina y’urusobe n’utw’ibinyazina, unoza ubumenyi bwawe bw’ururimi mu gihe witoza amasaku mbonezanteruro. Si ibyo gusa, iki gitabo giteguye ku buryo kizagufasha kurushaho kuba umutaramyi uhimbaza ibirori, dore ko uzaba witoje indirimbo n’ibihozo, no kuba intyoza mu kuvuga ushize amanga witoreje mu mikoreshereze y’imigani y’imigenurano uzasangamo, mu biganiro mpaka na nyunguranabitekerezo cyangwa mu gutondagura imivugo no guhina cyangwa guhanga imyandiko inyuranye. Ikindi ni uko uzaboneramo uburyo bwo guhanga imyandiko inoze nk’imyandiko ntekerezo, inyandiko zo mu butegetsi n’izo mu binyamakuru kuko uzaba warihuguye mu myandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda n’imisusire ya bene iyo myandiko.

    Iki gitabo kiganjemo imyitozo izagufasha gusesengura iyo myandiko, iteguye ku buryo iguha uruhare runini mu myigire yawe ikuyobora mu kongera ubushobozi mu gusabana mu Kinyarwanda, mu bufatanye, mu mibanire ikwiye n’abandi, mu kwiga no guhora wiyungura ubumenyi, mu bushobozi bwo kujora, mu bushakashatsi n’ubushobozi bwo gushakira ibibazo ibisubizo, no mu guhanga udushya. Ubu bushobozi bukuganisha mu gukora ubushakashatsi buhoraho usoma ibitabo bitandukanye byagufasha gukora imyitozo ikubiyemo, usura imbuga nkoranyambaga, ubaza inararibonye muturanye kugira ngo ziguhe ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko zikubiyemo ari na ko wisunga bagenzi bawe mukajya impaka mu rwego rwo kungurana ibitekerezo.

    Mu mpera z’igitabo hari ibisobanuro by’amwe mu magambo akubiye mu myandiko. Ayo atondetse yubahirije itonde ry’Ikinyarwanda. Uhuye n’ijambo rikugoye mu kuribonera igisobanuro, wareba niba utarisangamo, waribura ukifashisha inkoranyamagambo. Hari kandi n’imyandiko y’inyongera izagutoza kwisomera ubwawe ndetse n’ibitabo n’imyandiko byifashishijwe byagufasha kurushaho kwiyungura ubumenyi.

    Mu rwego rwo kukorohereza kumenya niba ibyo usabwa ubikora wenyine, ubifatanya n’abandi cyangwa ubitekerezaho mu buryo bwimbitse, ubigeraho ukoze ubushakashatsi mu isomero, ku mbuga nkoranyambaga, ukoresheje se inkoranyamagambo, twaguteguriye ibimenyetso bizajya bikuyobora. Dore urutonde rwabyo.

    Muri make, iki gitabo kizagufasha gukura ukuza ubunyarwanda nyabwo kuko kigukungahaza ku muco n’ururimi by’abakurambere kikakwinjiza mu bumenyi, ubumenyi ngiro n’ubukesha ukeneye nk’Umunyarwanda u Rwanda rwifuza. Gusoma iki gitabo bizagukungahaza mu bumenyi ku muco nyarwanda binyuze mu buvanganzo ndetse no gusesengura imiterere y’ururimi rwawe kavukire rw’Ikinyarwanda, maze unezezwe no gusakaza ku bandi ibyiza ukomoye muri urwo rurimi.


    Ibimenyetso nyobozi

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    • Umwandiko: Uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye hagati y’abashakanye


      g

      Hambere umugabo yari umutware w’umuryango mu gihe umugore yafatwaga nk’umucakara ukora ibyo ategetswe n’umugabo. Umugore yasabwaga kumvira no kubaha umugabo we muri byose n’igihe cyose. Ntiyashoboraga kumuvuguruza, kabone n’iyo yabonaga ko umugabo we atanze itegeko ridafututse. Babinogerezaga bavuga bati: “Amafuti y’umugabo ni bwo buryo bwe.” Mbese, umugore nta jambo yahabwaga mu rugo. Agaciro ke kahagariraga gusa ku kubyara. Nyamara wakwitegereza ugasanga afatiye runini abagize umuryango. Kudasangira ibitekerezo hagati y’umugabo n’umugore no kuniganwa ijambo byabaye akarande igihe kirekire. Abana bavutse bakabikuriramo, bakabifata
      batyo.

      Imyigishirize yo hambere na yo yakandamizaga igitsina gore. Abana b’abakobwa bakuraga batozwa kwibombarika no kuzitwararika ku mitungo no ku mategeko by’umugabo mu gihe barushinze. Naho abana b’abahungu bagatozwa ko ari abatware b’ibihangange, bakigira akari aha kajya he? Bagakura bica bagakiza. Ibyo byarabokamaga no kuzageza mu ngo zabo bamaze gushaka cyangwa bageze no mu zindi nzego z’imirimo. Abakobwa bakuraga bazi ko hari imirimo yabagenewe. Twavuga imirimo yo mu rugo, nko gukubura, kwita ku bana, gutegura amafunguro, gutereka amata no kuyacunda n’indi mirimo mbonezamubano. Naho abahungu bakamenyerezwa iyo gukenura amatungo, kuyobora ingo no kurengera Igihugu.

      Aho amashuri aziye, imyumvire y’ababyeyi yari uko umuhungu ari we ugomba kwiga gusa. Naho umukobwa akaguma mu rugo agakora ya mirimo yose yo mu rugo, bakabikuririza bavuga ngo: “Impamyabumenyi y’umukobwa ni umugabo”. Ugasanga ahubwo bihutiye kumushyingira imburagihe, bakanamushyingira uwo atazi atanigeze agira uruhare mu kumuhitamo. Bityo, wa muruho ukaba uramuboneranye. Iri kandamizwa ry’igitsina gore ryadindije iterambere mu nzego zinyuranye z’ubuzima bw’Igihugu.

      Uko iminsi yagiye isimburana, iyo myumvire yagiye ihinduka buhorobuhoro. Abantu babona ko ari ngombwa ko abagore na bo bahabwa ijambo, bakagira uruhare mu iterambere ry’umuryango. Ubuyobozi na bwo bwungamo, bushyiraho amategeko aha abantu bose amahirwe n’uburenganzira bingana mu bikorwa biteza imbere ingo n’Igihugu. Uku guha umugore ijambo agafatanya n’umugabo we kwatumye haba ubwisanzure mu bashakanye, maze akarengane kimukira uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye mu muryango.

      Iyo utereye akajisho mu muryango iwacu usanga umugore yararenganuwe. Yahawe amahirwe angana n’ay’umugabo, ntiyakomeza guhezwa mu iterambere ry’urugo rwe. Umugore asigaye agira uruhare mu igenamigambi ry’urugo, akanajya inama n’umugabo we ku cyazamura urugo rwabo. Baruzuzanya mu kunoza imicungire y’umutungo w’urugo. Ni ukuvuga, kugena amafaranga bahahisha, ayo babitsa muri banki, n’ayo bashora mu mishinga ibyara inyungu. Uku gushyira hamwe kw’abashakanye gutera buri wese kumva ko adashobora gukoresha amafaranga y’urugo uko abonye bityo bigatuma bagera ku iterambere vuba.

      Muri iki gihe, ntibikiri ikibazo ko abagore n’abo bashakanye bungurana ibitekerezo ku bijyanye n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere. Baricara bakumvikana uko bakwiriye gufatanya mu kugena urubyaro no kuruteganyiriza ibyangombwa ruzakenera mu bihe bizaza by’ubuzima bwarwo. Si ibyo gusa kandi kuko usanga bajya inama y’uko urugo rwabo rwatera imbere hatabayeho kuvunishanya. Buri wese mu rugo arahihibikanira icyazana inyungu mu rugo. Umwe aca aha undi agaca aha, hanyuma bagahuriza hamwe ibyo bagezeho kandi bakabigiraho uruhare rungana.

      Nta vangura rikigaragara mu mirimo cyangwa mu guhezwa mu mirimo kuko byagaragaye ko ibitsina byombi bishoboye. Umugore asigaye ajya ku kazi nko kwigisha, gukora muri banki cyangwa mu buyobozi bwite bwa Leta, umugabo we yaba nta kazi afite agasigara mu rugo yita ku byaho byose. Iyo bombi bafite akazi k’umushahara, uwahembwe mbere ahahira urugo ay’undi yazaza agakora ibindi. Kwita ku bana bisigaye bireba ababyeyi bombi. Ubu nta mugabo ugisiganya umugore kujya gukingiza abana cyangwa kubavuza yemwe no kubasasira cyangwa kubabikira.

      Kwimakaza ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye mu ngo bituma buri wese yigirira ikizere mu kuyobora no gushakisha imibereho y’abagize umuryango. Ari umugabo n’umugore bose barashoboye kandi ingero ni nyinshi zibigaragaza. Iri hame rituma abana batozwa imirimo yose nta vangura cyangwa itonesha ribayeho. Mu gihe umukobwa adahari, umubyeyi ntazuyaze kubwira umuhungu we ngo akubure cyangwa ngo yoze ibikoresho byo ku meza cyangwa byo mu gikoni.

      Byari bikwiye ko buri wese ahabwa agaciro ke, ntihabeho ivangura. Abana baba mu muryango ufatanya na bo bakurana ubufatanye n’urukundo kuko babyigira ku babyeyi babo. Iyo ababyeyi buzuzanya burya bajya inama bakanazigama hanyuma abana babo na bo bakabigana. Bakabitangira bakiri bato. Bityo rero bagira ishyaka bakanatekereza kugera ku bintu bihanitse.

      Mu mashuri uburinganire bwateye imbere; abana bose bariga kandi batsinda kimwe. Iyo barangije kwiga, bakora imirimo inyuranye kandi bagatanga umusanzu wabo mu kubaka Igihugu mu buryo bungana. Imirimo itangwa hakurikijwe ubushobozi bafite. Abakobwa bo bashyiraho akarusho kuko mu mikorere yabo basanzwe bagaragaza ubwitonzi, ubushishozi, n’amakenga. Burya koko ngo ujijuye umugore aba ajijuye umuryango w’abantu muri rusange.

      Uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye ni ngombwa mu iterambere ry’umuryango n’Igihugu muri rusange. Iri hame ntirikuraho inshingano za buri wese mu buzima, ahubwo rituma habaho guterana ingabo mu bitugu, abashakanye bagatahiriza umugozi umwe. Ugushyigikirana mu mirimo yo mu rugo, mu igenamigambi no mu micungire y’umutungo w’urugo no kujya inama hagati y’abashakanye bituma iterambere rikataza mu rugo rwabo. Kandi n’ubundi ngo: “Umwe arya bihora n’abagiye inama Imana irabasanga.”


      I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

        1. Ni iki kigaragaza ko umwana yatoye umuco wo kuzigama?

        2. Ni hehe agaciro k’umugore kagaragariraga mu Rwanda rwo hambere? Ubu kagaragarira he?

        3. Vuga nibura ikiza kimwe cyo kuvuka ku babyeyi bashyira hamwe.

        4. Ngo gushyira hamwe kw’abashakanye bituma iterambere rikataza. Sobanura.

        5.Leta y’u Rwanda yakoze iki mu gushimangira ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye mu muryango?

        6.Vuga imigani y’imigenurano nibura ibiri yavuzwe mu mwandiko.

        7.Rondora nibura ibintu bitatu bigaragaza ko mu muryango uyu n’uyu bumva neza ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye.


      II. Inyunguramagambo

      1.Sobanura amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                  a) Akarande                     f) Kokama
                  b) Igenamigambi            g) Guhabwa ijambo
                  c) Umucakara                  h) Uburinganire
                 d) Akari aha kajya he?     i) Ubwuzuzanye
                 e) Kwibombarika

      2. Garagaza ijambo riri mu mwandiko risobanura nk’aya akurikira:

         a) Igihe gikwiriye kitaragera
         b) Imibereho mibi umuntu abamo igihe kirekire
         c) Ubwitonzi burimo n’igenzura butuma umuntu adapfa guhubukira ibintu.

      3.Garagaza amagambo abusanyije inyito n’aya akurikira:

        a) Gutahiriza umugozi umwe
        b) Ubwitonzi
        c) Uburinganire

      III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

      Umunyeshuri akoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

      1.Himba interuro ngufi kandi ziboneye zirimo nibura rimwerimwe muri aya magambo:

            a) Uburinganire
            b) Ubwuzuzanye
            c) Kuzigama

      2.Uzuza izi nteruro wifashishije amagambo wungutse mu mwandiko.

         a) Iyo watangiye .................... dukeduke ukiri muto ugira ubukire.
         b) Kuraza umwana kugira ngo asinzire ni ....................

      IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

      1.  Garagaza ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zikubiye muri uyu mwandiko.

      2.  Ushingiye ku bivugwa mu mwandiko, garagaza indi mirimo waba uzi cyangwa wabonye igaragaza uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye mu muryango.

      3.  Ese nyuma yo kwiga uyu mwandiko ni iki wumva wungutse ku by’imibereho y’ababana mu muryango?

      V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

      Kungurana ibitekerezo

      Mu matsinda, nimwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho. Uyu mwitozo mushobora no kuwukorera hanze y’ishuri, mu gihe musubiramo amasomo yanyu.

      Insanganyamatsiko:

      Bivugwa ko “Imirimo yo mu rugo yose (Kumesera abana, gukubura, guteka, gusana urugo...) umugabo n’umugore bashobora kuyikora ku buryo bungana”. Hari rero abatabyumva gutyo bakavuga ko hari imirimo igenewe abagore n’indi igenewe abagabo. Wowe ubyumva ute?

      Ibiganiro mpaka

      Musome izi nteruro hanyuma muzitangeho ibitekerezo buri wese avuge uko yumva bikwiriye kumera.

      a)   Birashoboka ko umubyeyi w’umugabo yajyana umwana we kwa muganga umugore agasigara mu rugo atarwaye?

      b)  Ese hari imirimo ikwiye guharirwa abahungu n’ikwiriye guharirwa abakobwa? Yaba ari iyihe?

      Izi ngingo zigomba kugibwaho impaka kuko hari abakwemeranya na zo, abandi na bo bakabona ko ibyavuzwe bidafite ishingiro cyangwa bitakijyanye n’igihe. Nguko uko impaka zivuka. Impaka zivugwa aha ngaha ni ibiganiro bihuza impande ebyiri zitumvikana ku nsanganyamatsiko iba yatanzwe, kandi izo mpaka zikaba zigamije kugera ku mwanzuro runaka.

      Inshoza n’intego y’ibiganiro mpaka
      Ibiganiro mpaka bikorwa n’abantu benshi bagamije kungurana ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko runaka. Usanga bihuza impande ebyiri z’abantu bamwe bashyigikiye insanganyamatsiko abandi batayishyigikiye.

      Impaka zivugwa si izo kwiriza umunsi, si izibyara amacakubiri ahubwo ni impaka zigamije gushakira ikibazo igisubizo runaka no kugera ku mwanzuro wubaka no kugena umurongo ngenderwaho. Ibiganiro mpaka biba bigamije guhuza impande zombi ngo barebe icyo bakumvikanaho gikwiye gukurikizwa ku mpande zombi.

      Ibiganiro mpaka bibera mu mashuri byo bituma abanyeshuri baba intyoza mu kuvuga, bakaba imbonera mu gutega amatwi ibivugwa no mu gutanga ingingo zifite ireme. Bibatoza kutarondogora ahubwo bakagusha ku ntego kandi bakamenyera gukurikiranya ingingo bubahiriza inyurabwenge n’injyabihe y’ibivugwa. By’umwihariko, ibiganiro mpaka bitoza abanyeshuri kuvugira mu ruhame.

      Abagize ibiganiro mpaka
      Ibiganiro mpaka bigirwa n’amatsinda atatu hatabariwemo indorerezi. Uruhare rw’izo mpande zose ruba rukenewe mu migendekere myiza y’ikiganiro. Izo mpande zose kandi ni magirirane.

      a)  Uruhande rushyigikira insanganyamatsiko: Ni itsinda ry’abashyigikiye insanganyamatsiko. Ibitekerezo, ingingo n’ibisobanuro batanga bigomba kutanyuranya n’insanganyamatsiko.

      b) Uruhande ruhakana insanganyamatsiko: Ni itsinda ry’abantu batemera ibitekerezo n’ingingo bikubiye mu nsanganyamatsiko yatanzwe. Abafata umwanya wo kugira icyo bavuga, bagerageza kuyirwanya. Bagomba ariko kwifashisha ingingo n’ibisobanuro byumvikana ku buryo n’uruhande rwemeza rushobora kuva ku izima.

      c) Umuhuza cyangwa umuyobozi w’ikiganiro mpaka: Ni umuntu uba ushinzwe guhuza izo mpande zombi. Ashobora kuba umwe cyangwa benshi. Umubare w’abafasha umuhuza uterwa n’urwego rw’ikiganiro, igihe ibiganiro bizamara ndetse n’intego y’ibiganiro.

      Inshingano z’umuhuza
      Inshingano z’umuhuza zishobora kuba nyinshi ariko iz’ingenzi ni izi zikurikira:

           - Gusobanura insanganyamatsiko.

          - Gutanga umurongo ngenderwaho.

          - Gutanga umwanya w’amagambo kuri buri ruhande.

          - Gufasha mu kumvikanisha impande zombi.

      - Kugeza impande zombi ku mwanzuro.

      - Gufasha mu kubahiriza igihe.

      Ibyo umuhuza agomba kuba yujuje

      Umuhuza agomba kuba ari:

             - Inararibonye- Umuhanga mu byo baganiraho.

            - Azwiho kwihangana.

            - Kuba ashobora kuvuga rikumvikana.

            - Kuba azwiho kutabogama.

            - Kuba afite igitsure.

            - Kuba ari inyangamugayo.

      Ingero z’ibiganiro mpaka bishobora kubaho

      - Ibiganiro mpaka bibera mu mashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye, umuhuza ashobora kuba ari umuntu umwe ntabamufasha. Impamvu ni uko bimara igihe gito kibarirwa mu masaha.

      - Ibiganiro mpaka bitegurwa ku rwego rw’Igihugu cyangwa bihuje impande zishyamiranye mu ntambara, umuhuza agira abamufasha. Impamvu ni uko biba bisaba ubumenyi bwinshi bunyuranye nk’amateka, poritiki, ubukungu n’ibindi. Nta muntu rero waba inzobere mu bintu byose. Indi mpamvu ituma umuhuza agira abamufasha, ni uko bene ibyo biganiro bishobora no gufata igihe kirekire nk’ibyumweru cyangwa amezi.

      Abandi bashobora kugira uruhare mu kiganiro mpaka ni:

      - Umwanditsi: Yandika ibitekerezo biba byagiye bitangwa n’impande zombi zijya impaka ku nsangayamatsiko runaka.

      - Umucungagihe: Aba ashinzwe kureba niba abahabwa umwanya wo gutanga ibitekerezo ku mpande zombi bubahiriza igihe bahawe, ukirengeje akamuhagarika.

      - Abakemurampaka: Ni ababa bashinzwe kugaragaza uruhande rwatsinze n’uruhande rwatsinzwe. Iyo ari mu myitozo ibera mu mashuri batanga amanota bakurikije imyitwarire ya buri ruhande.

      - Indorerezi: Ni abantu bose baba bakurikiye kandi bateze amatwi impaka zirimo kuba. Abo uretse kumva, ntibagomba kwivanga mu biganiro; nta zindi nshingano baba bafite. Icyakora bemerewe kugaragaza amarangamutima ndetse bakaba babaza n’ibibazo, batagize uruhande babangamira.

      Uko ikiganiro mpaka gikorwa

      Buri ruhande rugerageza kugaragaza ingingo no gutanga ibitekerezo bifatika kandi rukabishimangira ndetse rukabisobanura. Ingingo zitangwa hifashishijwe ingero zifatika kandi zumvikana neza.

      Dore zimwe muri zo:

           a) Amagambo n’ibitekerezo byatanzwe n’abakomeye byerekeranye n’iyo nsanganyamatsiko.

           b) Ibyanditswe mu bitabo binyuranye.

           c) Ubumenyi bwigwa mu mashuri n’ahandi.

           d) Ubunararibonye bwa buri muntu...

      Umwitozo wo gukora ikiganiro mpaka:
      Muge impaka kuri iyi nsanganyamatsiko ikurikira:

      Insanganyamatsiko:
      - Ari abahungu cyangwa abakobwa, bose bashobora gukora imirimo yose yo mu rugo nta vangura. Ese hari iyo abahungu bashobora abakobwa ntibabe bayishobora?

      Umwandiko: Uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye mu miyoborere


      f

      Kuva kera byagaragaye ko abagore n’abakobwa bahezwaga mu nzego nyinshi zifata ibyemezo. Ibyo byagaragariraga cyane mu mibereho y’umuryango. Iyo myumvire mibi igacengezwa mu bantu binyuze mu ngengamitekerereze y’Abanyarwanda nko mu mvugo za buri munsi no mu migani y’imigenurano. Bagiraga bati: “Nta nkokokazi ibika isake ihari”, ubundi bati: “Uruvuze umugore ruvuga umuhoro” n’indi migani mibi isa n’iyo.

      Iri hezwa rya ba nyampinga na ba mutima w’urugo ryagiye ridindiza iterambere ry’Igihugu cyacu. Iyo uhejeje umwari n’umutegarugori mu nzu hari ibitekerezo byakubaka igihugu uba upfukiranye. Mu Rwanda abagore bagaragaje ko bafatiye runini umuryango aho abagore bagira uruhare runini mu burere bw’abana. Cyakora hari bake bagiye bigaragaza mu zindi gahunda z’Igihugu.

      Mu ntyoza zafashaga kwamamaza no gukomeza amatwara y’ingoma harimo abasizi b’abagore. Umugabekazi Nyirarumaga ntawamwibagirwa mu nganzo y’ubusizi ku ngoma ya Ruganzu II Ndori. Hari n’intwari zatabariraga Igihugu zikarinda imipaka kuvogerwa. Mu mbanzirizakubarusha twavugamo nka Ndabaga wiyemeje gukura se ku rugerero. Kandi na ba Nyagakecuru mu bisi bya Huye cyangwa ba Nyabingi iyo mu Ndorwa ntibari boroshye! Izo ni ingero nke z’abakurambere ariko n’ubu hari abakomeje kwigaragaza ku buryo hari n’abashyizwe mu ntwari z’Igihugu. Nyamara ibyo ariko hari igihe byirengagijwe. Bavugaga ko nta mutegarugori wahagarara imbere y’abagabo ngo ategeke. Mu mashuri ubwo barahezwa ngo hari amasomo yahariwe abahungu n’ayahariwe abakobwa.

      Igihugu cyacu kimaze kubona ko ihezwa ry’Umunyarwandakazi ridindiza iterambere, kiyemeje gushimangira ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye. Ubu mu Rwanda umwana wese ni nk’undi. Ni mu gihe kandi u Rwanda rwimakaje uburezi budaheza. Gusa gahunda y’uburezi budaheza ntiyashyiriweho kuzamura umugore gusa ngo agire ubushobozi bwo kuyoborana na musaza we. Iyi gahunda igamije kwita ku mwana wese akiga neza kandi ibyo ashaka anashoboye. Yaba umukobwa cyangwa umuhungu, yaba abafite ubumuga cyangwa ubukene agomba gufatwa nka mugenzi we udafite ubusembwa cyangwa uturuka mu muryango wifashije.

      Igihugu cyacu kiyemeje guharanira uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye mu muryango no mu miyoborere y’Igihugu. Itegeko nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda riha abagore nibura imyanya mirongo itatu ku ijana mu nzego zose z’Igihugu. Ubu mu ruhando mpuzamahanga Igihugu cyacu kiza mu myanya ya mbere mu kwimakaza uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye bw’ibitsina byombi. Igishimishije ni uko ayo mahirwe Abanyarwandakazi batayapfushije busa. Abari n’abategarugori ntibahwema kugaragaza ko impano zabo zari zarapfukiranwe. Mu mashuri ibyigwa byose babyiga babyumva. Iyo witegereje imitsindire yabo, besa imihigo kakahava! Ntibiheza bafatanya na basaza babo bakuzuzanya mu buzima bwa buri munsi.

      Mu nzego zose z’ubuyobozi baraganje; baragaragara mu mpuzamashyirahamwe n’impuzamiryango. Ngabo muri za Minisiteri na za Ambasade. Barayoboye kandi barabishoboye. Ngabo muri Sena no mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko, mu bayobozi b’Intara, ab’Uturere n’ab’Imirenge. Mu ngabo na porisi... Ubu ibihugu byinshi biza kwigira ku Rwanda ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye mu miyoborere. Mu bigo nderabuzima baratuvura bakaduha n’inama. Kandi mu mirimo yose amakenga yabo arushaho kubagira ingenzi.

      Tugomba twese kwimakaza ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye. Ubu ntawukwiriye kwihandagaza ngo avuge ngo: “Nta nkokokazi ibika isake ihari.” Kuko iyi mvugo nta gaciro ifite. Nta mubyeyi wavuga ngo kubera ko amafaranga abaye make ndajyana umwana w’umuhungu mu ishuri uw’umukobwa arorere kandi bose ari ingirakamaro. Kutumva neza iri hame cyangwa kuryirengagiza ni ubujiji bukomeye.

      I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

      1.Vuga nibura umugani umwe ugaragaza ko umugore atagiraga ijambo mu ruhame mu gihe cyo hambere.

      2.Ni ikihe kintu k’ingenzi kigaragaza ko u Rwanda rushyigikiye bidasubirwaho ihame ry’uburinganire?

      3.Rondora ingero nibura eshatu zagaragazaga uburinganire n’uruhare rw’umugore mu buyobozi bw’Igihugu mu Rwanda rwo hambere.

      4.Ni iki cyavuzwe mu mwandiko kigaragaza ko ubu mu Rwanda hari uburezi budaheza?

      5.Ni ikihe kintu cyavuzwe mu mwandiko cyagereranyijwe n’ubujiji bukomeye?

      6.Mu Rwanda hashyigikiwe uburezi budaheza umuntu uwo ari we wese. Garagaza amagambo ari mu mwandiko abyemeza.

      7.Mu nzego z’ubuyobozi abagore bahariwe kangahe ku ijana?

      II. Inyunguramagambo

      1.Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira ugendeye ku mwandiko.

           a) Kwimakaza                     e) Ubusembwa

           b) Guhezwa                         f ) Mutima w’urugo

           c) Ingengamitekerereze    g) Uburezi budaheza

           d) Intyoza

      2.Garagaza andi magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko asobanura:

          a) Umukobwa, umwari cyangwa umwangavu

          b) Umugore cyangwa umutegarugori

          c) Ubwitonzi bwo kudapfa guhubukira ibyo ubonye

          d) Kujya ku butegetsi.

      3.Garagaza amagambo abusanyije inyito n’aya akurikira:

            a) Ibibondo        b) Indashyikirwa      c) Kwimakaza        d) Ubujiji

      III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

      Umunyeshuri akoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

      1.Kora interuro ngufi kandi ziboneye wifashishije rimwerimwe muri aya magambo akurikira:

          a) Ibibondo                b) Nyampinga       c) Amakenga        d) Ubwuzuzanye

      2.Muri iki kinyatuzu harimo amazina arindwi ashobora kwitwa umuntu w’igitsina gore kuva avutse kugeza akuze. Yagaragaze unayakoreshe mu nteruro ziboneye.

      b 

      IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

      1.Garagaza ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

      2.Sobanura ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye ugendeye ku mwandiko.

      3.Garagaza mu mwandiko ingingo zigaragaza umuco n’izigaragaza amateka. (Ibyakorwaga mu butegetsi mu Rwanda rwo hambere)

      4. Mu buzima bwacu bwa buri munsi ubona kubahiriza ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye bifite akahe kamaro mu nzego z’ubuyobozi ?

      V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

      Mu matsinda, nimwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho. Uyu mwitozo mushobora no kuwukorera hanze y’ishuri, mu gihe musubiramo amasomo yanyu.

      Insanganyamatsiko:
      Kutubahiriza ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye hagati y’ibitsina byombi byadindiza iterambere ry’umuryango n’iry’igihugu muri rusange.

      Amazina y’urusobe

      Itegereze aya mazina agaragara mu mwandiko ari muri izi mpushya ebyiri A na B, uyatekerezeho maze ugaragaze aho atandukaniye urebeye ku turemajambo tuyagize, imiterere n’ingano yayo.
      d

      Mu rurimi rw’Ikinyarwanda amazina arimo amoko atandukanye bitewe n’imiterere y’intego cyangwa uturemajambo twayo. Habaho amazina mbonera ndetse n’amazina y’urusobe.

      Amazina ari mu ruhushya rwa mbere ni amazina mbonera.

      Amazina y’umwimerere mu rurimi, adafite andi magambo akomokaho twavuga ko ari amazina mbonera asanzwe cyangwa amazina yoroheje. Imiterere y’intego zayo, igizwe n’uturemajambo tw’ibanze dutatu gusa ari two: indomo, indanganteko n’igicumbi (D-RT-C)

      Ingero: a) Umwana: u-mu-ana - u → w/-J          d) Isambu: i-ø- sambu Nta tegeko.
                    b) Abana: a - ba - ana - u → ø/-J            e) Abagore: a - ba - gore Nta tegeko.
                    c) Ibihugu: i-bi-hugu Nta tegeko.

      Amazina ari mu ruhushya rwa kabiri ni amazina y’urusobe.
      Amazina y’urusobe
      Izina ry’urusobe ni izina rimwe ariko rigizwe n’amagambo arenze rimwe. Iyo risesenguwe rigira intego cyangwa uturemajambo turenze utw’izina mbonera kuko rishobora kugira indomo ebyiri, indangazina ebyiri, ibicumbi bibiri. Rishobora kandi kuba rigizwe n’amagambo abiri yiyunze, ijambo ryiyometseho akabimbura cyangwa umusuma, inshinga n’ubundi bwoko bw’ijambo riyibereye icyuzuzo (mbonera cyangwa nziguro) , amazina abiri yunzwe n’ikinyazina ngenera.

      Ingero:
            Iterambere: gutera + imbere (inshinga n’icyuzuzo)
            Ingaramakirambi: ingarama + ikirambi (inshinga yiyunze n’izina)
            Abanyarwanda: Abanya + u Rwanda ( izina ririmo akabimbura)
            Abanyarwandakazi:abanya + u Rwanda + kazi ( izina ririmo akabimbura n’umusuma)
            Nyampinga: nya + impinga (izina ritangiwe n’akabimbura)

      Uturango tw’izina ry’urusobe
      Izina y’urusobe ni izina usanga rikomoka ku yandi magambo arenze rimwe ariko rikagira inyito imwe. Mu rwego rw’intego usanga ari izina rifite uturemajambo turenze utw’izina mbonera. Izina ry’urusobe rishobora kugira uturemajambo tw’izina twivanzemo utw’inshinga cyangwa ubundi bwoko bw’ijambo nk’ikinyazina, umugereka...

      Amoko y’amazina y’urusobe
        a) Amazina y’inyunge
        b) Amazina y’urujyanonshinga
        c) Amazina y’akabimbura
        d) Amazina y’imisuma
        e) Amazina ahujwe n’ikinyazina ngenera

      Amazina y’inyunge

      Izina ry’inyunge ni izina rigizwe n’amazina abiri yiyunze agakora izina rimwe. Muri ayo mazina abiri usanga irya kabiri riba risobanura izina riribanjirije. Amazina y’inyunge nubwo aba agizwe n’amazina abiri yiyunze agira inyito imwe itari igiteranyo cy’ayo mazina abiri yiyunze. Cyakora iyo irya kabiri rifutura irya mbere yandikwa atandukanye.

      Urugero:
      Imvugo shusho: iri jambo rigizwe n’amazina abiri ari yo imvugo n’ishusho.Itegeko teka: iri jambo rigizwe n’amazina abiri ari yo itegeko n’iteka.

      Amazina y’urujyanonshinga
      Aya mazina y’urujyanonshinga aba ashingiye ku nshinga yiyunze n’icyuzuzo cyayo, gishobora kuba icyuzuzo mbonera cyangwa icyuzuzo nziguro (izina, inshinga, ikinyazina, umugereka), agakora izina rimwe.

      Ingero:

      z

      Amazina y’akabimbura

      Ijambo“akabimbura” risobanura akajambo kabimbura ni ukuvuga kaza imbere. Ubusanzwe kubimburira abandi ni ukubabanziriza mu byo bakora. Izina ry’akabimbura rero ni izina rifite akajambo gato karibanjirije.

      Ingero:   - Nyakubahwa

                      - Nyiricyubahiro

                      - Nyiramahirwe

                      - Semasaka

                      - Rwamanywa

                      - Kanyana

                     - Mukasekuru

                     - Mwenese

                    - Umunyarwanda

      Utu tujambo duciyeho akarongo kimwe n’utundi tutarondowe ni “utubimbura”. Utubimbura dukunze gukoreshwa mu Kinyarwanda ni: a, ka, nya, nyiri, nyira, se, sa.

      Amazina y’imisuma

      Umusuma ni akajambo kongerwa inyuma y’irindi kakagira umumaro wo gusobanura neza iryo zina kagaragiye. Habaho umusuma kazi, azi, ndetse n’imisuma igaragaza isano nka rume, kuru, kuruza...

      Ingero:   - Inkokokazi            - umunyarwandakazi

                      - Umugabazi           - ikintazi

                     - Nyirarume             - sogokuru

      Amazina ahujwe n’ikinyazina ngenera

      Amazina y’ingereka ni amazina y’urusobe agizwe n’amazina abiri yunzwe n’ikinyazina ngenera. Ayo mazina abiri yunzwe n’ikinyazina ngenera ntagira inyito ebyiri, ahubwo arema inyito imwe n’ubwo aba agizwe n’amagambo abiri.

      Ingero:  

      - Insina z’amatwi: aya mazina “insina” na “amatwi” yunzwe n’ikinyazina ngenera “za” kandi inyito yayo ni imwe, asobanuye ikintu kimwe.

       - Amaso y’ikirayi: aya mazina “amaso” na “ikirayi” yunzwe n’ikinyazina ngenera “ya” kandi asobanuye ikintu kimwe.

      - Inkondo y’umura: aya mazina “inkondo” na “umura” yunzwe n’ikinyazina ngenera “ya” kandi afite inyito y’ikintu kimwe.

      Ikitonderwa: Hari amazina aranga amasano abantu bafitanye na yo abarirwa mu mazina y’urusobe. Ayo mazina atandukana bitewe n’uvuga (muri ngenga ya mbere), ubwirwa (muri ngenga ya kabiri) ndetse n’uvugwa (muri ngenga ya gatatu).

      Urugero:

      Ngenga ya mbere:

                Databukwe, databuja, marume, masenge, sogokuru, nyogokuru

      Ngenga ya kabiri:

               Sobukwe, sobuja, nyokorome, nyogosenge

      Ngenga ya gatatu:

               Sebukwe, sebuja, nyirarume, nyirasenge, sekuru, nyirakuru

      Intego y’amazina y’urusobe

      Amazina y’urusobe agira intego zitari nk’iz’izina mbonera. Ashobora kugira uturemajambo tw’izina twivanzemo ubundi bwoko bw’uturemajambo. Izina ry’urusobe rishobora kugira indomo ebyiri, indangazina ebyiri, ibicumbi bibiri cyangwa rikagira indomo, indanganteko n’igicumbi ariko hakiyongeraho intego z’andi moko y’amagambo ashobora kwihagikamo cyangwa akaza inyuma y’igicumbi nk’icyuzuzo. Twavuga nk’utubimbura, ibinyazina, imigereka...

      Amazina y’urusobe asesengurwa nk’uko andi mazina asanzwe asesengurwa bitewe n’ubwoko bwayo, ndetse buri jambo rigasesengurwa hagaragazwa intego zaryo. Iyo izina ry’urusobe ari izina ry’urujyanonshinga hagomba ubushishozi kuko hari igihe inshinga ishobora kuba yiyunze n’ijambo ridahinduka nk’ umusuma cyangwa umugereka. Icyo gihe amagambo asanzwe atagoragozwa yandikwa uko yakabaye. Amazina yubakiye ku tubimbura na yo agomba ubushishozi kuko utubimbura tutagira intego.

      Iyo rimwe mu magambo agize izina ry’urusobe rikomoka ku nshinga icyo gihe iryo jambo risesengurwa hakurikijwe inkomoko yaryo.

      Dore uko bikorwa:Umucasuka: ni izina rigizwe n’amagambo abiri : Umuca n’isuka. Umuca ni ijambo rituruka cyangwa rikomoka ku nshinga guca, naho isuka ni izina mbonera.

      Mu kugaragaza intego umuca rirasesengurwa ukwaryo n’isuka ukwaryo:

      umuca: u-mu-ci-a

      isuka: i-ø-suka

      Ni ukuvuga ko uturemajambo duteye dutya:

      Umucasuka: u – mu – ci – a – ø – ø – suka i→ ø/-J

      Andi magambo twatangaho ingero:

      Impuzamiryango: rigizwe n’amagambo abiri ari yo : « impuza » rituruka ku nshinga guhuza inkomoko yayo ikaba « guhura », n’imiryango.

      i-n-hur-y-a-ø-mi-ryango n→m/-h, mh→mp mu nyandiko, r+y→z

      Umunyarwanda: iri ni ijambo ryubakiye ku kabimbura “nya”n’ijambo u Rwanda.

      u-mu- nya - ø - ru-and- a u→ w/-J

      Nyiricyubahiro: iri ni ijambo ryubakiye ku kabimbura « nyiri » n’ijambo « icyubahiro».

      nyiri – ø – ki – ubah – ir – o i→ y/-J, ky→cy mu nyandiko

      Nyiramahirwe: iri ni ijambo rigizwe n’ akabimbura “nyira” n’ijambo “amahirwe”.

      nyira – ø – ma – hir - w - e

      semasaka: iri ni ijambo rigizwe n’ akabimbura se n’ijambo “amasaka”.

      se – ø – ma - saka

      Ubwirakabiri: iri ni ijambo rigizwe n’ijambo “ubwira” rituruka ku nshinga kwira n’ikinyazina nyamubaro “kabiri”.

      u – bu – ir – a – ka – biri u→ w/-J

      Imbonekarimwe: iri ni ijambo rigizwe n’ijambo “imboneka” rituruka ku nshinga kuboneka na yo ituruka ku nshinga kubona, n’ikinyazina nyamubaro “rimwe”.

      i – n – bon – ik – a – ri – mwe n→ m/-b, i→ e/- Co-

      Umugiraneza: iri ni izina rigizwe n’amagambo abiri “ umugira” bituruka ku nshinga kugira, n’umugereka w’uburyo “neza”.

      u – mu – gir – a – neza

      Insina z’amatwi: aha harimo amazina abiri “insina n’amatwi” yunzwe n’ikinyazina ngenera “za”.

      i – n – tsina – zi – ø – a – ma - twi t→ ø / n- s, i→ ø/-J

      Amazina agaragaza amasano abantu bafitanye:

      Ingero:

      - Databukwe: aha harimo amazina abiri “data” n’ijambo “ubukwe”.

      ø – ø – data – ø – bu – ko – e o→ w/-J

      - Marume: aha harimo amazina abiri “mama” rikoreshwa muri ngenga ya mbere rigahindura ishusho “ma” n’umusuma ugaragaza isano “rume”.

      ø – ø – ma – rume

      - Masenge: aha harimo amagambo atatu: “mama”, “se” n’ikinyazina ngenga “nge”.

      ø – ø – ma – ø – ø – se – n – gi – e i→ ø/-J ma ni impundurantego ya “mama”.

      - Sogokuru: aha harimo amazina abiri “so” na “kuru”iva kuri ntera mukuru.

      ø – ø – sogo – ø – kuru sogo ni impundurantego ya “so”

      - Nyokobuja: aha harimo amazina abiri “ nyoko” riva kuri mama muri ngenga ya kabiri, n’ijambo “ubuja”.

      ø – ø – nyoko – ø – bu – ja

      - Nyirabuja: aha harimo amazina abiri “nyira” riva kuri mama muri ngenga ya gatatu n’ijambo “ubuja”.

      ø – ø – nyira – ø – bu – ja

      Nyirasenge: ø – ø – nyira – ø – ø – se – n – gi – e

      - Sekuru: ø – ø – se – ø – kuru

      Umwitozo ku mazina y’urusobe

      Umunyeshuri ku giti ke akore neza umwitozo ku mazina y’urusobe.

      1.Tahura amazina y’urusobe yakoreshejwe mu nteruro zikurikira uyaceho akarongo.

          a) Abanyamategeko ni bo bakemura ibibazo byarenze abunzi.

          b) Umwana ubana na nyirakuru amenya byinshi.

          c) Uburingarire bugira uruhare mu iterambere.

          d) Umuntu nyamuntu agomba kuba umugiraneza aho ari hose.

          e) Hambere mu mashuri umunyarwandakazi yarahezwaga cyane.

      2.Shaka amazina y’urusobe ane maze uyakoreshe mu nteruro mbonezamvugo.

      3.Garagaza uturemajambo tw’aya mazina n’amategeko y’igenamajwi.

            a) Umushoramari                 d) Umunyamugisha                   g) Nyirakuru

            b) Abategarugori                  e) Ikimenyabose                         h) Nyokobukwe

            c) Inkandagirabitabo           f ) Ubugwaneza                           i) Nyogosenge

      Inshamake y’ibyizwe muri uyu mutwe wa mbere

      Imyandiko yo muri uyu mutwe ivuga ku buringanire n’ubwuzuzanye hagati y’abashakanye haba mu mirimo inyuranye cyangwa mu micungire y’umutungo ndetse no mu buyobozi. Ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye ryihutisha iterambere ry’umuryango n’iry’Igihugu muri rusange. Leta y’u Rwanda ishyigikiye bidasubirwaho uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye, ndetse ishyiraho ingamba ziha umugore uburyo bwo kugira uruhare haba mu kwiyubakira Igihugu no mu nzego z’imiyoborere.

      Mu bijyanye n’ubumenyi bw’ururimi, twabonye ikiganiro mpaka icyo ari cyo, ikiba kigamijwe mu kiganiro mpaka tunabona uko gikorwa.

      Mu kibonezamvugo twabonyemo inshoza y’amazina y’urusobe. Izina ry’urusobe ni izina rigira uturemajambo turenze utw’izina mbonera. Mu moko y’amazina y’urusobe harimo amazina y’inyunge, amazina y’urujyanonshinga, amazina y’utubimbura, amazina y’imisuma n’amazina y’ingereka. Twabonye ko habamo amwe agaragaza amasano abantu bagirana. Twabonye uturango twayo n’uko bagaragaza intego zayo.

      Isuzuma rusange risoza umutwe wa mbere

      Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

      Umwandiko: Inzego z’ubuyobozi mu Rwanda


      Igihugu cyacu ni Igihugu giharanira iteka kwiteza imbere. Ibi bikagaragarira mu bufatanye n’ubwuzuzanye mu nzego zinyuranye z’ubuyobozi. U Rwanda nk’Igihugu kigendera ku mategeko rugaragaramo inzego z’ubuyobozi zigabye mu mashami atatu y’ingenzi ari yo Ubutegetsi Nshingategeko, Ubutegetsi Nyubahirizategeko n’Ubutegetsi bw’Ubucamanza. Muri izi nzego zose kandi hagaragaramo uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye bw’ibitsina byombi ndetse n’ibyiciro binyuranye by’Abanyarwanda. Itegeko riteganya nibura mirongo itatu ku ijana by’abagore mu nzego zose z’ubuyobozi kandi abafite ubumuga na bo barahagarariwe.

      Dukurikije imiterere y’inzego muri iki Gihugu cy’u Rwanda mu mwaka wa 2017, urwego rw’Ubutegetsi Nshingategeko rugizwe n’Inteko Nshingamategeko igabanyijemo imitwe ibiri ari yo Umutwe w’Abadepite n’Umutwe w’Abasenateri. Iyi mitwe yombi ikagira inzego ziyishamikiyeho. Aha twavuga nka za komisiyo zinyuranye zishinzwe inzego zitandukanye zirebana n’ubuzima bwose bw’Igihugu. Urugero nka komisiyo y’imibereho myiza y’abaturage, iy’ubukungu, iy’amategeko, iy’uburezi n’izindi. Abagore bagaragara muri izi nzego zavuzwe ndetse no muri izi komisiyo.

      Ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye ntiryirengagijwe mu buyobozi bw’iyi mitwe yombi. Mu nteko hagaragaramo Abanyarwandakazi batari bakeya. Bagira uruhare mu gutegura imishinga y’amategeko Igihugu kigenderaho no kuyajyaho impaka bashingiye cyanecyane ku bitekerezo bakura mu baturage. Izina ryabo ribivuga neza ko ari “Intumwa za rubanda”.

      Urwego rw’Ubutegetsi Nyubahirizategeko na rwo rugabanyijemo amashami menshi atandukanye. Hari za Minisiteri n’ibigo bya Leta binyuranye. Muri za Minisiteri twavuga iy’Uburezi, iy’Ingabo z’Igihugu, iy’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu, iy’Umutekano, iy’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi, iy’Ibikorwa Remezo, iy’Ububanyi n’Amahanga, iy’Ubuzima, iy’Imari n’Igenamigambi, iy’Abakozi ba Leta n’Umurimo, iy’Uburinganire n’Iterambere ry’Umuryango n’izindi. Ariko izikuriye zose ikitwa Minisiteri y’Intebe. Hari ibigo bishamikiye kuri za Minisiteri bikazifasha kwegereza abagenerwabikorwa bazo serivisi bakeneye. Zimwe mu ngero twatanga ni nk’Ikigo k’Igihugu Gishinzwe Guteza Imbere Uburezi, Igishinzwe Guteza Imbere Ubuhinzi, Igishinzwe Kwihutisha Iterambere, Igishinzwe Imiyoborere, Igishinzwe Ururimi n’Umuco n’ibindi.

      Mu rwego rwo kwegereza abaturage ubuyobozi, Minisiteri y’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu ishingira ubuyobozi ku muturage uhereye ku rwego rw’Imudugudu, ikageza ku Tugari, Imirenge, Uturere, Intara n’Umujyi wa Kigali. Mu bayobozi b’izi nzego zose higanjemo abagore kandi bayobora neza. Uru rwego rw’Ubutegetsi Nyubahirizategeko ni rwo rushyira mu bikorwa amategeko yose yatowe n’Urwego rw’Ubutegetsi Nshingategeko mu gihe amaze kwemezwa no gushyirwaho umukono na Nyakubahwa Perezida wa Repubulika agatangazwa mu Igazeti ya Leta y’u Rwanda.

      Urwego rwa gatatu ari na rwo rwa nyuma ni Urwego rw’Ubutegetsi bw’Ubucamanza. Ni urwego rwigenga ugereranyije na ziriya ebyiri zibanza. Nk’uko izina ribivuga, uru rwego ni rwo rushinzwe ibikorwa bifitanye isano n’ubutabera ndetse n’impapuro bijyana. Ni muri iki kiciro dusangamo amategeko, ubwoko bwayo ndetse n’uko agomba gukurikizwa tutibagiwe n’ibihano biteganyirizwa abanyuranyije na yo. Muri ibyo bihano tukibuka ko mu Gihugu cyacu igihano cy’urupfu cyakuwemo.

      Ni intera ishimishije mu muco w’amahoro no kugira ubutabera bugamije kunga no gukosora uwafuditse. Abahamwe n’icyaha bakatirwa igifungo, ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryabyo rikubahirizwa n’Urwego rw’Igihugu Rushinzwe Imfungwa n’Abagororwa. Imfungwa ni abakatiwe igifungo cya burundu naho abagororwa ni abakatiwe igihe runaka k’igifungo cyarangira bagasubira mu buzima busanzwe.

      Muri izo nzego zose z’ubuyobozi ihame ry’imiyoborere myiza, iryo kunoza imikorere, iryo kwegereza abaturage ubuyobozi no gukorera mu mucyo ndetse n’iry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye ni bimwe mu byo Leta y’Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda yimirije imbere.

      I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

      1.Rondora inzego eshatu z’ubutegetsi mu Rwanda uko zarondowe mu mwandiko.

      2.Vuga nibura inshingano imwe ya rumwe mu nzego z’ubutegetsi mu Rwanda.

      3. Ni iki cyavuzwe mu mwandiko kigaragaza ko u Rwanda rufite ubuyobozi budaheza igitsina gore?

      4.Ni uruhe rwego rushinzwe gushyiraho amategeko no kugena ibihano ku batayubahirije?

      5.Imfungwa zitandukaniye he n’abagororwa?

      6.Ni ryari itegeko ritangira gukurikizwa?

      II. Inyunguramagambo

      1.Sobanura amagambo cyangwa imvugo zikurikira zigaragara mu mwandiko:

          a) Kugaba amashami

          b) Kwirengagiza

          c) Abagororwa

          d) Yimirije imbere

      2.Tanga imbusane z’aya magambo:

         a) Iterambere

         b) Ubutabera

         c) Kwegereza

      3.Koresha aya magambo wungutse mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye.

      a) Kugaba amashami

      b) Kwirengagiza

      c) Abagororwa

      III. Ikibonezamvugo

      1.Vuga ubwoko bw’amazina aciweho akarongo mu nteruro zikurikira:

          a) Urwego rw’Ubutegetsi Nyubahirizategeko na rwo rugabyemo amashami menshi atandukanye.

          b) Mu nteko hagaragaramo Abanyarwandakazi batari bake.

          c) Ngo igihano cy’urupfu gikwiriye guhabwa uwavukije ubuzima inzirakarengane.

      2.Tahura amazina y’urusobe agaragara muri izi nteruro uyaceho akarongo:

          a) Ubuyobozi bufite igenamigambi ryiza bwihutisha iterambere.

          b) Abanyamahanga benshi batangarira indangagaciro zacu.

      3.Garagaza uturemajambo n’amategeko y’igenamajwi yakoreshejwe kuri aya magambo yandikishije ibara ry’umukara tsiri:

          a) Ubuyobozi bufite igenamigambi ryiza bwihutisha iterambere.

          b) Abanyamahanga benshi batangarira indangagaciro zacu.

      IV. Ubumenyi rusange

      1.Ikiganiro mpaka ni iki?

      2.Vuga unasobanure uruhande rumwe mu bagize ibiganiro mpaka.

      3.Kuki rimwe na rimwe biba ngombwa ko habaho ibiganiro mpaka mu mashuri yisumbuye?

      V. Ihangamwandiko

      Hanga umwandiko mu mirongo itarenga makumyabiri n’itanu (25) kuri imwe muri izi nsanganyamatsiko:

               a) Akamaro k’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye mu iterambere ry’Igihugu.

               b) Leta y’u Rwanda yashimangiye ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye.

      • Umwandiko: Ubuzima bw’imyororokere

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        Kampire ni umubyeyi wari afite umwana w’umukobwa wakundaga kubaza ibibazo byinshi kubera amatsiko. Bakundaga kuganira ibintu binyuranye byo mu buzima busanzwe. Umunsi umwe wa mukobwa aza kubaza nyina ati: “Ubundi iyo umwana avuka anyura he?” Nyina amusubiza amubeshya ati: “Anyura mu mukondo”. Biba aho wa mukobwa arakura nk’abandi bose. Nyuma yaje kugira ibyago byo gutwara inda idateganyijwe, cyane ko atari yaranahawe amahirwe yo kwiga nk’abandi bana. Icyo gihe abafite ubumuga ntibitabwagaho. Igihe cyo kubyara kigeze aricara ategereza ko umwana anyura mu mukondo araheba. Kera kabaye nyina aza kubimenya amazi yararenze inkombe, agerageza ibishoboka byose ariko biba iby’ubusa uwo mukobwa akubita igihwereye. Nyamukobwa wawe asigara avuga ko ari nyina wamwiciye umwana.

        Uyu mukecuru Kampire yaje kubiganiriza abandi babyeyi baturanye, abagezaho ishyano yagushije. Abo babyeyi bamubwiye ko na bo babwira abana babo ko umwana bamukura kwa muganga igihe bavuye kubyara murumuna wabo, musaza cyangwa mushiki wabo muto. Bamaze guhuza ayo makuru yabo bose, bumva nta bumenyi buhagije bafite ku buzima bw’imyororokere n’uburyo bwo kwigisha abana babo ibijyanye na bwo. Babiganirije abagabo babo maze bajyana na bo ku kigo nderabuzima kibegereye ngo basobanuze by’imvaho.

        Bakiriwe na Bwiza na Karenzi, abaforomo b’abahanga rwose, maze babibasobanurira birambuye. Bwiza yatangiye agira ati: “Ku ruhande rw’igitsina gabo, iyo umwana w’umuhungu akiri muto, imyanya myibarukiro ye iba isa n’isinziriye. Itangira gukora mu gihe cy’ubugimbi, igatangira imyiteguro ijyanye no kororoka. Icyo gihe igitsina ke gitangira kujya gifata umurego, agatangira no kujya yiroteraho. Udusabo tw’ubugabo dutangira gukora intanga ngabo ubudahwema. Bitandukanye n’umukobwa ukuza intanga imwe buri kwezi. Guhera icyo gihe cyose umuhungu yatangiye kwiroteraho abonanye n’umukobwa cyangwa umugore uri mu gihe cy’uburumbuke yamutera inda (mu gihe nta buryo bwo kwikingira bwakoreshejwe)”.

        Karenzi yungamo ati: “Ku ruhande rw’igitsina gore, nk’uko twabibonye ku muhungu, no ku mukobwa iyo akiri umwana muto imyanya myibarukiro ye iba isa n’igisinziriye. Mu gihe cy’ubwangavu akarerantanga k’intanga ngore karekura intanga imwe buri kwezi; ari byo byitwa irekurantanga. Icyo gihe umura (nyababyeyi) uba witeguye kwakira urusoro. Iyo intanga ngore yahuye n’intanga ngabo, urusoro rujya mu mura. Umwana akurira mu mura mu gihe cy’amezi ikenda. Muri icyo gihe nta mihango ibaho. Iyo nta sama ribayeho, ibyo umura wari warateganyirije kwakira urusoro bisohoka ari amaraso ari byo byitwa imihango. Ibyo ni byo bita ‘ukwezi k’umugore’ ntibivuga ukwezi uku gusanzwe tubariraho amatariki nk’uko bamwe babikeka; ahubwo bivuga ‘Iminsi ihereye ku munsi wa mbere aboneyeho imihango, ikagera ku munsi ubanziriza imihango ikurikira’. Ukwezi k’umugore kugira hagati y’iminsi 21 n’iminsi 35. Iyo umukobwa cyangwa se umugore abonye imihango mbere y’iminsi 21 cyangwa se nyuma y’iminsi 35 agomba kujya kwa muganga kugira ngo agirwe inama ku mpamvu zaba zibitera n’uburyo byakosorwa.

        Hari abagore bagira iminsi y’ukwezi idahinduka n’abandi bagira iminsi ihindagurika bitewe n’impamvu zinyuranye. Muri zo twavuga imikorere y’umubiri, imirire, uburwayi, uguhangayika, ubwoba bukabije n’ibindi. Twibuke ko ku mugore iyo intanga ze zishize habaho gucura (kurangira ko kubona urubyaro) mu kigero k’imyaka nka 45 kuzamura. Muri rusange umubare w’intanga ku mugore ubarirwa hagati ya 400 na 450. Ntitwakwirengagiza kandi ko hariho abagira umwihariko wo gutakaza intanga ebyiri ku kwezi kumwe.” Umuforomokazi Bwiza arongera ati: “Nuko rero ntimugatinye kubisobanurira abana banyu.” Ba babyeyi bose bataha banyuzwe n’icyo kiganiro, baniyemeza kujya babyigisha abana babo batabiciye ku ruhande. Aba bagabo n’abagore bamaze kugera ku midugudu yabo batangiye kubyigisha abandi babyeyi.

        Niduhere kuri ibyo, tumenye uko twacunga ubuzima bwacu bw’imyororokere, tubusobanurire n’abandi cyanecyane abakiri bato. Bizabafasha kudahahamurwa n’imihindukire y’imyanya myibarukiro yabo uko bagenda bakura, no kudahuriramo n’ingorane, zaba izo gutera cyangwa gutwara inda mu buryo budateganyijwe, zaba izo kwandura indwara zandurira mu myanya ndangagitsina harimo n’agakoko gatera SIDA. N’ugize icyo abona kuri we adasobanukiwe ahanuze ku babishinzwe barimo abaganga n’abandi bafatanyabikorwa babo nk’abajyanama b’ubuzima. Hato hatazagira uzira kutamenya no kutabaza, cyane ko “Intamenya irira ku muziro” kandi ngo: “Ukura utabaza ugasaza utamenye.” Murumva rero ko twese bitureba, tumenye ubuzima bw’imyororokere, tutazisama twasandaye!

        Byateguwe hifashishijwe imfashanyigisho ya Minisiteri y’Ubuzima y’amahugurwa ku byerekeye ubuzima bw’imyororokere.

        I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

        1.Uyu mwandiko uravuga kuri ba nde?

        2.Abavugwa muri uyu mwandiko bahujwe n’ikibazo kijyanye n’ibiki? Byari byagenze bite?

        3.Sobanura impamvu ivugwa mu mwandiko yatumye uriya mukobwa atajyanwa mu ishuri.

        4.Sobanura igihe umukecuru Kampire yamenyeye ikibazo umukobwa we afite n’uko yabyifashemo.

        5.Gereranya imyumvire ya Kampire n’iya bariya babyeyi bandi ku bijyanye no kuganiriza abana ku buzima bw’imyororokere.

        6.Erekana umwanzuro ababyeyi bafashe nyuma yo kubona ko nibikomeza bityo bazakomeza guhura n’ingorane.

        7.Shaka mu mwandiko ingero eshatu zerekana ko bamwe mu babyeyi bagira isoni zo kubwiza ukuri abana babo ibijyanye n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere.

        8.Hitamo igisubizo kiri cyo muri ibi bikurikira wifashishije umwandiko:

        (i) Uriya mukobwa ntiyize ishuri kuko:

             a) Yari munini cyane.

             b) Atabishakaga.

             c) Abafite ubumuga batitabwagaho.

             d) Atagiraga nyina.

        (ii) Ababyeyi bageze ku kigo nderabuzima bakiriwe na:

               a) Kiza, umuforomokazi w’umuhanga cyane.

               b) Bwiza, umuforomokazi w’umuswa cyane.

               c) Keza, umuforomokazi w’umuhanga cyane.

               d) Bwiza na Karenzi abaforomo b’abahanga cyane.

        (iii) Ubuzima bw’imyororokere bugomba kwitabwaho no gusobanurirwa abana bakiri bato kugira ngo:

               a) Bakure batazi imihindukire y’imibiri yabo bizabarinde ingorane zari zibategereje.

               b) Bakure bazi imihindukire y’imibiri yabo bizabarinde ingorane zari zibategereje.

               c) Bakure bazi gutegura amafunguro neza.

               d) Ibirayi bigabanyirizwe igiciro kuko bihenze cyane.

        (iv) Ukwezi k’umugore kugira:

                a) Iminsi iri hagati ya 21 na 35.

                b) Iminsi itarenga 30.

                c) Ibyumweru bibiri n’igice.

                d) Buri gihe iminsi 35.

        II. Inyunguramagambo

        1.Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo cyangwa amatsinda y’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

            a) Amazi yarenze inkombe                 e) Igihe cy’uburumbuke

            b) Gukubita igihwereye                       f ) Urusoro

            c) Biba iby’ubusa g) Kwisama wasandaye    

            d) Gucura

        III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

        Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

        1.Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

                a) Guheba                                 d) Ukororoka

                b) Kugusha ishyano                e) Urusoro

                c) Urujijo

        2.Uzuza interuro zikurikira ukoresheje amagambo ukuye mu mwandiko:

        a) Iyo umwana adasobanuriwe ubuzima bw’imyororokere ashobora gusama cyangwa gutera inda ..................

        b) Kampire yaje kubiganiriza abandi babyeyi baturanye, abagezaho ishyano..................

        c) Abantu benshi usanga badafite ubumenyi buhagije ku buzima ..................

        d) Ababyeyi bageze ku kigo nderabuzima bakiriwe na .................. umuforomokazi w’umuhanga rwose.

        e) Iyo umukobwa amaze gukura imyanya .................. ye itangira kwitegura ibijyanye n’ukororoka.


        IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

        1.Nimwerekane ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

        2.Ibivugwa muri uyu mwandiko bihuriye he n’ubuzima busanzwe ?

        3.Usomye umusozo w’uyu mwandiko urasanga umwanditsi asaba iki umwangavu cyangwa ingimbi izawusoma?

        4.Wumva kwigisha hakiri kare ibice by’umubiri ndetse n’iby’imyanya myibarukiro n’akamaro kabyo hari icyo byamarira abangavu cyangwa ingimbi mu rwego rwo kurinda ubuzima bwabo no kugabanya ubwiyongere bw’abaturage butajyanye n’umusaruro beza?

        IV. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

        Buri munyeshuri nakore umwitozo wo kwimenyereza kuvugira imbere ya bagenzi be. Uyu mwitozo mushobora no kuwukorera hanze y’ishuri, mu gihe musubiramo amasomo yanyu.

        Kwitoza kuvugira mu ruhame.
        Bwira bagenzi bawe ibyo uyu mwandiko ugusigiye uhereye ku ngingo yo guharanira ubuzima bwiza.

        Amasaku mu nteruro

        Soma interuro zikurikira maze witegereze amagambo y’umukara tsiri azirimo.

        a) Biba aho wa mukobwa arakura nk’abandi bose.
        →abaândi/ nk’âbaândi
        Biba aho wâa mukoôbwa arakûra nk’âbaândi bôose.

        b) Ariko biba iby’ubusa akubita igihwereye.
        → ubusâ/ iby’ûbusâ
        Arîko biba iby’ûbusâ akubita igihwêereye.

        c) N’andi makuru nk’ayo atera urujijo mu bana.
        → andî/ n’âandî; ayo/ nk’aâyo
        N’âandî makurû nk’aâyo atera urujijo mu bana.

        d) Bumva nta bumenyi buhagije bafite ku buzima bw’imyororokere n’uburyo bwo kwigisha abana babo ibijyanye na bwo.
        → imyoôrorokere/ bw’îmyoôrorokere; uburyô/ n’ûburyô
        Buumva ntâa bumenyi buhaagîje bafitê ku buzima bw’îmyoôrorokere n’ûburyô bwô kwîigiisha abâana bâabo ibijyâanye na bwô.

        e) Biyemeza kugana ikigo nderabuzima kibegereye ngo basobanuze by’imvaho.
        → imvâahô/ by’îimvâahô
        Biiyemeza kugana ikigô nderabuzima kibeêgereye ngo basobâanuze by’îimvâahô.

        f ) Bakiriwe na Bwiza, umuforomokazi w’umuhanga rwose.

        → Bwiizâ/ na Bwîizâ; umuhaânga/ w’ûmuhaânga
        Baâkiriwe na Bwîizâ, umuforomokazi w’ûmuhaânga rwôose.

        g) Ku ruhande rw’igitsina gabo na ho, iyo umwana w’umuhungu akiri muto, imyanya myibarukiro ye iba isa n’isinziriye.
        → igitsîna/ rw’îgitsîna; umuhuûngu/ w’ûmuhuûngu; isîinziriye/ n’îisîinziriye
        Ku ruhaânde rw’îgitsîna gabo na hô, iyô umwâana w’ûmuhuûngu akirî mutô, imyaânya myîibarukiro yê iba isâ n’îisîinziriye.

        Ubutinde n’amasaku by’aya magambo muri ibyo byiciro byombi biratandukanye.


        Amasaku mbonezanteruro

        Amagambo hari igihe ahindura amasaku bitewe n’uko yakoreshejwe mu nteruro. Ni ukuvuga ko imiterere y’amasaku kamere mu ijambo ndetse n’ubutinde ishobora guhinduka bitewe n’uko iryo jambo rishyizwe hamwe n’andi mu itsinda ry’amagambo cyanecyane mu nteruro. Mu rukurikirane rw’amagambo mu nteruro, hari amoko y’amagambo atuma habaho imihindagurikire y’amasaku. Ayo ni nk’ibyungo na na nka ndetse n’ibinyazina ngenera bifite igicumbi –a (wa, ba, ya rya, za...).

        Amategeko agenga imihindagurikire y’amasaku mu nteruro:
        Mu nteruro amasaku asanzwe ashobora guhinduka bitewe n’ibyungo cyangwa ibinyazina nk’uko byavuzwe haruguru. Imihindagurikire yayo yisanisha n’amagambo fatizo akoreshwa iyo higishwa amasaku. Ayo magambo ni aya akurikira: umugabo, umuuntu, umusôre, umugorê, umwâana, umwaâmi, reerô, isâahâ, inkâ, uyu...

        Ingero:
                     – Ihenê n’îinkâ
                     – Umwâana wa gâtaanu.
                     – Rimwê na kâbiri.
                     – Umugabo n’ûmugorê barûuzuzanya.
                     – Ageenda nk’Âbagesera.
                     – Abâana b’âbahûungu baanganya uburêengaanzirâ n’âab’âbakoôbwa.
                     – Ageenda nka Kâmaana.
                     – Saavê ituuwe nka Kîbuungo.
                     – Umureenge wa Rûheeru nî uwô mu Karêerê kaa Nyaruguru.
                     – Musâanze yuubatse nk’Ûmujyî wa Kîgalî.
                     – Akuunda amâazi nk’îifî.
                     – Umuhoro w’âabâana ushira doondidoondi.
                     – Inâama z’uûriiya muforomokazi zaâgize umumaro.

        Ikitonderwa:
        a) Hashobora kuboneka n’andi moko y’amagambo ahindura amasaku kamere y’ijambo bijyanye. Urugero nk’indangahantu “i“

        Ingero:
                     – Saavê
                     – Agiiye i Sâavê.
                     – Rwaankûba
                     – Bâriîya bâana biiga i Rwâankûba.

        b) Ariya magambo atera ihinduka ry’amasaku mu nteruro iyo akoresheje impindurantego zayo zifite inyajwi o, ni ukuvuga icyungo no na nko n’ibinyazina ngenera bifite igicumbi –o, ni yo afata isaku nyejuru.
                        - Kuryâ kuryâama biraangana.
                        - Amâazi yô kunywâ barayâteeka.

        Umwitozo ku masaku mu nteruro
        Umunyeshuri nakore neza umwitozo wo kugaragaza ubutinde n’amasaku ku nteruro, yubahiriza uko bikorwa.
         1.Andika interuro zikurikira ugaragaza ubutinde bw’imigemo n’imiterere y’amasaku:
                 a) Umukobwa w’uriya mubyeyi yakundaga kubaza ibintu byinshi.
                 b) Ivuga nk’izindi ngo: “Ngiyo kanwa kabi”.
                 c) Ababyeyi n’abana bagomba kuganira.
                 d) I Save higa abanyeshuri benshi.
                 e) Inama zo kwa muganga zifasha abantu benshi.

        2.Tanga ingero eshatu z’amagambo anyuranye ushobora gukoresha mu nteruro agatera ihinduka ry’amasaku muri iyo nteruro.


        Umwandiko: Inkingo n’akamaro kazo

        m

        Iyo tuganiriye n’abasaza n’abakecuru bo mu miryango yacu, batubwira ko ubuzima bwa muntu bwagiye bwugarizwa n’indwara nyinshi zirimo n’iz’ibyorezo. Ngizo za mugiga, iseru, akaniga, imbasa, n’izindi. Ngo kera indwara z’ibyorezo zarabibasiraga zikabica umusubizo. Ariko muri ibyo byose impuguke n’abashakashatsi mu by’ubuzima ntibahwemye kubungabunga amagara y’abantu ngo barebe ko ibyo bisumizi byagenda nka nyomberi. Ni muri urwo rwego havumbuwe inkingo zinyuranye.

        Izo nkingo zihabwa abana mu byiciro bitandukanye by’ubuzima bwabo hari n’izihabwa abakuze mu bihe bimwe na bimwe. Abagore batwite, abantu bagiye mu ngendo zitandukanye aho bashobora guhuriramo n’indwara z’ibikatu. Urugero nk’abasirikari cyangwa n’abaporisi bagiye mu butumwa bwo kubungabunga amahoro ku isi. Abana b’abakobwa bujuje imyaka cumi n’ibiri na bo bahabwa urukingo rwa kanseri y’inkondo y’umura.

        Abantu bakuru muri rusange bajya bahabwa inkingo igihe hateye indwara z’ibikatu nka mugiga, indwara y’umwijima wo mu bwoko bwa epatite B n’izindi. Izo nkingo zose rero zifite akamaro gakomeye ko kurinda no gukumira indwara zitarinjira mu mubiri w’umuntu. Gusa mu gihe abantu babikangurirwa hariho bamwe usanga bavunira ibiti mu matwi, kubibwirwa bikaba nko kugosorera mu rucaca cyangwa gucurangira abahetsi.

        Ibyo ari byo byose buri mubyeyi w’Umunyarwanda agomba kwitabira guhesha abana be inkingo zose nk’uko ziteganywa na Minisiteri y’Ubuzima muri gahunda yayo yo kurwanya indwara z’ibyorezo mu bana bato. Izo nkingo ni izo kurwanya indwara zikurikira: igituntu, imbasa, kokorishi, agakwega (tetanosi), akaniga, impiswi, iseru n’izindi.

        Gukingira abana bikorwa kuri gahunda. Iyo umwana akivuka ahabwa urukingo rw’igituntu n’urw’imbasa. Yamara ukwezi n’igice agahabwa urw’imbasa, kokorishi, agakwega bamwe bita tetanosi, akaniga, umwijima wo mu bwoko bwa epatite B, pinemokoke hamwe n’urw’impiswi. Ku mezi abiri n’igice akingirwa nanone imbasa, kokorishi, agakwega, akaniga, umwijima, umusonga n’impiswi. Iyo umwana yujuje amezi atatu n’igice ahabwa urukingo rw’imbasa, kokorishi, agakwega, akaniga, umwijima, umusonga n’impiswi. Yongera gukingirwa agize amezi ikenda aho ahabwa urukingo rw’iseru na rubeyore. Iyo agejeje ku mezi cumi n’atanu, ni ukuvuga umwaka n’amezi atatu ahabwa urukingo rw’iseru ari na rwo ruheruka izindi muri uru ruhererekane rwazo. Iyi gahunda y’inkingo ikwiye gufatwa nk’amata y’abashyitsi, ikitabirwa, abantu bakareba ko bakubita inshuro izi ndwara ziba zishaka kubibasira ngo zibamire bunguri. Abashinzwe kubika no gutanga inkigo na bo bagomba kubikorana ubwitonzi n’ubushishozi kugira ngo zitangwe mu buryo bwujuje ubuziranenge.

        Abavumbuye izi nkingo hatibagiwe na Leta y’u Rwanda izidutegurira ikazitwishyurira ndetse ikanazidukangurira dukwiriye kubakurira ubwatsi. Aha kandi ntawakwibagirwa ko zose zitangirwa ubuntu binyujijwe muri gahunda za Minisiteri y’Ubuzima. Mu rwego mpuzamahanga haracyashakishwa n’izindi nkingo z’indwara z’ibyorezo nka SIDA, ebora, kanseri, diyabete n’izindi. Reka tubitege amaso kuko “Ntawuvuma iritararenga”.

        Twibuke kandi ko kwirengagiza gufata inkingo byakururira umuntu akaga gakomeye kuko bishobora kumuzanira ubumuga bukomeye cyangwa se n’urupfu. Urukingo ni ingabo y’ubuzima, kandi “kwirinda biruta kwivuza.”

        Byateguwe hifashishijwe imfashanyigisho ya Minisiteri y’Ubuzima, Gahunda yo gukingiza umwana.

        I. Ibibazo byo kumwa umwandiko

        1.Ni ibiki mu mwandiko bavuga ko byagiye byibasira ubuzima bw’abantu?

        2.Rondora indwara z’ibyorezo zavuzwe mu mwandiko.

        3.Sobanura uburyo indwara z’ibyorezo zishobora kwirindwa uhereye no ku bivugwa mu mwandiko. 4.Sobanura akamaro k’inkingo.

        5.Erekana indwara zavuzwe mu mwandiko zitarabonerwa urukingo. Mu mwandiko bavuga ko hari gukorwa iki kuri izo ndwara?

        6.Wavuga iki ku buryo bwo kubika no gutanga inkingo ubihuza n’ubuziranenge?

        7.Gahunda y’inkingo igenewe abana gusa? Byerekane wifashishije umwandiko.

        8.Hari abantu bamwe birengagiza gahunda y’inkingo. Wumva hari ingaruka mbi byatera? Sobanura igisubizo cyawe.

        II. Inyunguramagambo

        1.Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

              a) Ibisumizi                                     g) Kugosorera mu rucaca

              b) Umusubizo                                 h) Kokorishi

              c) Kugenda nka nyomberi             i) Rubeyore

              d) Urukingo                                      j) Akanigae) Ubumuga

              k) Agakwega                                     f) Kuvunira ibiti mu matwi

        2.Shaka impuzanyito z’aya amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

              a) Kugarizwa                                             b) Amagara

        3.Shaka imbusane z’aya magambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                a) Aba kera

                b) Abana

                c) Rimwe na rimwe

        III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

        Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

        Koresha aya magambo dusanga mu mwandiko mu nteruro wihimbiye:

        a) Ibyorezo                   c) Kubungabunga        e) Ubuziranenge

        b) Impuguke                d) Kugosorera mu rucaca


        IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

        1.Erekana ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

        2.Iyo urebye aho mutuye usanga gahunda y’inkingo yitabirwa ite?

        3. Nyuma yo gusoma uyu mwandiko ni izihe nama ugiye gutanga aho mutuye kugira ngo iyo gahunda yo kwitabira inkingo irusheho kunozwa?

        4.Ibivugwa muri uyu mwandiko bihuriye he n’ubuzima busanzwe bwa buri munsi mu rwego rwo guharanira ubuzima bwiza?

        V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

        Kungurana ibitekerezo:

        Insanganyamatsiko:

        “Kudakingirwa ntacyo bitwaye nta n’ingaruka byagira ku buzima.”

        Umwitozo wo kwitoza kuvugira mu ruhame:
        Buri munyeshuri nakore umwitozo wo kwimenyereza kuvugira imbere ya bagenzi be.

        Ukurikije ibyo wumvise muri uyu mwandiko, geza kuri bagenzi bawe ibyo utekereza uhereye ku ngingo yo guharanira ubuzima bwiza.

        Inshamake y’ibyizwe muri uyu mutwe wa kabiri

        Muri uyu mutwe twasesenguye imyandiko ivuga ku nsanganyamatsiko y’ubuzima. Twabonye ko ubuzima bw’imyororokere bugomba kwigishwa abana bakiri bato, baba abahungu ndetse n’abakobwa. Ibi bikazabafasha kumenya uko bitwara mu gihe k’imihindukire y’imibiri yabo kandi bikanabafasha no kurwanya ingorane zaterwa no kudasobanukirwa imikorere y’imibiri yabo. Mu kubungabunga ubuzima kandi harimo no kwitabira gahunda y’inkingo kuko zituma ubuzima bw’umwana bugira umutekano n’ubudahangarwa kuva akiri mu nda ya nyina kugeza igihe avutse no mu mikurire ye.

        Mu kibonezamvugo twabonye imikoreshereze y’amasaku mu nteruro. Twabonyemo amwe mu magambo akunze gutera ihinduka ry’ubutinde bw’imigemo n’imiterere y’amasaku by’amagambo mu nteruro, nk’ibyungo na na nka, ibinyazina ngenera bifite igicumbi –a ndetse n’indangahantu “i”. Twabonye kandi n’amwe mu mategeko arebana n’iyo mihindukire y’amasaku.

        Isuzuma rusange risoza umutwe wa kabiri

        Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

        Umwandiko: Ubuzima bw’umuntu

        Ubuzima bw’umuntu bukenera ibintu binyuranye kugira ngo bushobore kubungabungwa no kuzira umuze. Muri ibyo byose habamo kugenera umubiri wacu ibikwiye byose, birimo no kuwurinda indwara z’ibyorezo twitabira gahunda y’inkingo. Habamo kandi no gutangira kwigisha umuntu ibijyanye n’imiterere ndetse n’imibereho ye kuva akiri muto. Twabyitwaramo dute rero ngo dushobore kurengera ubuzima bwacu?

        Mu by’ukuri ntawudakeneye kubaho neza. Ni yo mpamvu ubuzima bwa muntu bugomba kwitabwaho kuva akiri mu nda ya nyina umubyara. Ni muri urwo rwego umugore utwite agomba kwitabira gahunda yo kwipimisha igihe cyose akimara kumenya ko yasamye. Ibi biberaho kugira ngo uwo mubyeyi ahabwe inama zose ndetse n’amabwiriza bireba umugore utwite. Agomba guhabwa inama, imiti cyangwa inkingo byose bimuteganyirizwa muri icyo gihe cyose cyo gutwita kugeza igihe azabyarira.

        Igihe umubyeyi amaze kwibaruka uruhinja, agomba kwitwararika agakurikiza amabwiriza yose ahabwa n’abaganga ku bijyanye n’imikurire y’umwana. Agomba kubika neza ifishi y’ikingira, kandi akitwararika kujya ayirebaho kenshi kugira ngo amenye neza ko itariki y’ikingira rikurikiraho yegereje. Nta mwana ugomba kuvutswa ayo mahirwe, kuko bishobora kumukururira akaga gakomeye mu gihe ke kiri imbere. Umwana udahawe inkingo uko bikwiye bishobora kumuviramo kwibasirwa n’indwara z’ibyorezo zishobora kumutera ubumuga butandukanye cyangwa se bikaba byanamuviramo urupfu.

        Hari abamugazwa n’imbasa cyangwa bagahitanwa n’igituntu, akaniga ndetse na mugiga. Ni kuki rwose twakwemera ko ibyo byorezo biduhekura kandi byarabonewe inkingo? Si umwana gusa kandi ukeneye inkingo kuko n’abakuze bajya bazihabwa iyo bibaye ngombwa, nk’igihe hateye indwara z’ibyorezo nka tetanosi, indwara y’umwijima... Abasirikari n’abaporisi bagiye mu bikorwa byo kubungabunga amahoro mu bice binyuranye byo ku isi na bo bateganyirizwa inkingo ngo badahurira n’izo kabutindi mu mashyamba zikabanyuza mu ryoya. Ku bana b’abakobwa bujuje imyaka 12 kandi na bo bakingirwa kanseri y’inkondo y’umura. Abana b’abakobwa bagomba kwitabwaho, kuko kera wasangaga umwana w’umukobwa atitabwaho, ndetse n’igihe akuze akaba umugore ugasanga akandamizwa n’umugabo we, ntahabwe agaciro nk’uko bikwiriye. Nyamara ari we mutima w’urugo, akwiye kuzuzanya n’umugabo we bakaruteza imbere.

        Si inkingo gusa zitabwaho mu kurengera ubuzima. Abana bagomba kwigishwa ibijyanye n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere bakiri bato. Kuko bibafasha kumenya imihindagurikire y’imibiri yabo uko bagenda bakura n’uko bagomba kubyitwaramo. Ubuzima bwacu rero buri mu biganza byacu. Icyakora haracyari indwara z’ibyorezo zigishakirwa inkingo. Harimo SIDA yigize akateye idutwara abantu umusubizo, za ebora tujya twumva hamwe na hamwe muri Afurika. Hari kandi za diyabete, indwara zifitanye isano n’umutima n’umuvuduko w’amaraso, n’izindi.

        Abantu bagomba no kwirinda ibindi bibi byose byashyira ubuzima bwabo mu bibazo nk’umwiryane, ubwiyahuzi, ubusinzi, ubusambanyi, ibiyobyabwenge ndetse n’ibindi. Bagaharanira kugira ubuzima bwiza, bita ku isuku, gukangukira gukunda umurimo no kuwunoza kuko ari byo bizabakura mu gihirahiro bikabageza ku iterambere rirambye. Abantu bose muri rusange, bagomba kwibuka gufata amafunguro yujuje ubuziranange kuko bitabaye bityo, bakayafata yangiritse cyangwa yararengeje igihe, utujuje ubuziranenge na byo byabakururira akaga gakomeye.

        Muri iki gihe tugezemo rwose ntidukwiye kurangara ngo indwara zitwibasire uko zibonye cyangwa ngo twishore mu bidakwiye. Ahubwo twese nk’abitsamuye duhagurukire rimwe tubirwanye twivuye inyuma kandi tuzabitsinda burundu, ubuzima bwacu buzire umuze busagambe.

        I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko
        1.Sobanura impamvu umugore utwite agomba kwitabira gahunda yo kwipimisha igihe cyose akimara kumenya ko yasamye.

        2.Ni izihe ngaruka umwana udahawe inkingo uko bikwiye ashobora guhura na zo?

        3.Erekana indwara zigenerwa inkingo zavuzwe mu mwandiko.

        4.Uyu mwandiko hari aho uvuga ku buringanire n’ubwuzuzanye. Byerekane wifashishije n’amagambo y’umwandiko.

        5.Uhereye no ku bivugwa mu mwandiko, sobanura akamaro ko kwigisha abana bacu ibijyanye n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere bakiri bato.

        6.Erekana ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zikubiye muri uyu mwandiko.

        7.Erekana ibice bigize uyu mwandiko.

        8. Vuga irindi somo mu yo mwiga rifitanye isano n’ibivugwa muri uyu mwandiko unasobanure impamvu.

        II. Inyunguramagambo
        1.Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo cyangwa amatsinda y’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                 a) Akitwararika d) Biduhekura
                 b) Kuvutswa e) Kabutindi
                 c) Kwibasirwa

        2.Tanga impuzanyito z’aya magambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                 a) Kubungabungwa                           d) Mu gihirahiro
                 b) Kunyuza mu ryoya                        e) Busagambe
                 c) Umusubizo                                     f ) Kwibaruka

        3. Shaka imbusane z’aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                        a) Umwiryane                     b) Gutangira            c) Nyinshi

        III. Ikibonezamvugo
        Andukura izi nteruro ugaragaza ubutinde bw’imigemo n’imiterere y’amasaku:

        1.Uriya mukobwa yiga i Save.

        2.Ubuzima bw’umuntu bukenera ibintu binyuranye.

        3.Twirinde indwara z’ibyorezo twitabira gahunda y’inkingo.

        4.Mu by’ukuri rero ntawudakeneye kubaho.

        5.Ni yo mpamvu ubuzima bwa muntu bugomba kwitabwaho guhera umwana akiri mu nda ya nyina umubyara.

        6.Umwana udahawe inkingo nk’uko bikwiye ashobora no gupfa.


        • Umwandiko: Imigenzo, imiziririzo no kubungabunga umuco nyarwanda

          s

          Mu mibereho ya muntu habaho igihe cyo gukora n’igihe cyo kuruhuka agashaka ibindi yaba ahugiyeho, bikamurangaza. Ni yo mpamvu bamwe bagiye bahimba ibihangano bisetsa, ababyumvise bikabanyura. Abandi na bo bagahimba imikino itandukanye, abantu babiri cyangwa batatu ugasanga bararushanwa kuvuga neza cyangwa gufindura imvugo izimije. Abanyarwanda ntibacikanywe, bahimbye ingeri z’ubuvanganzo zirimo ibisakuzo, uturingushyo, imigani migufi n’imiremire, ibitekerezo, imbyino n’indirimbo zo mu birori n’izijyanye n’imirimo yabo nk’amasare, amahigi, amavumvu n’izindi zikubiyemo umuco nyarwanda. Wakwibaza umumaro w’ibi bihangano byo mu ngeri y’ubuvangazo nyarwanda mu mibereho y’Abanyarwanda, uburyo byabungabungwa ngo byamamare kugira ngo bitazasibangana mu migenzo y’Abanyarwanda.

          Mbere na mbere ziriya ngeri zivuzwe zikubiye mu ijambo rimwe ry’ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda, bugenewe abantu bose muri rusange kandi ababuhimbye ntibazwi. Babuhimbaga mu mutwe bakabufata mu mutwe, ndetse bakabugeza ku bandi mu mvugo imbonankubone, na bo bakabugeza ku babakomokaho, bityobityo bugasakara hose. Muri iki gihe aho inyandiko yaziye usanga hari abagiye babukusanyiriza mu bitabo babukuye muri rubanda. Ufashe nk’ibitabo bya Musenyeri Bigirumwami Aloys, nk’ikitwa: “Imihango n’imigenzo n’imiziririzo mu Rwanda”, waryoherwa n’ibihangano hafi ya byose bijyanye n’ingeri zinyuranye z’ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda.

          Umuhanzi ntahimbira ubusa. Ibihangano byo mu buvanganzo bwo muri rubanda ni ingirakamaro mu buzima bw’Abanyarwanda. Abanyarwanda bahimbaga ibihozo maze bakabyifashisha baguyaguya abana cyangwa baha abageni impanuro, nk’impamba izabafasha kubaka neza urugo bagiye gushinga. Ingeri nyinshi z’ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda zikoreshwa mu gususurutsa abantu mu bitaramo byo mu ngo. Ikindi ni uko nko mu bukwe no mu bindi birori binyuranye indirimbo n’imbyino usanga zikoreshwa mu kubihimbaza. Abatumirwa barangamiye ababyinnyi b’igitsina gore babyina bakenyeye ndetse n’ab’igitsina gabo bambaye imigara y’intore bagashimishwa n’ukuntu umurya w’inanga cyangwa umurishyo uherekeza imbyino bijyana n’umudiho wabo.

          Si uyu mumaro umwe musa, ibihangano bigira imimaro itandatu cyangwa irenzeho. Mu buvanganzo, abahanzi batoza urubyiruko ubupfura, ubunyangamugayo, ubutwari no kugira ishyaka ryo gukunda ababyeyi n’Igihugu cyabo. Nk’umugani wa Nyashya na Baba wigisha ubufatanye n’urukundo hagati y’umukobwa na musaza we, igitekerezo cya Ndabaga cyo kigishaga abakobwa kutitinya kikereka ababyeyi ko umwana wese ari nk’undi kuko Ndabaga yabashije gukura se ku rugerero byari inshingano z’abana b’abahungu. Iki gitekerezo cya Ndabaga kitwereka ko umuhungu n’umukobwa bombi bakwiye guhabwa amahirwe angana mu buzima ntihabeho itonesha cyangwa isuzugurwa bishingiye ku gitsina.

          Tuvuze ku migenzo, dusanga imyinshi mu migenzo y’Abanyarwanda yerekeza ku bufatanye no kuzahura ubukungu. Nk’imigenzo yose yerekeye ubukwe (kuva umukobwa asabwa kugeza bamutwikurura), imigenzo yakorerwaga umubyeyi wabyaye cyangwa umwana abyaye, yose yatumaga umuryango nyarwanda uhora wunze ubumwe, abantu bagasangira bagasabana.

          Ntiwavuga imigenzo ngo usige imiziririzo. Ni ibintu bibiri bidasigana, ni nk’umukenyero n’umwitero. Imiziririzo na yo yagiriraga akamaro urubyiruko, rugakurana umuco wo kubaha no kwitondera ibintu bibafasha mu buzima bwa buri munsi. Imiziririzo imwe yabaga igamije cyanecyane gutoza abana kubungabunga isuku y’ibikoresho n’ibyo bikoresho ubwabyo. Bakagira bati: “Kirazira kwicara ku isekuru, ku rusyo, ku ngata, ku ityazo, kumena igisabo... (ngo byari ugukenya cyangwa gukungurira ababyeyi). Mu miziro ishingiye ku myumvire, twavuga nko kubuza umuntu kunywa amata ahagaze, kuyanywa se wariye inyama (ngo byica inka, amata akazamo amaziri...), cyangwa kutavuga sobukwe na nyokobukwe mu izina mu buryo bwo kububaha n’izindi nk’izabuzaga abantu gutatira igihango.

          Mu by’ukuri, Igihugu gishyira ingufu mu gushyiraho ingamba zo kubungabunga umuco nyarwanda. Usibye kuba hariho Minisiteri ifite mu nshingano iby’umuco hakanaba haragiyeho n’Inteko Nyarwanda y’Ururimi n’Umuco, hari gahunda nyinshi zishimangira zikanabungabunga umuco n’indangagaciro by’umuco nyarwanda. Mu rwego rwo kwimakaza ubufatanye, kwiteza imbere, kubungabunga ubuzima no gusakaza indangagaciro nyarwanda tubona ko hashyizweho gahunda y’umuganda, iy’ubudehe, iy’ubwisungane mu kwivuza, iya Gira inka Munyarwanda, iy’Itorero ry’Igihugu n’izindi.

          Si ibyo gusa kandi, Leta y’u Rwanda ihora ikangurira abaturage kwitabira gahunda zo kwibumbira mu mashyirahamwe n’amakoperative maze umutungo babonye bakawubitsa, dore ko bashyiriweho ibigo by’imari biciriritse na banki zitandukanye. Izi gahunda zose zituma abana babyiruka bakurana ubuzima buzira umuze, bunazira ubukene maze bakigiramo indangagaciro zibayobora mu kubaka Igihugu ndetse no guhorana ubupfura.

          Ntawarondora ingamba zo kubungabunga umuco ngo azirangize kuko izo ngamba zisakazwa muri gahunda zinyuranye z’itangazamakuru. Mu bitaramo no mu bindi biganiro humvikanamo byinshi bifasha urubyiruko kwimakaza umuco n’indangagaciro nyarwanda.

          Birumvikana rero ko ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda buhuza abantu kuko buri wese aba abwisanzuramo. Buri wese kandi akabugeza kuri mugenzi we hatitawe ku byiciro byabo, yaba abakiri bato cyangwa se abakuru. Nk’uko ubu buvanganzo bwo muri rubanda bunyuzwamo ubutumwa bwimakaza indangagaciro n’umuco bibereye Umunyarwanda, nimureke duhuze imbaraga maze twitabire ingamba zo kubungabunga ubuvanganzo bwacu. Dushingire ku byaturanze tubijyanisha n’ikerekezo Igihugu kihaye ndetse n’iterambere ry’isi.

          Byateguwe hifashishijwe Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Ubusizi bwa rubanda n’ingeri nkuru z’ubusizi nyarwanda, 2oo3

          I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

          1.Ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda bugenewe ba nde? Buhimbwa na nde?

          2.Rondora zimwe mu ngeri z’ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda zavuzwe mu mwandiko.

          3.Sobanura akamaro k’ubuvanganzo ugendeye ku bivugwa mu mwandiko.

          4.Mu biranga umuco nyarwanda habamo n’imyambarire. Umukenyero n’umwitero byagereranyijwe n’iki mu mwandiko? Sobanura impamvu.

          5.Tanga ingero imiziririzo imwe n’imwe yatoza abana kubungabunga isuku y’ibikoresho n’ibyo bikoresho ubwabyo.

          6.Mu magambo aringaniye erekana ukuntu Igihugu cyacu cyafashe ingamba zo kwita ku muco nyarwanda.

          7.Erekana aho umwandiko uvuga ku butwari bw’abantu b’igitsina gore.

          8.Wumva ute gahunda za Radiyo Rwanda mu kubungabunga umuco nyarwanda?

          II. Inyunguramagambo

          1.Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                      a) Ubuvanganzo                               c) Amasare

                      b)Uturingushyo                                d) Bigasakara

          2.Huza amagambo yo mu ruhushya A n’ibisobanuro byatanzwe bijyanye na yo mu ruhushya B.

          n

          III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

          Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

          1.Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

                  a) Bikabarangaza                        c) Ingirakamaro

                  b) Ibihangano                              d) Ubupfura

          2.Uzuza interuro zikurikira ukoresheje amagambo ukuye mu mwandiko:

          a) Mu buzima bw’umuntu habaho igihe cyo gukora n’igihe cyo ..................

          b) Ibisakuzo, uturingushyo, imigani migufi n’imiremire, ibitekerezo, imbyino n’indirimbo bikubirwa mu ijambo rimwe ry’..................

          c) Musenyeri .................. ni umwe mu bakusanyije ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda.

          d) Abanyarwanda bahimbaga .................. bakabyifashisha baguyaguya abana ngo bareke kurira n’abageni bagiye kurushinga.

          e) Ntiwavuga .................. ngo usige imiziririzo. Ni ibintu bibiri bidasigana, ni nk’umukenyero n’ ..................

          IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

          1.Muvuge ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

          2.Mu mwandiko haravugwamo ingingo z’umuco nyarwanda. Zisobanure unagaragaze aho insanganyamatsiko y’uyu mwandiko ihuriye n’ubuzima busanzwe tubamo?

          3.Gira icyo uvuga ku kubungabunga imigenzo n’imiziririzo by’umuco nyarwanda.

          4.Kwimakaza umuco nyarwanda n’indangagaciro zawo mubona bimaze iki?

          V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

          Mu matsinda, nimwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho. Uyu mwitozo mushobora no kuwukorera hanze y’ishuri, mu gihe musubiramo amasomo yanyu.

          Kungurana ibitekerezo
          Insanganyamatsiko:

          Kwimakaza ubuvanganzo nyarwanda bifite akahe kamaro muri iki gihe?

          Umwitozo wo kuvugira mu ruhame
          Buri munyeshuri nakore umwitozo wo kwimenyereza kuvugira imbere ya bagenzi be.

          Insanganyamatsiko:
          Bwira bagenzi bawe ibyo wumvise cyangwa utekereza uhereye ku ngingo yo kubungabunga umuco nyarwanda.


          Insigamugani: Utabusya abwita ubumera

          k

          Uyu mugani bawuca iyo babonye umuntu wese umara gushira impumu akiyibagiza amagorwa azahutsemo; ahubwo agatsikamiza agahato abo bahoze bayasangiye; ni bwo bavuga bati : “Koko utabusya abwita ubumera”! Wakomotse kuri Karake ka Rugara w’i Bumbogo bwa Huro (mu Karere ka Gakenke, Intara y’Amajyaruguru ); ahasaga umwaka wa 1600.

          Guhera ku ngoma za kera kugeza kuri Kigeli Rwabugili, abanyamuhango b’umuganura bagatura i Bumbogo; ndetse bakaba ari na bo batware babwo bwose. Inteko yabo yari ku musozi witwa Huro (ubu ni mu Karere ka Gakenke). Bukeye umutsobe Nyamwasa wari umutware w’abasyi icyo gihe, asaba umukobwa wo mu ngabo za Mibambwe Gisanura yise Abambogo b’umuganura. Abakobwa babo ni bo basyaga umutsima w’umuganura. Uwo mukobwa yitwaga Karake, akaba mwene Rugara w’Umusegege. Agasyana n’abandi bakobwa b’urungano; ni na ho Nyamwasa yamuboneye aramushima aramusaba. Amaze kumurongora, Karake aranezerwa kuko noneho aho gusya agiye kujya ahagarikira abasyi. Ahimbarwa n’ubutwarekazi; abakobwa baje gusya akabahagarikirana urutoto abisyigingiza yitotomba ngo barizenutsa ntibasyana umwete.

          Abo bakobwa babyirukanye bakamubwira bamwenyura, bati: “Mbese ntuzi ko uburo bukomera?” Karake akabasubizanya izenezene ati: “Ubu na bwo ni uburo si ubumera?” (ntiburuhije). Abakobwa bagatinya kumuseka ngo bitabakururira ishyano; bagasekera mu bipfunsi. Biba aho bityo. Bukeye Karake yubura ingeso yo gusinda.

          Nyamwasa yaza agasanganirwa n’umugono agasanga umugore yasinziriye uburiri ari ibirutsi gusa: Karake si ugusinda arasayisha! Bituma umugabo we amwanga aramuzinukwa aramusenda asubira iwabo. Rubanda bari bazi ubukundwakare bwe baratangara.

          Haciyeho iminsi igihe cy’umuganura w’ibwami kiragera. Bakoresha Abambogo b’umuganura bose ngo baze gusya kwa Nyamwasa. Ubwo Rugara se wa Karake yari afite umugore w’umukecuru kandi nta n’umukobwa wundi afite wo kumucungura. Biramushobera ati: “Ibi mbigenje nte! Ko nta wundi mwana mfite; kandi ko kohereza Karake kwa Nyamwasa ngo asyane n’abo yahoze ahagarikiye byamutera ipfunwe ribi?” Abandi b’amacuti ye bati: “Nutamwohereza bizakugwa nabi”. Abuze uko abigira apfa kumwohereza ajya mu basyi ati: “Jya gusya uburo bw’ibwami nta kundi twabikika!”

          Karake arashoberwa ariko aremera apfa kugenda; agenda aseta inzira ibirenge. Ageze kwa Nyamwasa abakobwa baranzika barasya, Karake abajyamo afata urusyo rwe. Agize ngo arapfukama biramutonda, agize ngo arasya biramunanira; kuko yari amaze guhuga hashize igihe kirekire ari mu mukiro. Noneho ba bakobwa baramwubahuka baramuseka baramukwena, mbese baramukwenura bamuhinyora; bati: “Nyabusa shikama usye vuba dore ubwo si uburo ni ubumera!” Bamucyurira ko igihe yakinaga n’umurengwe yari yariyibagije ko gusya uburo ari impingane.

          Nuko mu mataha abakobwa batahana Karake bamuhinyora, ijambo riba gikwira i Bumbogo risakara u Rwanda riba umugani. Bawinjiza mu yindi yigisha gukora iki cyangwa kudakora kiriya. Kuva ubwo rero umuntu wese umaze gushira impumu akirengagiza amagorwa azahutsemo ntacire abo bari bayasangiye akari urutega, bakamuciraho uwo mugani bagira bati: “Utabusya abwita ubumera!” Baba bamugereranya na Karake wiyibagije ko gusya uburo ari impingane.

          Byavuye muri: Minisiteri y’Amashuri Makuru n’Ubushakashatsi mu by’Ubuhanga, Ibirari by’insigamigani. Igitabo cya Kabiri, Kigali, 1986

          I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

          1.Rondora abanyarubuga bavugwa muri uyu mwandiko.

          2.Karake yasezerewe kwa Nyamwasa azira iki?

          3.Ni uwuhe murimo uvugwa cyane muri uyu mwandiko? Ese uyu murimo wari uhuriye he na gahunda z’ubuyobozi bw’Igihugu muri icyo gihe?

          4.Inkuru ivugwa muri uyu mwandiko yabereye mu bihe bice by’Igihugu?

          5.Huza buri nimero y’ikibazo muri ibi bikurikira n’inyuguti y’igisubizo cyacyo mu itsinda ry’ibisubizo byatanzwe hepfo.

          h  

          z

          II. Inyunguramagambo

          1. Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo cyangwa amatsinda y’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko.

                      a) Izenezene                         c) Guseta inzira ibirenge

                      b) Ubukundwakare              d) Baramwubahuka

          Impingane

          2. Shaka impuzanyito z’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                        a) Inteko yabo                          c) Baramukwena                   e) Biramutonda

                       b) Urutoto                                 d) Bamuhinyora

          3. Shaka imbusane z’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                      a) Abatware                   c) Arasayisha           e) Amagorwa

                      b) Baranzika                  d) Ipfunwe

          III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

          Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

          Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

                        a) Umuganura                    c) Kumucungura                           e) Guhuga

                        b) Kwizenutsa                     d) Arashoberwa

          IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

                1.Mugaragaze ingingo z’umuco zigaragara muri uyu mwandiko.

                 2.Erekana insanganyamatsiko ikubiye muri uyu mwandiko?

                 3.Huza iyo nsanganyamatsiko n’ubuzima bwa buri munsi.

                 4.Garagaza ibice by’ingenzi bigize uyu mwandiko.

                  5.Nyuma yo gusoma uyu mwandiko sobanura impamvu wiswe insigamugani.

          V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

          Mu matsinda, nimwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho. Uyu mwitozo mushobora no kuwukorera hanze y’ishuri, mu gihe musubiramo amasomo yanyu.

          Kungurana ibitekerezo
          Insanganyamatsiko:

          1. Ese mu miryango y’aho mutuye bubahiriza bate umuhango w’umuganura?

          2. Nyuma yo gusoma uyu mwandiko wakora iki ngo umuhango w’umuganura urusheho kwitabwaho mu miryango yacu?

          Ubuvanganzo: Insigamugani

          Ongera usome umwandiko maze usubize ibibazo bikurikira:

          a) Ku bwawe urabona impamvu yatumye abantu bakomeza kujya bakoresha iyi mvugo ngo: “Utabusya abwita ubumera”ari iyihe?

          b) Nimutange izindi ngero z’imvugo ziteye nk’iyi “Utabusya abwita ubumera” mujya mwumva abantu bakoresha.

          c) Izo mvugo zose zakomotse ku bantu?

          d) Hari imvugo ziteye nk’iyi bitiriye inyamaswa cyangwa ibindi ni ukubera iki?

          e) Gerageza gutanga inshoza y’insigamugani.

          Inshoza y’insigamugani

          Insigamugani ubwaryo ni ijambo rigizwe n’inshinga gusiga ndetse n’icyuzuzo cyayo umugani. Gusiga bivuga kurekera ikintu ahantu uvuye cyangwa wari uri. Naho umugani ubusanzwe ni igitekerezo kimeze nk’inkuru bahimba ikemerwa na rubanda. Gusiga umugani rero ni ugusiga inkuru ahantu runaka wari uri abahasigaye bakajya bahora bakwibukiraho. Insigamugani ni imvugo ziteye nk’imigani y’imigenurano, ziba zarakomotse ku bantu runaka babayeho mu mateka (bazwi kandi bakomeye) bitewe n’aho babaye , imibereho yabo, ibyo baba baravuze n’ ibyo bakoze, rubanda bakajya bazikoresha mu mvugo, basa n’abakuriza ku byabaye. Izo nsigamigani zikomoka ku bantu babayeho mu mateka, bazita insigamigani nyirizina.

          Urugero:

          - “Utabusya abwita ubumera” ni insigamugani nyirizina. Ni imvugo yabaye kimomo, biturutse kuri Karake warenzwe cyane, akajya annyega abasyi, uburo abwita ubumera, nyamara igihe yongeye gusya byaramunaniye, ibyo yasuzuguraga bimubera insobe. Rubanda babonye uko bimugendekeye imvugo ye bayigira iciro ry’umugani, uwo babonye wese wihaye gusuzugura ibyo atari gukora kandi bigoye bakamuninura bakoresheje ya mvugo.

          Si ku bantu gusa kandi insigamugani ishobora gukomokaho; ahubwo hari izagiye zikomoka ku migani bacira ku nyamaswa, inyoni n’ibindi bitari abantu, ariko ari abantu barenguriraho. Izi zikitwa insigamigani nyitiriro.

          Urugero:

          - Bati: “Gikeri utahe na Ntashya.” Kiti: “Mpuriye he n’ibiguruka?”

          - Babajije inyamanza bati: “Mbe kanyamanza ko ufite ukuguru guto!” Na yo irabasubiza iti: “N’aka ngakesha Rusengo Rusenzi yari agiye kukabazamo ubwato bwo kwiyambukiriza abagenzi!”

          Uturango tw’insigamugani

          Insigamugani ni imvugo igizwe n’amagambo make, ariko ifite igisobanuro kimbitse. Ni imvugo ifite uwo yakomotseho cyangwa icyo yitiriwe. Insigamugani nyirizina igira igihe kizwi (umwaka) n’ahantu yabereye hazwi mu mateka ndetse n’uwo yakomotseho akaba azwi neza n’impamvu yayo ikaba yagaragazwa. Insigamugani ni imvugo rubanda baba baramenyereye gukoresha mu mvugo iteye nk’umugani mugufi, bakunze kwita umugani w’umugenurano.

          Urugero:

          - Imvugo “Utabusya abwita ubumera” twabonye ko ari imvugo ngufi ariko ibyo ishatse gusobanura bikaba byinshi.

          - Yadutse mu mwaka wa 1600.

          - Yakomotse kuri Karake ka Rugara w’i Bumbogo (mu Karere ka Gakenke, Intara y’Amajyaruguru).

          - Iyi mvugo yakomotse ku bintu byabayeho mu mateka (ku mibereho ya Karake).

          Imyitozo ku nsigamugani

          Buri munyeshuri agane isomero ry’ishuri yigaho, ashakishemo ibitabo bimufasha gusubiza ibibazo bikurikira.

          1. Tandukanya insigamigani nyirizina n’insigamigani nyitiriro utange n’urugero kuri buri kiciro.

          2. Mushake igitabo kitwa “Ibirari by’insigamigani”mu isomero ry’ishuri ryanyu, maze mugisome. Nimutakibona mwifashishe urubuga rwa interineti cyangwa andi masomero cyangwa se mubaze abantu bakuru, hanyuma mugaragaze icyo insigamigani zimaze mu buzima bw’Abanyarwanda.

          3. Tandukanya insigamugani n’umugani muremure ukurikije uko wawize mu masomo yabanjirije iri.

          Ikinamico: Iyo wemeye inama!

          m

          Umwinjizo w’umukino
          Muri uyu mukino: “Iyo wemeye inama...!” muriyumviramo ukuntu umukobwa Nyamwezi yari umukobwa wagize amahirwe yo kugira ubwenge bwo mu ishuri, ndetse agatsinda neza ikizamini cya Leta gisoza Ikiciro Rusange, kimwemerera gukomeza Ikiciro cya Kabiri cy’Amashuri Yisumbuye, ariko nyuma akaza guteshuka iyo nzira akishora mu bwomanzi bwamuviriyemo gusama inda atifuzaga ndetse no kwandura agakoko gatera SIDA. Babivuze ukuri koko ngo: “Imbeba yakurikiye akaryoshye munsi y’ibuye ihakura inda y’akabati!” Kandi ngo: “Umuntu ananira umuhana ntananira umushuka.”

          Abakinnyi dusanga muri uyu mukino n’imiterere yabo:

          1. Nyamwezi: Umunyeshurikazi mu mashuri yisumbuye mu mwaka wa gatatu, ariko akazatsindira kujya mu wa kane ku kindi kigo. Yagerayo akarangwa n’amafuti menshi arimo n’ubwomanzi.

          2. Rebero: Umurezi mu Mashuri y’ Uburezi bw’Ibanze bw’Imyaka Ikenda: ni we uhagarariye ishuri Nyamwezi yigamo.

          3. Nyirakamana: Umubyeyi (nyina) wa Nyamwezi, akaba umugore w’umupfakazi ariko uzi gushyira mu gaciro kandi akanga amafuti n’umugayo.

          4. Masumo: Umusore w’umucuruzi utuye hafi y’ishuri Nyamwezi yigaho Ikiciro cya Kabiri cy’Amashuri Yisumbuye. Ni umusore w’imyitwarire mibi cyane, akarangwa n’ingeso y’ubusambanyi; akagira akamenyero ko gushukashuka abakobwa no kubashora muri iyo ngeso; afite n’ubwandu bw’agakoko gatera SIDA.

          5. Nyiramwiza: Umunyeshurikazi wigana na Nyamwezi, ariko utamushyigikiye mu bwomanzi bwe. Agerageza kumuhana, ariko bikaba kugosorera mu rucaca.

          6. Mutamuriza: Umuforomokazi ku Kigo Nderabuzima cyo hafi y’iwabo wa Nyamwezi. Afite mu nshingano ze kugira inama ababagana ku bijyanye na SIDA.

                                         Agakino ka mbere

          Aka gakino karakinirwa mu cyumba, Nyamwezi yicaye ku gitanda yivugisha, asa n’uwihebye nyina ahamusange baganire.

          Nyamwezi: (Atangire yivugisha asa n’utameze neza). Muri iyi minsi ndumva nsa n’utameze neza! Umenya ariko biterwa n’imirimo myinshi yo kwitegura ibizamini bya Leta.

          Nyirakamana: (Amusange yivugisha mu cyumba cy’uruganiriro). Mbe mwana wa, ko ninjiye hano ngasanga sinzi ibyo wivugishamo aho ni ubuhoro?

          Nyamwezi:Yewe mama we, nta kibazo kinini gihari, gusa ndumva muri iyi minsi ntazi uko meze; numva nsa n’uwacitse intege, kandi nkumva mfite n’ubwoba!

          Nyirakamana:(Amuvugishe amuhumuriza amufashe ku rutugu). Ihangane mwana wange ni ko bigenda igihe cyose umuntu yitegura urugamba rukomeye. Buriya ni ukubera ikizamini witegura kuzakora.

          Nyamwezi: Nta kundi nyine reka nihangane. Ubwo rero ni ukunshakira uturyo twiza two kunyondora no kumfasha muri uru rugamba! Ariko ntibimbuza gukomeza guhangana n’aya masomo n’ubwo ari menshi cyane!

          Nyirakamana:Ngaho rero komeza uhatane nakubwira iki! Gusa ngewe ibyo nshobora gukora byose nzabigukorera. Ngaho reka nge kwiryamira rero, ugire ijoro ryiza.

                                              Agakino ka kabiri

          Agakino karakinirwa mu rugo mu gikari, Nyamwezi asange nyina ari mu turimo two mu rugo.

          Nyamwezi: Waramutse Mama! Ese wumvise amakuru ya Radiyo Rwanda?

          Nyirakamana: Ariko mwana wange nawe wamenya gusetsa! Ndinda gutanguranwa amakuru n’inyoni ziririmba se ngo binyungure iki? Ibyo ko ari ibyanyu mukiri bato, ugira ngo twe twisaziye biba bidufasheho? Ngo waba se wumvisemo ibiki bidasanzwe mwana wa?

          Nyamwezi: Ngo ya manota y’ibizamini twari dutegereje yasohotse! Ahari twashyira tukava mu gihirahiro.

          Nyirakamana:  (aseka, mbese afite akanyamuneza) Yewe, nizere ko wabitsinze ukazabona n’ibaruwa pe! Uzi ukuntu wavuye kubikora warananutse, warabaye nk’imbwa yuriye urugi! Reka iki gihe umaze ubitegereje byo byari biteye agahinda! Uzi ko hari n’igihe ibiryo byashyaga bikakunanira neza umuntu akagira ngo urarwaye! Gusa hari igicuro maranye iminsi ku jisho, kandi ndumva atari igicuro kibi ibyo ari byo byose!

          Nyamwezi: Mama, urakoze kumpumuriza. Nange ndumva mbyizeye. Nakubwiye ko numva naragerageje gukora neza. Kandi uzi ko n’ubundi ntajyaga ngutetereza! Ntiwibuka se ko n’ikizamini cy’Amashuri Abanza nari nagitsinze, usibye ko twasanze banyohereje iyo bigwa, nuko tugahitamo ko niga mu Burezi bw’Ibanze bw’Imyaka Ikenda! Erega buriya na Leta yaratworohereje ishyiraho aya mashuri! Uzi ukuntu baduhaye n’abarimu babishoboye! Ni inzobere mba nkuroga! Ahubwo abayobozi bacu barakabyara hungu na kobwa! Ubu rero ngiye kwitegura ejobundi nzage ku ishuri kureba uko bihagaze nishirire amatsiko. Mbona nyuma y’iminsi nk’itatu ari bwo biba bimaze gusobanuka neza. Abayobozi b’amashuri bavuye gutoranya abemerewe amabaruwa; bakanayohereza ku bigo bigagaho.

                                           Agakino ka gatatu

          Aka gakino karakinirwa ku ishuri.

          Nyuma y’iminsi itatu Nyamwezi arakuzindukira no ku ishuri, asanganizwa inkuru y’agahebuzo na Rebero, umurezi uhagarariye ishuri yigamo.

          Rebero:  Amashyo se mukobwa wacu! Nizere ko usize imfizi wa Mukecuru amaze kuyigusha. Ishema uhesheje ishuri ryacu, ntituzaryibagirwa mu mateka! Uzi ko ari wowe wabaye uwa mbere mu mashuri atatu yose! Icyampa uwo muhate ukazawukomeza igihe cyose. Ni uko bamwe mu bana b’iki gihe wagira ngo hari icyabateye! Ugize ngo abonye amahirwe nk’aya? Hari igihe ayatera inyoni, bityo ugasanga asigaye aririra mu myotsi bitagifite igaruriro. Akabura byose nk’ingata imennye; agasigara atakira abahisi n’abagenzi! Reka iyo igeze ku bakobwa ho biba agahomamunwa! Ngabo ababashukisha za terefone zateye, ababatunga iza bitanu, amacupa ya Fanta ndetse n’ibindi, ntibagiwe no kubasohokana mu maraha iyo za Kagera, iya Nyungwe ndetse n’ahandi yewe no kubacuruza iyo mu mahanga hari abatabikangwa!

          Nyamwezi: Murakoze ku bw’izo mpanuro nziza. Nzagerageza kuzikurikiza. Ariko se ko mwanyicishije n’amatsiko, mama baba banyohereje hehe?

          Rebero:  Bakohereje i Huye mu Rwunge rw’Amashuri Indatwa n’Inkesha, ahahoze hitwa muri Gurupe (Groupe). Ni ishuri ryiza cyane: rifite ibikoresho bihagije ndetse n’abarezi babishoboye.

          Nyamwezi:   (Yishimye cyane) Ndishimye cyane rwose! Na Mukecuru yambwiye ko yagerageje kunteganyiriza. Ndahamya ko ngiye kwiga muri iryo shuri nta gisibya. Namwe kandi abarezi ndabashimye, ahubwo iyo ngira inka mba nyibahaye! Ibi byose tubikesheje imbaraga, ubwitange, ubushake ndetse n’umurava byanyu, tutibagiwe na Leta y’u Rwanda yatwegereje amashuri! Gusa Imana izabibiture!

          Rebero:  Urakoze gushima. Ngaho uzagire amasomo meza, kandi uzaduhagararire neza. Amabaruwa yanyu ari mu Buyobozi Bushinzwe Amasomo.


                                    Agakino ka kane

          Aka gakino karakinirwa mu rugo.

          Nyamwezi:    (Agere mu rugo abyinira ku rukoma yihutire gutangariza nyina inkuru nziza). Wiriwe mbe Mama! Aho waba wamenye ibyabaye? Uzi ko bya bicuro byawe byari ubuhanuzi! Cya kizamini nakirahiye aho twinikaga da! Banyohereje kwiga mu Ndatwa n’Inkesha za Huye!

          Nyirakamana:   Izo Ndatwa n’Inkesha se zo ni ibiki mwana wa?

          Nyamwezi:  Ni ishuri riri mu Mugi wa HUYE. Ngo: “Rirakomeye cyane kandi ryigamo abanyeshuri b’abahanga kandi batsindiye ku manota menshi cyane”. Urumva rero ko ngize amahirwe adapfa kubonwa na benshi mu buzima.

          Nyirakamana:    (Ahobere umukobwa we n’ubwuzu bwinshi) Nuko warakoze mwana wange! Cyo genda wige ushyizeho umwete; ibyo uzakenera byose tuzabishaka ariko utere imbere! Dore nagusigaranye uri nk’ikinege; ahari ni wowe wazamara aka gahinda nange nkaruhuka nk’abandi! Ubwo rero witegereze neza ibisabwa byose nk’uko urwo rupapuro baguhaye rubirondora. Turajya kubishaka hakiri kare ubundi uzashobore kwitabira ishuri udakererewe. Abana b’ubu gukererwa usanga barabigize akamenyero, kandi akenshi nta n’impamvu nzima ibibatera, uretse guhuzagurika no kunyaragurika byateye.

                                    Agakino ka gatanu

          Aka gakino karakinirwa mu rugo. Nyamwezi akuruye ivarisi ifite amapine, yambaye imyenda y’ishuri nyuma y’igihembwe cya mbere agarutse imuhira.

          Nyamwezi:   Yemwe aba hano muraho! Ese ko mudakoma mwarasuhutse?

          Nyirakamana:  (Amwikirize n’ubwuzu bwinshi). Yego! Mbese ni wowe mwana wa! Shira impumu ushire igihunga; shira ubwoba ushyitse umutima mu nda. Iyaduhanze iracyaturinze! Nawe nizere ko wabaye amahoro iyo ku ishuri.

          Nyamwezi:  Nta kibazo na kimwe nagize rwose! N’amanota ndayazanye menshi cyane. Dore ahubwo indangamanota maze nawe wirebere!

          Nyirakamana:   Warakoze wahabaye intwari mwana wange! Na ndetse n’ibihembo nzabyongera! Amanota arenze mirongo inani yose n’umwanya utarengeje uwa gatatu ntibisanzwe! Muri ibyo bihembo hazabemo no gusura abo mu muryango wacu bose wifuza; amafaranga y’ingendo nzayagushakira.

          Nyamwezi:  Urakoze ndagushimiye mubyeyi! Abashoboka nzabasura ariko ntibagiwe no gusubira mu masomo yange. Sinshaka ko hari uwazansimbura ku mwanya wange. Ahubwo ubutaha uwa mbere ni uwange.

          Nyirakamana:  Nakubwira iki! Ni ejobundi ukaba urangije na kaminuza; natwe ubuzima bugasobanuka.

                                   Agakino ka gatandatu

          Aka gakino karakinirwa mu rugo.

          Hashize ibyumweru bibiri, ikiruhuko kirarangiye, agiye gusubira ku ishuri, ari mu rugo wenyine yicaye ku gasongabugari, nyina aze amusanga.

          Nyamwezi:  Ariko Mama si ukumfata neza no kunyizera ye! Buriya ntararabukwa ko niboneye inshuti yo kunyitaho! Nzakomeza nirire kuri ririya faranga ubundi ruzace Imana! Ibyo kwiga nzajya mbikora ari uko mbonye akanya. Gusa nzagerageza kwitwararika ku buryo nta muntu uzapfa kurabukwa iby’urukundo rwange na Masumo.

          Nyirakamana: (Nyina aze amusanga) Ngaho rero mwana wange itegure neza gusubira ku ishuri. Dore inyemezabwishyu y’amafaranga y’ishuri. Amafaranga y’ibikoresho na yo ngaya (Amuhereze inyemezabwishyu n’amafaranga). Nizere ko uzakomeza kuba indashyikirwa. Ubundi rero uzagire amasomo meza.

          Nyamwezi:   Urakoze mama! Ubwo namwe musigare amahoro!

                                 Agakino ka karindwi

          Agakino karakinirwa ku ishuri bicaye ku ntebe mu ishuri.

          Nyamwezi:  (Ageze ku ishuri nimugoroba, amaze guhura na Nyiramwiza, mugenzi we bigana mu ishuri, amusuhuze anezerewe maze baganire birambuye ku mibereho yabo no ku migendekere y’ibiruhuko bavuyemo). Uraho cyane Nyiramwi! Mbega ukuntu nari ngukumbuye! Iyo nza kuba mfite terefone mba naragiye nguhamagara buri munsi!

          Nyiramwiza:  Icyakubwira ngewe sha! Ni ukuri ibicuro byari bigiye kuzanyica! Icyakora Imana ishimwe cyane kuba tugarutse ku ishuri amahoro! Nizere ko uzanye imigambi mishya yo gukurikira amasomo. Na ho ubundi nukomeza gukwamira kwa wa musore mwatangiye gushodekana bizakubyarira amazi nk’ibisusa!

          Nyamwezi: Ibyo byihorere wowe ntubizi! Utariye ku mari y’umusore nk’uriya wayaguyemo waba uri uwa hehe? Nzaruhuka ari uko nyakonoje; ngewe Nyamwezi ikizaba nzanywa umuti!

          Nyiramwiza: (Amutunge urutoki asa n’umwihanangiriza) Nyamara shenge ushatse wacisha make; umenye ko muri iki gihe ishyamba atari ryeru! Ntuzi ko abasore n’abagabo bamwe b’iki gihe usanga bashuka abana b’abakobwa ngo babakuremo “icyacumi” ubundi babajugunye! Nange ngo “icyacumi”! Byabaye se ahubwo ikenda by’icumi! None se iyo bamaze kukudomeka inda bakakwanduza na SIDA, harya ubwo uba usigaranye umugabane ungana iki ku buzima bwawe ra! Ahaaa! Sindi umuhanuzi cyane; ariko ushatse wagendana akariro gake na feri!

          Nyamwezi: Uramponda sinoga yewe! Ahubwo batinze kuzaduha gusohoka ngo nge kumwisurira! Ariko nitutanasohoka we azaza kunyirebera ku munsi wo gusurwa! Ni uko utazi ukuntu nge na we dusigaye turi “ipata n’urugi”! Uzi ko n’ubu ninjiye mu kigo ari we mvuye kwirebera! None se wabonye ngera hano nimugoroba ukeka ko niriwe he? Nari navuye mu rugo iya rubika! Maze yanampembye na ka terefone k’umuzinga nzajya muhamagaza!

          Nyiramwiza:  Ugize ngo ibihembo! (Amurebe igitsure kandi asa n’utunguwe) Ibihembo se bigenda bite kandi! Cyangwa ndumviranye! Ibyo numvise ni byo uvuze, cyangwa ibyo uvuze ni byo numvise?

          Nyamwezi: (Akubite igitwenge yivuye inyuma) Umva nawe ra! Kuko namugereye ku ngingo! Ntuzi se ko nta cy’ubu cy’ubusa!

          Nyiramwiza: (Ahaguruke yitakume yifashe mu mutwe nk’ubuze uko agira) Yego mwana w’abagize bate! Ugize ngo ku ngingo nyabaki wa mukobwa we! Utangiye kwishora mu mibonano mpuzabitsina ungana utyo! Ukiri mu mwaka wa kane gusa! Nzaba ndora ni umwana w’Umunyarwanda! Ubwo se nibura wibutse kumusaba ngo mwikingire?

          Nyamwezi: (Ahite agira ubwoba bwinshi cyane avuge adidimanga) Sha aho ho naba mbeshye pe! Kubera ukuntu nari natwawe nyine... sinigeze menya igihe twabitangiriye! Yampaye agafanta aranshuka anshyiriramo akayoga yari afite mu gacupa; ubundi nshiduka musekera namusoma... Si nge wahera...! Erega nyabusa buriya si n’ubwa mbere! Igihe cyose wangiraga inama sinzumve. Ikigeretse kuri ibyo nkakubeshya ko ari ukwikundanira bisanzwe; burya twari twaragaciye mu ibanga!

          Nyiramwiza: None se mwahuraga mute kandi tuba turi hano ku ishuri ntawemerewe gusohoka hanze y’ikigo atabiherewe uruhushya?

          Nyamwezi: (N’ubwoba bwinshi burimo n’isoni nyinshi) Najyaga nkwibeta nkamusanga! Yaba ku minsi yo gusohoka, yaba mu mpera z’icyumweru...Uzi ko hari n’igihe natorokaga, ngasiga abandi musenga nkamwisangira! Erega disi burya ngo: “Akari mu nda y’ingoma kamenywa n’uwayibambye”! Kandi ngo: “Nta muzindutsi wa cyane watashye ku mutima w’undi!” Byararangiye yangize nk’umugore we! Icyakora ngo: “Iminsi iba myinshi igahimwa n’umwe!” Ubundi twajyaga dukoresha agakingirizo! Ariko rero mwana wa mama ntuzamvemo ndakwinginze! Ari iby’iyi terefone, ari iby’iryo banga nkumeneye...Nyamuneka uramenye hatazagira n’isazi ibyumva!

          Nyiramwiza: Urabizi ko ntari injajwa! Gusa ndumva umusatsi usa n’umvuye ku mutwe! Birabe ibyuya ntibibe amaraso aka cya kinyogote! Ubu urebye nabi waba wahakuye inda, SIDA yo sinayivuga kuko ndumva agahu karahuye n’umunyutsi, kuko wujuje ibyangombwa byo kuyandura. Yewe twarondogoye twibagirwa no kujya ku meza! Reka tugende ndabona abandi bagiye; hatagira n’abadukeka amababa tukarutanga, tukivamo nk’inopfu! Gusa umenye ko “Akarenze umunwa karushya ihamagara.”

                                              Agakino ka munani

          Agakino karakinirwa mu rugo kwa Masumo, yicaye mu cyumba ke.

          Masumo: (Ku mugoroba amaze kubarura amafaranga yacuruje uwo munsi)Ariko ningende Masumo ndihereza! Ubonye na kiriya gishongore cy’umukobwa ngo ni Nyamwezi nihereza igihe cyose! Yewe, narabariye abanyeshurikazi ningende! Ngabo harya ngo ni abagatorika? Ngabo abiyita abarokore badakizwa neza, ngabo abatagira amadini... (Aseke by’umurengwe) no mu bayisiramu nafashemo! Yewe, ni nk’inda ngo ntihaga! Naho ubundi nari nkwiriye kurekera aho! Izina ni ryo muntu koko! Ndi Masumo asumana abayisukiriye! Ariko se ubundi biga iki niba batazi no kwirinda! Ni akazi kabo, Nyabarongo yica abayizaniye!

                                            Agakino ka kenda

          Agakino karakinirwa ku ishuri. (Nyuma y’amezi atatu batangiye igihembwe cya kabiri, begereje igihe k’ibizamini, yasigaye mu icumbi yumva atameze neza).

          Nyamwezi: (Avuge yihebye) Yewe, ndabeshya ay’ubusa ibyange birenda kwisobanura! Dore nawe uku ni ukwezi kwa gatatu kwihiritse ntabona imihango; nyiheruka nkiri mu biruhuko! Ikindi kandi nsigaye numva n’ibiryo byo muri muvero ntakibishaka; ahubwo naratangiye kurarikira ibiryo runaka; n’ikibabaje bitari mu bitekwa aha ku ishuri. Nta kabuza ndarutanze! Iryavuzwe riratashye! Ariko reka ndume gihwa nihangane; wenda byazankomerana ndangije ibizamini nkajya gusebera iwacu. Aho nambariye inkindi sinahambariye ibicocero! Ariko nungutse indi nama di!: Ngiye kwishora kwa Masumo antunge angire umugore bibe uko byakabaye! Si nge uzaba ubaye uwa mbere cyangwa uwa nyuma unyuze iy’ibusamo!

          Nyiramwiza: (Avuye mu ishuri ahitire mu icumbi ikubagahu kureba icyashibije Nyamwezi, ariko akoma n’agatima ku nkurikizi za “ wa munsi”!) Mbe Nyamwezi ko wasibye nta we ubibwiye aho ishyamba ni ryeru? Abantu bose biriwe bibaza aho wagiye byabayobeye. Ngira ngo uzi nawe ko uri mu nkingi z’ibanze za ririya shuri!

          Nyamwezi:  Byihorere, uravuga ayawe ntuzi umutwaro umutima wange wikoreye muri iyi minsi! Rwose ntashidikanya ndahamya ko ntwite! Dore nawe uku kwezi ni ukwa gatatu nta mihango. Nagira ngo nkubitanye n’umwuka w’ibiryo byo muri muvero nkamokorwa kakahava. Nawe umbwire icyo nshigaje kumenya nturi umwana! Icyakora nta gisibya, ndayishyira nyirayo bibe uko byakabaye! Enda ahubwo mfasha tunoze uwo mugambi.

          Nyiramwiza: (Amushwishurize amwiyama cyane) Uramenye uramenye wa mukobwa we! Ishyano rya mbere wararikoze byararangiye. None aho wasabye imbabazi abo ikibazo kireba by’ikubitiro, urashaka guhekeranya ibyaha? Uzi ko uri agashitani gato ahari? Urabage wifashe maweya!

          Nyamwezi: Bireke rero inama nayinogeje kandi ni ndakuka. Ubwo uzasigara ubara amateka yange nyine!

                                         Agakino ka cumi

          Agakino karakinirwa mu rugo rwa Masumo.(Nyuma y’icyumweru kimwe avuganye na Nyiramwiza kuri gahunda, aho gufata ibitabo ngo agane iy’ishuri nk’abandi; ahubwo yifatira igikapu yerekeza iyo kwa Masumo; agezeyo arakomanga).

          Nyamwezi: Mwaramutseho kwa “sheri” wange!

          Masumo: (Arungurukira mu kirahuri k’idirishya, abonye ari Nyamwezi yisubirira mu cyumba yivugisha). Aho se kandi uyu we ko yigabye n’imizi n’imiganda aho ni ubuhoro? Baba se baramubeshye ko icumbi ry’abanyeshuri ryaba ryarimukiye iwange! Nibatyaze amenyo ngo bazarya Ruhaya! Uwo batazi ni Masumo! Namweretse igihandure akajya kurega iyo ashaka!

          Nyamwezi: (Akomeze akomange ari na ko yivugisha ariko avuga cyane). Ese mama uyu muntu ntahari? Yaba se yazindutse iya rubika? Cyangwa se ni ugushaka kunyihorera! Arabeshya ay’ubusa naje nje!

          Masumo: (Aze kumukingurira ameze nk’utari yamubonye ariko ari na ko amwuka inabi!). Mbese ko uzindukiye hano wikoreye n’ibikapu aho ni amahoro! Cyangwa barakwirukanye, dore ko abakobwa b’iki gihe mwananiranye! Niba hari amakosa wakoze urabage wifashe utaba uje kuyantwerera!

          Nyamwezi:  Ihumurire si ayange gusa ahubwo ni aya twembi! None se hari ubwo nayiteye! Aho mariye kumva ntwite numvise nta wundi muti atari ukuza ngo dufatanye ikibazo turi kumwe!

          Masumo: (Amwuke inabi nyinshi cyane) Ndakwiyamye wa nkozi y’ibibi we! Muzajya mumara kwishora mu buraya nibimara kubakwamana muze gutesha abantu umutwe kandi ari abere! Ubwo rero urikoze uraje nta n’isoni ufite no kwa Masumooo uti: “Ubwo afite agafaranga nta bindi ndayimutwereye birarangiye!” Baragushutse di! Iwange si uko! Ese baba barakubwiye ko ari nge uzi gutera inda ngenyine ma! Ariko nange urubwa rurambera! Maze rero nta n’imikino iri aha; nge ndashwanyaguza nkubita nk’inkuba ikubiranye... ee ee ee cyo fata ibikapu byawe usange abagabo bawe ureke gukomeza kuntekaho imitwe! Gira vuba bitaraba nabi se nyine!

          Nyamwezi: (N’amarira menshi ndetse n’ikiniga). Ni uko umbwiye koko Masu! N’ibitangaza byose wari waranyijeje koko! N’amagambo yose wambwiraga ugatuma nemera kuguha ubusugi bwange! Ngo: “Nzagukunda ngutoneshe, nzakubera igicucu izuba ricanye, nzakubera umutaka imvura iguye, nza...” Sha, genda ubu buhemu unkoreye Imana nitabukwitura nzabe ntazi kureba! Umenye ko untesheje n’amashuri yange n’ukuntu nari umuhanga! Ubu nshatse nashoka n’iy’uruzi bikaba uko byakabaye! Ariko reka nihangane nge iwacu; nekurushaho kwiterera umukecuru agahinda.

          Masumo: (Aseka cyane ananinura) ngo uruziii, uruziii, uruzi uraruzi se? Jyayo rukwereke uko rumira abarwishyiriye, ibyo na byo. Tumuka umve mu maso wa cyontazi we!

                                   Agakino ka cumi na rimwe

          (Karakinirwa mu rugo kwa Nyirakamana Nyamwezi ageze iwabo.)

          Nyirakamana: (Azumve umuntu ukomanga ku rugi ndetse anivugisha mu ijwi nk’irya Nyamwezi, akingure ariko afite n’ubwoba). Mbe Nyamwezi mwana wange ko nkubonye ibikoba bikankuka n’amabere akikora ntonsa, aho ni amahoro! Ikikuvanye ku ishuri iki gihe ni iki kandi ko nkeka ko ibizamini ubu biri hafi?

          Nyamwezi:  Mama, sinirirwa mbica hirya ngo nkurushye, n’ubundi ngo: “Ntawutwika inzu ngo ahishe umwotsi”! Narakubaganye none ndikeka inda; ni yo mpamvu ntorotse ishuri. Ndaje ngo unyiyicire nk’uko wanyibyariye! Ikindi kandi ndakwinginze ntunshunaguze ngo urambaza uwayinteye; ubu nje mvuye kumwiyahuraho ankubita ishoti, ati: “Mva imbere wa cyohe we si nge utera inda ngenyine”!

          Nyirakamana: (Bigaragara ko yumiwe kubera agahinda n’amarira amujenga mu maso) Burya koko ngo: “Ubyaye ishyano araryonsa”! Mwana wange ungenje ute koko? Ngo iki? Inama nakugiriye urazizi! Ahasigaye ibindi birakureba! Icyakora nturushye wicara, enda ngwino duhitire kwa muganga bakubwire amakuru y’imvaho; unagirwe inama; utazava aho uyikuramo bakadufunga! Kandi buriya ibyo ku ishuri ubwo waje uritorotse, amakuru namara gufutuka na bo bagomba kuyamenyeshwa kugira ngo badakomeza gushakisha uwo batari bubone! Yewe koko “Aho umutindi yanitse ntiriva!”

                       Agakino ka cumi na kabiri

          Agakino karakinirwa ku ivuriro, mu isuzumiro.

          Mutamuriza: (Abakire bageze ku ivuriro). Waramutse yewe muko? Urumva ubabara hehe? Kandi bimaze igihe kingana iki?

          Nyamwezi: (Yihebye) Muganga we, nararwiyambitse igihe ngezemo si icyo kuruhanya! Ubu undeba nje kwisuzumisha inda! Mu minsi ishize narakubaganye; none maze amezi arenga atatu nta mihango. Ikindi kandi amoko menshi y’ibiryo maze kuyahugwa; ubu nsigaye ntoranya!

          Mutamuriza: Urakoze kutworohereza mu kugusuzuma. Iyaba abantu bose bajyaga baza nkawe! Ubu rero nizere ko waba ubizi, cyane ko mbona usa n’ujijutse. Ntitugipima inda yonyine, kuko uburyo yinjiramo ni inzira nyabagendwa y’indwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina harimo n’icyorezo cya SIDA giteye inkeke. Nizere ko uriya mubyeyi muri kumwe ari umuherekeza wawe. Ubwo rero reka tugukorere ibyo bizamini, ubundi utegereze ibisubizo ntibitinda; gusa uriya mubyeyi na we ubimubwire.

          Nyuma y’igihe kitarambiranye.

          Mutamuriza: (Ahamagare Nyamwezi n’umubyeyi we abagezeho icyo ibizamini byatanze). Ubu rero ni umwanya wo kubagezaho ibisubizo by’ibizamini byakorewe Nyamwezi. Nyamwezi rero, mbere yo kukugezaho ibisubizo turabanza tuganire gatoya. Iyo umuntu yipimishije inda aba ashobora kubona ibihe bisubizo? Na ho se ku bijyanye n’ubwandu bwa SIDA ho biba bimeze bite?

          Nyamwezi:   Ku bijyanye n’inda, ndumva ibisubizo ari bibiri: kuba utwite cyangwa se udatwite. Na ho kuri SIDA, mu isomo ry’ibinyabuzima twize ko ibisubizo ari bitatu: kuba ufite ubwandu, kuba nta bwandu ufite cyangwa se kuba bitagaragara neza.

          Mutamuriza:   Yewe, “Wabimenye”! Ndumva nta kindi cyo kurenza kuri ibyo bisobanuro. Gusa wihanganire ibyo ngiye kukubwira; ari inda ari na SIDA ubifite byombi! Ikindi kandi muri ibyo byose ubuzima burakomeza. Upfa gusa gukurikiza inama ugirwa n’ababishinzwe!

          Nyamwezi:  Urakoze muga. Ibi umbwiye byose ntibintunguye. Hari mugenzi wange twiganaga mu ishuri twari twabiganiriyeho nyuma yo gukora iryo shyano. Ahubwo wagira ngo yari yabihanuye! Burya ngo: “Nta cyo bitwaye irabanza icyo nakoze igaheruka”! Iyo nza kwemera kugirwa inama ibi byose ntibiba bimbayeho bagenzi! Burya ngo: “Nyamwaga kumva ntiyanze no kubona”! Kandi nanone ngo: “Urwishigishiye ararusoma”. Icyakora ubu ni ukunyukirwa ngategereza igihe cyo kubyara nkazirerera umwana. Nkibuka kandi gukurikirana inama z’abaganga n’abajyanama b’ubuzima mu rwego rwo kuzahesha uyu muziranenge amahirwe yo kutavukana ubwandu bw’iyi kabutindi nikururiye. Nkanibuka gukurikirana gahunda yo gufata imiti igabanya ubukana, cyane ko tunayihabwa ku buntu! Ngaho urabeho muga. Ngwino nawe dutahe Mukecu. “Ibyo umuntu abiba ni byo asarura”! Ningira amahirwe ngakira n’ibi, ubwo na za Kaminuza nzaba nziga! Icyakora iyo nemera inama!... (Aturike arire cyane).

                           Iherezo.


          I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

          1.Erekana imyifatire ya Nyamwezi mu gihe cyo kwitegura ibizamini bya Leta.

          2.Nyamwezi yifashe ate amaze kumenya ko amanota y’ibizamini bya Leta yasohotse? Na ho se nyuma yo kumenya ko yabonye ibaruwa?

          3.Nyamwezi amaze kubona ibaruwa imwemerera kujya mu ishuri ricumbikira abanyeshuri yagiriwe inama na ba nde? Izo nama zari ziteye zite?

          4.Ishuri Nyamwezi yatsindiye kujya kwigaho ryitwa ngo iki? Mu mwandiko barivuzeho iki?

          5.Ni izihe ngaruka Nyamwezi yahuye na zo nyuma yo kwitwara nabi?

          6.Gereranya imyitwarire ya Nyamwezi ku ishuri mu gihe yari akiga mu Kiciro Rusange no mu gihe yari ageze mu Kiciro cya Kabiri cy’Amashuri Yisumbuye.

          7.Garagaza imyitwarire ya Nyirakamana ku bijyanye n’uruhare rwe mu myigire y’umukobwa we.

          8.Gereranya imyitwarire ya Nyiramwiza n’iya Nyamwezi mu buzima bwabo bw’ishuri.


          II. Inyunguramagambo

          1.Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo cyangwa amatsinda y’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                  a) Ubwomanzi                                   d) Agahomamunwa

                  b) Kuba nk’imbwa yuriye urugi      e) Bizakubyarira amazi nk’ibisusa

                  c) Kuririra mu myotsi

          2.Huza amagambo yo mu ruziga A n’ibisobanuro byatanzwe mu ruziga B.

          b


          III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

          Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

          Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

               a) Mu gihirahiro                                         c) Iya rubika

               b) Kubura byose nk’ingata imennye       d) Kurutanga

          IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

              1.Erekana ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

              2.Huza insanganyamatsiko y’uyu mwandiko n’ubuzima busanzwe ubamo.

              3.Erekana ukoresheje amagambo yawe inyigisho ukuye muri uyu mwandiko.

          V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

          Gukina ikinamico:

          Muhitemo abakinnyi, mufate mu mutwe iyi kinamico mumaze gusoma, nuko muyikinire abandi, mwigana imiterere y’abakinnyi mwahisemo.

          Ubuvanganzo: Ikinamico

          Buri wese atekereze ku mwandiko amaze gusoma maze ageze ku bandi ibisubizo by’ibi bibazo bikurikira:

            a) Umwandiko “Iyo wemeye inama!...” urabona uteye ute?

            b) Abanyarubuga mu mwandiko “Iyo wemeye inama!...” basangira bate ibiganiro?

            c) Ibyo abanyarubuga bakina hari aho bihuriye n’imibereho y’abantu babaho cyangwa umuco wabo?

          Inshoza y’ikinamico

          Ikinamico ni ubugeni bwo gukinira imbere y’imbaga y’abarebyi ibikorwa byigana imibereho, imico n’imyitwarire y’abantu aba n’aba igamije gutanga inyigisho iyi n’iyi mu buzima. Ikinamico iba ikoze ku buryo bw’ibiganiro aho abayikina baba bagerageza kwigana imyitwarire y’abantu runaka. Hari aho usanga umwe mu bakinnyi agera aho akivugisha wenyine imbere y’abamureba. Ariko hari n’ikinamico ishobora gukinwa n’umuntu umwe, rimwe na rimwe akihinduranyamo abanyarubuga benshi. Ibyo bituma uyikurikiye abona ibikinwa ari nk’ukuri.

          Turebye uburyo amakinamico agera ku bo yagenewe, dusanga habaho amakinamico akinirwa ku rubuga imbere y’imbaga ndetse n’andi anyuzwa kuri radiyo cyangwa se akerekanirwa kuri tereviziyo. Naho bitewe n’ibikorwa bikinwa, ikinamico ishobora kuba isekeje, ibabaje cyangwa ari mberabyombi. Mu ikinamico habamo insanganyamatsiko zitandukanye zihura n’ubuzima bw’abantu bwa buri munsi. Twavuga nk’urukundo, ingorane abantu barugiramo, urwango, ubuhemu, ku bucuruzi, ku myemerere n’ibindi.

          Iyo usesenguye neza usanga ikinamico ubwayo ari umukino, bityo ibiyigize akaba ari zo ngeri z’ubuvanganzo. Gusa hari ibintu bimwe na bimwe byo mu buvanganzo nyarwanda gakondo usanga bijya gusa na yo. Urugero ni nk’imisango y’ubukwe.

          Uturango tw’ikinamico

          Bimwe mu biranga ikinamico harimo:

          a) Umutwe w’ikinamico: Ni nk’ipfundo riba riri bupfundurwe uko abakinnyi, bagenda bakina.

          b) Umwinjizo: Ni inshamake nto cyane itera amatsiko umusomyi cyangwa umuntu ugiye gukurikira ikinamico.

          c) Abanyarubuga: Ni abakinnyi b’ikinamico, habamo abanyarubuga bakuru n’abanyarubuga bungirije.

          d) Inyobozi: Ni nk’ibisobanuro bigaragaza kandi bigasobanura aho umukino ukinirwa n’uko hateye ndetse bikayobora abakinnyi uko bari bukine ( imyifatire) agakino runaka.

          e) Imvugano: Ni amagambo y’ikiganiro abakinnyi baba bari bugirane.

          f ) Inyishyu: Ni igisubizo umukinnyi asubiza mu kiganiro agirana n’abandi bakinnyi.

          g) Umwivugisho: Ni amagambo umukinnyi yivugisha igihe ari ku rubuga wenyine ntawundi munyarubuga bari kumwe.

          h) Agakino: Itsinda ry’ibikinirwa ahantu hamwe bikinwa kandi n’abantu bamwe (hatabayeho iyinjira n’isohoka ry’abanyarubuga).

          i) Akabugankuru: Ni aho agakino kabera.

          Guhitamo abakinnyi b’ikinamico

          Umuhanzi w’ikinamico agomba guteganya imiterere y’abakinnyi yageneye ikinamico ye. Ibi ni byo utoza abazayikina agomba kwitwararika kugira ngo atabusanya n’intego y’umuhanzi. Amenshi mu makinamico nyarwanda usanga agaragaza abakinnyi bafite amazina ahuye n’ibyo bakina. Urugero: Mbarimombazi, Bihemu, Rusisibiranya, Kinigamazi n’andi. Nyamara abahanga mu by’ikinamico bakemeza ko atari byiza guhuza izina ry’umukinnyi n’ibyo akina kuko bimara amatsiko abazayireba cyangwa abazayisoma. Ahubwo imiterere y’umukinnyi yagombye kwivumburirwa n’abo akinira bitewe n’imyifatire ye ku rubuga.

          Uko ikinamico ikinwa

          Ikinamico iba igabanyijemo ibice. Iyo ari ikinamico yo ku rubuga aho ikinirwa (urukiniro) hagenda hahinduka uko buri gice kirangiye. Buri gice na cyo kiba kigabanyijemo uduce (imiseruko) tugenda duhinduka buri gihe uko hinjiye umukinnyi mushya cyangwa se hagize usohoka mu rukiniro. Abakinnyi b’ikinamico ku rukiniro baba bagomba gusa neza nk’uko abanyarubuga bagaragajwe mu myifatire yabo. Ni yo mpamvu mu guhitamo abakinnyi hagomba kurebwa umuntu uri bwigane neza umunyarubuga runaka. Mu gukina ikinamico kandi inyobozi ni ngombwa cyane, zigomba gukurikizwa.

          Imyitozo ku ikinamico

          1.Vuga uburyo bunyuranye ikinamico ishobora kugera ku bo yagenewe.

          2.Sobanura impamvu atari byiza ko umuhanzi aha abakinnyi bo mu ikinamico ye amazina ahuye n’ibyo bakina.

          3.Muhange ikinamico ku nsanganyamatsiko mwihitiyemo. Buri mukinnyi arigana ibikorwa bijyanye na we akurikije uko mwabigennye mu ikinamico yanyu maze muzayikinire imbere ya bagenzi banyu.

          Ikinyazina nyamubaro

          Soma izi nteruro zikurikira nurangiza witegereze neza amagambo yanditse mu nyuguti z’umukara tsiri uvuge icyo agaragaza n’imiterere yayo mu nteruro.

          a) Imikino na yo inyuzwa mu mvugo maze abantu babiri cyangwa batatu ugasanga bararushanwa kuvuga neza cyangwa gufindura imvugo izimije.

          b) Bikubirwa mu ijambo rimwe ry’ubuvanganzo.

          c) Si uyu mumaro umwe musa wo gususurutsa no guhimbaza ibirori ahubwo ibihangano bigira imimaro itandatu cyangwa irenzeho.

          d) Imigenzo n’imiziririzo ni ibintu bibiri bidasigana.

          Inshoza n'uturango tw’ikinyazina nyamubaro

          Ikinyazina nyamubaro ni ikinyazina giherekeza izina kikaba kibumbatiye inyito y’umubare w’ibyo iryo zina rivuga cyangwa urwego ikintu iki n’iki giherereyeho mu ruhando rw’ibindi biri kumwe (bikibanjirije cyangwa bigikurikiye). Ikinyazina nyamubaro kigabanyijemo amatsinda arindwi, kuva ku mubare rimwe kugera kuri karindwi. Imibare y’inyuma ya karindwi ni amazina nyamubaro. Ibinyazina nyamubaro bishobora no gusimbura izina ry’ibyo bisobanura. Ikinyazina nyamubaro gishobora kwisubiramo ndetse icyo gihe kikandikwa gifatanye.

          Ibicumbi by’ikinyazina nyamubaro ni ibi bikurikira: - mwe, - biri, - tatu, - ne, - tanu, -tandatu na – rindwi.

          Intego y’ikinyazina nyamubaro

          Intego y’ikinyazina nyamubaro muri rusange igizwe n’uturemajambo tubiri ari two indangakinyazina (Rkz) n’igicumbi (C); icyakora ikinyazina kerekana urwego rw’ikintu kibanziriza ibindi “mbere” ntigisesengurwa. Ibinyazina nyamubaro bigira ibicumbi kuva kuri “rimwe” kugera kuri “rindwi”, andi ni amazina.

          Ingero:                                                                 Rkz – C

                 - Umuntu umwe:                                        u - mwe

                - Abantu babiri:                                           ba - biri

                - Abantu batatu:                                          ba - tatu

                - Abantu bane:                                             ba - ne

                - Abantu batanu:                                         ba - tanu

                - Abantu batandatu:                                   ba - tandatu

                - Abantu barindwi:                                      ba - rindwi

                - Abantu umunani, ikenda...

                  umunani ni izina:                                      u – mu- nani nt.3

                  ikenda ni izina:                                          i – ki – enda i→ø/-J nt.7

          Ikitonderwa:

          a) Ni ngombwa kumenya gutandukanya ikinyazina nyamubaro n’umugereka ugaragaza inshuro cyangwa ingano. Ikinyazina kisanisha ku izina naho umugereka wo ntiwisanisha ahubwo uba ufitanye isano n’inshinga.

          Ingero:

          - Twize imibare itatu uyu munsi ( Ikinyazina nyamubaro)

          - Twize imibare kane uyu munsi ( umugereka w’ingano cyangwa w’inshuro)

          b) Mu nteko ya cumi (nt.10) ibicumbi by’ibinyazina nyamubaro bigira impindurantego ( indi shusho) bigahinduka kuva kuri “biri” kugera kuri “tandatu”, bikaba –byiri, -shatu, -nye, -shanu, -sheshatu ndetse n’indangakinyazina yabyo ikaba “e” aho kuba “zi.”

          Ingero:                                     Rkz - C

            - inka ebyiri:                           e - byiri

             - inka eshatu:                        e - shatu

             - inka enye:                            e - nye

             - inka eshanu:                       e - shanu

             - inka esheshatu:                 e - sheshatu

          c) Ikinyazina nyamubaro gishobora gufata indomo.

          Urugero: - Ababiri baruta umwe : a – ba – biri

          d) Ikinyazina nyamubaro gishobora kwisubiramo, kikandikwa gifatanye.

          Urugero:

              - Umunyeshuri umwumwe : u – mwe – u – mwe e→ø/-J

              - Abanyeshuri babiribabiri : ba – biri – ba – biri

              - Mukore imirongo ya banebane. ba – ne – ba – ne

          Imbonerahamwe y’ikinyazina nyamubaro n’intego yacyo

          j

          Imyitozo ku kinyazina nyamubaro

          Umunyeshuri nakore neza umwitozo ku kinyazina nyamubaro.

          1.Garagaza ibinyazina nyamubaro biri mu nteruro zikurikira unagaragaze intego n’amategeko y’igenamajwi:

                 a) Uriya mwana umwe ateke, babiri bo bage kuvoma amazi.
                 b) Imbwa ebyiri ntizinanirwa igufwa.
                 c) Umunyeshuri uzaba uwa mbere azahembwa ibitabo bine.
                 d) Hagende haza umwumwe.
                 e) Bamwe bagende ariko batatu basigare ndabakeneye.

          2.Uzuza imbonerahamwe ikurikira ku kinyanzina nyamubaro ukurikije ibisabwa nurangiza ubikoreshe neza mu nteruro ziboneye:
          h

          Ihangamwandiko ntekerezo

          Inshoza y’ihangamwandiko ntekerezo
          Ihangamwandiko ntekerezo ni igikorwa cyo guhimba umwandiko urambura ingingo (ibitekerezo) zawe witekerereje ariko zigendanye n’insanganyamatsiko yatanzwe. Insanganyamatsiko ishobora kuba interuro ivuga ku buzima busanzwe cyangwa ijyanye n’umwandiko wasomwe, umugani mugufi, imwe mu mvugo z’Ikinyarwanda n’ibindi.

          Imiterere y’umwandiko ntekerezo
          Umwandiko ntekerezo ugaragaza ibice bine by’ingenzi ari byo: umutwe, intangiriro, igihimba n’umusozo. Muri rusange, uretse umutwe ugirwa n’umurongo umwe wakabya ntirenge ibiri, intangiriro n’umusozo biba bigizwe n’igika kimwekimwe naho igihimba kikaba cyagira ibika birenze kimwe bitewe n’ingingo ziri butangwe zishyigikira ibitekerezo by’uwandika.

          Guhanga umwandiko ntekerezo
          Hari ibigomba kubahirizwa kugira ngo umuntu akore ihangamwandiko neza:- Gukusanya ibitekerezo byose bishoboka bijyanye n’insanganyamatsiko.

          - Gutegura uko ibitekerezo bigenda bikurikirana.
          - Kuvangura ibitekerezo by’ingenzi n’iby’inyongera.
          - Kubitondeka neza ku rupapuro ku buryo bigenda byuzuzanya. Ibitekerezo bishobora gutondekwa hakurikijwe uburemere bwabyo.
          - Gutunganya ibitekerezo neza no kubyandika ku rupapuro.
          - Umwandiko ugomba kwandikwa nta makosa y’imyandikire kandi ukarangwa n’isuku.

          Uko ibice by’ihangamwandiko bikorwa
          Umutwe: Umutwe ugirwa n’itsinda ry’amagambo make agizwe n’umurongo umwe cyangwa ibiri. Uba ukubiyemo insanganyamatsiko. Umutwe wandikwa mu buryo bugaragara (akenshi mu nyuguti nkuru) kandi ugacibwaho umurongo. Ushobora kwandikwa uko wakabaye igihe ari nk’umugani w’umugenurano, cyangwa imvugo runaka izwi. Ushobora kandi guhimbwa mu magambo make igihe insanganyamatsiko yatanzwe igizwe n’ibisobanuro byinshi.

          Intangiriro: Mu ntangiriro uwandika avuga muri make ibyo agiye kwandikaho asa n’ukomoza cyangwa usobanura umutwe kandi akabikora mu buryo bwo gutera amatsiko. Ni na yo mpamvu uwandika ashobora kugaragaza ibibazo bike, bitera amatsiko umusomyi, ndetse ibyo bibazo bikaba biri butangirwe ibisubizo mu gihimba. Mu ntangiriro uwandika atangira avuga ku nsanganyamatsiko mu buryo busanzwe ashingiye ku byo asanzwe azi, abona, yumva...

          Igihimba: Igihimba gishobora kugira ibika byinshi bitewe n’uburebure bw’umwandiko cyangwa ingingo ziri butangwe zishimangira ibitekerezo by’umwanditsi. Mu gihimba bagaragaza ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka mu buryo burambuye kandi busobanutse hakanatangwa n’ingero zifatika aho bishoboka. Buri gika kiba gikubiyemo ingingo runaka.

          Uhanga umwandiko agomba kwita ku magambo ahuza ibika ku buryo umusomyi yumva bifite uruhererekane rurimo inyurabwenge. Ibi bituma ibitekerezo by’umwandiko ntekerezo bigenda byuzuzanya mu buryo bwumvikana kandi buboneye. Dore ingero z’amagambo yakoreshwa mu kunga ibika:

            – Mbere na mbere...                         – Ku ruhande rumwe....
            – Ku rundi ruhande....                      – Ikindi kandi...
            – Byongeye kandi...                          – Burya rero...
            – Usibye n’ibi...                                  – Si ibyo gusa..... ahubwo...
            – Nyamara ariko....                           – Ntitwabura kuvuga ko...
            – Ntitwakwirengagiza ko...              – Ntawarondora... ngo abirangize...
            – Ariko kandi nanone..

          Aya magambo yose ashobora gutangira ibika cyangwa agakoreshwa mu gika hagati. Byose biterwa n’uko uwandika ashaka kugaragaza ibitekerezo n’ingingo zunganirana mu gushyigikira insanganyamatsiko cyangwa zikaba zavuguruzanya igihe umwanditsi yafashe impu zombi.

          Umusozo: Umusozo ni igice gisoza umwandiko kivuga muri make ibyavuzwe mu ntangiriro no mu gihimba ndetse n’ingamba zijyanye na byo. Umusozo aba ugizwe n’igika kimwe. Uwandika agaragazamo umwanzuro ku nsanganyamatsiko n’uruhande abogamiyeho. Umusozo utangizwa amagambo yerekana ko uwandika agana ku mwanzuro.

          Dore ingero zakoreshwa: Tugana ku musozo twavuga ko... Birumvikana rero ko...Nk’uko tumaze kubibona... Ku bw’izo mpamvu zose zimaze kuvugwa...

          Ikitonderwa:
          Uhanga umwandiko ntekerezo agomba no kwita ku misusire y’umwandiko. Igomba kubahiriza imbata y’umwandiko ntekerezo, uburebure bwawo, isuku n’imigaragarire, inozamvugo ndetse n’imyandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda.

          Imyitozo ku ihangamwandiko ntekerezo


          Subiza ibibazo wahawe wubahirije ingeri y’umwandiko wahawe, hanyuma uhange umwandiko witaye ku myandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda.

          1. Umwandiko ntekerezo ugira ibice bingahe? Bivuge.
          2. Hanga umwandiko ntekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko wahawe uyiramburemo umwandiko ntekerezo muremure utari munsi y’imirongo 20 n’amagambo atari munsi ya 160 wubahiriza amabwiriza y’ihangamwandiko.

          Insanganyamatsiko:
          Ni ngombwa ko urubyiruko ruhagurukira kubungabunga umuco nyarwanda, kuko byagaragaye ko guta umuco ntaho bitaniye no guta ubumuntu.

          Inshamake y’ibyizwe muri uyu mutwe wa gatatu

          Muri uyu mutwe twasesenguye imyandiko ivuga ku nsanganyamatsiko yo kubungabunga umuco nyarwanda. Abanyarwanda bisanzuriraga mu buvanganzo bwo muri rubanda kandi bakanyuzamo ubutumwa butandukanye. Twakomoje ku migenzo n’imiziririzo, tunabona kandi zimwe mu ngamba zadufasha gukomeza gusigasira ibyiza by’umuco nyarwanda.

          Twasesenguye insigamugani, tubona ko ari imvugo ziba zarakomotse ku bantu bazwi mu mateka. Ibi akaba ari byo bita insigamigani nyirizina. Naho imvugo zikomoka ku migani bacira ku nyamaswa, inyoni n’ibindi bitari abantu, ariko ari abantu barenguriraho, zo zikitwa insigamigani nyitiriro.

          Twabonye ko Ikinamico ari ubugeni bwo gukinira imbere y’imbaga y’abarebyi ibikorwa byigana imibereho, imico n’imyitwarire y’abantu aba n’aba igamije gutanga inyigisho mu buzima. Ikinamico iba igabanyijemo ibice kandi iba ikoze ku buryo bw’ibiganiro aho abayikina baba bagerageza kwigana imyitwarire y’abantu runaka. Amakinamico asekeje, ababaje cyangwa mberabyombi, ashobora kwerekanirwa ku rubuga mu ruhame, akanyuzwa kuri radiyo cyangwa se akerekanirwa kuri tereviziyo.

          Mu kibonezamvugo twabonye ko ikinyazina nyamubaro ari ikinyazina giherekeza izina kerekana umubare kuva kuri rimwe kugera kuri karindwi, indi mibare ikaba ari amazina. Ikinyazina nyamubaro gishobora no gusimbura izina ry’icyo gisobanura, ndetse kikaba cyakwisubiramo kikandikwa gifatanye. Intego y’ikinyazina nyamubaro muri rusange igizwe n’uturemajambo tubiri ari two indangakinyazina (Rkz) n’igicumbi (C). Mu nteko ya 10 kigira impindurantego ku ndangakinyazina, aho kuba “zi” bikaba “e” n’igicumbi kigahinduka kuva kuri kabiri kugera kuri gatandatu. Gishobora no gufata indomo.

          Si ibyo gusa; twanabonye ihangamwandiko ntekerezo nuko rikorwa. Ihangamwandiko ntekerezo ni igikorwa cyo guhimba umwandiko urambura ingingo zigendanye n’insanganyamatsiko yatanzwe. Imbata y’umwandiko ntekerezo igaragaza ibice bine ari byo: umutwe, intangiriro, igihimba n’umusozo.

          Isuzuma rusange risoza umutwe wa gatatu

          Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

          Umwandiko: Ubuhanzi bw’Abanyarwanda

          Kuva kera na kare Abanyarwanda bari abantu bazi kwicara bagahanga ibintu byinshi bitandukanye. Ubuhanzi bwababeraga inzira yo kuruhuka no kwidagadura, cyanecyane igihe bakitse imirimo. Si ukwidagadura no kuruhuka gusa ariko, kuko mu buhanzi habamo no gutyaza ubwenge ndetse no kwigishanya. Bamwe bashoboraga kuvumbura ibijyanye n’ubuvanganzo ku ruhande rumwe, abandi bakihata ibijyanye n’ubugeni n’ubukorikori ku rundi ruhande; nyamara byose bikitwa ubuhanzi.

          Ku ruhande rw’ubuhanzi bw’ibyerekeye ubuvanganzo, Abanyarwanda ntibahwemye kugaragaza ubuhanga buhanitse bw’imikoreshereze y’ururimi. Umuntu yavuga nk’imizimizo itandukanye ndetse n’injyana y’itondeke ripimye yagaragaye cyane nk’umwihariko w’abisi b’amazina y’inka. Bahanze ubuvanganzo bujyanye n’imivugo, ibyivugo, ibisingizo, ibihozo, imigani yaba imigufi ndetse n’imiremire, insigamigani, uturingushyo, ibisakuzo, amagorane, ibitongero n’ibindi nk’indirimbo n’imbyino, byakoreshwaga mu bitaramo no mu birori. Ibyinshi muri ibi bihangano byatumaga Abanyarwanda babasha kwidagadura, bagahimbarwa, bakabyina bagataraka, bakaruhuka mu bwonko, maze bakishima.

          Icyakora uko ibihe biha ibindi, usanga hari ingingo zimwe na zimwe zitagihangwaho. Dufashe urugero ku busizi nyabami: kuko nyine ingingo bwafatiragaho yari iyo gusingiza cyangwa kurata abami n’ingoma zabo, ubu bikaba bitakiriho. Urundi rugero umuntu yatanga ni urw’inganzo y’amazina y’inka kuko ubu usanga atari byo bahanze amaso cyane. Muri iki gihe usanga ubuhanzi bwaratangiye kubogamira ku ngingo zishishikaje abantu cyane. Aha umuntu yavuga nk’urukundo, iyobokamana, amashuri, imiyoborere, ikoranabuhanga n’ibindi.

          Ku rundi ruhande, Abanyarwanda bari bazi guhanga ibijyanye n’ubugeni n’ubukorikori. Aha rero hakagaragaramo ibikoresho byinshi binyuranye byo muri urwo rwego nk’imitako inyuranye yaba iboshye mu birere, ishinge, urukangaga, ubusuna, umuvumu n’ibindi. Muri rusange byabaga bikoze ku buryo ubireba wese abona bibereye ijisho, bikamushimisha, bikamufasha kuruhuka.

          Ubu buhanzi bumaze kuvugwa si ubw’Abanyarwanda ba kera gusa, n’ab’ubu bakomeje gutera ikirenge mu cy’abakurambere babo ndetse banagerageza kurushaho kunoza ubuhanzi nyarwanda. Gusa icyo abenshi bahurizaho ni uko ubuhanzi bushya bwinshi usanga bushinze imizi mu nganzo ya kera, ariko bwo bukagira ibishya bugenda bwongeraho bijyanye n’aho isi igeze. Aha ni ho usanga mu buhanzi nyarwanda harinjijwemo nk’inganzo y’inkuru ndende, inkuru ngufi, inkuru ishushanyije, za sinema n’ibindi. Ikindi kandi bigaragara ko muri iki gihe ubuhanzi butakiri ubwo kuruhuka no kwidagadura gusa, ahubwo bahagurukiye no kububyaza inyungu zifatika.

          Abanyarwanda rero bakwiriye guhuguka bakita ku buhanzi bwabo bakabusigasira kugira ngo butava aho buzima bukibagirana. Bitabaye ibyo uzasanga abanyamahanga ari bo babubyaza umusaruro kandi atari bo babugokeye. Uruhare rw’ubuyobozi mu kurengera uburenganzira bw’umuhanzi na rwo rurakenewe. Ibyo bizatera abahanzi kudacibwa intege na ba rusahuzi bari hanze aha usanga barekereje ngo batubure ibihangano by’abandi ubundi bigurishirize, naho ba nyirabyo biyushye akuya batahe amara masa!

          I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

          1.Erekana akamaro k’ubuhanzi ku Banyarwanda ugendeye ku mwandiko.

          2.Garagaza ibyiciro by’ubuhanzi bw’Abanyarwanda nk’uko byavuzwe mu mwandiko utange n’ingero ebyiri kuri buri kiciro muri byo.

          3.Tanga urugero rw’imwe mu ngingo z’ubuvanganzo bw’Abanyarwanda zitagihangwaho muri iki gihe usobanure n’impamvu.

          4.Gereranya ubuhanzi bw’Abanyarwanda ba kera n’ubwo muri iki gihe.

          5.Sobanura impamvu Abanyarwanda bakwiriye kwita ku buhanzi bwabo.

          6.Erekena impamvu uruhare rw’ubuyobozi ari ngombwa mu kurengera uburenganzira bw’umuhanzi.

          7. Vuga irindi somo mu yo mwiga rifitanye isano n’ibivugwa muri uyu mwandiko unasobanure impamvu.

          8.Sobanura uko wumva wagira uruhare mu guteza imbere ubuhanzi nyarwanda.

          II. Inyunguramagambo

          1.Tanga ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko.

                a) Ibisigo nyabami          d) Gutera ikirenge mu cy’undi

                 b)Kubogama                  e) Inganzo.

                 c) Ubwiru

          2. Shaka impuzanyito z’aya amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

               a) Rusahuzi

               b) Harinjijwemo

               c) Binyuranye

          3. Shaka imbusane z’aya amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                a) Abanyarwanda

                b) Araruhutse

                c) Buhanitse.

          4. Huza amagambo yo mu ruhushya A n’ibisobanuro byayo byo mu ruhushya B


          III. Ikibonezamvugo

          1.Erekana ibinyazina nyamubaro biri mu nteruro zikurikira unagaragaze intego n’amategeko y’igenamajwi yabyo.

             a) Mu ishuri ryacu hahembwe abanyeshuri batatu.

             b) Ababurana ari babiri umwe aba yigiza nkana.

             c) Umurima umwe muzawuhinge naho indi ibiri muzayiraze.

              d) Hagende haza banebane.

          2.Koresha ibinyazina nyamubaro bikurikira mu nteruro ziboneye.

               a) Eshanu            c) Itandatu

               b) Barindwi         d) Hatatu

          IV. Ubuvanganzo

                1.Insigamugani ni iki?

                2.Tandukanya insigamugani n’umugani muremure.

                3.Tanga ingero nibura enye z’ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda, unazisobanure.

          V. Ihangamwandiko

          Hanga umwandiko ntekerezo ukurikije imbata yawo, wubahiriza uturango twawo kandi ugaragazemo ingingo zivuga ku mibereho n’umuco by’Abanyarwanda.


          • Umwandiko: Amatungo yo mu rugo


            Ndamage ni umugabo utuye mu Bweramvura, akaba umworozi wabigize umwuga. Iyo ugeze iwe uhasanga amatungo menshi, amagufi n’amaremare. Atunze inka nyinshi za kijyambere; zimwe bita ingweba. Izi nka yazigezeho yarahoranye inka za gakondo z’amahembe maremare. Abazibonaga bakazita “baratihembe” kuko zitatangaga umukamo uhagije. Amaze kugirwa inama n’umuganga w’amatungo wo mu Murenge, yarazigurishije agura inka imwe y’ingweba irororoka karahava. Yabanje kuyororera mu kiraro iwe mu rugo, maze agira amahirwe uko iyo nka ibyaye ikabyara inyana. Inka ze zimaze kugwira, yagujije amafaranga muri banki, agura isambu ngari, ayihindura urwuri, anubakamo ibiraro aba ari ho yimurira inka ze.

            Amatungo ye yose ntiyayajyanyeyo. Amatungo magufi arimo ihene, intama, ingurube, inkwavu, inkoko, imbata, ibishuhe, na dendo yabirekeye mu gikari ke. Afite na gahunda yo korora za mbeba za kizungu bakunze kwita sumbirigi, kandi ngo si ukuryoha ziranura! Aya matungo ye yose yayakoreye ibiraro n’ibibuti bisukurwa buri munsi maze umwanda uvuyemo bakawushyira mu ngarani kugira ngo uzabyare ifumbire. Usibye aya matungo, ni n’umuvumvu kabuhariwe. Yagitse imizinga irenze ijana.

            Ubwo duheruka kumusura, yatubwiye ko ayo matungo ye yamugejeje kuri byinshi. Yatumye abona amafaranga yiyubakira inzu ijyanye n’igihe ndetse anagura imodoka. Iyi modoka ayikoresha atunda ifumbire imufasha kugera ku musaruro mwiza w’ubuhinzi akanayitwaramo ibicuba by’amata cyangwa amakarito y’amagi abijyanye mu mugi kubigurisha. Iyo uganiriye n’abana be bakubwira ko batemba itoto kubera ko ikibazo k’imirire mibi batandukanye na cyo; barya amagi bakanabona amata. Mu rugo rwe ntihabura inyama.

            Abaturanyi be abarinda bwaki, ni we bakesha amagi, amata, ikimuri cyangwa ubuki bakoresha mu kwenga inturire n’inkangaza. Ubworozi bwe abantu babufata nk’isoko y’imiti ibavura indwara zinyuranye. Abashaka icyomoro k’ibikomere baramugana akabaha ikimuri bakagisigaho. Bajya banavuga ko uwariye ibiryo birunze atajya yisukirwa n’ikirungurira. Abarwaje ubugendakanwa na bo ntibasiba iwe ngo abahe ubuki. Kandi ubuki buvangwa n’imiti bikavura indwara zitabarika!

            Ubonye ubworozi bwe yifuza gukora umushinga wo gucuruza inyama n’amata n’ibiyakomokaho abiranguye iwe kandi kubicuruza bisaba kwigengesera. Amata n’inyama ni ntagereranywa mu kwinjiza ifaranga, ariko ubicuruza agomba kwita ku buziranenge bwabyo. Iyo bidasukuye cyangwa bibitse nabi bigira ingaruka mbi ku buzima bw’abantu. Byatera abaguzi indwara z’igituntu zandurira mu mata adatetse. Hari n’inzoka cyangwa impiswi zishobora guturuka ku mwanda no ku mata yabitswe igihe kirekire ndetse n’ayabitswe nabi. Ubaze inka umuganga w’amatungo ntayipime , inyama zayo zishobora kuba intandaro y’inzoka zo mu nda na za amibe. Hari n’izo barya zidapimwe zikoreka imbaga, iyo inka yari irwaye.

            Twamubajije ikintu umworozi nka we yakora mu rwego rwo kutabangamira ibidukikije, atubwira ko amatungo atororewe ahabugenewe ashobora kwangiza ibidukikije. Yongeyeho ko uwubaka ibiraro abyubaka ku buryo amaganga avamo ntareke ngo abe indiri y’imibu ahubwo akayatega ikintu, nyuma akayakoresha nk’ifumbire y’ubwatsi yatereye ayo matungo cyangwa indi myaka. Umworozi kandi ntiyagika imizinga hafi y’urugo kuko abana bakubaganya imizinga, inzuki zikaba zadwinga andi matungo cyangwa abantu. Uworora yirinda ko amatungo ye yahungabanya ibidukikije.

            Ngo:“Ukena ufite itungo rikakugoboka!” Kuba Ndamage yarakize akagera kuri byinshi yatubwiye ko ik’ingenzi ari ukorora ariko ukaba wifitemo umuco wo kuzigamira ejo hazaza. Uko ubonye ifaranga ukarizigama muri banki no mu bigo by’imari iciriritse cyangwa ukariguramo imigabane muri banki ikazakungukira andi mafaranga. Utabitsa muri banki, ayo avanye mu matungo ye akayashora mu yindi mishinga nko kugura amashyamba cyangwa amazu azajya akodeshwa akamuteza imbere we ubwe n’abamukomokaho. Nguko uko Ndamage yabaye umukungu. Ni urugero rwiza rw’umuntu wahereye ku bintu bike none akaba ageze ahashimishije.

            I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko


            1.Inka Ndamage yari atunze mbere zari zarahimbwe irihe zina? Ni ukubera iki?

            2.Vuga nibura ingaruka ebyiri zo kurya inyama zitapimwe na umuganga w’amatungo.

            3.Ni iyihe ndwara yavuzwe mu mwandiko ivurwa n’ubuki?

            4.Vuga akandi kamaro k’ubuki waba uzi.

            5.Ni ibiki bigaragaza ko umwandiko udutoza kuzigama?

            6.Rondora indi mimaro y’amatungo itavuzwe mu mwandiko.

            7. «Ukena ufite itungo rikakugobaka» sobanura iyi mvugo.

            8.Uzuza iyi mbonerahamwe:

            II. Inyunguramagambo

            1.Sobanura amagambo akurikira dusanga mu mwandiko:

                a) Ingweba           d) Ikimuri                g) Imizinga

                b) Urwuri             e) Icyomoro             h) Inturire

                c) Ibicuba             f ) Kwigengesera     i) Inkangaza

            2. Garagaza impuzanyito z’aya magambo akurikira dusanga mu mwandiko:

               a) Kugoboka

              b) Ziranura

            3. Vuga imbusane z’aya magambo akurikira dusanga mu mwandiko:

                a) Kwangiza

                b) Umukungu

            III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

            Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

            1.Koresha neza inshinga zikurikira muri ngenga ya gatatu y’ubumwe, wubake interuro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

                         a) Kugoboka      b) Kwigengesera         c) Kuzigama         d) Kwagika

            2.Uzuza interuro zikurikira ukoresheje aya magambo yatanzwe: Ikirungurira, ikimuri, umuvumvu, ifumbire, ikibuti

                 a) Kamana ni ................ wabigize umwuga, afite imitiba irenga magana abiri.

                 b) Inka ntizirara mu ................ keretse inkoko n’inkwavu.

                 c) Bajya bavuga ko amata avura................

                 d) Kugira ngo haboneke umusaruro uhagije, bakoresha ................ mvaruganda

                 e) Abakunda ibirunge bakoresha................

            IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

              1.Garagaza ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

              2.Ufatiye kuri uyu mwandiko, ni iki wowe ubwawe wiyemeje gukora kugira ngo uteganyirize ejo hazaza?

            3.Hari itungo waba wariyororeye wowe ubwawe? Niba rihari bwira bagenzi bawe uko waribonye n’icyo ryakugejejeho.

            4.Ni iyihe nama wagira abantu bagura amata yanyuze mu ruganda aba apfunyitse mu dukarito?5.Ni iyihe nama wagira aborozi ngo borore ariko ntibangize ibidukikije.

            V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

            1.Ni ubuhe bwoko bw’amatungo wasuye?

            2.Ni iki wishimiye umaze kubona kiriya kiraro cy’amatungo?

            3.Ni iki wanenze ubona gikwiriye gukosorwa?

            Amoko y’inshinga

            Inshinga nkene n’inshinga isanzwe

            Soma izi nteruro, ugaragaze imbundo z’izi nshinga zandikishije ibara ry’umukara tsiri, hanyuma uzitondagure mu nzagihe.

                a) Ndamage ni umugabo atuye mu Bweramvura.

                b) Ngo afite na gahunda yo korora za mbeba za kizungu.

                 c) Afite zimwe bita ingweba.

                 d) Ndamage azi neza ko iyo bidasukuye cyangwa bibitse nabi bigira ingaruka mbi ku buzima

            Mu nshinga tubonye haruguru harimo izishyirwa mu nzagihe zigatakaza umwimerere wazo, izindi ntizitakaze umwimerere dushingiye ku mbundo yazo. Ni ukuvuga ko hari iziteza urujijo kuko zihita zihindura imisusire igicumbi kigahinduka cyangwa zikitwereza izindi z’inyunganizi, izindi ntiziteze urujijo mu rwego rw’ikibonezamvugo.

            Inshinga rero zirimo amoko abiri y’ingenzi ari yo inshinga zisanzwe n’inshinga zidasanzwe bita inshinga nkene cyangwa mburabuzi.

            Inshinga isanzwe

            Yitwa inshinga isanzwe iyo ihinduranya ibihe bikuru by’inshinga n’umusozo kandi igicumbi cyayo ntigitakare cyangwa ngo gihindure ishusho. Inshinga isanzwe iba ifite imbundo izwi neza kandi igakorana n’imisozo y’inshinga.

            Ingero:

            Inshinga nkene

            Ni inshinga zidakora nk’izisanzwe. Bazita kandi inshinga mburabuzi. Ntizitondagurwa mu bihe byose kandi zubakiye ku bicumbi bidakorana n’imisozo y’inshinga. Iyo zihinduriwe ibihe bikuru by’inshinga, ishusho yazo irahinduka. Ibicumbi by’inshinga nkene ni ibi bikurikira: -ri, -zi, -fite, -ruzi. Hari n’inshinga nkene “ni” igira impinduranyo yayo “si”.

            Ingero:

                    - Ndamage ni umworozi afite inka za kijyambere. (mu ndagihe)

                    - Ndamage si umworozi nta tungo agira. (mu ndagihe)

                    - Ndamage azaba umworozi azagira inka za kijyambere. (mu nzagihe)

                    - Ndamage yari umworozi yari afite inka za kijyambere. (mu mpitagihe)


                          Umwandiko: Inyamaswa


            Iyo bavuze inyamaswa abantu benshi bahita bakangarana. Abenshi bumva ibisimba biryana nk’intare, impyisi cyangwa ingona. Inyamaswa zifitiye akamaro ikiremwa muntu. Zigira ubuzima kuko ziravuka, zikarya, zikanywa, zigakura, zikororoka maze igihe cyagera zigapfa. Ibyo binyabuzima bimwe byibera mu gasozi, mu mashyamba ibindi bikaba mu mazi. Aho ni ho inyamaswa zitandukanira n’amatungo. Gusa ariko n’ayo twita amatungo buriya ngo kera yabanaga n’inyamaswa. Nuko abantu bagenda bayiyegereza buhorobuhoro kugeza ubwo yemeye kubasanga bakabana.Hari inyamaswa zitungwa n’ibyatsi cyangwa n’ibimera muri rusange. Mu nyamaswa ndyabyatsi twavuga nk’isha, benshi bita ingeragere, banagereranya n’ihene y’ishyamba.

            Hari inyamaswa zo mu moko y’impongo zo zigereranywa n’inka. Mu nyamaswa nini kurusha izindi, haza inzovu, imbogo, inkura, amasatura n’izindi.

            Si izo mu ishyamba gusa kandi, kuko hari n’izindi ziba mu mazi, twavuga nk’imvubu n’ingona. Hakaba n’izindi zitiranywa n’isamake kandi ari inyamabere mu zindi. Iyo ni “barene”, ni nini cyane. Ntawakwirengagiza kandi izo mu bwoko busa n’abantu. Twavuga nk’impundu, ibitera, ibyondi byo muri Nyungwe ndetse n’ingagi zo mu Birunga.

            Mu nyamaswa hari indyanyama. Izi ngo ntizirama. Si inyama gusa zituma zikenyuka, ahubwo mu mibereho yazo ziranavunika. Iyo witegereje uko zihiga, ukareba imbaraga zikoresha ziruka ku ndyabyatsi, usanga ari urugamba ruhambaye. Nk’imbogo itera amahembe intare iyisukiriye cyangwa imparage zigatera imigeri mu nzasaya z’ibisamagwe cyangwa ingwe. N’amenyo ntizibura kuyakuka by’amanzaganya. Ni cyo gituma iminsi izanzuranya itazizigamye! Uretse izitungwa n’umuhigo, hari izigirira intege nke zigatungwa no guhunahuna aho izo z’inkazi zaciye. Muri zo twavuga ibirura, impyisi n’imbwebwe. Zitoragura ibyo izo z’inkazi zishigaje zibisahuranwa n’inkongoro.

            Izo nyamaswa zose zigira umumaro mu rwego rw’ubukungu n’imibereho myiza. Abenshi mu banyamahanga basura u Rwanda bakururwa n’izo nyamaswa, maze bakatuzanira amadovize. Nko ku munsi wo kwita izina abana b’ingagi cyangwa baje gusura Pariki y’Akagera, rubanda ruboneraho rukagurisha imitako kuri abo ba mukerarugendo. Ikindi kandi tudakwiriye kwirengagiza ni uko ari abantu, inyamaswa n’ibindi bidukikije byose ari magirirane. None se izo nkongoro zidakuyeho uwo mwanda w’izishwe ntiziribwe byatugendekera bite twebwe abantu? Twakwandura indwara ziterwa n’uwo mwanda.

            Izo nyamaswa zose, ari izo tuvuze n’izo tutavuze, ni umutungo w’ibihugu bizitunze, zikaba ibidukikije bifatiye runini ikiremwa muntu. Inyinshi zibungabungirwa mu byanya, aho zinjiza amadovize. Ni ibiremwa by’Imana nkatwe. Inyamaswa zikwiriye kurindwa kimwe n’ibindi bidukikije birimo amazi cyangwa ikirere. Si byiza kuzihiga tuzica umusubizo. Ahubwo twese nk’abitsamuye tuzatunga agatoki aho twumvise Rushimusi. Ibyo byatuma zisagamba natwe tukabona amaronko.

            I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

            1.Subiza ibibazo bikurikira ukoresheje yego cyangwa oya:

            a) Inyamaswa ni amatungo yororerwa mu rugo.

            b) Inyamaswa zitungwa n’ibyatsi ni zo zikenyuka kurusha izitungwa n’inyama.

            c) Inyamaswa nini ku isi iba mu mazi.

            d) Inyamaswa zitwa ingagi bazita amazina kugira ngo bigaragaze agaciro gakomeye zifite mu gihugu.

            2. Subiza ibibazo bikurikira ufatiye ku mwandiko:

            a) Vuga nibura imimaro ibiri yo kwita izina abana b’ingagi waba uzi.

            b) Rondora ibintu nibura bitatu biri mu mwandiko wakora ukaba ubungabunze ibidukikije birimo n’inyamaswa.

            c) Ibyondi n’impundu zaba ari inyamaswa ziribwa? Sobanura igisubizo cyawe.

            II. Inyunguramagambo

            1.Sobanura aya magambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                a) By’amanzaganya            b) Gusahuranwa             c) Inkongoro

                d) Amasamake                     e) Ikazanzuranya            f) Itazizigamye

                g) Bakangarana

            2.Garagaza amagambo ahuje inyito n’aya akurikira dusanga mu mwandiko:

                a) Bikabyara bikagwira           b) Ingurube z’ishyamba

            3.Garagaza imbusane z’aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                a) Zikenyuka              b) Indyanyama

            III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

            Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

            1.Himba interuro ngufi kandi ziboneye zirimo amagambo akurikira:

                   a) Barene        b) Inyamabere        c) Ibyanya          d) Ikazanzuranya

            2.Uzuza interuro zikurikira wifashishije amagambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

               a) Intare ni inyamaswa y’.................... uyegereye ntiyakurebera izuba.

               b) Abakerarugendo basura inyamaswa zo muri pariki batuzanira ....................

               c) .................... ni umuntu uhiga inyamaswa ku nyungu ze bwite.

               d) Inyamaswa na zo ni .................... by’Imana nkatwe.

               e) Inyamaswa zirisha zitwa ....................

            IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

            1.Garagaza ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri mu mwandiko.

            2.Wowe nk’umunyeshuri ukiri mu mwaka wa gatatu, ni iki wiyemeje gukora ngo ibidukikije birimo inyamaswa n’ibyanya byazo birusheho kugirira umumaro abatuye isi mu buzima babamo?

            3.Inyamaswa n’ubukerarugendo byakumarira iki nkawe mu rwego rw’ubukungu?

            V. Imyitozo y’ubumenyi ngiro

            Insanganyamatsiko:

            Inyamaswa ziva mu byanya zikangiza imyaka y’abahinzi. Mu rwego rwo kurinda inyamaswa n’iyo myaka, utekereza ko hakorwa iki ngo inyamaswa zibeho mu mahoro zihe n’amahoro abahinzi?

            Umwitozo wo guhanga umwandiko ntekerezo

            Wubahirije ingeri y’umwandiko ntekerezo, hanga umwandiko ku nsanganyamatsiko wahawe, ugaragaze ingingo zishimangira ibitekerezo byawe.

            Insanganyamatsiko:

            «Gufata neza ibidukikije ni ukurengera ubuzima bwacu.»

            Uturemajambo tw’inshinga

            Uturemajambo tw’ibanze: Indanganshinga, ingenantego, umuzi n’umusozo

            Itegereze inshinga zandikishijwe ibara ry’umukara tsiri mu nteruro zikurikira, maze ugaragaze ngenga, igihe, igicumbi n’umusozo by’izo nshinga.

                  a) Muri izo nyamaswa ndyabyatsi twavuga nk’isha, benshi bita ingeragere.

                  b) Mu miibereho yazo ziranavunika.

                  c) Uzabaze ayo twinjiza ku munsi.

                  d) Tuzatunga agatoki aho twumvise Rushimusi.

            Inshinga zisanzwe n’inshinga nkene cyangwa mburabuzi, zose zishobora kugaragarizwa intego cyangwa uturemajambo. Gusa twibuke ko inshimga nkene idakorana n’imisozo y’inshinga.

            Mu turemajambo tw’inshinga habamo utw’ibanze. Twitwa “uturemajambo tw’ibanze” kubera uruhare runini dufite mu kumvikanisha ijambo kandi ntidukunze kubura mu nshinga.

            Mu nshinga zagaragajwe, harimo uturemajambo tugaragaza ngenga cyangwa inteko ijambo ririmo. Utwo twitwa indanganshinga cyangwa indangasano ya ruhamwa. Hagaragaramo uturemajambo twerekana igihe inshinga itondaguwemo. Utwo ni two bita indangagihe cyangwa igenantego. Hari uturemajambo twumvikanisha inyito y’inshinga. Utwo ni two bita igicumbi cyangwa umuzi w’inshinga. Ndetse hari n’imisozo y’inshinga. Ni ukuvuga ko intego mbonera y’inshinga isanzwe igizwe n’indangasano ya ruhamwa, igenantego, igicumbi n’umusozo.

            Mu mpine byandikwa gutya: Rh-Gnt-C-Sz

            Indanganshinga

            Ni akaremajambo kagaragaza ngenga cyangwa inteko inshinga irimo. Indanganshinga igaragaza isano inshinga ifitanye na ruhamwa haba mu gihe ruhamwa igaragara no mu gihe itagaragara. Ni na yo mpamvu indanganshinga banayita indangasano ya ruhamwa.

            Ingero:

                    - tu-a-vug-a                  “tu” ifitanye isano na twebwe.

                    - ba-ø-it-a                     “ba” ifitanye isano n’abantu.

                    - zi-ra-na-vun-ik-a       “zi” igaragaza ko ari za nyamaswa zavugwaga mu mwandiko.

                    - u-za-ger-e                  “u” ni umuntu urimo kubwirwa ariko utagaragara.

                    - tu-za-tung-a              “tu” ni twebwe.

                    - a-ra-kor-a                  “a” ni umuntu runaka urimo kuvugwa.

            Indanganshinga ziboneka muri ngenga zose uko ari eshatu iya mbere n’iya kabiri mu bumwe no mu bwinshi ndetse n’iya gatatu mu nteko zose z’amazina.

            Ikitonderwa: Inteko z’amazina zose zibarirwa muri ngenga ya gatatu.

            Imbonerahamwe y’indanganshinga n’ingero z’inshinga zigaragaramo

            Ingenantego/ indangagihe
            Ni akaremajambo kerekana igihe inshinga runaka itondaguwemo. Dore zimwe mu ndangagihe ziboneka mu nshinga z’Ikinyarwanda.

            Zimwe mu ndangagihe zikoreshwa:

                     -ø-:                    bavuga                 ba- ø - vug - a                  Nta tegeko.
                     - a - :                  twavugaga:          tu - a - vug - aga              Nta tegeko.
                     - ra - :                 ziravunika:           zi - ra - vun - ik - a           Nta tegeko.
                     - za -:                  uzabaze:              u - za - baz - e                  Nta tegeko.
                     - a - ra -:             yarakamye:         a - a - ra - kam - ye          Nta tegeko.
                     - ki -:                   akimubona:         a - ki - mu - bon - a         Nta tegeko.
                     - ka - :                 akuhira:                a - ka - uhir - a (mu gihe k’impeshyi)
                                                 akaseka:               a - ka - sek - a     k→g/-GR
                     - a - ka -:             nakagenze:           n - a - ka - gend - ye       d+y→z
                     - ra -                    ziranavunika:        zi - ra - na - vun - ik - a     Nta tegeko.
                     - ka -                    akanaryama:        a - ka - na- ryam - a          Nta tegeko.
                     - ra - ka -:            urakabyara:          u- ra - ka - byar - a            Nta tegeko.
                     - ra - ki - a - :       baracyasenga:      ba - ra - ki - a - seng - a    i→y/-J
                                                                                 ky→cy mu nyandiko
                     - o - ka -:              wokabyara we:    u - o - ka - byar - a             u→w/-J

            Ingero z’uturemajambo tugaragaza igihe mu nshinga itondaguye:

                 ziravunika: zi-ra-vun-ik-a     Nta tegeko.
                 zaravunitse: zi-a-ra-vun-ik-ye   i →ø/-J, k + y → ts
                 zavunitse: zi-a-vun-ik-ye      i →ø/-J, k + y → ts
                 zizavunika: zi-za-vun-ik-a      Nta tegeko.
                 bavuga: ba-ø-vug-a               Nta tegeko.

            Impugukirwa: Indanganshinga n’ingenantego ni tumwe mu turemajambo tw’ingenzi cyane ku buryo tutagomba kubura mu nshinga. Iyo utwo turemajambo cyangwa kamwe muri two katagaragara gasimbuzwa iki kimenyetso - ø.

            Ingero:
                           - Avuze ko mwita ku bidukikije:                a – ø – vug – ye                             g + y → z
                           - Iyo witegereje uko zihiga.                        zi – ø – hig – a                               Nta tegeko.
                           - Zitora ibyo izo z’inkazi zishigaje.             zi – ø – tor – a                               Nta tegeko.
                           - Kora ndebe iruta vuga numve:               ø – ø – kor – a,  n-ø-umv-e           Nta tegeko.

            Umuzi
            Ni akaremajambo kadahinduka inshinga isangiye n’andi magambo yose ayikomokaho. Umuzi ni wo utanga inyito y’ibanze y’ijambo.

            Uko bashaka umuzi w’inshinga
            Kugira ngo umuzi cyangwa igicumbi k’inshinga kiboneke: iyo ari inshinga igizwe n’imigemo ibiri ibangutse, iyo nshinga ishyirwa mu mpitakare muri ngenga ya gatatu y’ubumwe, hanyuma igakurwaho umugemo ubanza “ya” n’umugemo uheruka “ye” noneho umugemo usigaye akaba ari wo ufatwa nk’umuzi cyangwa igicumbi.

            Ingero:
                  Kugwa: yaguye: igicumbi ni “gu” kuko “ya” na “ye” biratakara.
                  Gusya: yaseye: igicumbi ni “se” kuko “ya” na “ye” biratakara.
                  Guca: yaciye: igicumbi ni “ci” kuko “ya” na “ye” biratakara.

            Iyo ari inshinga igizwe n’imigemo ibiri ariko irimo ubutinde, cyangwa inshinga igizwe n’imigemo irenze ibiri, icyo gihe inshinga ishyirwa mu ntegeko muri ngenga ya kabiri y’ubumwe maze igakurwaho umusozo, igice gisigaye kikaba ari cyo gicumbi.

            Ingero:
                        Koga: oga : igicumbi ni “og” kuko umusozo uratakara.
                        Gushaka: shaka: igicumbi ni “shak” kuko umusozo uratakara.
                        Kwiga: iga: igicumbi ni “ig” kuko umusozo uratakara.

            Mu nteruro:
                    - Bifatiye runini ikiremwa muntu.
                       Iri jambo rikomoka ku nshinga “gufata”. Umuzi wayo ni –fat-
                    - Twese tuzatunga agatoki aho twumvise Rushimusi.“
                      Tuzatunga” rikomoka ku nshinga “gutunga,” umuzi wayo ni –tung-.
            Ijambo “twumvise” rikomoka ku nshinga “kumva” ifite umuzi –umv-

            Umusozo
            Ni akaremajambo gaheruka utundi. Umusozo ni wo ugaragaza ko igikorwa kivugwa mu nshinga cyarangiye cyangwa kigikomeza. Ni byo byitwa “irebero”. Habaho irebero nshize rigaragaza ko igikorwa cyarangiye rikarangwa n’imisozo -e na -ye n’irebero nkomeza rigaragaza ko igikorwa kigikomeza rikarangwa n’imisozo -a na -aga.

            Ingero:
                    - arasenga: a-ra-seng-a                - asenge: a-ø-seng-e
                    - yarasenze: a-a-ra-seng-ye         - yarasengaga: a-a-ra-seng-aga

            Ikitonderwa: Kubera ko inshinga nkene zidakorana n’imisozo y’inshinga. Dusanga zo zigira intego cyangwa uturemajambo tugizwe n’indanganshinga, igenantego n’igicumbi. Mu mpine ni Rh- Gnt- C.

            Ingero:
                   - Inyamaswa zifite akamaro: zi-ø-fite
                   - Twese turi ibiremwa by’Imana: tu-ø-ri
                   - Wari umwana none warakuze: u-a-ri

            Inshamake y’ibyizwe muri uyu mutwe wa kane

            Muri uyu mutwe uvuga ku bidukikije, twasesenguye imyandiko ivuga ku matungo no ku nyamaswa tunagaragaza akamaro afitiye abantu. Amatungo atuma twikenura, tukaba twanayafataho amafunguro. Amatungo kandi ni yo dukesha kweza imyaka kuko atanga ifumbire. Twakomoje ku mibereho y’inyamaswa n’akamaro zidufitiye ndetse n’uko tugomba kubungabunga uwo mutungo ntagereranywa.

            Twabonye amoko y’inshinga ndetse n’uturemajambo twazo. Mu moko y’inshinga harimo inshinga zisanzwe n’inshinga mburabuzi.

            Inshinga zisanzwe zihinduranya mu bihe by’inshinga, zigira imisozo mu bihe bitandukanye kandi imbundo zazo zirazwi ndetse nta rujijo zitera. Zigira uturemajambo tw’ibanze tugizwe n’indanganshinga, igenantego, umuzi n’umusozo (Rh-Gnt-C-Sz).

            Inshinga mburabuzi ni inshinga zifite imbundo zitazwi. Ntizikorana n’imisozo y’inshinga ndetse zigenda zihindura ishusho mu bihe bimwe na bimwe, ahubwo zigasimburana n’izindi bihuje inyito. Zigira uturemajambo tugizwe n’indanganshinga, igenantego n’igicumbi(Rh-Gnt-C).

            Isuzuma rusange risoza umutwe wa kane

            Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

            Umwandiko: Gira inka Munyarwanda
            Mu rwego rwo gufasha Abanyarwanda kwikura mu bukene no kuzamura imibereho yabo, Leta y’u Rwanda yagennye gahunda nyinshi zitandukanye zo gufasha Abanyarwanda kwiteza imbere. Abantu benshi bazi gahunda yo gutura mu midugudu, akarima k’igikoni n’izindi guhunda nziza zagize uruhare rutari ruto mu mibereho y’Abanyarwanda. Muri iki gihe rero byabaye akarusho; “Gira inka Munyarwanda” ubu ni yo ntero ikaba n’inyikirizo. Twakwibaza uko iyo gahunda iteye n’icyo yaba imaze kugeza ku Banyarwanda.

            Umukuru w’Igihugu cyacu, mu bushishozi bwe yarebye kure, abonye akamaro inka ifite mu mibereho y’abaturage agena ko buri rugo ruzatunga nibura inka imwe. Ni muri urwo rwego umuturage wese ahabwa inka ariko bagahera ku batishoboye kurusha abandi. Inka itanga ifumbire ibihingwa bikera. Inka itanga amata abantu bagatandukana n’imirire mibi. Inka uyitunze ashobora no kuyikenuza dore ko ukena ufite itungo rikakugoboka.

            Uhawe inka muri iyo gahunda asabwa kuyitaho ayishakira ubwatsi n’amazi ubundi abavuzi b’amatungo bakamuba hafi. Ibyo ariko nta n’ubwo bigoye; ubwatsi babutera ku mirwanyasuri naho amazi meza ahenshi yegerejwe abaturage. Si byiza ariko ko abantu basangira ivomo n’amatungo. Inka zubakirwa ibibumbiro cyangwa zigasangishwa amazi mu biraro. Ibyo na byo ni inzira iboneye yo kwita ku matungo yacu tutirengagije no kubungabunga amagara yacu.

            Gira inka Munyarwanda irakunzwe kandi izakomeza gukundwa kubera uko yazahuye imibereho ya benshi mu Banyarwanda. Ubu ntaho wasanga abantu barahorose bazize inzara. Umuturage wagezweho n’iyo mbyeyi uramwibwira. Abana amatama atemba itoto wababona batengerana umubiri wose ukareka kurata inkongoro ahubwo ukarata uwo yareze. Umuturage umerewe neza, azagana inzira y’iterambere ubundi umuryango we usirimuke. Ubwo kandi ni na ko yubahiriza gahunda zose za Leta nko gukora umuganda tutaretse no gutanga imisoro. Ubu hafi mu Turere twose tw’Igihugu hari amakusanyirizo y’amata. Umuturage ufite inka ikamwa ntakirirwa yererana amata ku musozi yabuze uwayamugurira. Gira inka Munyarwanda izakura abaturage mu bukene. N’iyo zimaze kororoka zigoboka umuntu mu gihe yasumbirijwe akayigura ifaranga akikenura.

            Gira inka rero ni urugero rwiza rw’imiyoborere ikwiye. Uwagabiwe arasabwa kwitura uwamugabiye. Ni gute bikorwa rero? Icya mbere dusabwa ni ugufata neza inka tugabiwe. Icya kabiri ni ukuziturira umuturanyi wawe w’umworo. Turasabwa kumva no gushyira mu bikorwa gahunda za Leta, tukazigira izacu. Ubundi iterambere rizanwa n’uko abayobozi n’abayoborwa bazakomeza kwicarana bakagena igikwiye. Ngiyo inyiturano ikwiye!

            I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

                1.Ni iki basingiza muri uno mwandiko?

                2.Iyi guhunda yatekerejwe na nde?

                3.Vuga akamaro ka Gira inka Munyarwanda ku iterambere ry’Igihugu.

                4.Kuki atari byiza ko umuturage yasangira ivomo n’amatungo?

                5.Ni iki cyavuzwe mu mwandiko kigaragaza umwana warezwe n’amata.

                6.Ni iki cyakorwa ngo tworore ariko tunabungabunga ibidukikije?

                7.Ku bwawe ni gihe ki wumva umuturage akwiriye kugurisha itungo yoroye?

                8.Inyiturano ikwiye ni iyihe ku muturage wahawe inka muri gahunda ya Gira inka Munyarwanda?

            II. Inyunguramagambo

            1.Sobanura aya magambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                 a) Kwikenura          c) Umworo

                 b) Ikibumbiro          d) Kuziturira

            III. Ikibonezamvugo

            1.Mu nteruro zikurikira amagambo aciweho akarongo ni bwoko ki?

            a) Ufite inka yahawe muri iyo gahunda arasabwa kuyitaho.

            b) Ibyo ariko nta nubwo bigoye; ubwatsi babutera ku mirwanyasuri.

            c) Amazi meza ahenshi yegerejwe abaturage. Si byiza ariko ko abantu basangira ivomo n’amatungo.

            d) Inka iri mu kiraro itunganyirizwa aho inywera amazi cyangwa igashoka ikibumbiro.

            e) Ibyo na byo ni inzira iboneye yo kwita ku matungo yacu tutirengagije no kubungabunga amagara yacu.

            2.Garagaza uturemajambo n’amategeko y’igenamajwi yakoreshejwe kuri izi nshinga ziciweho akarongo:

            a) Umukuru w’Igihugu cyacu yabonye akamaro inka ifite mu mibereho y’abaturage agena ko buri rugo ruzatunga nibura inka imwe.

            b) Ni muri urwo rwego umuturage wese ahabwa inka atunga.

            c) Yarebye kure pe! Uruzi ukuntu inka itanga ifumbire ibihingwa bikera.

            IV. Ubumenyi rusange

            Vuga nibura imimaro ibiri y’inyamaswa haba mu rwego rw’ubukungu cyangwa urw’imibereho myiza y’abaturage.

            V. Ihangamwandiko

            Hanga umwandiko mu mirongo makumyabiri n’itanu (25) kuri imwe muri izi nsanganyamatsiko. Urasabwa kandi kugaragaza nibura ingingo enye zisobanuye neza.

                   a) Kwita ku bidukikije ni ko kurengera ubuzima bwacu.

                   b) Kororera mu biraro ni inzira nyayo yo kurengera ibidukikije.


            • Ubukerarugendo

              Umwandiko: Wari uzi u Rwanda?



              U Rwanda, nge warwitaga ruto mwa bantu mwe, nararutembeye nsanga rutatse ibyiza gusagusa. Iyo witegereje, usanga dufite Igihugu giteye neza ku buryo buhebuje. Wa Rwanda we Imana yaragutatse iragukabiriza, iragusiga irakunogereza ku buryo bunogeye ijisho. Ubwo nge na bagenzi bange ishuri ryadutemberezaga ku rugomero rwa Rusizi rutanga amashanyarazi, numvise ibintu nyaburanga byakurura ba mukerarugendo bikanahogoza Abanyarwanda ubwabo twabonye mu mpande zose z’u Rwanda, ntabyihererana.

              Mu byiza bitatse u Rwanda harimo imisozi iteye ubwuzu, ari iminini ari n’imitoya ikikijwe n’ibishanga. Imigezi iyizenguruka igenda isa n’iyishushanya. Mukungwa ifata isoko muri Burera na Ruhondo ikiroha muri Nyabarongo. Nyabugogo na yo tuzi ko ifata isoko muri Muhazi ikiroha muri Nyabarongo, n’indi myinshi umuntu atarondora. Mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda twifitiye urunana rw’ibirunga. Karisimbi ibisumba byose, Bisoke ari yo Bushokoro iruhande rwayo, Sabyinyo, Gahinga na Muhabura ihâbuura abahabye. Kubireba usanga bitangaje. Ibyo bikurura ba mukerarugendo bakaza kwihera ijisho, maze bakaduhunda amadovize, bityo tukiteza imbere.

              Mu birunga hari Icyanya k’Ibirunga kibamo ingagi zahebuje gukundwa, dore ko zenda gusa n’umuntu. Utarahatemberera yaracikanwe rwose! Jya ugenda uzigama ku mafaranga ubona, cyaba igihumbi ugishyire kuri konti, bitanu se cyangwa n’arenzeho. Nyuma y’imyaka runaka azaba yaragwiriye, maze utembere Igihugu cyawe, ikirezi wambaye umenye ko kera. Uzi kubona ingagi ibutabuta! Biranezeza.

              Ibyiza nyaburanga ntibiherereye mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda gusa. Mu burasirazuba bw’u Rwanda uzahasanga ibibaya byiza cyane, birimo n’Icyanya cy’Akagera kibamo inyamaswa zitabarika. Muri zo umuntu yavuga impara n’imparage, isatura n’isirabo, imbogo ari yo “rwarikamavubi”, ingwe n’urusamagwe, impyisi mahuma, isega n’izindi, tutibagiwe inzovu, inkura n’intare umwami w’ishyamba

              Uvuye mu Burasirazuba, dufite Kigali, umurwa mukuru w’u Rwanda, hari imiturirwa ngo ngwino urore, hari n’inzu ndangamurage yahoze ituyemo Rishari Kanti(Richard Kandt) wari “rezida” mu gihe u Rwanda rwari rukiri mu maboko y’abakoroni. Hari amahoteri atabarika harimo n’ayo mu rwego mpuzamahanga nka Serena, Umubano n’ayandi, ndetse n’ahandi hafatirwa amafunguro, yaba ibiribwa cyangwa n’ibinyobwa.

              Ugana mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo, uca i Buzinganjwiri bwa Mbirima na Matovu, ukabona aho umwami Mibambwe Sentabyo yari atuye. Nuhinguka ku Ndiza uzabona aho umwami Yuhi Gahindiro yari atuye. Naho i Nyanza mu Rukari, ni ho hari inzu ndangamurage y’abami. Ni ho hakiboneka inzu y’umwami yubakishije ibyatsi gusa iteye ubwuzu! Ugeze i Huye ukareba inzu ndangamurage y’u Rwanda n’ibitwibutsa amateka yacu biyitamirije, urakererwa ntiwifuze gutaha. Hari imigezi n’inzuzi bigirana isano n’ibiyaga kuko bimwe ari ho bifatira amasoko. Urugero ni Nyabarongo ibyarwa na Rukarara, Mwogo na Mbirurume, yakomeza ikaza guhura n’Akanyaru bikabyara Akagera gakomeza kajya kwiroha muri Vigitoriya, ari cyo kiyaga gisohokamo uruzi rwa Nili. Mu Majyepfo hari ibisi bya Huye aho Nyagakecuru yari atuye, twibuke ko n’amazi ya Huye akomoka ku isoko y’uwo musozi.

              Iyo werekeza i Rusizi unyura mu Cyanya cya Nyungwe wihera ijisho inguge n’inyoni z’amoko atandukanye kandi atangaje. Mu nyoni twavuga nk’ikinyoni kinini cy’ubururu kitwa “Turako” n’izindi z’amabara atandukanye arimo umutuku, icyatsi kibisi ndetse n’ay’uruvange. Usanga ziririmba, zikina, ziva mu giti zijya mu kindi. Mu nguge hari icyondi kizwi na benshi ariko bataragica iryera ngo bibonere rya bara ry’umweru gifite ku ijosi. Hari n’izindi zirimo umukunga, inkomo, impuundu isa n’umuntu bitangaje, ndetse n’izindi zitandukanye. Muri Nyungwe hari amoko y’ibiti n’ibindi bimera arenga amagana n’imisozi miremire y’icyo cyanya idapfa kuboneka henshi ku isi. Ibi byose iyo ubirebye ntubihaga wumva utahava, ukahibera ubuziraherezo. Ukomeje mu Bugarama utangazwa n’ikibaya cyaho kigari, ukirebera umuceri uhahingwa, ndetse n’amashyuza yaho benshi batangarira. Umugezi wa Rusizi ufata isoko mu Kivu ukaza gusohoka mu Rwanda ujya kwiroha muri Tanganyika.

              Werekeje iburengerazuba bw’amajyaruguru wakwirebera uruhererekane rw’imisozi ikoze “Isunzu rya Kongo Nili”. Hirya gato ku rubibi rwa Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo ukahasanga ikiyaga gisumba ibindi mu bugari mu biyaga byose byo mu Rwanda, icyo kiyaga kitwa Kivu. Wa muntu we, uhageze abona amashyuza apfupfunuka mu nkengero zacyo, agatangazwa n’ayo mazi ava ikuzimu ashyushye nk’ayacaniriwe ku ziko! Umuntu watembereye ku Kivu kandi ashobora kubona ikirwa k’Ijwi ndetse n’icya Nkombo. Ntiwakwibagirwa kandi amashyamba kimeza ya Mukura na Gishwati.

              Abaturiye ibiyaga iyo barobye, baryoherwa n’amafi abiturukamo! Mu byiza bitatse u Rwanda harimo imitako n’ibikoresho byinshi by’ubukorikori bibaje mu biti cyangwa bibumbye mu ibumba. Twe nk’abanyeshuri tuzi ko mu Rwanda atari ibi gusa, mu buhanzi nyarwanda tugira: ibihozo n’indirimbo, imbyino.... tukagira ibicurangisho gakondo nk’inanga, umuduri, iningiri n’amakondera.

              Mwa Banyarwanda mwe, ni byiza kumenya ko u Rwanda rufite amasomero menshi, aho wasanga ibitabo by’amateka byanditswe na ba nyirayo, ibisobanura aho ibyiza nyaburanga biherereye n’ubwiza bwabyo, ndetse n’iby’inkuru ndende n’ingufi zivuga ubuzima bwa buri munsi bw’Umunyarwanda. Birazwi ko kwitabira amasomero bituma umuntu asobanukirwa, akamenya ukuri ku bintu binyuranye, ubwo akaba arize kandi atishyuye umwarimu. Kwiga ni uguhozaho, ibyo utigiye mu mashuri ubisanga mu bitabo byo mu masomero.

              Turangije izo ngendo zacu baduhaye ubutumwa. Nimucyo dushishikarire kandi dushyigikire ubukerarugendo mu Gihugu cyacu kuko bufite akamaro kanini. Gutembera mu Gihugu cyacu bituma tukimenya kurushaho, tukibonera ibyiza bigitatse tukabiratira abatabizi. Kwita ku hantu nyaburanga na byo biratureba nk’Abanyarwanda bityo abahasura bagasanga hasa neza, hitaweho, hari n’ibyangombwa byose ba mukerarugendo bashobora gukenera. Bityo tukinjiza amadovize ku bwinshi. Si ibyo gusa kandi kuko natwe ubwacu ibidukikije turabireba tukaruhuka nubwo uwambaye ikirezi atamenya ko kera! Muze murebe urw’imisozi igihumbi, murumenye aho kurubwirwa kuko inkuru mbarirano iratuba. U Rwanda ni Igihugu kiza, mwese muze murore ukuntu Imana yatatse u Rwanda ikarunogereza.

              I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

              1.Sobanura ibintu nyaburanga biboneka mu Rwanda dusanga mu mwandiko.

              2.Ni akahe kamaro k’ubukerarugendo kaboneka mu mwandiko?

              3.Ni iyihe nama umwanditsi agira Abanyarwanda yabafasha kubona amafaranga yo gutembera mu Gihugu cyabo?

              4.Ni izihe nyungu Umunyarwanda yabonera mu gutembera Igihugu ke?

              5.Nyuma yo gusoma uyu mwandiko, urumva ari iki wakora kugira ngo uteze imbere ubukerarugendo?

              6.Ese ubona hari aho ubukerarugendo buhurira no kwidagadura?

              7.Kuki ari ngombwa kwita ku hantu nyaburanga hari mu Gihugu?

              8.Sobanura uburyo umuntu ashobora gukoresha yiyunguramo ubumenyi bugaragara mu mwandiko.

              II. Inyunguramagambo

              1.Sobanura amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                    a) Buhebuje                 f) Icyanya               k) Kwiroha

                    b) Kinogeye ijisho       g) Icyondi               l) Amahoteri

                    c) Urunana                   h) Ubuziraherezo

                    d) Guhaba                     i) Amashyuza

                    e) Guhabura                  j) Isunzu rya Kongo Nili

              2.Shaka impuzanyito z’aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                    a) Kunogera ijisho         b) Kwihera ijisho         c)Icyanya

              3. Shaka imbusane z’aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                     a) Imihangayiko          b) Kwiroha         c) Baduhaye

              4. Huza amagambo yo mu itsinda A n’ibisobanuro byo mu itsinda B.

              III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

              Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

              1.Koresha aya magambo mu nteruro:

                     a) Guhebuza            c) Guha akato           e) Amashyuza

                     b) Guhaba                d) Ubuziraherezo

              2.Shaka muri iki kinyatuzu amazina icumi afitanye isano n’ibyiza nyaburanga biboneka mu Rwanda, maze uyakoreshe neza mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye.Amagambo abonekamo mu butambike, mu buhagarike cyangwa ku buryo buberamye.

              IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

              1.Shaka ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziboneka muri uyu mwandiko.

              2.Duhereye ku ngingo yo kwidagadura mubona ubukerarugendo bwafasha iki mu kwidagadura?

              3.Mu buzima bwacu bwa buri munsi mubona Abanyarwanda bitabira ubukerarugendo?

              4.Ni iki ubona cyakorwa kugira ngo ubukerarugendo bwitabirwe n’Abanyarwanda benshi?

              V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

              Kungurana ibitekerezo:
              Mu matsinda yanyu, nimwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho. Uyu mwitozo mushobora no kuwukorera hanze y’ishuri, mu gihe musubiramo amasomo yanyu.

              Insanganyamatsiko

              a) Igituma Abanyarwanda batitabira ubukerarugendo ku bwinshi ni uko buhenze, bakaba batabibonera amafaranga.

              b) Umuco wo kuzigama ni imwe mu ngamba zafatwa kugira ngo Abanyarwanda babashe kwitabira ubukerarugendo n’ibindi bikorwa byose by’imyidagaduro.

              Ikinyazina mpamagazi

              Soma interuro zikurikira maze witegereze amagambo y’umukara tsiri, uvuge ijambo aherekeje n’inshoza afite mu nteruro.


              a) Mwa Banyarwanda mwe, mujya mufata akanya mukirebera imisozi iteye ubwuzu ikikijwe n’ibishanga?

              b) Wa muntu we buriya uzi akamaro k’ubukerarugendo.

              c) Mwa banyeshuri mwe, mugomba kugira umuco wo kuzigama.

              Inshoza y’ikinyazina mpamagazi

              Ikinyazina mpamagazi ni ijambo ribanziriza izina, rihamagara umuntu cyangwa ikintu gihagarariwe n’iryo zina. Izina ribanjirijwe n’ikinyazina mpamagazi ritakaza indomo iyo riyifite kandi rigakurikirwa n’ikinyazina ngenga.

              Urugero:- Mwa Banyarwanda mwe. Aha «mwa» ni kinyazina mpamagazi naho «mwe» kikaba ikinyazina ngenga.

              Uturango tw’ikinyazina mpamagazi

              Ikinyazina mpamagazi kiza imbere y’izina ry’umuntu cyangwa ikintu gihamagarwa. Ikinyazina mpamagazi kandi gihora muri ngenga ya kabiri. Nk’uko byumvikana iyo umuntu ahamagaye umuntu cyangwa ikintu aba amuvugishije cyangwa akivugishije. Izina riherekejwe n’ikinyazina mpamagazi rijya muri ngenga ya kabiri ya nyakubwirwa bityo n’ikinyazina ngenga bijyanye kikisanisha muri iyo ngenga.

              Intego y’ikinyazina mpamagazi

              Ikinyazina mpamagazi kigira igicumbi kimwe ari cyo –a naho ikinyazina ngenga bijyanye kikagira igicumbi –e. Byombi bigira indangasano cyangwa indangakinyazina yo muri ngenga ya kabiri y’ubumwe cyangwa y’ubwinshi bitewe n’izina biherekeje kuko rishobora kuba mu bumwe cyangwa mu bwinshi. Ikinyazina mpamagazi kigira intego igizwe n’uturemajambo tubiri ari two: indangakinyazina n’igicumbi; mu mpine ni Rkz – C.

              Ingero:

                    - Wa muntu we:

                      Ikinyazina mpamagazi: wa u – a u→w/-J

                      Ikinyazina ngenga: we u – e u→w/-J


                    - Mwa Banyarwanda mwe:

                      Ikinyazina mpamagazi: mwa mu – a u→w/-J

                      Ikinyazina ngenga: mwe mu – e u→w/-J

              Umwitozo ku kinyazina mpamagazi

              Umunyeshuri nakore neza umwitozo ku kinyazina mpamagazi.

              1.Tahura mu mwandiko interuro zose zakoreshejwemo ikinyazina mpamagazi, maze ugende wandukura ikinyazina mpamagazi, izina kigaragiye ndetse n’ikinyazina ngenga kibiherekeje.

              2.Garagaza uturemajambo tw’ibinyazina mpamagazi wabonye mu mwandiko.

              3.Himba interuro eshanu zawe bwite ukoreshemo ibinyazina mpamagazi.

              4.Erekanisha urugero rwo mu mwandiko n’urundi rwawe bwite ko ikinyazina mpamagazi gikoreshwa no ku bintu bitumva.

              Igihozo


              Umpamagarire Gacumbitsi,
              Umpamagarire Gacumbitsi,
              Gacumbitsi uwa Gicantore,
              Cyo mama ayiwe bambe noneho!

              Uti: “Zana amata y’abana”
              Uti: “Zana amata y’abana
              Ariko ntushyiremo amarindira.
              Ntushyiremo amarindira,

              N’amarindira y’abashumba”
              Cyo mama ayiwe bambe noneho!

              Nzakujyana mu gicuku
              Nzakujyana mu gicuku
              Nkugarure mu gicuba
              Cyo mama ayiwe bambe noneho!

              Hora nzagucira udukoni
              Hora nzagucira udukoni
              Udukoni tw’imikore
              Cyo mama ayiwe bambe noneho!

              Ihorere ncyuze intarama
              Ihorere ncyuze intarama
              Na zo imbogeka zikumporeze
              Cyo mama ayiwe bambe noneho!

              I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

                   1.Ukurikije ibivugwa mu mwandiko, ni nde uvuga?

                   2.Uwo abwira aramusaba iki?

                   3.Ese ni iki uyu mubyeyi yizeza umwana kugira ngo ahore.

                  4.Ese amata bashaka guhoresha uyu mwana azazanwa na nde?

                  5.Ni ayahe mata umubyeyi atifuza ko ahabwa abana?

                  6.Kuki ayo mata atagomba kuzanirwa abana?

                  7.Ni izihe nka zizakamirwa uyu mwana?

              II. Inyunguramagambo

              1.Shaka ibisobanuro by’aya magambo ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                      a) Gicantore                           c) Imikore                            e) Imbogeka

                      b) Amarindira                        d) Intarama

              III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

              Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

              Himba interuro wifashishije amagambo wasobanuye mu nyunguramagambo.

              IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

              1.Ni izihe ngingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziboneka muri uyu mwandiko?

              2.Murumva aya magambo yavugwa mu buryo busanzwe cyangwa aririmbwe byarushaho kuba byiza?

              3.Ese iwanyu ababyeyi bajya bahoza abana babaririmbira? Niba babikora cyangwa batabikora, ubona bifite izihe ngaruka ku bana?

              V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

              Waba warigeze kubona aho umubyeyi ahoza umwana we. Vuga akamaro ko guhoza umwana.

              Ibihozo

              Ungera usome igihozo twasomye maze utahure inshoza n’uturango byacyo.

              Inshoza y’ibihozoI

              bihozo ni uturirimbo tunogeye amatwi, tugenewe guhoza abana, kubanezeza cyangwa kubabikira ngo basinzire. Habamo utugambo tunoze two kubyinirira abana. Si abana gusa baririmbirwa ibihozo, ahubwo hari n’ibiririmbirwa abageni mu bitaramo by’ubukwe.

              Uturango tw’ibihozo

              Ibihozo birangwa no kugira insanganyamatsiko yo guhoza. Buri gitero gisozwa n’umukarago w’inyikirizo ugenda ugaruka. Ibigenewe abana bigenda bivuga ubuguyiguyi kugira ngo babaguyaguye babahoza, bababikira ngo basinzire, babanezeza, bababembereza bababwira ibyo bazabakorera byiza ngo bashire agahinda banezerwe.

              Ibihozo by’abageni byo bibabwira ubuzima bagiyemo ko ari bushya, ariko ko ari ubusanzwe ku mukobwa, ko abagore babona bose bahoze na bo ari abakobwa. Bikababwira kandi uko bagomba kwitwara muri ubwo buzima bushya.

              Ku byerekeye ikeshamvugo, ibihozo bigaragaramo isubirajwi n’isubirajambo.

              Ingero:

                      - Isubirajwi:

                        Nzakujyana mu gicuku

                        Nkugarure mu gicuba

                     - Isubirajambo:

                       Ntushyiremo amarindira,

                       N’amarindira y’abashumba.

              Umwitozo wo guhanga ibihozo

              a) Hanga igihozo ushingiye ku ngingo yo guhoza, injyana n’ikeshamvugo bigomba kubonekamo.

              b) Muririmbire bagenzi banyu igihozo mwahimbye.

              Indirimbo: Ikirezi cyange



              Inyikirizo:
              Mfite Igihugu nkunda cyane
              Nshima Imana yakimpaye
              Mu kugitaka yaritonze
              Igiha isura isumba izindi
              Reka nkiratire abatakizi,
              Maze ndirimbe ikirezi cyange.

              1. Dore gitatse udusozi twiza
                  Tuvamo utugezi tw’urubogobogo
                  Ni two tugwira tukaba inzuzi.
                  Akanyaru cyangwa se Nyabarongo.

              2. Dore gitatse ibiyaga byinshi
                  Hari Burera iyo na Ruhondo
                  Muhazi, Rweru na Cyohoha,
                  Kivu n’ibindi ntarondoye.

              3. Dore amashyamba arimo udusimba
                  Turimo ibyondi ndetse n’inkende
                  Uzaze wiganire Gishwati
                  No muri Nyungwe urore ibyo byiza.

              4. Pariki nziza ziba mu Rwanda
                  Akagera cyangwa se iy’Ibirunga
                  Ni ho inyamaswa wazisanga
                  Maze ukanezwa no kuzireba.

              5. Uzi ko gitatse amabuye meza
                  Harimo ayifitiye amateka?
                  Urutare rwa Ndaba se uraruzi,
                  Urwa Kamegeri n’urwa Ngarama?

              6. Uzaze yewe munyamahanga
                  Ngwino wirorere iby’iwacu
                  Ni urukererezabagenzi
                  Ngewe nshumbikiye aha ngaha.

              I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

              1.Umuririmbyi agaragaza ko ikirezi ke yagikuye he?
              2.Rondora ibintu nyaburanga bivugwa muri iyi ndirimbo.
              3.Ni ibihe biyaga biboneka mu Rwanda bitavuzwe mu mwandiko?
              4.Vuga pariki itavuzwe mu mwandiko?
              5.Ni iki umuririmbyi abwira abanyamahanga?

              II. Inyunguramagambo

              1.Sobanura amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu ndirimbo:

                     a) Ikirezi                        d) Inkende
                     b) Urubogobogo         e) Ukanezwa
                     c) Ibyondi                     f ) Urukererezabagenzi

              2.Tanga y’impuzanyito z’aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                     a) Yangeneye         c) Kwiyongera        e) Gukungika
                     b) Ishusho              d) Ugashimishwa

              3.Tanga amagambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko y’imbusane z’aya magambo:

                   a) Gutuba           b) Ndabikomeje       c) Genda

              III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

              Umunyeshuri akoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

              1.Koresha neza buri jambo ryakoreshejwe mu mwandiko mu nteruro yawe:

                             a) Kurondora                   d) Urukererezabagenzi

                             b) Inkende                        e) Icyondi.

                             c) Ikirezi

              2.Uzurisha interuro zikurikira amagambo yakoreshejwe mu ndirimbo:

                     a) .................... cyacu kiri mu mutima wa Afurika.

                     b) .................... gishobora kwinaganika ku ishami ry’igiti gikoresheje umurizo wacyo.

                     c) Ibare ni .................... rinini cyane kandi rikomeye.

                     d) Tube .................... ibiganiro twagiranaga tuzabikomeze ejo dore burije.

                     e) Iri torero ni .................... riraririmba, rikabyina ukumva uranyuzwe pe!

              IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

              1.Ni izihe ngingo z’ingenzi dusanga mu mwandiko?

              2.Uyu mwandiko ni bwoko ki?

              3.Sobanura aho uyu mwandiko uhuriye n’imyidagaduro.

              4.Ese indirimbo ubona zimaze iki mu buzima bwa buri munsi?

              V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

              Guhimba indirimbo

              Umunyeshuri nahimbe indirimbo ku nsanganyamatsiko y’ibyiza bitatse u Rwanda.

              Himba indirimbo ifite insanganyamatsiko y’ibyiza bitatse u Rwanda, hanyuma uyiririmbire abandi.

              Indirimbo

              Inshoza y’indirimbo

              Indirimbo ni bumwe mu buvanganzo bwo muri rubanda. Indirimbo ni amajwi afite injyana yungikana n’amagambo. Indirimbo zivuga ku ngingo zitandukanye zigusha ku buzima bwa buri munsi; hari indirimbo z’urukundo, indirimbo zisingiza umuntu cyangwa ikintu, hari izigisha, izibara inkuru n’izindi.

              Uturango tw’indirimbo

              Ahanini indirimbo irangwa n’ibice bibiri by’ingenzi : ibitero n’inyikirizo. Uko igitero kirangiye, umuririmbyi ashyiraho inyikirizo. Uburyo ibi bice bihimbwa usanga ari nk’umuvugo ariko byo bigashyirwa mu majwi aryoheye amatwi no mu njyana runaka yatoranyijwe. Indirimbo ishobora kuba iy’amajwi y’umuntu cyangwa urusobe rw’amajwi y’abantu benshi. Ayo majwi kandi ashobora guherekezwa n’ay’ibyuma bya muzika kugira ngo indirimbo irusheho kuryohera abantu no gutuma barushaho kwidagadura.

              Ikeshamvugo rikoreshwa mu ndirimbo ni rimwe n’iryo mu mivugo: uzasangamo isubirajwi, isubirajambo, imizimizo y’ubwoko bunyuranye bitewe n’urwego rw’ihanikarurimi umuhanzi yashatse gushyiramo indirimbo ye.

              Umwitozo ku ndirimbo

              Umunyeshuri nakore neza umwitozo wo kuririmbira abandi.

              Buri munyeshuri naririmbire bagenzi be indirimbo yaba azi yafashe mu mutwe.

              Inshamake y’ibyizwe muri uyu mutwe wa gatanu

              Muri uyu mutwe, imyandiko yose iraganisha ku nsaganyamatsiko y’ibyiza bitatse u Rwanda n’ubukerarugendo.

              Mu buvanganzo bwo muri rubanda twabonye ibihozo n’indirimbo. Ibihozo bigenewe guhoza abana ariko habaho n’ibyo guhoza abageni. Indirimbo ni ubuvangazo bwo muri rubanda bugezwa ku bantu hakoreshejwe amajwi aryoheye amatwi. Indirimbo akenshi irangwa no kugira ibitero n’inyikirizo.

              Mu kibonezamvugo twabonye ikinyazina mpamagazi. Twabonye ko kigira igicumbi –a kandi kikaboneka muri ngenga ya kabiri. Izina giherekeje ritakaza indomo, rigakurikirwa n’ikinyazina ngenga bihuje ngenga.

              Isuzuma rusange risoza umutwe wa gatanu

              Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

              Umwandiko: Tubungabunge ibidukikije

              Iyo umuntu avuze ibidukikije, abantu benshi bakunze kumva ibyatsi n’amashyamba. Twakwibaza niba ibyo ari byo bidukikije byonyine. Ese ntihari ibindi bintu bigize ibidukikije, nyamara abantu ntibibuke kubibarira mu bidukikije? Ni iki cyakorwa kugira ngo ibidukikije bibungabungwe?

              Ibidukikije ni ibintu byose tubona aho dutuye, n’aho tugenda. Bigizwe n’ibifite ubuzima nk’amatungo, inyamaswa zigenda, izikururuka, iziguruka n’iziba mu mazi, inigwahabiri aho ziva zikagera, zose ziri mu bidukikije. Mu bidukikije kandi habamo amoko yose y’ibimera, yaba imyaka ihingwa n’abantu cyangwa ibiti batera ku misozi, byaba ibyatsi byimeza n’ibiti by’amashyamba ya kimeza.

              Usibye ibinyabuzima, mu bidukikije habonekamo n’ibindi bigize isi dutuye nk’amazi y’amasoko, ay’imigezi n’inzuzi, ay’ibiyaga n’inyanja. Harimo kandi n’ubutaka ndetse n’amabuye yaba asanzwe cyangwa ay’agaciro. Ibi byombi ni byo bigize imisozi n’ibibaya tubona hirya no hino ku isi. Mu bidukikije kandi harimo imyuka n’imiyaga ndetse n’ihindagurika ry’ikirere rigira ingaruka ku buzima bwa muntu. Muri iryo hindagurika twavugamo nk’irituma habaho ibihe by’izuba nk’iki n’urugaryi, n’iby’imvura nk’itumba n’umuhindo.

              Ibidukikije byose bifitiye umuntu akamaro, ni yo mpamvu hagomba gufatwa ingamba zo kubibungabunga. Ni ngombwa ko amoko y’inyamaswa akomeza kubaho ku isi. Ni yo mpamvu ubworozi bugomba gushyigikirwa, bukanatezwa imbere kugira ngo amatungo atazaribwa yose agashira. Inyamaswa zo mu byanya na zo zigomba kurindwa ba rushimusi b’abahigi zikanavurwa kugira ngo zibashe gukomeza kororoka. Gutema amashyamba ari uko yeze kandi hagaterwa andi ayasimbura na bwo ni uburyo bwo kubungabunga ibidukikije. Umuririmbyi w’Umunyarwanda yaragize ati: “Nutema kimwe, uge utera bibiri”. Gutera amashyamba bituma n’ikirere kigira umwuka mwiza, uhehereye, bikanatuma imvura iboneka muri icyo gice.

              Mu rwego rwo kubungabunga ibidukikije kandi twakwirinda gucukura amabuye ahabonetse hose kugira ngo twirinde ibisimu byahitana ubuzima bw’abantu kubera gusigara batuye mu manegeka, ibisimu bikaba byabaridukana. Gufumbira imirima, kurwanya isuri, gufata neza amasoko n’amariba na byo ni ngombwa mu kubungabunga ibidukikije.

              Mucyo tubungabunge ibidukikije kuko bidufatiye runini. Bituma tugira ubuzima kuko ari byo dukesha ibidutunga, n’ibidushimisha. Nta bimera, nta nyamaswa, nta migezi, inzuzi, ibiyaga n’inyanja n’ikirere kidahindaguritse, ubuzima bwa muntu ntibwashoboka.

              I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko:

              1.Ibidukikije ni iki?

              2.Inyamaswa zirimo ayahe moko?

              3. Tanga ingero eshatu z’ibidukikije bitari ibinyabuzima.

              4.Kuki abantu badakwiye gucukura amabuye ahabonetse hose?

              5.Uyu mwandiko ni bwoko ki?

              6.Ni iki wakora kugira ngo ubungabunge ibidukikije aho utuye?

              II. Inyunguramagambo

              1.Sobanura amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                    a) Kubungabunga          d) Igisimu                g) Ibyanya

                    b) Kimeza                        e) Inigwahabiri       h) Amanegeka

                    c) Itumba                         f ) Umuhindo

              2.Shaka impuzanyito z’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                    a) Yaragize ati                b) Byombi                c) Ikirere

              3.Tanga imbusane z’amagambo akurikira aboneka mu mwandiko:

                    a) Iki                             b) Kubungabunga           c) Mu kirere

              III. Ikibonezamvugo n’ubuvanganzo

              1. Shaka mu kiganiro gikurikira ibinyazina mpamagazi byakoreshejwe, maze ugaragaze intego n’amategeko y’igenamajwi.

              Umusaza yarazindutse asanga abuzukuru be bamutanze kubyuka! aratangara cyane kuko bitari bisanzwe mu biruhuko. Ni ko kubabaza:

              Umusaza:    Yemwe mwa bana mwe mugiye he ko mbona mwuhanya?

              Abuzukuru:  Tugiye ku Murenge kwifotoza ngo tuzafate indangamuntu.

              Umusaza:     Harya ni uyu munsi mujyayo? Wa mutwe wange we wagiye unyibutsa amatangazo! Ariko ndakurenganya uba uri muri rwinshi.

              Abuzukuru:    Wagiye ibishyira muri terefone se ikakwibutsa! Ntuzi ko ikoranabuhanga ryakemuye ikibazo cyo kwibagirwa.

              Umusaza:      Have wa mwana we ntugashinyagure! Iki kinyabazungu se umwuzukuru yampaye nzi no kugikoresha? Ariko ndimo kukiga, nzakimenya.

              Abuzukuru:     Wa musaza we genda urasetsa!

              Umusaza:     Reka mbareke mugende mwa bana mwe! Mutaza kuvaho mukererwa mwokanyagwa mwe!

              2. Indirimbo ni iki?

              3. Indirimbo igizwe n’ibihe bice by’ingenzi?

              4.Gereranya indirimbo n’umuvugo.

              5. Igihozo ni iki?

              6. Vuga amoko y’ibihozo uvuge n’aho ataniye.


              • Umwandiko: Ingaruka za jenoside


                Nk’uko buri gikorwa cyose cyaba kiza cyangwa kibi kigira inkurikizi, aho jenoside yagiye iba hose ku isi hagiye hagaragara ingaruka mbi nyinshi kandi zikomeye. Ingero zatangwa zirimo gutakaza abantu benshi kandi b’ingeri zose. Hari ukwangirika k’umuryango, ihungabana ku bayirokotse. Izahara ry’ubukungu tutibagiwe ipfunwe n’ikimwaro ku bayikoze. Iryo pfunwe rikaba intandaro y’ihakana n’ipfobya ryayo n’ibindi. Mu Rwanda na ho jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 yagize ingaruka mu mibanire y’Abanyarwanda, ku bukungu n’imibereho myiza y’abaturage.

                Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994 yasize ingaruka zitabarika. Yashegeshe umuryango nyarwanda ku buryo bukomeye. Miriyoni irenga y’Abanyarwanda bahasize ubuzima mu gihe kitarenze amezi atatu gusa. Abantu bavukijwe ubuzima bazira uko bavutse ubwo imbaraga z’Igihugu zirahatikirira. Jenoside yasize imfubyi n’abapfakazi benshi. Yasize inshike ahandi imiryango irazima rwose ku buryo nta n’uwo kubara inkuru warokotse. Jenoside kandi yasize urwikekwe mu Banyarwanda. Icyakora Leta yashyizemo imbaraga nyinshi ngo ikumire amacakubiri yongere yunge Abanyarwanda. Ibyo ibikora binyuze cyanecyane muri Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge ifite mu nshingano zayo ubumwe n’ubwiyunge bw’Abanyarwanda. Leta y’u Rwanda kandi yashyizeho amategeko atavangura inagenzura iyubahirizwa ryayo.

                Mu rwego rw’ubukungu u Rwanda rwarasenyutse ku buryo bukomeye, igipimo cy’ubukungu kigwa hasi cyane, ibikorwa remezo birangirika harimo amashuri n’amavuriro, inganda, amasomero n’ibindi. Banki zarasahuwe cyane. Bavuga ko Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994 ikirangira, Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu yari irimo inote z’ijana gusa na zo zibarirwa ku ntoki. Si ibi gusa kandi kuko hari n’ikibazo gikomeye cyo gufasha abarokotse Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994 basizwe iheruheru na yo kongera kwiyubaka. Ibyo byakozwe hatibagiwe gutunga imfungwa n’abagororwa benshi cyane bakoze icyaha cya jenoside n’ibindi byaha biyishamikiyeho. Ubwo kandi ni na ko Leta y’u Rwanda yitaga no ku bandi Banyarwanda batishoboye.

                Jenoside yahungabanyije umutekano w’Igihugu. Wakwibaza uti: “Ihungabana ry’umutekano rihuriye he n’ingaruka za jenoside? Abakoze jenoside bagerageje guhunga kandi ntibatuza. Bakomeje kugerageza guhungabanya umutekano w’Igihugu inshuro zitari nke. Mu gukomeza kuyihakana no gushaka gusibanganya ibimenyetso hakorwa ibikorwa bibi byo guhungabanya umutekano w’abayirokotse.

                Mu ruhando mpuzamahanga u Rwanda rwagize ipfunwe. Igihugu cyabayemo jenoside mu rwego mpuzamahanga gisigarana ipfunwe ku buryo bukomeye ndetse rimwe na rimwe kigahabwa akato cyanecyane abagikomokamo. Abantu bose b’icyo gihugu basigara bareberwa mu ndorerwamo y’ubwicanyi. Ni ko byagendekeye n’Igihugu cyacu aho Abanyarwanda bagendaga hirya no hino ku isi wasangaga bafatwa nk’abicanyi bigatuma badahabwa ibyo bakeneye nk’uko bikwiye.

                Ingaruka za jenoside ni nyinshi cyane urebye aho yagiye ikorwa hose. Ku bw’ibyo rero, jenoside ikwiriye kurwanywa mu buryo ubwo ari bwose n’aho ari ho hose. Ingengabitekerezo yayo igakumirirwa kure. Ikigeretse kuri ibyo, jenoside ihitana abantu bazira uko bavutse. Birababaje kuziza umuntu uko yisanze kandi ataranabihisemo.

                Byateguwe hifashishijwe: Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside, Ikiganiro ku ihakana n’ipfobya rya Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda 1994, Kigali, 2015.

                I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

                1.Rondora nibura ingaruka enye za Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi ku Gihugu cyacu.

                2.Vuga nibura ibintu bibiri by’ingenzi Leta y’u Rwanda yakoze ngo igarure ubumwe n’amahoro mu Banyarwanda?

                3.Jenoside yaba yaradutwaye abantu bangana iki?

                4.Jenoside ivugwa mu mwandiko yakozwe mu gihe kingana iki?

                5.Ni iyihe mpamvu y’ibanze igaragara mu mwandiko yo guhakana no gupfobya jenoside?

                6.Ni ikihe kimenyetso simusiga kigaragaza ko jenosine yasize ubukungu bw’u Rwanda buri hasi bikabije ?

                7.Rondora nibura izindi ngaruka enye za Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi zitavuzwe mu mwandiko.

                II. Inyunguramagambo

                1.Sobanura amagambo akurikira ukurikije inyito afite mu mwandiko:

                       a) Jenoside                       d) Gushegesha

                       b) Ihungabana                e) Inshike

                       c) Ipfobya                         f ) Kuzima k’umuryango

                2.Garagaza amagambo ari mu mwandiko ahuje inyito n’aya akurikira:

                     a) Kwishishanya, umwe yumva ko undi yamugirira nabi.

                     b) Kwisanga nta kintu ugifite bitewe n’icyago runaka cyaguteye.

                     c) Gukumirwa kubera ko wanzwe.d) Nyinshi ku buryo bukabije.

                3.Garagaza imbusane z’aya magambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                         a) Ipfunwe                b) Rwarasenyutse

                III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

                Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

                Uzuza interuro zikurikira wifashishije amagambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko.

                     a) Kana yariye umwenda w’abandi none agira .................... ryo kujya mu bandi.

                     b) Icyaha cya .................... kibasira inyoko muntu.

                     c) Leta y’u Rwanda yashyizeho amategeko ahana abagaragayeho .................... ya jenoside.

                     d) Ibyaha bya jenoside byasigiye abantu ....................

                     e) Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’ .................... n’ .................... yagize uruhare rukomeye mu kunga Abanyarwanda.

                IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

                1.Garagaza ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri mu mwandiko.

                2.Ukurikije ingaruka zavuzwe mu mwandiko n’izitavuzwe, urumva hari ikindi cyaha kiruta gukora jenoside?

                3.Mubona ari iki cyakorwa mu rwego rwo gukumira jenoside?

                V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

                Kujya impaka

                Muge impaka kuri iyi nsanganyamatsiko ikurikira:

                Nta mpamvu yo gukiranura abantu barwanye utazi icyo bapfa kuko ushobora guhurira n’ibibazo mu mirwano yabo. Ibyiza ni ukwikuriramo akawe karenge inzira zikigendwa maze ukabaha rugari bakesurana. N’ubundi Abanyarwanda bari barabivuze ngo: “Usenya urwe umutiza umuhoro”. Umuntu utekereza atya uramushyigikiye cyangwa ntimuhuje imyumvire? Wifashishije ingero zifatika, sobanura uruhande ubogamiyemo.

                Inyandiko mvugo

                Soma iyi nyandiko mvugo y’inama, uyisesengure utahura inshoza n’uturango twayo.

                Inyandiko mvugo y’inama yo ku wa 25 Werurwe 2016

                Ku wa 25 Werurwe 2016, mu nzu y’Akagari k’Amahoro ko Murenge wa Muramira habereye inama yigaga ku cyumweru ngarukamwaka cyo kwibuka Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994. Hari hatumiwemo abayobozi b’imidugudu yose igize ako Kagari hamwe n’abahagarariye imiryango n’abafatanyabikorwa ba Leta bakorera muri ako Kagari.

                yo nama yatangiye saa tatu z’igitondo iyobowe n’Umuyobozi w’Akagari.

                Ingingo z’ibyari ku murongo w’ibyigwa:

                - Gukusanya ibikoresho no gushyira kuri gahunda abazatanga ibiganiro

                - Gutegura abazatanga ubuhamya

                - Utuntu n’utundi.

                Uko inama yagenze

                Abari mu nama bamaze kwemeza ingingo zari ku murongo w’ibyigwa, umuyobozi w’inama yatangije inama buri ngingo itangwaho ibitekerezo kandi ishakirwa umwanzuro.

                Ingingo ya mbere:
                Gukusanya ibikoresho no gushyira kuri gahunda abazatanga ibiganiro

                Kuri iyi ngingo abafashe ijambo muri iyo nama bose bahurizaga ku kuba icyunamo kireba Abanyarwanda bose, bityo ko ibikoresho bizakenerwa bidakwiye kugurwa cyangwa gukodeshwa, kuko hafi ya byose abaturage babitunze mu ngo zabo. Hemejwe rero itsinda ry’abakorerabushake bazakusanya ibizakenerwa muri icyo cyumweru k’icyunamo kandi bakazibuka kubitirura. Hashyizweho n’urutonde rw’agateganyo rw’abazatanga ibiganiro.

                Ingingo ya kabiri:
                Gutegura abazatanga ubuhamya

                Kuri iyi ngingo yo gutegura abatangabuhamya, hafashwe umwanzuro wo guha umwanya umwe mu barokokeye mu Kagari k’Amahoro, n’undi umwe mu bantu bireze bakanemera icyaha nyuma bakarangiza igihano cyabo, bakazaba ari bo batanga ubuhamya bwabo mu gihe k’ibiganiro.

                Muri iyo nama, hari hanajemo Nyakubahwa Umunyamabanga Nshingwa bikorwa w’Umurenge. Nuko aboneraho gusaba abari aho bose kumva ko ibikorwa by’icyunamo bakomeza kubigira ibyabo. Yasabye akomeje ko abarokotse jenoside bakwiye kurushaho kwegerwa, bagasurwa, bagafatwa mu mugongo kuko bituma bakomeza kugira ikizere cyo kubaho.

                Ingingo ya gatatu:
                Utuntu n’utundi

                Mu tuntu n’utundi, umuyobozi w’inama yibukije ko igihe k’icyunamo ari igihe cyo kwitwararika. Buri muntu akazirikana ko atari igihe cyo kwinezeza ahubwo ari icyo kwitabira ibiganiro, maze abantu bakazirikana amateka yaranze u Rwanda, bagashakisha icyatuma ibyiza tumaze kugeraho bidasubira inyuma. Anabibutsa umuturage bemeranyijwe kuzajya kuremera.

                Inama yasojwe saa sita z’amanywa, umuyobozi w’inama ashimira abaturage ko bitabiriye inama bose kandi bakahagerera igihe. Abashimira cyane ibitekerezo byubaka batanze. Nuko abaturage na bo bataha bishimiye ko na Nyakubahwa Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa w’Umurenge yaje kwifatanya na bo muri iyo nama.

                Ibibazo ku nyandiko mvugo y’inama

                1. Buri mwandiko ugira umutwe, intangiriro, igihimba n’umusozo. Umaze gusoma iyi nyandiko mvugo, garagaza aho buri gice kigarukiye n’ibigikubiyemo.

                2. Iyi nyandiko mvugo urabona itandukaniye he n’umwandiko ntekerezo wize.

                3. Rondora uturango tw’iyi nyandiko mvugo.

                Inshoza y’inyandiko mvugo

                Inyandiko mvugo nk’uko inyito ibivuga ni inyandiko igaragaza ibintu runaka byavuzwe. Inyandiko mvugo ikubiyemo ibyavugiwe mu nama cyangwa mu kiganiro runaka. Habaho amoko abiri y’inyandiko mvugo:

                              - Inyandiko mvugo irambuye

                              - Inyandiko mvugo ivunaguye

                Inyandiko mvugo irambuye: Igaragaza ibitekerezo byose byatanzwe n’amazina y’ababitanze ijambo ku rindi. Igaragaza ndetse n’amarangamutima y’abagiye bafata ijambo.

                Urugero: Umuyobozi w’Akagari (...amazina ye...) arahaguruka avuga mu ijwi rifite ubukana ko nta kwihanganira ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside n’amagambo yose asesereza.

                Inyandiko mvugo ivunaguye: Igaragaza gusa ibitekerezo by’ingenzi byatanzwe hatitawe ku marangamutima ababitanze bagaragaje cyangwa abagiye batanga ibitekerezo byunganira.

                Imbata y’inyandiko mvugo

                Kimwe n’izindi nyandiko zose za gihanga, inyandiko mvugo igira ibice bine ari byo:Umutwe, intangiriro, igihimba n’umusozo.

                a) Intangiriro igaragaramo:

                                                  - Itariki n’aho inama cyangwa ikiganiro byabereye

                                                  - Uwayoboye inama cyangwa ikiganiro

                                                  - Insanganyamatsiko

                                                  - Abitabiriye(umubare wabo cyangwa ibyiciro barimo)

                                                  - Igihe inama yatangiriye

                                                  - Ibyari ku murongo w’ibyigwa.

                b) Igihimba kigaragaza uko inama yagenze ingingo ku ngingo:

                - Ibitekerezo byatanzwe (ndetse bitewe n’urwego rwayo hakagaragazwa n’ababitanze), mu nama cyangwa mu kiganiro kuri buri ngingo.

                - Ibyemezo n’imyanzuro byafashwe kuri buri ngingo.

                c) Umusozo ugaragaramo:

                - Gushimira abaje mu nama cyangwa ikiganiro

                - Igihe inama yarangiriye

                - Kugaragaza igihe bazongera guhura niba ari ngombwa

                - Kwibutsa impanuro yatanzwe mu ijambo ry’umushyitsi mukuru

                - Icyaba cyakurikiyeho. (Urugero: Nyuma y’ikiganiro hakurikiyeho gufata amafoto y’urwibutso, kwakira abatumirwa...)

                Ibyitabwaho mu gukora inyandiko mvugo

                - Uwandika inyandiko mvugo agomba gukurikira ibivugwa, mu bwitonzi n’ubushishozi. Ntagomba kugira ibindi arangariramo.

                - Kwandika ibitekerezo n’ibindi byose byakozwe uko bigenda bikurikirana kandi nta cyo akuyeho cyangwa yongeyeho.

                - Kwandika nyiri igitekerezo iyo ari ngombwa bitewe n’ubwoko bw’inyandiko mvugo yakozwe.

                - Gukoresha ngenga ya gatatu. Uwandika ntagomba kubyiyerekezaho.

                - Kudashyiramo ibitekerezo bye bwite, agomba kwandika ibitekerezo byatanzwe n’abitabiriye inama, akirinda kugira ibyo ashaka kugorora azanamo amarangamutima ye bwite.

                Urugero: Kwandika ngo yasaga n’ushaka kuvuga ko...cyangwa se ngo witegereje neza wabonaga... urebye yashakaga kuvuga ko... Ibyo ntibyemewe.

                - Uwandika inyandiko mvugo agomba kwitoza kwandika vuba kugira ngo hatagira igitekerezo kimucika.

                Ikitonderwa:

                Inyandiko mvugo ni inyandiko ivuga ibyabaye, uko byagenze nta cyo ihinduyeho. Ishobora gukorwa n’umuntu witabiriye inama kugira ngo atazibagirwa ibyayibereyemo cyangwa igakorwa igenewe abantu batitabiriye inama kugira ngo bamenye uko inama yagenze n’imyanzuro yafatiwemo.

                Umwitozo ku nyandiko mvugo

                Andika inyandiko mvugo y’inama witabiriye yabereye mu kigo cyawe maze uzayigeze kuri bagenzi bawe.

                Umwandiko: Jenoside ntikongere ukundi!
                Iyi foto twayiherewe uruhushya n’ubuyobozi bw’urwibutso rwa jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda rwa Gisozi.

                Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi mu Mata 1994 yamaze kwemezwa ku rwego mpuzamahanga ko ari Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi. Ntabwo ari intambara cyangwa amakimbirane yabaye mu Rwanda. Ubundi muri rusange jenoside ni umugambi w’ubwicanyi ndengakamere ugamije kurimbura burundu abantu bo mu bwoko ubu  n’ubu, idini runaka cyangwa itsinda ry’abantu bafite icyo bahuriyeho nk’aho batuye n’ibindi.

                Hari ubwicanyi bwabaye hirya no hino ku isi bugahitana imbaga, abenshi bavuga ko bushobora kwitwa jenoside. Ariko jenoside zemewe n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ni Jenoside Yakorewe Abayahudi ku Mugabane w’Uburayi ikozwe n’Abanazi na Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda muri Mata 1994. Umwihariko wa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bo mu Rwanda mu mwaka wa 1994, ni uko yo yakozwe n’Abanyarwanda, igakorerwa Abanyarwanda kandi ikanahagarikwa n’Abanyarwanda. Yishe kandi abantu benshi mu gihe gito. Mu minsi ijana gusa abicanyi bari bahitanye Abatutsi barenga miriyoni bose.

                Jenoside rero si ikintu gipfa kubaho nk’impanuka. Jenoside irategurwa, hagategurwa abazayishyira mu bikorwa ndetse bakanashakirwa ibikoresho. Kugira ngo jenoside ishoboke igomba kuba ishyigikiwe na Leta, kuko bitabaye ibyo Leta yayihagarika. Leta ni yo iba ifite ubushobozi; iba ifite ingabo n’abaporisi ndetse ikagira n’uburyo buhagije bwo kwigisha abaturage ibinyujije mu nzego zitandukanye z’ubuyobozi. Ikindi kandi ni yo ifite ubushobozi bwo gufata ingamba zo kuyikumira ishyiraho ibihano bikwiye ku muntu uwo ari we wese wagerageza kuyitegura cyangwa kuyikora. Ibyo rero ntibyakozwe ahubwo uko habagaho igeragezwa rya jenoside, abayikoraga bahabwaga ibihembo bitandukanye birimo kuzamurwa mu ntera, cyangwa kugabirwa imitungo y’abo bishe aho kugira ngo bahanwe.

                Abantu benshi bibaza impamvu ituma abantu bamwe biyemeza gufata intwaro bakica abandi. Mu by’ukuri nta mpamvu n’imwe cyangwa urwitwazo rwakagombye kubaho rwo gukora jenoside. Icyakora abayikora akenshi baba bashaka kugundira ubutegetsi bagashyira imbere inzangano no kurema amacakubiri mu bo bayobora. Bityo bagatangira kubiba ingengabitekerezo yayo mu baturage.

                Ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside ni urusobe rw’ibitekerezo bigaragarira mu myifatire, imvugo, inyandiko n’ibindi bikorwa bigamije cyangwa bihamagarira abantu kwanga abandi hashingiwe ku bwoko, inkomoko, ubwenegihugu, akarere, ibara ry’umubiri, isura, igitsina, ururimi, idini, cyangwa ibitekerezo bya poritiki, bikozwe mu gihe gisanzwe cyangwa mu gihe k’intambara. Abategura jenoside bafata ibibazo igihugu gifite bakabeshyera itsinda rimwe ry’abaturage ko ari bo ba nyirabayazana.

                Mu rwego rwo gukumira no kurwanya jenoside rero ni ngombwa ko Leta ifatanyije n’abaturage bayo bagomba gushyira imbaraga mu gukumira no kurwanya ingengabitekerezo yayo. Nyuma yo kurwanya jenoside n’ingengabitekerezo yayo, hashyirwaho n’ibihano ku bayiteguye n’abayikoze, ndetse no ku bagerageza kongera kuyikora. Hagomba no kubaho ingamba zo kurwanya ihakana n’ipfobya byayo. Ba nyiri ukuyitegura baba barateguye n’uko bazayihakana. Aha umuntu yatanga urugero ku Gihugu cyacu aho usanga hari abantu bashaka guhakana no gupfobya Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994.

                Bamwe barihandagaza bakavuga ko itabaye rwose. Bayita andi mazina: ubwicanyi, intambara, amahano, ibyabaye n’ibindi. Hari n’abayemera ariko bakagabanya cyane umubare w’abo yahitanye. Abo bose ni abo kwamaganirwa kure. Inzira zikoreshwa muri iryo hakana n’ipfobya byayo, zirimo itangazamakuru, muri bamwe mu bahanga n’abashakashatsi, impuguke, mu mategeko, mu miryango mpuzamahanga, mu bayikoze n’abafashe imirage yabo. Tugomba kurwanya uburyo bwose bukoreshwa n’abahakana ndetse bagapfobya jenoside.

                Uburyo burambye bwo gukumira jenoside ni uguca umuco wo kudahana no gucira imanza abakoze jenoside maze abayikorewe bakabona ubutabera. Hakwiye gushyirwaho ibigo bikora ubushakashatsi kuri jenoside, gushishikariza ibindi bihugu kwibuka no gushyiraho amategeko ahana icyaha cya jenoside n’ingengabitekerezo yayo, kwita ku muryango mu rwego rwo kuwugira ingoro y’amahoro n’urubuga rwo kurandura ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside. Igikomeye ariko kurusha ibindi ni ubukangurambaga buhoraho no kugira urwego rw’uburezi umuyoboro w’ibanze w’ingamba zihashya ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside n’amacakubiri.

                Jenoside ikwiriye kurwanywa uhereye ku ngengabitekerezo yayo n’ibindi bikorwa byose cyangwa imyifatire byayiganishaho. Jenoside mu buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose, ntikongere kubaho ukundi, ari mu Rwanda ndetse no mu mahanga.

                Byateguwe hifashishijwe Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside, Kurwanya Jenoside n’ingengabitekerezo yayo, Kigali, 2014.

                I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

                1.Jenoside ni iki?

                2.Wifashishije umwandiko, vuga jenoside ebyiri waba uzi zabaye ku isi.

                3. Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda yaba ifite uwuhe mwihariko ugereranyije n’izindi?

                4.Ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside ni iki?

                5.Ni uruhe ruhare urwego rw’uburezi rwagira mu kurwanya ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside?

                6.Ushingiye ku mwandiko, sobanura ibitera jenoside, ingaruka zayo n’uko wumva yakumirwa.

                7.Uburyo burambye bwo gukumira jenoside buvugwa mu mwandiko bwaba ari ubuhe?

                8.Ni ibihe bikorwa bifasha gukumira jenoside no kurwanya ingaruka zayo ujya ubona bikorerwa aho utuye?

                II. Inyunguramagambo

                Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                   a) Umwihariko           d) Urusobe              g) Nyirabayazana

                   b) Gukumira               e) Bikakaye              h) Ingoro

                   c) Impanuka                f ) Ubukangurambaga

                III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

                Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

                1.Wifashishije rimwerimwe muri aya magambo, himba interuro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

                                 a) Nyirabayazana                     c) Urusobe

                                 b) Ingoro                                    d) Amahano

                2.Uzuza interuro zikurikira wifashishije amagambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                a) .................... Yakorewe .................... mu Rwanda muri Mata 1994 yamaze iminsi .................... gusa ihitana imbaga y’abantu.

                b) Twese tugomba kurwanya .................... ya jenoside tukayirandurana n’imizi yayo yose.

                c) Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yarateguwe, ntiyabayeho nk ....................

                d) Amashuri agomba kutubera .................... unyuzwamo ingamba zo gukumira jenoside, ntizongere .................... ukundi.

                IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

                1.Tahura ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri mu mwandiko umaze gusoma.

                2.Ku bwawe, wumva ari ibihe bikorwa wakora bigashishikariza abandi gufasha abafite ibibazo baterwa n’ingaruka za jenoside.

                3.Ni iki ubona wakwirinda nk’urubyiruko kugira ngo uzabe mu Rwanda ruzira jenoside, ahubwo u Rwanda rwimakaza umuco w’amahoro?

                V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

                Guhanga umwandiko
                Hanga umwandiko mu mirongo makumyabiri (20) kuri imwe mu nsanganyamatsiko zikurikira witaye ku ikeshamvugo n’imyandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda:

                        - Amahoro y’igihugu ahera mu muryango

                        - Ikosa rikosojwe irindi riteza amakimbirane

                        - Guca umuco wo kudahana no kubahiriza amategeko bikemura amakimbirane


                Umukoro wo gusomera mu isomero
                Gana isomero uhitemo umwandiko uvuga ku muco w’amahoro uwusome maze uzatangire inshamake y’ibyo wasomye mu ruhame, mu ishuri ryawe.

                Ikinyazina kibaza

                Nyuma yo gusoma izi nteruro zikurikira, itegereze amagambo yagaragajwe mu ibara ry’umukara tsiri maze ugire icyo uyavugaho mu rwego rw’imiterere yayo n’umumaro afite mu nteruro.

                a) Uburyo burambye bwo gukumira jenoside bwaba ubuhe?

                b) Ni izihe nzira zikoreshwa muri iryo hakana n’ipfobya ryayo?

                c) Muri ibi byose umwanzuro ukaba uwuhe?

                d) Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 yahitanye inzirakarengane zingahe?

                e) Ni bangahe bashobora kwemera guha imbabazi umuntu utazibasabye?

                Inshoza y’ikinyazina kibaza

                Ikinyazina kibaza ni ijambo riherekeza izina rikagira ingingo yo kubaza.

                Intego y’ikinyazina kibaza

                Ikinyazina kibaza kigira ibicumbi bibiri ari byo: “-he” na “- ngahe”. Ikinyazina kibaza gishobora kugira indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi, ariko hari n’ikigira indangakinyazina n’igicumbi. Mu mpine ni (D-Rkz-C cyangwa Rkz - C)

                Urugero:

                             - Ni izihe nzira zikoreshwa muri iryo hakana n’ipfobya ryayo?

                                izihe :i-zi-he

                            - Uburyo burambye bwo gukumira jenoside bwaba ubuhe rero?

                                Ubuhe: u-bu-he

                            - Muri ibi byose umwanzuro ukaba uwuhe?

                                Uwuhe: u-wu-he

                            - Ni ayahe masaka agomba kugosorwa.

                                 Ayahe : a – ya – he

                Ikitonderwa: Iki kinyazina kibaza gishobora gutakaza indomo iyo gikurikiye izina.

                Urugero: - Umuntu wuhe?

                                       Wuhe: ø – wu – he

                                 - Amata yahe?

                                      Yahe: ø – ya – he

                                 - igiti kihe?

                                     Kihe : ø – ki – he

                                 - urugo ruhe?

                                      Ruhe : ø – ru – he

                Imbonerahamwe y’ibinyazina mbaza

                Ikitonderwa:  Hari amagambo abaza ashobora kwitiranywa n’ibinyazina mbazaAha twavuga nka ryari?he?iki?nde?

                Ingero:     - Jenoside ivugwa yabaye ryari?
                                  - Ni nde mwana watubwira zimwe mu ngaruka za jenoside?
                                  - Ni iki gituma umuntu atinyuka gukora amahano?

                Ikinyazina mboneranteko

                Nyuma yo gusoma izi nteruro zikurikira, itegereze amagambo yagaragajwe mu ibara ry’umukara tsiri maze ugire icyo uyavugaho mu rwego rw’imiterere yayo n’umumaro afite mu nteruro.

                        a) Ba Nkurunziza baje.
                        b) Za dodo ni imboga rwatsi.
                        c) Cya mahuma kirakangitse cyane.
                        d) Twa bushari turadwinga cyane.

                Inshoza y’ikinyazina mboneranteko
                Ikinyazina mboneranteko ni ijambo rijya imbere y’izina ridafite indomo cyangwa izina rigizwe n’igicumbi gusa ritagaragaza indomo n’indanganteko. Ikinyazina mboneranteko kinajya imbere y’amazina bwite igihe hari ibintu byinshi cyangwa abantu benshi bahuriye kuri iryo zina.

                Ikinyazina mboneranteko kandi gikoreshwa hagamijwe gutubya, gutubura cyangwa kugaya ikintu. Icyo gihe kibanziriza izina maze iryo zina rigahita rita indomo iyo riyifite. Kerekana inteko izina rishyizwemo ari na yo mpamvu bamwe bakita ikinyazina ndanganteko.

                Ingero:

                      a) Nawe rero ubwo uri za bakinnyi! (nt. 10)
                      b) Ba Rukarabankaba(nt. 2)
                      c) Ka Mugabo karaje(nt. 12)
                      d) Twa bushari (nt. 13)
                      e) Za feri (nt. 10)
                      f ) Ba data (nt. 1)
                      g) Cya Mukunzi (nt. 7)
                      h) Rwa Rutura (nt. 11)
                      i) Bya dodo (nt. 8)
                      j) Bariya bana bigize za magabo (nt. 10)

                Intego y’ikinyazina mboneranteko
                Ikinyazina mboneranteko kigira igicumbi –a. Intego y’ikinyazina mboneranteko igizwe n’uturemajambo tubiri ari two indangakinyazina n’igicumbi. Mu mpine ni Rkz - C

                Ingero:
                            - Ba Rukarabankaba
                               ba: ba – aa→ø/-J
                            - Twa bushari
                               twa: tu – a u→w/-J
                            - Cya Mukunzi
                               cya: ki – a i→y/-J, ky→cy mu nyandiko
                            - Bya dodo
                                Bya: bi – a i→y/-J
                            - Bariya bana bigize za magabo.
                                za: zi – a i→ø/-J

                Umwitozo ku kinyazina kibaza n’ikinyazina mboneranteko

                Buri munyeshuri ku giti ke, nakore neza umwitozo ku binyazina.

                1.Garagaza ibinyazina mboneranteko n’ibinyazina bibaza biri mu nteruro zikurikira ubiceho akarongo, unagaragaze intego zabyo n’amategeko y’igenemajwi:

                a) Ba Mukamurigo bazanye ibiseke bingahe?

                b) Ni uwuhe murima wahaweho umugabane?

                c) Za nka Uwamwiza yakowe ni zingahe?

                d) Aya mazi wayavomye ku iriba rihe?

                e) Umuco w’amahoro ugomba kuranga abahe bantu?

                2.Kora interuro ebyirebyiri zirimo ikinyazina kibaza n’ikinyazina mboneranteko.

                Inshamake y’ibyizwe muri uyu mutwe wa gatandatu

                Muri uyu mutwe wa gatandatu « umuco w’amahoro », imyandiko irimo iganisha ku kwimakaza umuco w’amahoro ifatiye ku kurwanya jenoside n’ingengabitekerezo yayo. Imyandiko yerekanye ko jenoside ari ubwicanyi ndengakamere bwibasira abantu bafite icyo bahuriyeho nk’ubwoko, akarere, idini n’ibindi. Twabonye ububi bwa Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994; mu gihe kitarenze amezi atatu gusa yari ihitanye abarenga miriyoni. Twabonye kandi zimwe mu ngaruka zayo aho ubukungu n’imibanire y’Abanyarwanda yahungabanye bikabije.

                Mu bumenyi rusange bw’ururimi twabonye ko inyandiko mvugo ari inyandiko igaragaza ibyabereye mu nama cyangwa ikiganiro. Uyandika yandika ibitekerezo byatanzwe ku ngingo ziri ku murongo w’ibyigwa kandi akirinda kugira icyo ahindura cyangwa yongeramo.

                Mu kibonezamvugo twabonye ko ikinyazina mbaza gifite inyito yo kubaza. Kigira ibicumbi bibiri ari byo “–he” na “-ngahe.” Ikinyazina kibaza gishobora kugira indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi, ariko hari n’ikigira indangakinyazina n’igicumbi. Mu mpine ni (D-Rkz-C cyangwa Rkz - C). Twabonye kandi n’ikinyazina mboneranteko cyo kigira igicumbi –a ihorana ubutinde kandi kigira uturemajambo tubiri ati two: indangakinyazina n’igicumbi. Mu mpine ni Rkz – C.


                Isuzuma rusange risoza umutwe wa gatandatu

                Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

                Umwandiko: Tubabarire abaduhemukiye
                Nyuma ya Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994, imibanire y’Abanyarwanda yarahungabanye ku buryo bukomeye. Urwikekwe n’inzangano biragwira. Inzego zose zakoze uko zishoboye ngo zibanishe Abanyarwanda binyuze mu gusaba imbabazi no kubabarirana. Ikibazo cyari gisigaye cyari ukwibaza abazihana abo ari bo no kumenya abafite inshingano yo kubabarira.

                Ubusanzwe hasaba imbabazi uwakosheje hakababarira uwakosherejwe. Igihe cyose umuntu yiyumvamo ko yakoreye nabi mugenzi we cyangwa yarakosheje muri rusange aba akwiriye guhaguruka agasaba imbabazi uwo yahemukiye. Muri Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994, abishe cyangwa basahuye bakagombye gusaba imbabazi abo bahemukiye. Gusa ntibyoroshye kuko na byo bisaba ubutwari. Rimwe na rimwe ushobora no gusaba imbabazi nabi bigahinduka gukomeretsa ya nzirakarengane. Ni byiza kugisha inama abayobozi n’abakuru bagafasha mu guhuza uwahemutse n’uwahemukiwe. Ba bicanyi batinya kwirega no kwemera icyaha kuko icyaha bakoze ari icyaha ndengakamere. Umuntu wese aho ava akagera atinya ibihano nyamara uwemeye icyaha agasaba imbabazi agabanyirizwa ibihano.

                Ni ryari uwahemukiwe akwiriye gutanga imbabazi? Igihe cyose azisabwe akwiriye kuzitanga. Icyakora kubera akamaro kanini n’inyungu bigirira uwatanze imbabazi, ni byiza kubabarira mbere y’uko usabwa imbabazi. Icya mbere biruhura umutima kuko rwose nta ko uba utagize. Icya kabiri bitinyura uwahemutse kuko rimwe na rimwe aba afite ubwoba n’ipfunwe imbere y’uwo yahemukiye.

                Hari n’abataragize uruhare muri Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994 ariko bafite ipfunwe kubera ibyaha byakozwe na bene wabo. Aha twavuga nk’ababyeyi bagize uruhare muri Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994 none abana babo bakaba bagendana icyo gisebo. Ariko se ni uwuhe mwana waba waragize ubutwari bwo gusabira imbabazi ababyeyi be? Ibyo ni na ko byagendekeye ababyeyi bafite abana bakoze jenoside. Ababyeyi basabira abana babo imbabazi se ni bangahe? Ni ubutwari bukomeye gusaba imbabazi z’ibyo utakoze nyamara bivana urwikekwe mu miryango yahemukiranye.

                Ubusanzwe uwahemutse akwiriye gufata iya mbere akegera uwo yahemukiye akamusaba ubwiyunge. Uwahemukiwe na we ntagomba guheranwa n’agahinda. Ashobora gufata iya mbere agasanga uwamuhemukiye akamutinyura bigatuma ufite intimba ishira vuba. Bifitiye umumaro buri wese gusaba imbabazi no kuzitanga kandi ugize bwangu agatanga undi ni we ushira intimba cyangwa ipfunwe byamushenguraga umutima.

                I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

                1.Gusaba imbabazi bimariye iki uwahemutse?

                2.Gutanga imbabazi bimariye iki uwahemukiwe?

                3.Rondora ibyiciro bitatu bigirwa inama muri uyu mwandiko.

                4.Ni iki wakora kugira ngo Abanyarwanda bakomeze kubana neza nyuma ya Jenoside yabaye mu Rwanda?

                II. Inyunguramagambo

                1.Sobanura aya magambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                      a) Ipfunwe                  c) Inzirakarengane

                      b) Urwikekwe             d) Icyaha ndengakamere

                2.Tanga imbusane y’aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                      a) Ubutwari                 b) Urwango             c) Intimba

                III. Ikibonezamvugo

                1.Garagaza ubwoko n’inteko by’amagambo yaciweho akarongo:

                         a) Ariko se ni bangahe babitinyutse?

                          b) Bya bakame biryarya izindi nyamaswa.

                          c) Ariko se ni uwuhe mwana waba waragize ubutwari bwo gusabira imbabazi ababyeyi be?

                2.Garagaza ibinyazina mboneranteko byakoreshejwe muri izi nteruro zikurikira:

                             a) Yigize za masore ngo ntiyakwikoza umweyo.

                             b) Cya Mugabo ni igisore pe!

                             c) Genda uzane za karuvati ndende.

                3.Garagaza ibinyazina bibaza muri izi nteruro:

                              a) Ni bangahe bagize ubutwari bwo gusaba imbabazi?

                              b) Uwasabye imbabazi akatirwa igifungo k’imyaka ingahe?

                4. Garagaza uturemajambo n’amategeko y’igenamajwi yakoreshejwe kuri aya magambo:

                              a) Ba data badutoza kwirinda ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside.

                              b) Uravuze ngo ni abantu bangahe bagiye ku wuhe mugabane ?

                              c) Abakoze za jenoside zose ku isi ni abagome.

                              d) Ni izihe ngorane wahuye na zo?

                IV. Ihangamwandiko

                Hanga umwandiko mu mirongo makumyabiri n’itanu (25) kuri imwe muri izi nsanganyamatsiko zikurikira:

                a) Vuga ku ngaruka nibura enye za Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994 n’icyo ubona gikwiriye gukorwa ngo Abanyarwanda babane mu mahoro.

                b) Vuga ku bintu nibura bibiri bishobora gutera amakimbirane mu muryango uvuge n’uburyo bwo kuyakumira.

                • Umwandiko: Ibikoresho by’itumanaho



                  Itumanaho ni ikintu gikomeye mu muryango w’abantu abo ari bo bose. Ni ryo rituma abantu bashobora guhana amakuru ku buryo umwe amenya icyo abandi batekereza. Kuva kera rero Abanyarwanda bagiye bagira uburyo butandukanye bakoresha mu rwego rwo gukora iryo tumanaho. Ubwo buryo bw’itumanaho bwagiye buhinduka ndetse n’ibikoresho by’itumanaho na byo bigenda bihinduka uko ibihe biha ibindi.

                  Kera ubutumwa bwatwarwaga n’intumwa ikabugeza ku bo itumweho ikoresheje imvugo. Nk’umwami yatumaga ibyegera bye kugeza ubutumwa n’amabwiriza kuri rubanda. Ibyo byegera byarimo abatware, abiru, abasizi n’abandi. Abatware bakoreshaga inama zitandukanye, ubutumwa bwihutirwa nk’amatangazo agatangwa n’abitwaga abamotsi. Mu bucurabwenge no mu nzira z’ubwiru, abenge n’abiru na bo bagiraga itumanaho kuko babaga babitse amabanga yose y’ibwami. Ubwiru bwamenyeshaga imihango y’ibwami yagombaga gukorwa, naho ubucurabwenge bukabamenyesha ibisekuru by’abami n’uko bagiye basimburana ku ngoma. Ubuhanzi na bwo bwanyuzwagamo ubutumwa bugezwa kuri rubanda mu bihangano binyuranye birimo ibisigo nyabami, amazina y’inka, ibitekerezo, imigani yaba imiremire cyangwa imigufi n’ibindi. Habagaho n’uburyo bwo kumenyesha abantu igikorwa iki n’iki hakoreshejwe umurishyo w’ingoma, amakondera, umwirongi...nk’umurishyo washoboraga kumenyesha ko umwami yibambuye, cyangwa se ko agiye ku karubanda.

                  Uko iminsi yagiye ihita indi igataha, uburyo bw’itumanaho bwagiye buhinduka ndetse n’ibikoresho bigenda bihinduka. Hageze ubwo hakoreshwa inzandiko zaba iza gicuti ndetse n’izo mu buyobozi. Itumanaho ryatangiye gucishwa rityo mu mabaruwa yaba atwarwa n’abantu mu buryo busanzwe, anyuzwa mu iposita n’ahandi. Ntibyatinze haza za radiyo na za terefone zitagendanwa, bidatinze na tereviziyo iba irasesekaye. Ubwo kandi na terefone zigendanwa ntizatanzwe. Iyo witegereje usanga henshi n’umusaza cyangwa umukecuru aba ayifite. Terefone zikoreshwa mu kwitaba no guhamagara ndetse no mu kohererezanya ubutumwa bugufi bwanditse. Ikigo gishinzwe ubuziranenge mu Gihugu gikwiye kuba maso, kandi n’Abanyarwanda bagahumuka, bagakoresha terefone zuzuje ubuziranenge, zamaze gusuzumwa zikemererwa gucuruzwa. Si terefone gusa kandi ikwiye kwitonderwa, ahubwo ibintu byose tugura, twagombye kureba ko byujuje ubuziranenge.

                  Itumanaho ubu rirakataje kuri interineti isigaye izwi no ku izina rya murandasi aho usanga abantu batumanaho n’abari iyo gihera mu buryo bwihuse cyane kandi buhendutse. Ubu buryo bukoreshwa hifashishijwe za mudasobwa cyangwa terefone. Muri iki gihe noneho hagezweho no gukoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga zirimo za fesibuku (facebook), twita (twitter), watsapu (whatsApp) n’izindi. N’itumanaho rikoresha ibihangano na ryo ntiryahagaze kuko ubu buryo bukomeje gukoreshwa cyanecyane binyuze mu ndirimbo, mu mivugo, mu makinamico no mu masinema.

                  Uko bucya n’uko bwije ni ko ibintu bikomeza guhinduka ni na ko ikoranabuhanga rigenda ryiyongera, bigaragara ko ibikoresho by’itumanaho ndetse n’uburyo rikorwamo bizakomeza kugenda bihinduka. Gusa itumanaho ryo kuri murandasi na ryo si iryo guhubukira, kuko hari abaryihisha inyuma bagatangaza ibinyoma, cyangwa bakavugiraho iby’urukozasoni. Ni ngombwa kwirinda kurondogora n’uwo tutazi, ngo ni uko duhuriye ku rubuga nkoranyambaga; tugomba kumenya kuvuga tuziga. Twitonde dushishoze, tujore kandi tujonjore ibyo dusoma ku mbuga nkoranyambaga.

                  I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

                  1. Vuga uburyo itumanaho ryakorwaga ibwami.

                  2. Vuga uburyo bw’itumanaho bwasimbuye ubwakoreshaga imvugo kuva kera kugeza ubu.

                  3. Kuki ari ngombwa kwitonda mu guhitamo terefone igendanwa yo kugura?

                  4.Ese ubuziranenge abantu bagomba kubwitaho kuri terefone gusa?

                  5.Ese kugira ngo umuntu abashe gukoresha itumanaho ryo kuri murandasi ashobora kwifashisha ibihe bikoresho bigaragara mu mwandiko?

                  6.Ni izihe mbuga nkoranyambaga zagaragaye ko zikoreshwa mu itumanaho ryo kuri murandasi?

                  7. Ni iyihe nyungu iri mu gutumanaho hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga?

                  8.Ni iki gikwiye kwitonderwa mu gihe umuntu akoresha itumanaho ryo kuri murandasi?

                  II. Inyunguramagambo

                  1.Shaka ibisobanuro by’aya magambo ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                        a) Itumanaho                      e) Abamotsi            i) Ubutumwa bugufi

                        b) Uko ibihe biha ibindi     f ) Ibitekerezo         j) Interineti

                        c) Ibyegera                           g)Iposita                  k) Iyo gihera

                        d) Abiru                                h) Gusakara            l) Imbuga nkoranyambaga

                  2.Tanga impuzanyito z’aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                         a) Rubanda                         b) Rirakataje

                  3. Tanga imbusane z’aya magambo dusanga mu mwandiko:

                         a) kera                       b) Biratandukanye                       c) Guhubuka

                  4.Shaka muri iki kinyatuzu amagambo nibura umunani afitanye isano n’itumanaho mu Rwanda: Soma mu byerekezo byose (ubuhagarike, ubutambike, imberame). Rebera ku rugero muri iki kinyatuzu, ahagaragajwe ijambo “ijwi”.

                        

                  III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

                  Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

                  Uzuza izi nteruro ukoresheje amagambo ari mu mwandiko:

                  a) Itumanaho rikorewe ku ............ nka fesibuke na twita ririhuta, kandi rigahenduka.

                  b) Mu Rwanda rwo hambere ............ bari bashinzwe gutangariza rubanda amakuru.

                  c) Terefone zujuje ............ ni zo zikwiye gukoreshwa mu itumanaho kugira ngo umubiri wacu udahungabana.

                  d) Mu byangomwa bisabwa umuntu ushaka akazi habamo ............ isaba akazi.

                  IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

                  1.Muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziboneka muri uyu mwandiko.

                  2.Ni ibihe bikoresho by’itumanaho bikoreshwa iwanyu? Ese ubona bikoreshwa ku kigero gishimishije?

                  3.Nk’umunyeshuri wiga mu wa gatatu w’Amashuri Yisumbuye, ni iki wumva ukeneye kugira ngo witabire itumanaho rikoresha ikoranabuhanga?

                  4. Mu buzima bwacu bwa buri munsi, utekereza ko itumanaho ritabaho byagira iyihe ngaruka?

                  5.Ni iki cyakorwa kugira ngo abantu bitabire gukoresha itumanaho rikoresha ikoranabuhanga?

                  V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

                  Kujya impaka

                  Jya impaka na bagenzi bawe ku nsanganyamatsiko zikurikira:

                  a) Kudakoresha ikoranabuhanga mu itumanaho byadindiza iterambere ry’umuntu ku giti ke n’iry’igihugu muri rusange.

                  b) Bimwe mu bikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga mu itumanaho bidakoreshejwe neza bigira ingaruka mbi ku bantu.

                  Inyandiko zikoreshwa mu butegetsi:

                  Umwirondoro

                  I. Ibiranga umuntu

                      Amazina: MANZI Jacques

                      Data: MURERAMANZI Jean

                      Mama: KANGABE Marie

                      Itariki y’amavuko: 1/1/1991

                      Igitsina: Gabo

                      Irangamimerere: Ingaragu

                      Ubwenegihugu: Umunyarwanda

                      Imeri: mayako@yahoo.fr

                      Terefoni: 0788...........

                                       07288...........

                       Aho navukiye:

                        Akagari ka Remera

                        Umurenge wa Remera

                        Akarere ka Ruhango

                        Intara y’Amajyepfo

                        Aho ntuye:

                        Akagari ka Munini

                        Umurenge wa Muko

                        Akarere ka Kacyiru

                        Umujyi wa Kigali

                  II. Amashuri nize

                            2010- 2013: Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Koreji y’Uburezi, Agashami k’Indimi.

                            2004-2009: Amashuri yisumbuye mu Rwunge rw’Amashuri rwa Byimana.

                            1998-2003: Amashuri Abanza kuri Ecole Primaire Inyange, mu Ruhango.

                            1995-1997: Amashuri y’Inshuke

                  III. Imirimo nashinzwe n’iyo nakoze

                            2016: Umuyobozi w’Urwunge rw’Amashuri Kacyiru, mu Karere ka Kacyiru.

                            2014- 2015: Umwarimu ku ishuri rya E. S. Byimana, mu Karere ka Ruhango.

                  IV. Ubundi bumenyi mfite

                             Indimi nzi kuvuga no kwandika:

                             Ikinyarwanda

                             Igifaransa

                             Icyongereza

                             Igiswahili.

                             Ubumenyi mu ikoranabuhanga: Windows OS, Word software, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint.

                  V. Ibyo nkunda

                  Nkunda gusoma inkuru no kuzandika, gukurikirana amakinamico nkoresheje ibikoresho by’itumanaho mu ikoranabuhanga.

                  VI. Abahamya

                      1. UWINEZA Mariam, Umuyobozi wa E.S. Byimana, terefoni: 0788...........

                      2. KAMANA Jean Claude, Umwarimu muri kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Koreji y’Uburezi, mu Gashami k’Indimi. Terefoni: 0788...........

                      3. KARENZI Bosco Umuyobozi w’Akarere ka Kacyiru

                  Ndahamya ko amakuru maze gutanga haruguru ari ukuri.

                  Bikorewe Kacyiru, ku wa 26 Mutarama 2017MANZI Jacques

                             


                  Inshoza y’umwirondoro

                  Umwirondoro ni urwandiko rukoreshwa mu butegetsi. Umwirondoro urondora ubuzima bw’umuntu yaciyemo n’ubushobozi yagiye ageraho. Muri rusange havugwamo ibiranga umuntu, amashuri yize, n’imirimo yagiye akora n’ibyo akunda bimuhesha kwizerwa nk’umukandida wahatanira umwanya w’akazi uri ku isoko. Urwo rwandiko ni nk’icyungo hagati yo gusaba akazi no kugahabwa. N’ubwo umwirondoro ukunze gukoreshwa mu rwego rwo gusaba akazi, ujya unakoreshwa mu biganiro by’abantu, igihe barimo kwibwirana kugira ngo basabane baziranye.

                  Uturango tw’umwirondoro

                  Nk’uko twabibonye mu rwandiko twasomye, umwirondoro ugira ibice bikuru bitandatu: Ibiranga umuntu, ni ukuvuga amakuru kuri nyiri ubwite, amashuri yize ahereye ku yo yize nyuma y’ayandi, imirimo yashinzwe cyangwa yaba yarakoze, ubundi bumenyi, ibyo akunda, hagaheruka abantu bamuzi bahamya ibyo avuze ko ari ukuri bibaye ngombwa.

                  Mu makuru atangwa, yaba ayerekeye amashuri cyangwa imirimo umukandida yagiye ashingwa, umuntu agenda ayatondeka ahereye ku makuru aheruka. Dufatiye urugero ku rwandiko twasomye, twabonye ko duhera ku mashuri ya kaminuza tugasoreza ku y’inshuke; imirimo twahereye ku wo muri 2016, haheruka uwo muri 2014.

                  Mu gice cy’ubundi bumenyi, umuntu avugamo ubwo yungukiye mu mahugurwa no mu bundi buryo bwo kwiyungura ubumenyi yagiye agira nyuma y’amashuri yize. Icyo gihe biba byiza kwerekana ikemezo wahawe nyuma yo guhugurwa bikaba gihamya ko ubwo bumenyi ubufite koko. Na ho mu gice cy’abantu bakuzi, ni byiza kuvugamo abakwigishije cyangwa se abakuyoboye mu mirimo wagiye ukora kuko ari bo bashobora guhamya ubuhanga n’ubudakemwa byawe maze ukavuga icyo bashinzwe na nimero ya terefone bashakirwaho biramutse bibaye ngombwa.

                  Ikitonderwa: Umwirondoro usozwa n’indahiro yemeza ko amakuru nyiri ukuyikora yatanze ko ari ukuri koko. Uwandika umwirondoro kandi agomba gushyira amazina n’umukono ku mwirondoro we.

                  Umwitozo wo kwandika umwirondoro

                  Korera umwirondoro umuntu warangije muri Kaminuza Yigenga ya Kigali mu ishami wihitiyemo, maze uwandike wubahiriza ibisabwa byose.

                  Umwandiko: Itumanaho n’akamaro karyo

                     

                  Muri iki gihe dufite uburyo bwo kumenya ibyo abo tutari kumwe bavuga. Ubwo buryo ni ibikoresho by’itumanaho. Itumanaho rigenda rigirira abantu akamaro mu buryo butandukanye. Iyo ufunguye iradiyo cyangwa tereviziyo, ushobora kumva cyangwa se no kubona amatangazo anyuranye arimo ayo kumenyesha, ayo kurangisha, ayo kubika, ayo kwamamaza n’andi atandukanye.

                  Aya matangazo aba akubiyemo ubutumwa butandukanye kandi bugirira abantu akamaro gakomeye mu buzima bwabo bwa buri munsi. Ibi bituma abantu bamenya amakuru anyuranye y’aho ibyo bakeneye biherereye, bagashobora kubigeraho bitabagoye, bityo na ba nyirabyo bikabagirira umumaro. Abahanye gahunda na bo bibafasha kuzinoza neza kuko itumanaho ribafasha mu guhanahana amakuru kuri gahunda zabo.

                  Iyo hari ahabaye ibyago byo gupfusha umuntu mu muryango w’aha n’aha, itumanaho riritabazwa mu kubikira imiryango itandukanye igashobora gutabara no gusura abasigaye. Hirya no hino ku nzu z’ubuyobozi uhasanga umwanya wagenewe amatangazo akubiyemo ubutumwa butandukanye harimo amenyesha, atanga akazi, atanga amasoko n’ibindi. Wasoma ibinyamakuru ugasangamo umwanya wahariwe amatangazo ibyo bikagirira imbaga nyamwinshi akamaro.

                  Kera iyo washakaga kuvugana n’umuntu utari hafi yawe cyangwa kugira imishinga runaka mukorana wagombaga gukora urugendo rwo kujya kumushaka, ukaba wamusanga iyo bigwa. Ariko ubu isi yabaye nk’umudugudu, abantu b’impande zose baravugana, bagakorana ntawugombye gutakaza umwanya ngo age gushaka undi, ahubwo ikoranabuhanga bakaribyaza umusaruro ku buryo bufatika cyanecyane mu itumanaho. Abakozi n’abakoresha hirya no hino ku isi, abacuruzi n’abakiriya babo, usanga bakoresha itumanaho rya terefone muri gahunda zabo za buri munsi, bityo muri iryo hanahana ry’amakuru imirimo yabo ikarushaho kunoga. Si terefone gusa kuko hari n’umubare munini w’abakoresha interineti bikabagirira umumaro ukomeye cyane kuko bashobora gushyikirana n’uwo ari we wese ku isi yose kandi mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya.

                  Abantu bose nibahagurukire gukoresha itumanaho mu buzima bwabo, cyanecyane irikoresha ikoranabuhanga. Kurikoresha bizabageza ku musaruro ushimishije kuko rifite akamaro gakomeye mu kwihutisha imikorere n’imikoranire. Ibi ntawabitindaho kandi kuko ngo : «Nyiri amaso yerekwa bike ibindi akirebera».

                  I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

                  1. Ni ubuhe buryo dufite bwo kumenya ibyo abo tutari kumwe bavuga?

                  2.Vuga ubwoko bune bw’amatangazo dushobora kumva kuri radiyo cyangwa tereviziyo?

                  3.Itumanaho rimariye iki abantu mu buzima bwabo bwa buri munsi?

                  4.Ni ubuhe buryo bw’itumanaho mpuzamahanga butari terefoni umuntu yakoresha avugana n’abari mu bindi bihugu?

                  5. Ese iryo tumanaho rigezweho ubona rifite akahe kamaro kisumbuye kuri terefone?

                  6.Kera ibikoresho by’itumanaho bitarasakara, umuntu yabigenzaga ate iyo yakeneraga kugira icyo avugana n’umuri kure?

                  7.Uburyo bwo kujya gushaka uwo ukeneye kuvugisha, urabona bwarashoboraga gutera ibihe bibazo?

                  8.Erekana uburyo itumanaho rishingiye ku ikoranabuhanga rikemura ibyo bibazo?

                  I. Inyunguramagambo

                  1.Tanga ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira dusanga muri uyu mwandiko:

                          a) Guhugukira                        e) Mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya

                          b) Kubika                                 f ) Iyo bigwa

                          c) Imbaga nyamwinshi          g) Yabaye nk’umudugudu

                          d) Kunoga

                  2.Tanga impuzanyito z’aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                       a) (uburyo) butandukanye           b) Interineti          c) (umusaruro) ushimishije

                  3. Tanga imbusane z’aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                        a) (uburyo) butandukanye           b) Gahunda                 c) Ibyago

                  III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

                  Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

                  1.Koresha neza buri jambo mu nteruro yawe bwite kandi yumvikana:

                         a) guhugukira               c) imikoranire            e) kunoga

                         b) kubika                        d) iyo bigwa

                  2.Uzurisha buri nteruro rimwe muri aya magambo akurikira: kubika, umushinga, ikoranabuhanga, kwamamaza, gahunda.

                  a) Amatangazo yo ................... agirira akamaro rwiyemezamirimo, akanakagirira abakiriya be.

                  b) Gashugi yapfiriye mu nzu ari wenyine maze habura umuntu wo ...................

                  c) ................... ni ikintu k’ingenzi gituma iterambere ryihuta.

                  d) Umuntu wize arangwa no kugira ................... mu byo akora byose.

                  e) Niba ufite ................... ushaka ko tuguteramo inkunga, andika ibaruwa ibisaba maze tugufashe kwiteza imbere.

                  IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

                  1.Shaka ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziboneka muri uyu mwandiko.

                  2.Kuba bemeza ko isi yabaye nk’umudugudu kubera itumanaho rikoresha ikoranabuhanga bishatse kwerekana iki?

                  3.Ubona ari ibihe bibazo byugarije urubyiruko biterwa no gukoresha itumanaho rya interineti? Ni iki cyakorwa mu kubishakira umuti?

                  V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

                  Kungurana ibitekerezo
                  Mu matsinda, nimwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho. Uyu mwitozo mushobora no kuwukorera hanze y’ishuri, mu gihe musubiramo amasomo yanyu.

                  1.Ni iki cyakorwa kugira ngo itumanaho rigere no mu byaro?

                  2.Itumanaho ryagufasha gute igihe uhuye n’ikibazo kandi uri kure y’abawe?

                  Amatangazo

                  Soma amatangazo akurikira maze uyasesengure uvuga uturango twa buri bwoko.

                  1. Umuryango wa Gakuru, utuye mu Kabagari, mu Murenge wa Rwamagana ho mu Karere ka Rwamagana, ubabajwe no kumenyesha inshuti n’abavandimwe ko umwana wabo Turinayo Jean Claude yitabye Imana ejo ku wa Gatanu tariki ya 9 Ukuboza 2016 mu Bitaro Rwamagana.

                  Bimenyeshejwe:

                  - Karangwa Medard utuye mu Ruhango;

                  - Munyandamutsa Alphonse utuye i Nyanza;

                  - Kagiraneza Jackson utuye mu Nyakabanda, i Kigali.

                  Umuhango wo guherekeza nyakwigendera uzaba ku Cyumweru tariki ya 11 Ukuboza 2016, i Rusororo, saa saba z’amanywa. Inshuti n’abavandimwe mwihutire gutabara.

                  2. Iduka ISUKU ricuruza amarangi riramenyesha abantu bose ko ritagikorera i Nyamirambo ko ahubwo ryimukiye Nyabugogo haruguru y’aho bategera imodoka zijya mu ntara, mu nyubako y’Amashyirahamwe, mu igorofa rya mbere. Abakiriya bahabwirwa n’icyapa kinini cyanditseho izina “ISUKU”. Uwagira ikibazo, yahamagara kuri terefone nimero 0788........ umukozi ubishinzwe akamuyobora.

                  3. Karimunda Jean utuye mu Mudugudu wa Kanyinya, Akagari ka Bihembe, mu Murenge wa Kabagari ho muri Ruhango ararangisha ibyangombwa bye birimo indangamuntu, uruhushya rwo gutwara ibinyabiziga n’ikarita y’akazi byaburiye mu isoko rya Ruhango ku wa Gatanu, tariki ya 4 Gashyantare 2017. Uwabibona yabigeza ku buyobozi bwa porisi bumwegereye cyangwa agahamagara terefoni nomero 0732........ akazahembwa bishimishije.

                  Inshoza y’amatangazo

                  Amatangazo ni inyandiko yandikiwe abantu bose, igashyirwa ahantu bashobora kuyisomera cyangwa ikanyuzwa mu bitangazamakuru bisomwa cyangwa bivuga. Amatangazo abamo amoko anyuranye: amatangazo abika, amatangazo amenyesha, amatangazo arangisha, ayamamaza n’ayandi.

                  Amatangazo yo kubika

                  Ni amatangazo agamije gutabaza ab’umuryango w’uwitabye Imana n’inshuti zabo kugira ngo bazaze kumushyingura.

                  Amatangazo yo kumenyesha

                  Ni amatangazo agamije kumenyesha abantu runaka cyangwa abantu bose amakuru, cyanecyane nka gahunda nshya kandi yabagirira akamaro. Urugero ni nk’itangazo ry’icyamunara, itangazo ry’inama n’ayandi.

                  Amatangazo yo kurangisha

                  Ni amatangazo atangwa n’umuntu wabuze ikintu runaka. Aritanga agira ngo uryumva yaratoraguye icyo kintu amenye nyiracyo, amenye n’uburyo yakoresha ngo akimugezeho.

                  Amatangazo yo kwamamaza

                  Ni amatangazo atangwa mu rwego rwo kumenyekanisha ibicuruzwa kugira ngo abaguzi bamenye aho babishakira.

                  Uturango tw’amatangazo

                  Mu itangazo hagomba kubonekamo ibi bikurikira: umutwe (ubwoko bw’itangazo), utanze itangazo, icyo aritangiye, aho kibera (cyabereye cyangwa kizabera), igihe kibera (cyabereye cyangwa kizabera), ugenewe itangazo n’icyo ategerejweho.

                  Ku buryo bw’umwihariko, itangazo ryo kubika rigaragaramo amazina y’uwitabye Imana, aho yaguye, igihe azashyingurirwa n’aho bazamushyingura. Hagaragaramo kandi utanze itangazo n’abo rigenewe cyangwa abamenyeshejwe.

                  Itangazo ryo kumenyesha rirangwa no kugira umenyesha, abamenyeshwa, icyo bamenyeshwa n’icyo abamenyeshwa basabwa.

                  Itangazo rirangisha rirangwa no kugaragaza amazina y’urangisha, ibirangishwa, aho byaburiye cyangwa byabonywe, aho byashyikirizwa n’ibihembo bizahabwa uwaba yarabibonye.

                  Umwitozo ku matangazo

                  Buri wese yandike itangazo rimwe kuri buri bwoko, maze arisomere abandi banyeshuri, yigana ayo ajya yumva.

                  Inshamake y’ibyizwe muri uyu mutwe wa karindwi

                  Muri uyu mutwe wa karindwi, imyandiko twasesenguye ivuga ku ngingo zerekeye ibikoresho by’itumanaho n’uburyo bw’itumanaho bwagiye bukoreshwa mu Rwanda. Itumanaho ryahozeho kuva kera ariko rigoranye, none aho ikoranabubanga ryaziye itumanaho ryateye imbere ndetse isi yabaye nk’umudugudu. Twanabonye kandi akamaro k’itumanaho mu mibanire y’abantu.

                  Mu bumenyi busanzwe bw’ururimi, twavuze ku mwirondoro tubona n’ibiranga umwirondoro harimo ibiranga nyiri ubwite, amashuri yize, impamyabumenyi, akazi yaba yarashinzwe, indimi avuga, ubundi bumenyi afite, n’abantu bamuzi.

                  Twabonye kandi inshoza y’amatangazo n’amoko anyuranye y’amatangazo harimo amatangazo abika, arangisha, amenyesha n’ayamamaza. Amatangazo abika aba atabariza umuntu witabye Imana kugira ngo inshuti n’abavandimwe batabare, amatangazo arangisha aba amenyekanisha ikintu runaka cyabuze kugira ngo uwagitoraguye agishyikirize bene cyo, naho amatangazo amenyesha aba atanga amakuru runaka y’ikintu kitari kimenyerewe, amatangazo yamamaza yo aba akundisha abakiriya igicuruzwa runaka abahamagarira kukitabira

                  Isuzuma rusange risoza umutwe wa karindwi

                  Isuzuma rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

                  Umwandiko: Harabaye ntihakabe!

                  Iyi mvugo “harabaye ntihakabe” tuyimenyereye mu guca umugani. Ariko n’ubundi ngo umugani ugana akariho. Abanyarwanda babayeho igihe kirekire bafite imvune mu guhanahana amakuru. Umuntu yakumburaga undi akikora akajya kumusura. Byari umuco ko ifuni ibagara ubucuti ari akarenge. Yaragendaga amaguru akaruha, akagenda ayobagurika cyangwa ayoboza amayira dore ko ahenshi hari hakiri amashyamba y’inzitane. Iyo bwamwiriragaho yaracumbikaga, bwacya agacumbukura agakomeza inzira kugeza ageze ku wo agiye kureba. Hari ubwo rero yanageragayo ntahamusange kubera ko na we yagiye gusura abandi cyangwa yagiye guhahira kure. Icyo gihe amasoko yari na make mu Gihugu.

                  Ni mu gihe kandi, mu bihe byashize itumanaho ntiryari ryoroshye. Imihanda yaje nyuma aho abazungu baziye mu bihugu by’abirabura. Na bwo kandi kubona imodoka ituma umuntu agera iyo ajya byari ingorabahizi. N’iyo wabaga wayibonye, wageraga iyo ugiye ivumbi ryakurenze kubera ko imihanda yabaga idakoze neza. Umunaniro ugeranye iyo ugiye ukakubuza kubaza amakuru no kuganiriza abo usanze.

                  Uko iminsi yagiye isimburana ni na ko iterambere ryagiye ryiyongera. Nubwo gusurana umuntu agiye n’amaguru bitavuyeho, ntibikiri ngombwa kuvunika. Imihanda yabaye myinshi kandi imyinshi muri yo irimo kaburimbo, yemwe n’imodoka zitwara abagenzi bicaye neza batanahura n’ivumbi na zo zarasakaye. Ushaka kujya gusura mugenzi we ava ku nkiko y’iburasirazuba akagera ku y’iburengerazuba umunsi umwe, yanashaka akarara atashye. Umuntu ukora akazi ava mu karere ke akajya gukorera mu kandi, yakarangiza akitahira iwe nta mpungenge zo kurara nzira.

                  Usibye n’iby’ingendo byoroshye, kuganira ubu byabaye umunyenga. Kubera terefone cyangwa mudasobwa zikoresha interineti umuntu yiyicarira iwe akavugana n’uri ikantarange. Bene iri koranabuhanga ryarakataje ku buryo ukoresha ibyo byuma by’ikoranabuhanga ukavugana n’umuntu umureba cyangwa ugatumiza ibicuruzwa mu mahanga bikakugeraho utavuye iwawe. Radiyo na tereviziyo byaje bikemura ikibazo cyagoraga abamotsi bo hambere. Ubutumwa umuyobozi ashaka kugeza kuri rubanda abucishaho bukagerera ku bantu bose igihe kimwe.

                  Umuturage ushaka kumenyekanisha ibikorwa bye, ibyo yejeje cyangwa ibicuruzwa agurisha, yisunga radiyo cyangwa tereviziyo akabyamamaza. Si ibi gusa, kuko ibyuma by’ikoranabuhanga bisigaye ari umuyoboro wo kujijuka. Ukeneye kwiga yiyandikisha anyuze kuri interineti, akariha amasomo abigenje atyo, akarinda abona impamyabumenyi atagiye imbere y’umwarimu. Erega n’abarangije bigisha bahanahana amakuru ku masomo mashya banyuze muri izo nzira z’itumanaho rikoresha terefone cyangwa murandasi

                  Twagize amahirwe tuva mu nzitizi abakurambere bacu bahuye na zo. Imodoka mu mihanda zitwara imizigo n’abantu zikagera iyo zijya mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya. Abantu batega indege cyangwa ubwato bakajya gutara amakuru no kuyasakaza nta mvune. Harabaye ntihakabe koko! Iri terambere mu itumanaho, turirinde icyaritera kutatugirira akamaro. Turwanye abarikoresha mu bugizi bwa nabi biba, bashuka abantu ngo babashore mu ngeso mbi izo ari zo zose, cyangwa basenya ibikorwa remezo twagezeho twiyushye akuya. Iri tumanaho rigezweho nirifashe buri muturarwanda kugendana n’ikerekezo isi igezeho, ni bwo iterambere rirambye rizasagamba mu Gihugu cyacu.

                  I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

                  1.Uyu mwandiko uravuga ku yihe nsanganyamatsiko?

                  2.Abamotsi bavugwa mu mwandiko bari bashinzwe iki mu Rwanda rwa kera?

                  3.Ni iki ubona cyari kibangamiye abajyaga gutara amakuru mu Rwanda rwo hambere?

                  4.Vuga ibikoresho by’itumanaho byavuzwe mu mwandiko n’icyo babivuzeho.

                  5.Ni akahe kamaro k’itumanaho mu mibanire y’abantu?

                  6.Ni iyihe nama wagira umunyeshuri mugenzi wawe ku ikoreshwa rya murandasi?

                  7.Ushingiye ku ngero zifatika, sobanura aho ubona itumanaho mu Rwanda rigeze.

                  8.Iyo terefone na mudasobwa zikoresha interineti bikoreshejwe neza bifasha umunyeshuri kuzuza inshingano ze. Byakoreshwa nabi bikamuyobya. Uhereye ku ngero zifatika, nk’umunyeshuri garagaza uko wumva gukoresha neza no gukoresha nabi ibyuma nk’ibi by’itumanaho.

                  II. Inyunguramagambo

                  1.Mu magambo yawe bwite, sobanura aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                           a) Gutara amakuru           d) Ikerekezo

                           b)Ikantarange                    e) Mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya

                           c) Imbuto

                  2. Simbuza ijambo cyangwa itsinda ry’amagambo akurikira irindi jambo bihuje inyito uvanye mu mwandiko:

                       a) Umupaka                     b) Rutuku                  c) Abaturage

                  III. Ubumenyi bw’ururimi

                  Hitamo ikibazo kimwe mu bibazo bikurikira maze ugisubize neza:

                  1. Tekereza umwirondoro waba ufite urangije amashuri yisumbuye maze uwandike wubahirije ibisabwa byose.

                  2.Wubahirije ibijya mu itangazo, andika itangazo rirangisha ikintu waba watoraguye.

                  • Umwandiko: Kwishyira hamwe


                      

                    Kwishyira hamwe ni ukureka kuba nyamwigendaho, ukegera abandi mugafatanya, mukunganirana kugira ngo mugere ku ntego rusange mwiyemeje. Kuba nyamwigendaho byo ni ugukora wenyine, ntushake gufatanya n’abandi. Ntitwabura kwibaza uko umusaruro uba uteye mu gihe umuntu akora wenyine n’igihe abantu bishyize hamwe bagahuza imbaraga bagakorera hamwe.

                    Umuco w’ubufatanye no gukorera hamwe si uwa none kuko n’Abanyarwanda ba kera bawuhaga agaciro ku buryo bukomeye. Ibi tubisanga mu ndangamitekerereze yabo aho bagiraga bati: “Nta mugabo umwe”, “Umwe arya bihora” n’ibindi. Ibi byatumaga bagira ibintu byinshi bafatanyamo, haba mu gihe cy’ubukwe mu gutwererana, haba no mu gihe k’ihinga mu cyo bitaga ubudehe. Byose byerekana ko babonaga ko ubufatanye hagati yabo ari ngombwa.

                    No muri iki gihe iyo abantu bishyize hamwe bagera kuri byinshi; bungurana inama, bityo icyaciye mu rihumye umwe undi akaba yakibonye. Ibi kandi usanga n’ubuyobozi bubikangurira abantu muri gahunda z’ubufatanye zirimo amashyirahamwe n’amakoperative. Amashyirahamwe n’amakoperative agamije guteza imbere uburezi yagaragaje uruhare rukomeye mu guteza Igihugu imbere ashyiraho amashuri yizemo benshi bari mu nzego zinyuranye z’imirimo y’Igihugu. Hari kandi ay’ubuhinzi nk’ubw’ibirayi, ubw’ibigori, ubwa kawa n’icyayi, ubw’umuceri n’ibindi. Hakaba n’ay’ubworozi nk’ubw’amafi ndetse n’uburobyi, ubworozi bw’inzuki, ingurube n’ibindi. Aya yose afasha abantu mu kongera umusaruro bityo bakiteza imbere kandi n’Igihugu kikahazamukira.

                    Hari amakoperative y’abafite ibinyabiziga bitwara abagenzi nk’imodoka cyangwa amapikipiki, hari n’abakora umwuga wo gutwara abagenzi ku magare ndetse n’abikorera imitwaro cyangwa bayisunika ku ngorofani. Hari akora ibijyanye n’ubugeni n’ubukorikori nko kuboha uduseke, gukora ibikoresho n’imitako bitandukanye, byaba ibiboshye mu birere, mu bwatsi bw’amoko atandukanye, byaba ibibaje mu biti n’ibindi. Ibi kandi birakunzwe cyane ku buryo bimaze no kugera ku rwego mpuzamahanga. Ntawakwibagirwa amakoperative yo kwizigamira mu buryo bw’imari.

                    Amakoperative n’amashyirahamwe rero ni menshi cyane kandi urebye akamaro kayo usanga katagereranywa cyangwa ngo gashidikanyweho. Umuntu kandi ntiyakwibagirwa ko iyo abantu bishyize hamwe umutungo wabo urushaho kugira umutekano kuko uba urebererwa n’abantu benshi, kandi no guhabwa inguzanyo bikoroha bitewe n’uko bashobora kubona ingwate ku buryo bworoshye. Uretse n’ibyo kandi dufite ikigega cya Leta gishinzwe kwishingira abadafite ingwate ngo babone inguzanyo yo gukoresha imishinga yabo yo kwiteza imbere.

                    Nyuma y’ibyo rero, Abanyarwanda bagombye gukangukira kwibumbira mu mashyirahamwe kugira ngo bahuze imbaraga biteze imbere mu buryo bwihuse kandi bufite umutekano. Gusa kugira ngo bigende neza kurushaho, abantu barasabwa kwikuramo ya myumvire ya kera yavugaga ko nta karima ka rusange; ahubwo bakamenya gufata ingamba zo gucunga ibyabo neza ntibabe ba terera iyo kugira ngo hatagira uw’akaboko karekare ubinjirana nk’uko bijya bigaragara hamwe na hamwe. Ahubwo abantu bakwiriye kumva ko amakoperative yunguka iyo umutungo ucunzwe neza, abawushinzwe ntibawumunge.

                    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

                    1.Vuga ingero ebyiri zerekana ko Abanyarwanda kuva kera bashyigikiye ubufatanye.

                    2.Ni ubuhe buryo bwo gushyira hamwe ubuyobozi bw’uyu munsi buhamagarira Abanyarwanda gushyira mu bikorwa?

                    3.Vuga ingero z’ibikorwa by’amashyirahamwe n’amakoperative akunze kuboneka mu Rwanda?

                    4.Amashyirahamwe n’amakoperative aba amariye iki abanyamuryango bayo?

                    5.Ni iki amashyirahamwe amariye Igihugu?

                    6.Vuga izindi nyungu ebyiri zitavuzwe mu mwandiko zo kwishyira hamwe?

                    7.Abantu batinya gukorera mu mashyirahamwe n’amakoperative wumva wabagira iyihe nama?

                    II. Inyunguramagambo

                    1.Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira dusanga mu mwandiko:

                             a) Nyamwigendaho                  d) Ubugeni n’ubukorikori                      g) Ingwate

                             b) Indangamitekerereze          e) Katagereranywa                                 h) Terera iyo

                             c) Guca mu rihumye                 f ) Urebererwa                                         i) Ntibawumunge

                    2.Shaka impuzanyito z’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                                   a) Kunganirana                  b) Kongera                c)Wihuta

                    3. Shaka imbusane z’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                               a) Umutekano                     c) Kugira agaciro

                               b) Gushidikanya                  d) Guca mu rihumye

                    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

                    Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

                    1. Huza amagambo yo mu ruhushya A n’ibisobanuro biri mu ruhushya B ukoresheje utwambi.

                      

                    2.Uzurisha interuro zikurikira amagambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                    a) Iyo umuntu .............. ku kemezo agomba gufata, abanza kugisha inama inshuti ze.

                    b) Amatembabuzi ava mu gasabo k’indurwe .............. n’ayo mu gifu bigatuma igogorwa ry’ibiryo rigenda neza.

                    c) Uyu mwandiko twari twawukosoreye mu itsinda ryacu kandi twizeye ko nta kosa risigayemo, ukuntu iri .............. sinabimenya rwose.

                    d) Amazi afite akamaro .............. mu buzima bwa muntu.

                    e) Abanyarwanda bagira .............. yabo bwite itandukanye n’iy’abanyamahanga.

                    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

                    1.Vuga ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziboneka mu mwandiko?

                    2.Ni iki wungukiye mu mwandiko kijyanye no gukorera hamwe uhereye ku bivugwa mu mwandiko?

                    3.Mu buzima bwacu bwa buri munsi duhora twumva gahunda ya «Gira inka Munyarwanda». Urumva mu rwego rw’ubufatanye izageza iki ku Banyarwanda?

                    4.Nyuma yo gusoma no kumva uyu mwandiko wavuga iki ku mvugo igira iti: «Abishyize hamwe ntakibananira»? Ese ubona byafasha iki abanyeshuri ubihuje no gukorera mu matsinda?

                    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

                    Uhereye ku rugero rw’aho utuye, vuga inyungu umunyamuryango wa koperative y’ubuhinzi cyangwa ubworozi ashobora kugira.


                    Umwandiko: Gira inka Munyarwanda

                      

                                  Basomyi namwe abateze yombi
                                  Nje kubabwira nkanasubiramo
                                  Uburyo Umubyeyi yitegereje
                                  Akabona abana b’ Abanyarwanda
                             5.  Bakennye ayera babura byinshi,
                                  N’abadafumbira bakarumbya
                                  Bahora isazi ibagwa mu jisho.

                                  «Gira inka Munyarwanda» iba iraje
                                   Ijya mu bitekerezo bye byinshi
                            10.  Ayigira ingamba yo ku ruhembe
                                    Mu zo guteza imbere uru Rwanda.

                                    Ubu arakubwira ati: Munyarwanda
                                    Gira inka utunge uve mu butindi
                                    Amata ubuganize mu bisabo

                            15.   N’amashyo yuzure mu biraro
                                     Imitavu isimbuke mu ruhongore
                                     Uwakugabiye umwirahire.

                                     Iyi gahunda igeze ino iwacu
                                     Yafashe iya mbere igana iwawe
                                    
                            20.    Mu byishimo ubura aho ukwirwa
                                      Uti: “Ko gutunga ge ntabikwiye
                                      Nk’ iyi gahunda iturutse hehe?”

                                      Ubwo abo Umubyeyi yakuyoboyeho
                                      Bati: “Izo mpumu zishire utuze

                              25.   Kuko ubu wibutswe n’Umubyeyi
                                      Erega maye bishyize kera
                                      Imyaka n’imyaniko utagira ifumba!”

                                      Ubu ku gicaniro nihacumbe
                                      Ubone agafumbire mu buhinzi

                               30.  Unywe amata kandi urye ku birunge
                                       Ugire agatwenge k’uwayanyoye,
                                       Iwawe bose banezerwe.
                                       Umenye kandi ko uwakugabiye
                                       Ashaka yuko ugabira abandi.

                              35.    Wite ku itungo aguhaye
                                        Maze rizororoke rigwire,
                                        Buri muturanyi abone ifumba,
                                        Bwaki icike mu Banyarwanda.
                                        Iyi gahunda yaje ikenewe
                     
                                40.   Yunga ku bumwe n’ubwiyunge
                                         Ikomeza yuzuzanya n’izindi
                                         Zimwe zibereyeho kutwunga
                                         No kutubanya nk’ Abanyarwanda
                                         Bafite isano isumba ibindi.

                                 45.   Mucyo dusangire amata yera
                                         Ayo Umubyeyi akamiye bose
                                         Ngo nidusangira inkongoro
                                         Ibyo gushwana bizacika
                                         N’ubunyarwanda bube igihango.

                                  50.  Ubu rero ni igihe Munyarwanda
                                          Ngo uko wagabiwe ugabire abandi
                                          Maze ibyo bibondo bibone ayera
                                          Ubumwe bunuke mu Banyarwanda
                                          Ufite atere udafite inkunga
                                   55. Tubone iterambere rirambye!


                    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

                    1.Uyu mwandiko ni bwoko ki? Sobanura impamvu.

                    2.Gahunda ya “Gira inka Munyarwanda” yaje ikemura ikihe kibazo kivugwa mu mwandiko?

                    3.Umusizi aravuga «ayera» ni amaki? Rondora nibura amazina atatu ayerekezaho.

                    4.Ni izihe nshingano z’uwagezweho na gahunda ya “Gira inka Munyarwanda” zavuzwe mu mwandiko?

                    5.Ni iyihe ndwara yavuzwe mu mwandiko ikomoka ku gutungwa n’indyo ituzuye? Ikomoka ku kubura amata wari warayamenyereye yo bayita bate?

                    6.Ni iki wabonye aho utuye cyangwa ugenda abagezweho na gahunda ya “Gira inka Munyarwanda” bungutse kitavuzwe mu mwandiko?

                    7.Wumva ari izihe nyungu umunyeshuri nkawe yabonera mu ikwirakwizwa ry’iyi gahunda mu Gihugu cyacu.

                    II. Inyunguramagambo

                    Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                    a) Gira inka Munyarwanda

                    b) Amashyo

                    c) Utagira ifumba

                    d) Ihumure

                    e) Kurumbya

                    f ) Kubuganiza

                    g) Imitavu

                    h) Uruhongore

                    i) Inkongoro

                    j) Igihango

                    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

                    Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

                    Koresha neza aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko, mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

                    a) Gira inka Munyarwanda

                    b) Amashyo

                    c) Ifumba

                    d) Igicaniro

                    e) ibirunge

                    f ) Igihango

                    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

                    1.Vuga ingingo z’ingenzi zikubiye muri uyu mwandiko.

                    2.Gahunda ya “Gira inka Munyarwanda” ihuriye he n’iterambere rirambye ry’umuryango?

                    3.Hari ikeshamvugo ryakoreshejwe mu mwandiko rigusha ku nka n’ibiyikomokaho. Tanga ingero z’iryo keshamvugo.

                    4.Mu mwandiko baravugamo “igihango”. Ukiziho iki mu muco nyarwanda?

                    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

                    Kungurana ibitekerezo
                    Mu matsinda, nimwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho. Uyu mwitozo mushobora no kuwukorera hanze y’ishuri, mu gihe musubiramo amasomo yanyu.

                    Uguhaye inka aba aguhaye umukiro mu buhinzi, mu mibereho myiza maze ifaranga ntirisibe iwawe no muri banki. Ni izihe ngingo ubona zashimangira cyangwa zavuguruza igitekerezo gikubiye muri iyi mvugo?


                    Ubuvanganzo:Inkuru ishushanyije: Kagenzi mu iterambere


                     


                    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

                    1.Ni iyihe nyungu uhawe inka muri gahunda ya “Gira inka Munyarwanda” agira ku giti ke?

                    2.Ese abaturanyi be hari icyo bamwungukiraho? Gihari wakivuga.

                    3.Ni iki kigaragaza ko umuryango wa Kagenzi wacengewe n’umuco wo kuzigama?

                    4.Kugabirana byuzuzanya bite n’umuco w’ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda?

                    5.Iyo uza kuba ari wowe Kagenzi, wumva wari gukoresha ute umusaruro uva ku nka wahawe?

                    II. Inyunguramagambo

                    1.Tanga inyito z’aya magambo dusanga mu nkuru:

                        a) Guteturura                         g) Inyamibwa

                        b) Agahebuzo                         h) Kwagaza

                        c) Ahaga                                  i) Agafunguro

                        d) Inkoko ni yo ngoma         j) Ni uko twari tumeze

                        e) Kwizihiza umunsi             k) Ingweba

                        f) Kugokera akamama

                    2.Tanga impuzanyito z’amagambo akurikira dusanga mu nkuru:

                         a) Ifunguro            b) Kugoka             c) Akamama

                    3.Tanga imbusane z’amagambo akurikira dusanga mu nkuru:

                         a) Kugabira            b) Kubaka             c) Gufatanya

                    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

                    Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

                    Uzuza izi nteruro ukoresheje amagambo wungukiye mu mwandiko:

                    a) Kugabana inka birashimisha ariko guhabwa ingweba byo ni ...............

                    b) Umuvuzi w’amatungo iyo agiye kuvura inka arabanza ............... kugira ngo itamwiyama.

                    c) ............... duhurire ku nzu ya wa muturanyi wacu, tumuhe umuganda twamwemereye, azave mu manegeka bidatinze.

                    d) Karinda ko uhinga udafumbira ubwo nturuhira ............... koko?

                    e) Kuba umpaye imbuto yo gutera, buriya unkuye ............... utabizi: nta yo nari kuzibonera rwose, nari ndaye ihinga birangiye.

                    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

                    1.Ni izihe ngingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziboneka mu nkuru yizwe?

                    2.Ubusanzwe mu buzima tubamo umuco wo guhana inka uwumva ute?

                    3.Gira icyo uvuga ku mibanire y’abantu bavugwa mu nkuru wasomye.

                    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

                    Gukina inkuru ishushanyije:Mufate mu mutwe amagambo y’ikiganiro agize iyi nkuru ishushanyije, maze mukinire imbere y’abandi, mugaragaza imyitwarire y’abagize iyi nkuru.

                    Ubuvanganzo: Inkuru ishushanyije

                    Inshoza y’inkuru ishushanyije

                    Inkuru ishushanyije, ni inkuru ibarwa amagambo aherekejwe n’ibishushanyo. Bene iyo nkuru ishobora kugaragaramo amashusho yivugira ataherekejwe n’amagambo ku buryo uyisoma amenya icyo iyo shusho isobanura.

                    Uturango tw’inkuru ishushanyije

                    Inkuru ishushanyije irangwa n’amashusho mbere na mbere. Igira abanyarubuga, ikagira urusobe rw’ibikorwa kuva ku ntangiriro kugera ku musozo. Buri munyarubuga arangwa n’igishushanyo gisa ukwacyo yaba ari umuntu akambara ukwe, ku buryo ntawamwitiranya n’undi. Amagambo umunyarubuga avuga aganira na bagenzi be ashyirwa mu kaziga kabwase cyangwa mu gakiramende gafite akarizo kerekeza ku gishushanyo kimugaragaza. Amashusho n’amagambo agabanywa mu tuzu, buri munyarubuga uri mu kazu avuga rimwe risa. Ibiganiro bitondekwa uva ibumoso ujya iburyo, ukabona kumanuka. Ibyo bikubahirizwa mu gutondeka utuzu no mu gutondeka ibiganiro byo muri buri kazu. Iyo hakenewe ibisobanuro, umubarankuru abitanga mu gakiramende katagira igishushanyo.

                    Umwitozo ku guhanga nkuru ishushanyije

                    Buri wese nahange inkuru ishushanyije.

                    Hanga inkuru ishushanyije ku nsanganyamatsiko y’ubufatanye hanyuma muyimurikire abandi banyeshuri mwigana.

                    Inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru

                    Nyarugenge: Binyuze ku nkunga ya gahunda “Ikerekezo 2020 Umurenge” bahabwa, bashinze koperative yatumye biteza imbere.

                    Abaturage bafashwa muri gahunda “Ikerekezo 2020 Umurenge” bibumbiye muri Koperative Goboka yo mu Murenge wa Nyarugenge mu Karere ka Bugesera, baravuga ko amafaranga y’inkunga bahabwa yatumye babasha kwiteza imbere mu gihe mbere bari baraheze mu bukene.

                    Binyuze mu nkunga bahabwa buri kwezi abo baturage baravuga ko bamaze kwiteza imbere babikesha imishinga iciriritse bakoreshamo iyo nkunga nk’iy’ubuhinzi nk’uko bivugwa na Kamana, umwe muri bo.

                    Agira ati: “Mbere yo guhabwa inkunga n’Ikerekezo 2020 Umurenge, twari dufite imibereho itari myiza ndetse tukaba twarafatwaga nk’abatindi, ariko nyuma yo kwibumbira hamwe dugashinga Koperative Goboka tumaze kugera kuri byinshi birimo n’umurima uhinzemo urutoki wa hegitari ebyiri”.Ubu ariko urwo rutoki rukaba nta musaruro ruratanga kuko rumaze umwaka umwe rutewe.

                    Nubwo bafashwa, aba baturage ngo bazi neza ko hari igihe kizagera bagacuka ntibongere gufashwa, ikaba ari na yo mpamvu ngo bazakomeza gufata neza ibyo bamaze kugeraho nk’uko bivugwa na Mukamusoni Marita umwe muri aba baturage.

                                                       
                    Mariya agira ati: “Ubu uyu murima uhinzemo urutoki twawuguze amafaranga agera kuri miliyoni enye, mbere nabaga mu nzu y’ibyatsi ariko ubu mfite inzu y’amabati kandi naguze n’amatungo ampa amafaranga.”

                    Kuba aba baturage bavuga ko bifuza kurushaho guharanira kugera ku iterambere, banabihuza n’Umuyobozi w’Akarere ka Bugesera Bwana Habimana. Na we avuga ko kugira ngo aba baturage babashe kugera ku ntego yabo, bakwiye kugira gahunda y’ibikorwa ndetse bagategura imishinga iciriritse myinshi, kuko Akarere kiteguye kuyibafashamo bakivana mu bukene ku buryo na bo bagera ku rwego rwo gufasha abandi.

                    Iyi gahunda y’Ikerekezo 2020 Umurenge, ubundi ifasha imiryango y’abasaza n’abakecuru barengeje imyaka 65, abantu badashoboye gukora ndetse n’abana b’imfubyi bibana; ku buryo ifasha umuryango byibura utarengeje abantu batanu.

                    Umuntu wa mbere akagenerwa amafaranga 250 abakurikiyeho bakagenda bagenerwa ari munsi yayo hakurikijwe amajanisha ku buryo umuryango w’abantu batanu uhabwa amafaranga 700 ku munsi.

                    Magingo aya muri uyu murenge wa Nyarugenge habarizwa abafashwa muri gahunda y’Ikerekezo 2020 Umurenge bagera kuri 450.

                    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

                    1. Abaturage bavugwa mu mwandiko bari babayeho bate mbere yo kwishyira hamwe?

                    2. Ese amafaranga bahereyeho mu mishinga ya koperative yabo bayakuye he?

                    3. Ese bazakomeza bafashwe ubuziraherezo?

                    4. Umunyamuryango utanga ubuhamya yabashije kwiteza imbere. Ni ibihe bintu bibiri bibihamya?

                    5. Ni iki umuntu umaze kwiteza imbere agomba kwibuka ?

                    II. Inyunguramagambo

                    Tanga ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira dusanga mu mwandiko:

                              a) Kwiteza imbere

                              b) Imishinga

                              c) Gucuka

                              d) Imishinga iciriritse

                    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

                    Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

                    Uzurisha izi nteruro amagambo wungukiye mu mwandiko:

                    a) Uko abantu barushaho kujijuka, ni ko barushaho ...............

                    b) Abakire tubona si ko batangiye ; bahereye ku kanyungu ............... bagenda bazamuka buhorobuhoro.

                    c) Harakabaho inama z’abayobozi! Gashugi uriya ejobundi ntiyari ............... none inama yo kwiga umushinga no kuguza banki ntitumye yikura mu bukene!

                    d) Bimaze kugaragara ko iwacu bamaze kwiteza imbere ............... wandihiriraga amashuri ............... nsigara ndihirwa n’ababyeyi bange.

                    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

                    1.Murabona umwandiko uteye nk’indi myandiko dusanzwe dusoma?

                    2.Muri uyu mwandiko bagiye bagaragaza ibyavuzwe n’abantu batandukanye. Murumva byaba bihuriye he no gutangaza amakuru y’ibyavuzwe?

                    3.Muvumbure uturango tw’uyu mwandiko mukurikije imiterere yawo.

                    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

                    Buri munyeshuri age mu isomera ashake ikinyamakuru runaka maze asome ibikubiyemo agereranya uko inkuru zirimo zagaragajwe agerarenyije n’inkuru twasomye.

                    Kwitabira gusoma

                    Muge mu masomero cyangwa mushakishe ibinyamakuru byanditse, musome inkuru zirimo mugereranya uko zanditse n’uko inkuru twasomye yanditse.

                    Inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru

                    Mu itsinda na bagenzi bawe, nimwitegereze umwandiko mwasomye maze mugire icyo muvuga ku buryo uteye n’ibice biwugize.

                    Inshoza y’inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru

                    Nk’uko byumvikana, inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru ni inyandiko abanyamakuru bakoresha kugira ngo bageze ku basomyi b’ibinyamakuru amakuru agezweho. Iyi nyandiko ishobora kuboneka mu kinyamakuru cyandikwa ku mpapuro cyangwa ikaboneka mu kinyamakuru gikoresha urubuga rwa interineti.

                    Uturango tw’inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru

                    Inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru igomba kuba yanditse ku buryo umusomyi agera ku makuru bitamugoye. Igomba kuba isubiza ibibazo bitandatu bikurikira: Nde? Iki? Hehe? Ryari? Kuki? Gute? Igomba kuba idacucitse kandi yanditse mu mpushya kugira ngo uyisoma yihute. Bitewe n’igihe afite, umusomyi ashobora gusoma umutwe wonyine, intangiriro, imitwe yo hagati, cyangwa agasoma inkuru yose. Ni ngombwa rero ko ibyo bice bitandukanywa, bikagaragarira buri musomyi.Inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru yuzuye irangwa no kugira ibice umunani: umutwe, intangiriro (igizwe n’inshamake y’inkuru yanditse ku buryo bwihariye), umwinjiro (utangira igihimba kandi hagomba kubonekamo ibisubizo by’ibibazo bine: Nde? Iki? Hehe? Ryari?), igihimba, ishusho (ishobora kuba ifoto, igishushanyo), igisobanuro k’ishusho, imitwe yo hagati, umusozo (ushobora kuba umwanzuro, ikibazo cyangwa urwenya).

                    Ushingiye ku buryo yubatse, inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru wasanga ishobora gukurikiza injyabihe y’ibikorwa ivugaho cyangwa ikagenda ivuga igikorwa n’inkurikizi zacyo.

                    Ushingiye ku bivugwamo, inyandiko z’ibinyamakuru wazisangamo amoko atandukanye: inyandiko itangira ikinyamakuru (yandikwa n’umuyobozi wacyo avuga umurongo gikoreramo), inshamake z’ibyabaye, inyandiko mvugo z’ibyabaye (iz’igikorwa cyangwa ibiganiro mpaka runaka), inkuru mbonankubone (umunyamakuru avuga igikorwa nk’uko yakibonye), ikiganiro n’umutangabuhamya (ibibazo n’ibisubizo), ubushakashatsi (gusobanura ikintu runaka uhuza ubuhamya butandukanye), intekerezo (ku nsanganyamatsiko runaka), ijora (ry’ibyavuzwe mu bitangazamakuru cyangwa mu bitabo).

                    Umwitozo ku nyandiko yo mu kinyamakuru

                    Mwubahirije ingeri y’umwandiko mwahawe, mwandike inkuru ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza imiterere y’inkuru yo mu kinyamakuru kandi mwubahirize imyandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda.

                    Insanganyamatsiko:

                    Fatanya na bagenzi bawe mu itsinda maze mwandike inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru ivuga ku bintu byabereye mu kigo cyanyu hanyuma muyigeze ku bandi mwigana.

                    Inshamake y’ibyizwe muri uyu mutwe wa munani

                    Muri uyu mutwe harimo imyandiko ihuriye ku nsanganyamatsiko y’ubufatanye no gukorera hamwe. Gukorera hamwe ni byiza kuko bituma abantu biteza imbere cyane ko baba bahuje imbaraga zabo. Kuba nyamwigendaho nta nyungu byamarira umuntu.

                    Mu bumenyi rusange bw’ururimi twabonye inkuru ishushanyije, inshoza n’uturango twayo. Inkuru ishushanyije iba igizwe n’amashusho aherekejwe n’amagambo agaragaza ibivugwa n’abanyarubuga ayo mashusho ahagarariye.

                    Twabonye kandi inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru. Inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru ni inyandiko ikoreshwa n’abanyamakuru kugira ngo batangaze amakuru runaka mu kinyamakuru cyanditse ku mpapuro cyangwa kuri interineti. Inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru yuzuye igira umutwe, intangiriro, umwinjiro, igihimba, ishusho n’igisobanuro cyayo, imitwe yo hagati n’umusozo.

                    Isuzuma rusange risoza umutwe wa munani

                    Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

                    Umwandiko: Inkingi imwe ntigera inzu
                    Abanyarwanda barihoreye bati: “Inkingi imwe ntigera inzu”. Maze kumva uyu mugani negereye ababyeyi bange mbabaza icyo uyu mugani usobanura. Nuko mama aba abwiye data ngo nabe ansubiza we agiye gutegura ameza, dore ko amasaha yo kurya yari yegereje. Nuko data ati: “Abakurambere nta cyo bavugaga bataragitekerejeho”. Anjyana mu nzu anyereka ifoto y’inzu ya kinyarwanda yari afite. Nyibonye nsanga ari uruziga kandi ifite inkingi. Arambwira ati: “Mu kubaka iyi nzu, bafataga igiti bakagishinga bakakizirikaho umugozi uhambiriyeho urumambo. Nuko bakazengurutsa rwa rumambo rugaca uruziga rungana n’uko bashaka ko inzu yabo ingana. Muri urwo ruziga bakaba ari ho bagenda bashinga inkingi baza guhambiraho imbariro. Ati: “Urumva rero mwana wange ko bacaga urwo ruziga bifashishije ibiti bibiri, ari byo bagereranyije n’inkingi.”

                    Amaze kunsobanurira inkomoko y’uwo mugani, nahise ngira amatsiko yo kumubaza icyo uwo mugani umaze mu gihe mu Rwanda inzu za nyakatsi zacitse ntawukigera inzu muri ubwo buryo. Data atwengatwenga, yahise ambwira ngo: “Umugani ntusaza uvuga ibihoraho. Gusa ubivuga mu marenga”. Yansobanuriye ko iyo baciye uyu mugani “Inkingi imwe ntigera inzu” baba bashaka kumvikanisha ko umuntu umwe ku giti ke atihagije, akenera abandi kugira ngo bungurane ibitekerezo, mbese bafatanye kugera ku ntego runaka, bakorera hamwe nko mu mashyirahamwe. Yakomeje kumpa ingero zo mu buzima busanzwe. Ambwira ko umukozi wa Leta yirirwa ku kazi akorera amafaranga, ko ayo mafaranga ahembwa atari yo atunga umubiri we, ahubwo ko ayaguramo ibiribwa byavuye mu mirima y’abahinzi. Abahinzi na bo bakenera gusakara inzu zabo bakajya kugura amategura ku babumbyi cyangwa amabati ku bacuruzi. Izi ngero zatumye numva nezaneza uyu mugani.

                    Nabajije data igituma Leta y’u Rwanda ihora ibwira abantu kwibumbira hamwe mu mashyirahamwe, mu makoperative no mu bwisungane mu kwivuza. Nuko ambwira ko Leta iba ishaka ko abantu bunganirana mu byo bakora. Iyo abantu bakoreye hamwe baruzuzanya, bahuza imbaraga zabo bagakora ibintu byinshi mu gihe gito. Yahise ambwira ko umuntu uri mu ishyirahamwe yunguka byinshi. Iyo yahuye n’abandi barasabana. Yaba ahuye n’ikibazo, abagize ishyirahamwe bakamufasha kugikemura. Numvise nange ari byiza kubana n’abandi tugahuza imbaraga kandi nkashyira hamwe na bo.

                    Twe duturanye n’inzu ikoreramo ishyirahamwe ry’ababoshyi b’uduseke. Birirwa baboha, abazungu bakaza kubashashura amafaranga. Iyo mama atagiyeyo, aba abwira data ngo yahombye, ngo mu ishyirahamwe ryabo banahigira byinshi. Mama yatubwiye ko abandi bagore bari mu ishyirahamwe bamwigishije uko bateka indyo yuzuye badakoresheje ibintu bihenze. Ibyo rero nabibajije data niba hari aho bihuriye na wa mugani nari namubajije. Nuko ahita anshima, anambwira ko nzaba injijuke ninkomeza kuganira n’ababyeyi kuko bansobanurira nkabyumva vuba. Yahise ambwira ko iyo mama ategera abandi baboshyi atari kumenya kudutekera neza.

                    Data abonye ibitotsi bitangiye kuntwara, yarambwiye ati: “Mwana wange kwibumbira hamwe mu mashyirahamwe ni byiza.” Arongera ati: “Abishyize hamwe ntakibananira.” Nuko ambwira ko no mu ishuri ngomba kuzajya nkorana na bagenzi bange mu matsinda, tukungurana ibitekerezo. Ibitunaniye tukazajya tubibaza umwarimu wacu. Nahise numva ko kwishyira hamwe bidasaba abantu bakuru gusa ko natwe abana tugomba kugira umuco wo gukorana ndetse no gufatanya na bagenzi bacu tukiri bato.

                    I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

                    1.Uyu mwandiko uravuga ku yihe nsanganyamatsiko?

                    2.Rondora akamaro k’amashyirahamwe kavuzwe mu mwandiko.

                    3.Ni iki uyu mubyeyi yabwiye umwana abonye ibitotsi bigiye kumutwara?

                    4.Nyina w’uyu mwana ubara inkuru yigiye he guteka neza?

                    5.Umwandiko urangira ute?

                    6.Ni iki ushima umubyeyi w’uyu mubarankuru.

                    7.Mu buzima busanzwe ubona gufatanya n’abandi ku ishuri byakugeza kuki?

                    8.Ni iki wungutse umaze gusoma uyu mwandiko?

                    II. Inyunguramagambo

                    1. Tanga ibisobanuro by’aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                                         a) Abakurambere                              d) Atwengatwenga

                                         b) Urumambo                                    e) Kubashashura

                                         c) Imbariro

                    2.Koresha aya magambo mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

                                 a) Gutwengatwenga               b) Imbariro

                    3.Uzuza izi nteruro ukoresheje amagambo ukuye mu mwandiko:

                    a) Umwana wiga agafata neza ibyo yize bamwita ...............

                    b) ............... ni igiti cyangwa ikintu gikoze mu cyuma gifata inzu.

                    c) Abantu ntibakirwara ngo bahere mu nzu bativuje kubera ko bafite..............

                    III. Ubuvanganzo

                    1.Rondora uturango tw’inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru.

                    2.Inkuru ishushanyije itandukaniye he n’izindi nkuru?

                    IV. Ihangamwandiko

                    Hanga inyandiko ngufi y’ikinyamakuru wumva yazashimisha bagenzi bawe mwigana ivuga ku ngingo yo gufashanya no gukorera hamwe.


                    • Umwandiko: Uburere buruta ubuvuke

                       

                      Murorunkwere ni umwana w’umukobwa uvuka mu muryango udakize cyane ariko wifashije. Yaravutse, arakura arerwa na se na nyina. Uko yigiraga ejuru yagendaga yitegereza akanigana imyitwarire n’imikorere y’ababyeyi be dore ko bari intangarugero mu gace bari batuyemo. Yize gukora imirimo itandukanye yo mu rugo. Igihe cyo gutangira ishuri cyarageze baramutangiza. Yiga ku ishuri riri ku ntera ntoya uvuye mu rugo rw’iwabo.

                      Iteka uko yavaga ku ishuri yashishikazwaga no kwereka ababyeyi be ibyo yigishijwe n’abarezi ku ishuri akanaboneraho no kubereka ibyamugoye. Ababyeyi be bakamufasha uko bashoboye. Inshuro nyinshi ababyeyi be banajyaga ibihe byo kumwitaho muri ubwo buzima bujyanye n’ishuri. Bakamutoza n’indi mirimo yo mu rugo igihe aruhutse ibijyanye n’ishuri.

                      Byageraga mu mpera y’icyumweru bakamuha uruhushya rwo kujya gusuhuza ba sekuru, abo mu miryango ya hafi ndetse n’inshuti n’abaturanyi. Ibyo byiciro byose by’umuryango byagendaga bigira uruhare mu kumutoza umuco n’uburere bubereye umwana uzavamo umwari w’u Rwanda. Yakuze akuza ubwenge. Aho yageraga hose bamushimiraga ikinyabupfura agira n’umwete akorana imirimo. N’aho yigaga ku ishuri, byari byaramenyekanye ko uburyo yitwara abukomora ku muco n’ingeso nziza yatojwe n’ababyeyi be kuva akimenya kuvuga. Uko bazaga kumusura, ababyeyi be babazaga abashinzwe imyitwarire uko umukobwa wabo yitwaye, ngo bumve niba hari icyo yaba yarahinduweho na bagenzi be baba badafite imico myiza.

                      Aho arangirije amashuri abanza yakomeje no mu yisumbuye aho yabonye ibaruwa imwemerera kwiga ku kigo gicumbikira abanyeshuri. Ababyeyi be ntibahweme kumwungura inama zerekeye uko akwiriye kwitwara mu buzima bwe bwa buri munsi. Nyina ntiyahwemaga kumusura igihe cyose itariki yo gusura abana ku ishuri yageraga. Aho amariye kugera mu bwangavu ibigeragezo n’ibishuko ntibyamutangwagaho. Abasore benshi bamusabaga urukundo, yaba abo bigana ku ishuri cyangwa se n’abandi. Ni mu gihe kandi uretse ubwitonzi yari afite yari n’ihoho ngo ngwino urore!

                      Ngo: “Inyana ni iya mweru” kandi ngo: “Ntayima nyina akabara.” Kurya nyina yari intangarugero, umuco mwiza yamutoje na we yari yarawugize intego. Birakwiye kuko ngo :“Izina ni ryo muntu”. Murorunkwere yari murore unkwere koko. Yakomeje kuba umwari w’umutima nk’uko yari yarabitojwe kuva mu bwana. N’abagerageje kumushukisha impano z’urudaca, akabashwishuriza ababwira ko umwari w’u Rwanda adakwiye kugurwa nk’itungo kandi ko “Amagara ataguranwa amagana”. Yabahakaniraga avuga ko igihe gikwiriye nikigera azakoshwa nk’uko izina rye ribivuga.

                      Ntibyatinze aba arangije kaminuza. Murorunkwere ntiyiyandaritse. Ahubwo yahoraga yibaza icyo azakora ngo yiture umuryango we wamuhaye uburere n’umurongo agenderaho, n’inama nziza akabasha gutsinda irari n’ibishuko by’isi. Yasanze rero ik’ingenzi ari ugukomeza kubumvira no kubagisha inama mu gihe ategereje kubona akazi kazatuma abona amafaranga ngo abone uburyo yabakorera igikorwa kigaragarira buri wese. Igihe cyarageze abona akazi keza k’ubujyanama mu by’ubuhinzi dore ko yari yarize mu Ishami ry’Ubuhinzi muri kaminuza. Akomeza kwitwara neza mu mibereho ye no guhesha agaciro umuryango wamwibarutse ukanamurera. Yubakira iwabo inzu y’akataraboneka ijyanye n’igihe.

                      Mu gihe kitarambiranye yaje gushimwa n’umusore w’umuganga ku bitaro bikuru. Uyu musore yari akubutse mu mahanga kuyaminuza - ndavuga amashuri si amahanga - akaba na we yarakuze ari nyiri ubupfura mu muryango yarerewemo. Barakundana bemeranya kubana; ndetse bararushinga. Bereka Imana, ubuyobozi n’ababyeyi ibirori byiza. Muri ibyo birori hari hateguwe amafunguro meza, ateguranye isuku kandi yagenzuwe neza ko yujuje ubuziranenge. Abanyamakuru na bo bari bashitse bifatira amajwi n’amashusho yo gutangaza mu nyandiko z’ibinyamakuru byabo. Hari n’abivugiye ko ubwo bukwe bagiye kububyazamo inkuru zishushanyije zo kwigisha abakiri bato kwitoza uburere bwiza. Murorunkwere n’umugabo we baratunga baratunganirwa babikesha uburere bwiza bakesha umuryango.

                      I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

                      1. Shaka imigani migufi iri muri uyu mwandiko nurangiza unasobanure igihe ikoreshwa ugendeye ku mikoreshereze yayo mu mwandiko.

                      2.Rondora abanyarubuga bavugwa muri uyu mwandiko.

                      3.Erekana mu buryo burambuye imyitwarire yaranze Murorunkwere.

                      4.Ni izihe nyungu Murorunkwere yagize kubera iyo myitwarire ye myiza?

                      5.Sobanura imyitwarire y’ababyeyi ba Murorunkwere ku bijyanye n’uburezi n’uburere bw’umukobwa wabo.

                      6.Muri uyu mwandiko hari ahavuzwemo gufata amafoto, gushyira mu nkuru zishushanyije no mu nyandiko z’ibinyamakuru. Ni ba nde?

                      7.Sobanura igikorwa k’iterambere Murorunkwere yituye ababyeyi be.

                      8.Sobanura akamaro k’ishuri kagaragara mu mwandiko.

                      II. Inyunguramagambo

                      1.Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo cyangwa amatsinda y’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                                     a) Umwari                     c) Ihoho                 e) Agaciro

                                     b) Ubwangavu             d) Ubupfura          f ) Akabashwishuriza.

                      2.Mu byerekezo byose bishoboka (harimo n’impuzampembe), shaka amagambo avuga ku burezi n’uburere ari muri iki kinyatuzu: Urugero: Umuryango

                      III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

                      Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

                      1.Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

                             a) Wifashije                c) Akataraboneka              e) Agaciro

                             b) Ubwangavu           d) Ibishuko

                      2. Uzuza interuro zikurikira wifashishije amagambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                      a) .................... duhabwa n’ababyeyi bugomba kuturanga aho turi hose.

                      b) Abana b’ .................... bageze mu gihe cy’ubwangavu batozwa kutiyandarika.

                      c) Imyambaro yacu tuyigirira .................... kugira ngo duhore dukeye.

                      d) Umunsi w’ubukwe aba ari umunsi w’ ....................

                      IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

                      1.Uyu mwandiko uri mu buhe bwoko bw’imyandiko ? Sobanura impamvu.

                      2.Erekana ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

                      3.Insanganyamatsiko ivugwa mu mwandiko ihuriye he n’ubuzima busanzwe bwa buri munsi.

                      4.Sobanura muri make ibikubiye mu gika cya nyuma cy’uyu mwandiko.

                      Imyandikire yemewe y’ikinyarwanda

                      Amagambo yandikwa afatanye

                      Soma interuro zikurikira maze witegereze imyandikire y’amagambo y’umukara tsiri, uvuge imiterere n’uburyo bw’imyandikirwe yayo.

                      a) Ababyeyi be bari intangarugero muri ako gace batuyemo.

                      b) Uko bazaga kumusura ababyeyi be babazaga abashinzwe imyitwarire uko umukobwa wabo yitwaye.

                      c) Ntawutarabajije niba hari icyo yaba yarahinduweho na bagenzi be.

                      d) Cyanecyane nyina ntiyahwemaga kumusura igihe cyose itariki yo gusura y’ishuri ryabo yageraga.

                      e) Icyakora akabahakanira avuga ko igihe gikwiriye nikigera azakoshwa nk’uko izina rye ribivuga.

                      f ) Yahoraga yibaza icyo azakora ngo yiture umuryango we wamuhaye umurongo agenderaho.

                      g) Abanyamakuru na bo bari bashitse bifatira ibyo gutangaza mu binyamakuru byabo.

                      h) Biteguye ko ubwo bukwe bagiye kububyazamo inkuru zishushanyije.

                      Muri izi nteruro harimo amagambo yanditswe afatanye n’andi yanditswe adafatanye.

                      Amabwiriza agenga ifatana ry’amagambo mu myandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda ari mu ngingo zinyuranye:

                      Imyandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda iteganya amagambo yandikwa afatanye aha hakurikira:

                      Ingingo ya 1:

                                Amazina y’inyunge harimo n’amazina bwite y’inyunge yandikwa afatanye.

                      Ingero:     - Umwihanduzacumu

                                       - Rugwizangoga

                      Ingingo ya 2:

                                 Ibyungo“na” na “nka” bikurikiwe n’ibinyazina ngenga bivuga nyakuvuga na nyakubwirwa (ngenga ya1n’iya 2) byandikwa mu ijambo rimwe.

                      Ingero:     - Ndumva nawe umeze nkange.

                                       - Ndabona natwe tumeze nkamwe.

                      Ingingo ya 3:

                                  Ikinyazina ngenera gikurikiwe n’ikinyazina ngenga byandikwa mu ijambo rimwe.

                       Ingero:           - Umwana wange.

                                              - Amafaranga yabo.

                      Ingingo ya 4:

                              Impakanyi “nta” yandikwa ifatanye n’inshinga itondaguye iyikurikiye.

                                     - Iwacu ntawurwaye.

                                     - Muri iri shuri ntabatsinzwe.

                      Ingingo ya 5:

                      Ibinyazina ngenga byo mu nteko ndangahantu “ho”, “yo”, “mo (mwo)” n’akajambo “ko” bifatana n’inshinga bikurikiye mu gihe iyo nshinga atari “ni” cyangwa “si”.

                      Ingero:  - Wa mugabo nimusangayo turagenderako ntitugaruka.

                                     - Umuryango we wamuhaye umurongo agenderaho.

                      Ingingo ya 6:

                                   Ijambo “ni” rikurikiwe n’inshinga ifite inshoza yo gutegeka cyangwa iyo guteganya ryandikwa rifatanye na yo.

                      Ingero:   - Nimugende mudasanga imodoka yabasize.

                                      - Nimugerayo muzamunsuhurize.

                      Ingingo ya 7:

                              Amagambo yerekana ibihe yandikwa mu ijambo rimwe: “nimunsi”, “nijoro (ninjoro)”, “nimugoroba”, “ejobundi”.

                      Ingero:  - Aragera ino nijoro.

                                     - yatashye ejobundi.

                      Ingingo ya 8:

                           Ijambo “munsi” ryerekana ahantu na ryo ryandikwa mu ijambo rimwe.

                      Urugero:   - Imbeba yihishe munsi y’akabati.

                      Ingingo ya 9:

                           Imigereka ndangahantu iremewe ku ndangahantu “i” (imuhira, iheru, iburyo,ibumoso, ivure, imbere, inyuma, ibwami...) n’amagambo akomoka kuri “i” y’indangahantu ikurikiwe n’ikinyazina ngenera “wa”, n’ikinyazina ngenga yandikishwa ijambo rimwe.

                      Ingero:   - Nujya iburyo ndajya ibumoso.

                                      - Mbwirira abari ikambere bazimanira abashyitsi.

                                      - Nimuza iwacu nzishima.

                      Ingingo ya 10:

                                   Amagambo afatiwe hamwe akarema inyumane y’umugereka, inyumane y’icyungo cyangwa iy’irangamutima akomoka ku binyazina bitakibukwa amazina bisimbura yandikwa afatanye.

                      Ingero:    - Niko, uraza?

                                       - Urahinga nuko uteza.

                      Ingingo ya 11:

                      Amagambo ashingiye ku isubiramo yandikwa afatanye.

                      Ingero:   - Perezida yavuze ijambo arangije amashyi ngo: “kacikaci”!

                                      - Babwire bage binjira umwumwe.

                      Ingingo ya 12:

                         Ijambo “nyiri” iyo riri mu mazina amwe n’amwe y’icyubahiro rifatana n’ijambo ririkurikiye.

                      Ingero:    - Nyiricyubahiro Musenyeri

                                       - Nyirubutungane Papa

                      Umwitozo ku myandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda

                      Buri munyeshuri nakore neza umwitozo ku myandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda.

                      Witaye ku bumenyi bw’ururimi umaze gusobanukirwa, andukura bundi bushya ibi bika byombi bikurikira ukosora amakosa y’imyandikire yaba arimo.

                      umuco nyarwanda ntugacike. Umva rero mwana wa nge buriya ukwiye kugerageza kwitwara nka twe. kuko mu bintu byose umuntu uzi ubwenge agenda yigira ku babyeyi be agakurikiza inama za bo. Birumvikana ariko agomba gukurikiza imyitwarire ya bo igihe bagaragaza ubunyanga mugayo wongeye ho n’ikinya bupfura. Ibyo ari byo byose ndumva natwe tutarakubereye ababyeyi babi.

                      Si ibyo gusa kandi; ahubwo ni witwara neza mu buzima bwa we, nta kizaguhungabanya, kandi nta wuzaguhutaza na rimwe cyangwa ngo agusuzugure. Uhereye ubu uge witabira ishuri kandi wubahe abarezi ba we. Inama nziza bakugira buri munsi uzikurikize. Ntukaziteshukeho ngo ugane i buryo cyangwa i bumoso bwa zo. Ni ujya ugera i muhira uge uruhuka ho gato, nijoro usubire mu masomo yawe cyane cyane ayo utumvise neza. Ibi byose nkubwiye mwana wa nge nubikurikiza uzabona abandi bagushyigikira maze iwacu muhateze imbere.

                      Amagambo yandikwa atandukanye

                      Soma interuro zikurikira maze witegereze imyandikire y’amagambo y’umukara tsiri, uvuge imiterere n’uburyo bw’imyandikirwe yayo:

                      a) Dore ko ababyeyi be bari intangarugero aho batuye.

                      b) Yiga ku ishuri riri ku ntera ntoya uvuye mu rugo rw’iwabo.

                      c) Na we agashishikazwa no kwereka ababyeyi be ibyo yigishijwe.

                      d) “Inyana ni iya mweru” kandi ngo: “Uko muturera ni ko tuzakura”.

                      e) Akababwira ko umwari w’u Rwanda adakwiye kugurwa nk’itungo.

                      f ) Akaba na we yarakuze ari nyiri ubupfura mu muryango yarerewemo.

                      g) Hari abivugiye ko ubwo bukwe bagiye kububyazamo inkuru shusho.

                      Muri izi nteruro harimo amagambo yanditswe afatanye n’andi yanditswe adafatanye.

                      Amabwiriza agenga itandukana ry’amagambo mu myandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda:

                      Imyandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda iteganya amagambo yandikwa atandukanye aha hakurikira:

                      Ingingo ya 1:

                          Amagambo mfutuzi yandikwa atandukanye n’amagambo afuturwa.

                      Ingero:        - Inama Njyanama           - Inyandiko mvugo

                      Ingingo ya 2:

                           Amazina nteruro agizwe n’amagambo arenze ane yo mu bisingizo, mu byivugo no mu migani yandikwa atandukanyijwe kandi agashyirwa mu twuguruzo n’utwugarizo.

                      Ingero:  - Ubwo “Inshyikanya ku mubiri ya Rugema ahica” aba arahashinze.

                                     - “Saruhara rwa Nkomokomo umwami w’ibishwi n’ibisiga.”

                      Ingingo ya 3:

                           Ibyungo “na” na “nka” bikurikiwe n’ibinyazina ngenga bivuga nyakuvugwa (ngenga ya 3) byandikwa bitandukanye n’ibinyazina ngenga.

                      Ingero:   - Ndumva na we ameze nka bo.

                                      - Ndabona na ko kameze nka bwo.

                      Ingingo ya 4:  

                             Impakanyi “nta” yandikwa itandukanye n’ubundi bwoko bw’ijambo riyikurikiye ritari inshinga itondaguye.

                      Ingero:        - Nta we mbona.                   - Nta cyo ndwaye.

                      Ingingo ya 5:

                      Ibinyazina ngenga byo mu nteko ndangahantu “ho”, “yo”, “mo(mwo)” n’akajambo “ko” bitandukana n’inshinga ibikurikiye mu gihe iyo nshinga ari “ni” cyangwa “si”.

                      Ingero:      - Ni ho ngiye.           

                                         - Si ko avuze

                      Ingingo ya 6:

                             Akajambo “ko” kunga inyangingo ebyeri gatandukana n’amagambo agakikije.

                      Ingero:     - Nizeye ko tuzatsinda.             

                                        - Hari abivugiye ko ubwo bukwe bagiye kububyazamo inkuru zishushanyije.

                      Ingingo ya 7:

                             Urujyano rurimo ijambo “ngo” kimwe n’ibinyazina “wa wundi”, “bya bindi”, “aho ngaho”, “uwo nguwo” n’ibindi biremetse nka byo byandikwa mu magambo abiri.

                      Ingero:   - Kugira ngo wa wundi atakubura, ukwiye kuba ugumye aho ngaho.

                                      - Fata aka ngaka, ibyo ngibyo bireke.

                      Ingingo ya 8:

                           Amagambo “ku” na “mu” yandikwa atandukanye n’ikinyazina ngenera ndetse no mu magambo “ku wa” na “mu wa” abanziriza itariki cyangwa umubare mu izina ry’umunsi.

                      Ingero:     - Sindiho ku bwabo.

                                        - Navutse ku wa 12 Ugushyingo.

                                         - Azaza ku wa Mbere.-

                                         -Yiga mu wa Kane.

                      Ingingo ya 9:

                           Ijambo “(i) saa”, rikurikiwe n’umubare byerekana isaha byandikwa mu magambo atandukanye.

                      Ingero:      - Abashyitsi barahagera saa tatu.

                                         - I saa yine haba hakiri kare.

                      Ingingo ya 10:

                              Indangahantu “i” ikurikiwe n’izina bwite ry’ahantu yandikwa itandukanye n’iryo zina.

                      Ingero:    - i Kirinda

                                       - i Muyunzwe

                      Ingingo ya 11:

                          Inshinga mburabuzi “ari” iyo ikoreshejwe mu nyangingo ngaragira yandikwa itandukanye n’ikinyazina kiyibanziriza n’ikiyikurikira.

                      Ingero:      - Itegeko rihana umuntu uwo ari we wese wangiza umutungo wa Leta.

                                         - Ibyo ari byo byose sindara ntaje kukureba.

                      Ingingo ya 12:

                          Amagambo ahuje ishusho n’inyumane, ibinyazina biri kumwe bikerekeza ku kintu kizwi cyangwa kibukwa mu buryo bugaragara byandikwa bitandukanye.

                      Ingero:     - Uko arya ni ko akora.

                                        - Uku kwezi ni uko guhinga.

                      Ingingo ya 13:

                            Amazina bwite y’ibihungu n’ay’uturere afite indomo yandikwa atandukanye n’iyo ndomo. Iyo ndomo ikandikwa mu nyuguti nto, keretse iyo itangira interuro.

                      Ingero:     - A Marangara n’i Gisaka ni tumwe mu turere twa kera tuvugwa mu mateka y’u Rwanda.

                                        - U Bubirigi ni kimwe mu bihugu by’i Burayi.

                      Ingingo ya 14:

                            Akabimbura “nyiri” n’inshinga mburabuzi “ni” na “si” byandikwa bitandukanye n’amazina abikurikiye.

                      Ingero:      - Nyiri ubwenge aruta nyiri uburyo.

                                         - Amasunzu si amasaka.

                                         - Umwana ni umutware.

                      Umwitozo ku myandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda

                      Buri munyeshuri nakore neza umwitozo ku myandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda.

                      Witaye ku bumenyi bw’ururimi umaze gusobanukirwa, andukura bundi bushya ibi bika byombi bikurikira ukosora amakosa y’imyandikire yaba arimo.

                      koko Ubwenge burarahurwa. umunyeshuri yakundaga kwitabira ishuri. Igihe kiragera yiga mu ishami ry’indimi, maze agakunda kwitabira ibiganirompaka.

                      Kubera ubuhanga abantu bamubonanaga, iyo bakoraga inama niwe basabaga kuzikorera inyandikomvugo. Aho arangirije amashuri yisumbuye, ategereje kujya mu mashuri makuru, doreko yari yagize amanota abimwemerera, yabaye yikorera ibihangano by’umuco nyarwanda. Ahanga ibyivugo n’imigani miremire agakoreshamo na ya magambo atoroshye gukoresha nka “SaruhararwaNkomokomo umwamiw’ibishwin’ibisiga”, “InshyikanyakumubiriyaRugemahica”, “Rukubira umukakarwagikenyamukambwe ikaba impyisiy’umukubita igatwara inkotamukanwa iti: ‘Ubwonzamutse RukomaninkamanukanaBikomomuzankuremuri izimpyisi’ ”.

                      ageze n’ahongaho muri kaminuza, yabwiye bagenzi bekoinzozi ze ari izo kuba umuntu ukomeye. Nibyo kandi koko ngo: “Ushaka arashobora”. Ibyo aribyo byose amashuri ye yayarangije afite amanota menshi bihebuje, ahita abona akazi keza k’ubusemuzi kwa Nyir’icyubahiro Musenyeri. Kuberako yakomeje kugaragaza ubuhanga n’umurava, yazamuwe mu ntera ahabwa gukomeza uwo murimo kwa Nyiri ubutungane Paapâ.

                      Umwandiko: Akamaro k’ishuri


                           Reka nkurate shuri ryiza
                           Reka nkurate shuri ryacu
                           Reka nkurate ubwiza bwawe
                           Reka nkuratire abatakuzi
                      5.  Reka ngushime umunsi wire.

                           Kutakumenya si uguhirwa
                           Kutakumenya ni ugucikwa
                           Kutaguhabwa ni uguhezwa
                           Kutakugana ni uguhomba
                      10.Igihombo rwose ni icyo ngicyo.

                            Igihe cyose mbyuka ngenda
                            Ibitabo ntwaye ari umutwaro
                            Umunsi ukira mpabwa ubwenge
                            Na wa mubyeyi nkesha byinshi
                      15. Umurezi wange ushimwa iteka.

                             Akamaro kawe si ukubeshya
                             Ibyo wahaye abagusanze
                             Byarafatitse twarashimye
                             Uburere utanga buraturanga
                      20.  Turi intwari murabireba.

                             Uburezi utanga ni agaciro
                             N’ubumenyi bwawe byarahujwe
                             Biba umusingi w’iterambere
                             Ubu ubukungu ni akayabo
                      25.  Bikeshwa ishuri ingenzi nziza.

                              Na buri wese ahabwe umwanya
                              Kabone n’iyo yaba arwaye
                              afite ubumuga cyangwa ikindi
                              Cyamubuza kugana ishuri
                      30.   Bisigare rwose ari amateka.

                               Igihe gikunze barakwize
                               Ubujiji bwose bwaragiye
                               N’imizi yabwo twarataye
                               Amahoro agahinda nta muhezo
                        35.  Impundu zikagwira ari umutuzo.

                               Ubuyobozi bwiza ari ukubera
                               Ibere ryawe shuri ryiza
                               N’ikinyabupfura wadutoje
                               Gukorana umwete ari ibisanzwe
                       40.   Kunoza umurimo ari umusozo.

                               Shuri ryacu soko y’ubumenyi
                               Murage udutoza isuku n’ubupfura
                               Komeza urere, urerere Imana
                               Ari uru Rwanda , ari amahanga
                        45.  Amashyi n’impundu bibe urufaya

                               Ari ugushima ibyo tugukesha.
                               Reka tugusange tutiganda
                               Tugire ubumenyi n’ubumenyi ngiro
                               Tube injijuke z’ingeri zose
                        50.  Tugire ubuhanzi buhindura n’isi.

                                Duhange udushya, ubukungu buze
                                Duhunike ibigega n’amabanki
                                Duhuze urubyaro n’umusaruro
                                Uwiga yigire kurwanya ikibi
                        55.   Shuri waje uri ntagereranywa.

                                 Mugongo mugari uheka bose
                                 Ari abahanga bumva bwangu,
                                 Abafite ubumuga n’izindi nzitizi
                                 Iyo mu byaro n’imigi ikomeye
                                 Ntawakugannye utiteza imbere
                        61.   Itekiteka gahore uganje!

                      I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

                      1.Uyu mwandiko uravuga ku ki? Icyo kintu kiravugwaho iki?

                      2.Erekana inyungu yo gukurikirana neza inzira y’ishuri.

                      3.Abanyarwanda bagira bati: “Kutiga biragatsindwa”. Sobanura iyi mvugo wifashishije ibivugwa mu mwandiko.

                      4.Sobanura ibyiciro by’abantu bashimwa muri uyu mwandiko.

                      5.Sobanura ukuntu uburezi n’ubumenyi ishuri ritanga bishobora kongera umutungo.

                      6. Uyu mwandiko uravuga iki ku barwayi n’abafite ubumuga?

                      7.Erekana aho ubuyobozi bwiza buhuriye n’ibivugwa muri uyu mwandiko?

                      8.Ni uwuhe mugenzo mwiza ujyanye n’umuco w’Abanyarwanda wo gushimira wavuzwe mu mwandiko?

                      II. Inyunguramagambo

                      1.Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                              a) Byarafatitse       d) Injijuke

                              b) Rubebe              e) Urubyaro

                              c) Akayabo

                      2.Shaka impuzanyito z’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                              a) Guhezwa                            c) Gusanga

                              b) Ubukungu bwinshi           d) Ingenzi

                      3.Shaka imbusane z’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                              a) Igihombo              c) Inzitizi

                              b) Ushimwa              d) Abagusanze

                      III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

                      Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

                      Koresha neza amagambo akurikira dusanga mu mwandiko mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

                                   a) Abatakuzi                     c) Umubyeyi           e) Ubumuga                   

                                   b) Umutwaro                    d) Uburezi

                      IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

                      1.Uyu mwandiko uri mu buhe bwoko bw’imyandiko?

                      2.Garagaza uturango twa bene ubwo bwoko bw’umwandiko.

                      3.Erekana aho insanganyamatsiko y’uyu mwandiko ihuriye n’ubuzima busanzwe bwa buri munsi?

                      4.Garagaza ibindi bintu birebana n’ishuri ubona bitavuzweho muri uyu mwandiko.

                      V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

                      Andika mu magambo make ibitekerezo byawe ku kamaro k’ishuri mu burezi n’uburere by’umwana kandi wubahirize amabwiriza y’imyandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda.

                      Umwandiko: Akamaro k’itorero


                      Umuhungu Karinda na mushiki we Kazuba begereye se na nyina mu cyumba cy’uruganiriro maze babasaba kubasobanurira ibijyanye n’itorero batari basobanukiwe neza. Ubwo hari nyuma yo gufata amafunguro ya nimugoroba. Se rero aterura abasobanurira mu buryo bwimbitse ibijyanye n’itorero. Yababwiye ko mu Rwanda rwo hambere Abanyarwanda bari bazi gutoza abana babo uburere bukwiye umuntu nyamuntu, kandi ibyo bigakorwa bakiri bato cyane, dore ko “Igiti kigororwa kikiri gito.”

                      Ubu buryo bwo gutoza abantu bakiri bato wasangaga bugabye mu mashami abiri. Umwana w’umukobwa yatozwaga na nyina umubyara, akamwigisha imirimo yo mu rugo, akagenda amutoza ibishoboka byose bijyanye no gutunganya gahunda z’urugo. Iyo umukobwa yamaraga kuba umwangavu bamutozaga kujya asanga ab’urungano rwe bakitoza gukora imirimo y’amaboko ibagenewe irimo: kuboha ibikoresho bitandukanye, gukora imitako n’ibindi. Ibi bigatuma amenya byinshi atari azi dore ko “Akanyoni katagurutse katamenya iyo bweze.” Akamenya no kubana n’abandi no gufatanya na bo kuko “Umutwe umwe wigira inama yo gusara.”

                      Umwana w’umuhungu yigiraga kuri se, akamureberaho imirimo ya kigabo itandukanye. Umuhungu umaze kuba ingimbi yoherezwaga mu itorero aho yitorezaga indangagaciro na kirazira by’umuco nyarwanda. Ngo: “Agahugu umuco akandi umuco” ariko nanone “Agahugu katagira umuco karacika.” Si iby’umuco yatozwaga gusa, ahubwo yigaga n’imyitozo ijyanye n’urugamba kugira ngo nibiba ngombwa azashobore kurengera ubusugire bw’Igihugu. Bigishwaga imyitozo ijyanye no kumasha no guhamya intego, batibagiwe no gukinga no kwizibukira. Bitozaga gutera icumu, kwiruka, gusimbuka, imyiyereko itandukanye, kuba intyoza mu kuvugira mu ruhame, kwivuga no gukesha igitaramo. Bigiragamo no kumenya kwihagararaho imbere y’abashaka kubaserereza no kubacyocyora kuko banatozwaga kutaba ibifura. Ikindi bakanigiramo kubaha, kwitwararika amabwiriza y’ababakuriye no gushyira ibintu ku murongo.

                      Abakobwa na bo bajyaga mu rubohero bakigishwa imirimo ya kigore. Bigaga ibijyanye n’isuku, kuboha, gutaka, kugira ibanga, kubaha, gufata abagabo neza, kwakira abashyitsi n’ibindi bizabafasha kubaka ingo zabo neza.

                      Ubu rero nabwo itorero rifitiye Abanyarwanda akamaro kanini cyane. Ritoza abantu bo mu byiciro binyuranye no mu ngeri zitandukanye ibijyanye n’umuco ndetse n’agaciro by’Abanyarwanda. Uru ni urubuga Abanyarwanda bose bagomba gutorezwamo indangagaciro na kirazira by’umuco nyarwanda. Bakibukiranya uko aba kera batozwaga gukunda igihugu n’ ubunyangamugayo, bakibutswa gukorera ku mihigo, gukunda umurimo no kuwunoza cyane ko “Umurunga w’iminsi ari umurimo.” Ikindi, batozwa kwihesha agaciro, kubahiriza amasezerano bya gipfura kuko “Aho imfura zisezeraniye ari ho zihurira”, ihatanze indi ikahanambira.

                      Abanyarwanda bakwiye kwitabira itorero bagakangukira kuba intore. Bagaharanira kwishakira ibisubizo by’ibibazo bahura na byo mu buzima. Bakabungabunga umuco nyarwanda, bakubaka u Rwanda ruhamye kandi rugendera ku ndangagaciro. Abato bakigira ibyiza ku bakuru kuko ngo: “Uticaranye na se ntamenya icyo sekuru yasize avuze”. Bakibumbira hamwe, bagafatanya kandi bakajya inama kuko “Nta mugabo umwe”, “Abantu ni magirirane,” kandi “Abagiye inama Imana irabasanga.” Batibagiwe kandi kwirinda icyabasubiza inyuma mu iterambere bamaze kugeraho kuko intore ari umurinzi w’ibyagezweho.

                      Iki kiganiro ntikihariwe na se gusa; ahubwo na nyina wa Karinda na Kazuba yari kumwe na bo, akagenda anyuzamo akunganira umugabo we. Nuko Karinda na mushiki we Kazuba bashimira ababyeyi babo kuri ayo makuru babahaye abunganira mu burezi n’uburere bwabo. Bishimira ko bizabafasha mu kuzagira uruhare mu kubaka Igihugu cyabo.

                      I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

                      1.Rondora abanyarubuga bavugwa muri uyu mwandiko.

                      2.Se w’aba bana yababwiye ko mu itorero bigiragamo iki?

                      3.Garagaza uruhare rwa nyina w’aba bana muri iki kiganiro.

                      4. Tanga imigani migufi itatu ukuye muri uyu mwandiko uvuge n’icyo ikwigishije.

                      5.Erekana uko abakobwa bageze mu gihe cy’ubwangavu bitabwagaho.

                      6.Vuga zimwe mu ndangagaciro z’umuco nyarwanda uhereye kuri uyu mwandiko.

                      7.Uyu mwandiko ugaragaza ute umuntu nyamuntu?

                      8.Gereranya itorero ryo mu gihe cya kera n’iry’ubu uvuge n’akamaro karyo muri rusange.

                      II. Inyunguramagambo

                      1.Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                              a) Itorero                  c) Kumasha             e) Intyoza

                              b) Gukinga               d) Kuzibukira           f ) Igifura

                      2. Huza amagambo yo mu ruziga A n’ibisobanuro byatanzwe mu ruziga

                         

                      III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

                      Umunyeshuri nakoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

                      Koresha neza amagambo akurikira dusanga mu mwandiko mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

                          a) Gutoza               c) Indangagaciro          e)Ubunyangamugayo

                          b) Umwangavu     d) Urugamba

                      IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

                      1.Uyu mwandiko uri mu buhe bwoko bw’imyandiko?

                      2.Garagaza uturango twa bene ubwo bwoko bw’umwandiko.

                      3.Erekana ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

                      4.Mugereranye ubuzima mubamo bwo ku ishuri n’ibyagaragajwe mu mwandiko byakorerwaga mu itorero.

                      V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

                      Kwitoza no gushishikarira gusoma

                      Buri munyeshuri nakore umwitozo wo kujya gukora ubushakashatsi mu nzu y’isomero.

                      Jya mu isomero ushake inyandiko zivuga ku burere n’uburezi, ibyo usomye ubyandike neza uzabisangize abandi ugaragaza uburere bwiza mu mvugo no mu nyandiko iboneye.

                      Imigani migufi

                      Soma interuro zikurikira uzitekerezeho hanyuma uvuge imiterere yazo ugendeye ku butumwa bukubiyemo.

                          - Uburere buruta ubuvuke.

                          - Igiti kigororwa kikiri gito.

                           - Agahugu umuco akandi umuco.

                           - Agahugu katagira umuco karacika.

                           - Nta mugabo umwe.

                            - Abantu ni magirirane.

                            - Abagiye inama Imana irabasanga.

                      Inshoza y’imigani migufi

                      Imigani migufi ni interuro ngufi iba ikubiyemo ubutumwa mu buryo bw’amarenga. Imigani migufi ikoresha imvugo igizwe n’amagambo make nyamara igisobanuro ari kirekire. Bayita kandi imigani y’imigenurano kubera ko ikoreshwa ifite ikintu runaka igenuriraho cyangwa ikurizaho.

                      Imigani migufi bayikoresha batanga impanuro, inyigisho cyangwa bagira ngo bagire ibyo bakosora mu buzima bwacu bwa buri munsi, ndetse bakaba banakwerekana ibikwiye gukorwa bakangurira umuntu kubyitabira. Iyi ngeri y’ubuvanganzo ikubiyemo ubuhanga buhanitse bityo ikagaragaza umuntu wakenetse ururimi ndetse n’umuco wa ba nyirarwo.

                      Uturango tw’umugani mugufi

                      Umugani mugufi urangwa no kuba ugizwe n’amagambo make; ukoresha imvugo ica amarenga ku buryo uyibwiwe rimwe na rimwe adahita yumva icyo bashatse kuvuga atarebeye mu bwenge icyo bakurijeho. Umugani w’umugenurano uba ugizwe n’ibice bibiri by’interuro byuzuzanya. Ingingo zo mu buzima zifatirwaho imigenurano ni nyinshi kandi ntawamenya uwahimbye umugenurano.

                      Umugani mugufi usobanurwa mu buryo bubiri:

                      Uburyo bwa mbere ni uburyo bwa kamere yawo bukoresha imvugo itaziguye; ni ukuvuga igisobanuro cy’amagambo awugize ubwawo nk’interuro.

                      Uburyo bwa kabiri ni ubw’amarenga bushushanya, busaba uwo bawuciriye kwitonda agakoresha inyurabwenge kugira ngo avumbure ubutumwa bukubiyemo.

                      Ingero z’imigani migufi isobanuye:

                      a) Ntawuvuma iritararenga.

                      Uburyo bwa mbere (kumva amagambo agize interuro): Hano iryo bavuga rirenga ni “izuba.” “Kuvuma” byo bisobanuye; gutuka cyangwa kwifuriza umuntu nabi. Ubwo bishatse kuvuga ko ntawutuka izuba ritararenga.

                      Uburyo bwa kabiri (uburyo bw’amarenga): Uyu mugani ushatse gusobanura ko ntawukwiye kwiheba burundu kubera ibibazo ahuye na byo kuko bishobora guhinduka mu kanya gato agahembuka. Bawucira umuntu bitewe n’ibibazo by’ubuzima ahuye na byo bagira ngo bamwihanganishe areke kwiheba.

                      b) Agapfa kaburiwe ni impongo:

                      Uburyo bwa mbere: Kuburira ni ukugira inama. Impongo ni ubwoko bw’inyamaswa. Ni ukuvuga ko impongo ari inyamaswa ipfa kandi yari yagiriwe inama zo gukira.

                      Uburyo bwa kabiri: Uyu mugani ushatse gusobanura ko igihe cyose umuntu ahawe inama nziza ntazikurikize ashobora guhura n’ibibazo bikomeye. Bawucira umuntu bagira ngo bamukebure agaruke mu murongo, adashyira ubuzima bwe mu kaga.

                      c) Igiti kigororwa kikiri gito:

                      Ubusanzwe abamenyereye iby’ubuhinzi babona ko iyo ushaka kugira isura runaka uha igiti, ugomba kubikora kikiri gito kitarakomera. Iyo ugoroye igiti kimaze gukura cyararengeranye, kiravunika. Uyu mugani rero bawuca bagereranya igiti n’umwana; bakaba bashaka kuvuga ko umwana ahabwa uburere akiri muto, amazi atararenga inkombe. Ibyo bituma akurana uburere bwiza yatojwe hakiri kare; bitaba ibyo rero ukaba utamukosora yaramaze gukura.

                      Imyitozo ku migani y’imigenurano

                      1.Shaka imigani migufi yose yakoreshejwe mu nteruro zo mu mwandiko “Akamaro k’itorero.”

                      2.Tanga imigani ibiri migufi kuri buri ngingo muri izi zikurikira:

                            a) Ubugiraneza           c) Ibidukikije

                            b) Ubupfura                d) Inama

                      3.Hanga inkuru yiganjemo imigani migufi y’Ikinyarwanda.

                      Inshamake y’ibyizwe muri uyu mutwe wa kenda

                      Muri uyu mutwe twasesenguye imyandiko ivuga ku nsanganyamatsiko y’uburezi n’uburere. Twabonye ko umuryango, ishuri ndetse n’itorero bifite akamaro kanini cyane mu burere bw’umwana kuko bungukiramo ubumenyi bunyuranye guhera bakiri bato, bagakura bafite indangagaciro bityo bikazabafasha kwihesha agaciro mu buzima bwabo.

                      Twifashishije ingero z’interuro twasesenguye ibijyanye n’imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda, aho twabonye amagambo yandikwa afatanye n’amagambo yandikwa atandukanye; twabonye amabwiriza atandukanye agenga iyo myandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda.

                      Mu buvanganzo nyarwanda twabonyemo ingeri y’imigani migufi. Imigani migufi ni interuro ngufi iba ikubiyemo ubutumwa mu buryo bw’amarenga. Ikoresha imvugo igizwe n’amagambo make nyamara igisobanuro ari kirekire. Bayita kandi imigani y’imigenurano kuko ifite ikintu runaka iba igenuriraho cyangwa ikurizaho mu rwego rwo gutanga impanuro, inyigisho, cyangwa gukosora ikintu runaka. Umugenurano usobanurwa mu buryo bubiri: ubwa mbere ni uburyo bwo gusobanukirwa amagambo aba agize interuro; uburyo bwa kabiri ari bwo bwa bundi bw’amarenga bushushanya busaba uwo bawuciriye kwitonda agakoresha inyurabwenge kugira ngo yumve ubutumwa bukubiyemo.

                      Isuzuma rusange risoza umutwe wa kenda

                      Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

                      Umwandiko: Uburere mu muryango

                      Umusore witwa Nyagahungu yarakugendeye no kwa nyirasenge Nyiramahirwe, agezeyo arasuhuza. Asanga ibiryo birahiye baramuzimanira. Babyara be bari baratojwe umuco wo kwakira abashyitsi. Ni mu gihe kandi umuryango wabo wahoraga ubatoza uburere bwiza. Igihe yageragayo nyirasenge ntiyari mu rugo. Yari yazindukanye n’umugabo we Rugendo bagiye kureba inshuti yabo ku gasozi gahana imbibi n’ako batuyeho. Twibuke ko gusurana atari bibi kandi ko ari uburere butangirwa mu muryango.

                      Igihe kigeze Nyiramahirwe n’umugabo barataha basanga umushyitsi yabasuye. Nyuma yo kumuganiriza umwanya muto bari kumwe, umugabo wa Nyiramahirwe ariheza ngo ahe rugari umwisengeneza na nyirasenge baganire. Dore ikiganiro bagiranye.

                      Nyiramahirwe: Niko se mwana wa, iwanyu muraho ni amahoro?

                      Nyagahungu: Nta kibazo gihari da! N’akavura kagenda kaboneka uko bikwiye.

                      Nyiramahirwe: None se babyara bawe bashoboye kukwitaho ntiwishwe n’irungu?

                      Nyagahungu: Reka reka! Uzi ukuntu bamfashe neza! Ni ukuri rwose mwabatoje uburere bwiza.Banyakiranye urugwiro; barateka barangaburira. Bampaye n’amazi ashyushye yo gukaraba intoki mbere yo gufungura!

                      Nyiramahirwe: Byo ariko da! Bagerageza kubaha abantu. Ikinyabupfura twabatoje bongeraho icyo ku ishuri ugasanga ari ikintu k’ingenzi buri mwana agomba guhabwa rwose.

                      Nyagahungu: Hanyuma rero Masenge, reka nkubwire ikingenza, ntaza no kuva aho mba nka wa wundi wagiye gutira imfizi, agahugira kuganira ibindi, hakaza kuza undi akamutanga kuyisaba!

                      Nyiramahirwe: Ngaho re! Nizere ko amakuru ugiye kumbwira ari ay’ubuhoro!

                      Nyagahungu: Humura rwose ni ubuhoro! Niba bishoboka nashakaga ko mwazantiza babyara bange bakazamperekeza mu munsi mukuru wo gutaha Impamyabumenyi y’Amashuri ya Kaminuza. Tuzaba dufite imirimo y’ingorabahizi, kuko ari nabwo nzerekana umugeni nakunze mu muryango. Ubwo kuri mwe nta yindi ntumwa. Ibirori nk’ibyo ntimwabiburamo.

                      Nyiramahirwe: Ayiii! Mbega ibyishimo! Ibirori birahuriranye ye! Uwo mukobwa se ni uw’ahagana he?

                      Nyagahungu: Ese ugira ngo ntimushobora kuba mumwibuka; ni umukobwa uvuka mu muryango w’inshuti z’iwacu utuye mu Burasirazuba. Nyamara hari igihe mwahuriye iwacu yaje kudusura.

                      Nyiramahirwe: Aaa! Umenya isura ye ingarutse mu bitekerezo. Koko hari inkumi nigeze gusanga yabasuye, ariko sinari guhita nkeka ikiyigenza. Burya gukekakeka si n’indangagaciro y’umuco w’Abanyarwanda.

                      Nyagahungu: Ubwo rero gahunda ni iyo. Ni ku itariki ya 5 y’ukwezi gutaha.

                      Nyiramahirwe: Ndumva nta kibazo rwose! Ubwo tuzaza twabukereye. Abo wasabye na bo nta kibazo. Bazitoranyamo uzasigara areberera urugo kugira ngo hatagira uduca mu rihumye akaducucura.

                      Nyagahungu: Nuko rwose ndabashimiye. Ahubwo mundebere se w’abana na we musezereho.

                      Nyiramahirwe: Nta kibazo ndamugusezereraho. Twari tumaze no kuvugana ko hari aho ahita yerekeza; gusa yanze kwirirwa aturogoya. Ahubwo reka ndebe uri hafi muri babyara bawe tukurenze irembo. Wibuke kandi kudusuhuriza abo babyeyi, uti: “Mutahe cyane!”.

                      I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

                      1.Rondora abanyarubuga bavugwa muri uyu mwandiko. Muri bo abanyarubuga bakuru ni abahe? Sobanura impamvu.

                      2.Nyagahungu yakiriwe ate akigera mu muryango wo kwa nyirasenge? Sobanura impamvu yakiriwe muri ubwo buryo.

                      3.Ni iyihe mpamvu nyamukuru y’uruzinduko rwa Nyagahungu kwa nyirasenge?

                      4.Garagaza unasobanure imwe mu migenzo myiza y’umuco nyarwanda igaragara muri uyu mwandiko usobanure n’abo igaragaraho.

                      5.Gereranya ibivugwa muri uyu mwandiko n’ubuzima busanzwe bwa buri munsi.

                      6.Sobanura mu magambo yawe uko ikiganiro cya Nyiramahirwe n’umwisengeneza we cyasojwe.

                      II. Inyunguramagambo

                      1.Tanga ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

                             a) Ingorabahizi       b) Nta yindi ntumwa      c) Inkumi      d) Twabukereye

                             e) Uduca mu rihumye

                      2.Shaka amagambo ari mu mwandiko y’imbusane z’aya yatanzwe:

                           a) Umusangwa      b) Akazuba       c) Gusuzugura

                      3.Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

                          a) Uburere         b) Indangagaciro

                          c) Irungu            d) Akaducucura

                          e) Kurenza umuntu irembo

                      III. Ubumenyi bw’ururimi n’ubuvanganzo:

                      1.Kosora umwandiko ukurikira wandika neza amagambo afatana n’adafatana ukurikije uko bigenwa n’amabwiriza y’imyandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda:

                      Umwana warezwe neza agakurira mu muconyarwanda agendana ishema akarangwa n’umurava mubyo akora. Sibyo gusa; ahubwo usanga arangwa n’umuco mwiza wo kumvira abamukuriye cyane cyane mugihe bamuyobora mu nzira nziza ijyanye n’umuco wa bo. Iyo ari mu ishuri nta pfa gufata ijambo mukajagari; ahubwo akurikiza gahunda y’uko hagomba kuvuga umwe umwe. Umuntu we se rero akwiye kurangwa n’ikinya bupfura mu byo akora byose n’aho arihose.

                      2.Sobanura iyi migani migufi nurangiza uvuge aho ihuriye n’insanganyamatsiko y’uburezi n’uburere:

                                a) Ubwenge burarahurwa.

                                b) Nyiri ikirimi kibi yatanze umurozi gupfa.

                                 c) Umwana apfa mu iterura.

                      IV. Ihangamwandiko

                      Hanga umwandiko uvuga ku nsanganyamatsiko y’uburezi n’uburere wiganjemo imigani migufi kandi ukoreshemo n’ikeshamvugo.


                      • Abamotsi: Bari abantu bashinzwe guhagarara ku karubanda bagakomera,bagatanga amatangazo avuye mu buyobozi agenewe abaturage.Uyu murimo wakorwaga mu museso kare cyangwa ku mugoroba.

                        Abiru: Bari abanyamabanga n’abanyamihango b’ibwami.

                        Abisi: Abahimbyi b’amazina y’inka.

                        Agahomamunwa: Bibabaje cyane, biteye agahinda.

                        Akabashwishuriza: Akabahakanira yivuye inyuma,akabakurira inzira ku murima.

                        Akarande: Ibintu bimaze igihe kirekire cyane, byamenyerewe.

                        Akari aha kajya he?: Ni ikintu cyananiranye, kidashobotse.

                        Akayabo: Ibintu byinshi cyane.

                        Amahano: Ibikorwa bibi cyane, bidakwiriye kubaho mu muryango w’abantu.

                        Amahoteri: Inzu nini zicumbikirwamo abantu bagategurirwa amafunguro cyangwa amacumbi ku bayashaka mu buryo bunoze.

                        Amarindira: Ni amata bakama ubwa kabiri, inyana imaze kongera kuretesha. Ni yo aba ari make ku ya mbere. Bavugaga ko amarindira aharirwa abashumba.

                        Amasamake: Amafi.

                        Amasare: Indirimbo ziririmbwa n’abasare igihe bari mu murimo wabo wo kwambutsa abantu mu mazi.

                        Amashyo: Inka nyinshi ziba hamwe.

                        Amashyuza: Amazi asohoka mu butaka ashyushye, ashobora no kuba yatuye cyane. Hari n’ahantu hamwe na hamwe tuyasanga mu Rwanda nk’i Nyakabuye hafi ya Bugarama, muri Rubavu n’ahandi.

                        Amazi yarenze inkombe: Byarengeranye, byarenze igaruriro.

                        Ayera: Amata, umukamo.

                        Bakangarana: Bahita bikanga cyane, bagira ubwoba bukabije.

                        Baramwubahuka: Baramutinyuka; baramusuzugura.

                        Biba iby’ubusa: Ntibyagira icyo bitanga.

                        Bigasakara: Bikava ahantu hamwe bigakwira n’ahandi henshi.

                        Bizakubyarira amazi nk’ibisusa: Bizagukururira ingorane.

                        Buhebuje: Butangaje.

                        Bwaki: Indwara iterwa n’imirire mibi:umusatsi ugacurama, amaguru n’amatama bigahisha ubundi bikabyimba.

                        By’amanzaganya: By’imburagihe, bitunguranye.

                        Byarafatitse: Byaragagaye ko bifite ireme.

                        Gicantore: Ni izina riva ku ntore bivuga igisate cy’umutsima.

                        Gira inka Munyarwanda: Gahunda yatangijwe na Nyakubahwa Perezida wa Repubulika igamije koroza Abanyarwanda badafite inka.

                        Guca mu rihumye: Kwihisha ntibigaragare muri gahunda byagomba kubonekamo.

                        Gucura: Guca imbyaro; gutakaza ubushobozi bwo kongera kubyara.

                        Guha akato: Kwamaganira kure umuntu cyangwa ikintu kubera ubusembwa runaka.

                        Guhaba: Kuyoba.

                        Guhabuura: Kuyobora uwari yayobye akagaruka mu nzira. Aha bavuga ko kubera imiterere y’ikirunga cya Muhabura ituma ahantu henshi umuntu ari aba akitegeye, byatumaga abantu bagifatiraho ikerekezo bigatuma batayoba. Ngo ni na ho gikomora iryo zina.

                        Guhezwa: Kubuzwa uburenganzira aho wari ubwemerewe.

                        Guhugukira: Gukangukira kwita ku kintu.

                        Gukinga: Gutega ingabo igatangira imyambi bakurasa.

                        Gukumira: Kubuza ikintu kubaho cyangwa kugera ahantu runaka.

                        Gusakara: Gukwira ahantu henshi.

                        Gusahuranwa: Kurya cyangwa gutwara ibintu vubavuba usa n’uwiruka cyangwa nk’utabyemerwe ugira ngo urushe abandi cyangwa ngo ubatange.

                        Guseta ibirenge: Kugenda wanga, utabishaka.

                        Gushegesha: Kubabaza umuntu cyangwa ikintu ku buryo bukabije.

                        Ibicuba: Ibikoresho binini batwaramo amata.

                        Ibisumizi: Ibintu byose byibasira umuntu ngo bimugirire nabi.

                        Ibitekerezo: Ni ubwoko bw’ibihangano byafatiraga ku mateka yabayeho cyangwa ku bantu bazwi babayeho ariko abatekereza babyo bakongeramo n’amakabyankuru.

                        Ibyegera: Abafasha ba hafi. (Iri jambo rikunze gukoreshwa ku banyacyubahiro).

                        Icyanya: Ahantu h’ishyamba haba haragenewe kubungabungirwa inyamaswa cyangwa ndetse n’ibimera mu buryo bwo kubirinda ababyangiza. Ni ho bamwe bita pariki; ariko baba bakoresheje ijambo batiye mu zindi ndimi.

                        Icyomoro: Umuti uvura ibikomere.

                        Icyondi: Ubwoko bw’inguge nini y’umukara, igira n’ibara ry’umweru ku ijosi, ikunda kuboneka mu Cyanya cya Nyungwe.

                        Igenamigambi: Gahunda y’itegurwa ry’ibikorwa abantu biyemeza kuzagenderaho mu gihe bihaye.

                        Igifura: Umuntu baserereza akarakara.

                        Igihe cy’uburumbuke: Igihe umukobwa cyangwa umugore ashobora gusama.

                        Ihumure: Umutuzo uboneka nyuma y’ibihe bigoye; urugero nk’intambara.

                        Ihungabana: Imyitwarire idasanzwe, irangwa no guhora umuntu afite ubwoba budashira no ku bintu bidakanganye, bitewe n’ibyamubayeho mu buzima.

                        Ikazanzuranya: Ikazica vuba zitaramye(zitamaze igihe kirekire).

                        Ikerekezo: Gahunda yo kwiteza imbere mu gihe runaka. Mu mwandiko haravugwa Ikerekezo 2020 Umurenge.

                        Ikimuri: Amavuta y’inka.

                        Ikirezi: Akazu kameze nk’igufwa kitwikirwa n’udusimba tumwe two mu mazi. Mu yandi magambo ni ikintu cy’agaciro. Umugani “Uwambaye ikirezi ntamenya ko kera” usobanura ko umuntu ashobora kugira ikintu cy’agaciro ntakikabonemo ngo akibyaze umusaruro mu gihe abandi baba bakifuza.

                        Imbaga nyamwinshi: Abantu benshi cyane.

                        Imbogeka: Amata atuzuye. Amata atuzuye abe akumporeje we kurira.

                        Imbuga nkoranyambaga: Imbuga zihurizwaho amakuru menshi abantu bahanahana ari benshi kandi mu gihe kimwe.

                        Imburagihe: Igihe gikwiriye kitaragera.

                        Imikoranire: Uburyo abantu bafatanya muri gahunda runaka.

                        Imikore: Ni ubwoko bw’igiti kinoga kikaramvurwamo imiheto cyangwa kigacibwaho inkoni.

                        Imizinga: Imitiba irimo inzuki.Impanuka: Ikintu kibayeho gitunguranye kandi kibi.

                        Indangamitekerereze: Urusobe rw’ibitekerezo by’uko abaturage b’igihugu runaka bumva ibintu, bikababamo, bakabigenderaho igihe kirekire.

                        Ingengamitekerereze: Imyifatire, imigirire iranga umuntu utekereza mu buryo ubu n’ubu.

                        Ingoro: Inzu ibamo abantu bubashywe cyangwa ibintu by’agaciro kenshi. Inzu y’umwami.

                        Ingwate: Icyo umuntu atanga kugira ngo agurizwe, akiyemerera ko cyafatirwa mu gihe ananiwe cyangwa yanze kwishyura.

                        Ingweba: Inka za kijyambere zitanga umukamo mwinshi.

                        Inkangaza: Urwagwa bashyizemo ubuki.

                        Inkongoro: Ibisiga birya imirambo y’abantu cyangwa y’inyamaswa zapfuye.

                        Inshike: Uwapfushije abe bose agasigara wenyine, akenshi ageze mu zabukuru.

                        Intarama: Inka z’imbyeyi zabaga ibwami cyangwa ibutware. Ncyuze intarama: inka z’imbyeyi mvuge bazicyure.

                        Interineti: Urubuga rukoreshwa mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga mu guhanahana amakuru hirya no hino ku isi, ku bantu benshi kandi mu buryo bunyaruka cyane.

                        Inturire: Ikigage kirimo ubuki.

                        Intyoza: Umuntu uzi gutunganya ibintu neza.

                        Ipfobya: Kugabanyiriza ikintu imbaraga cyangwa ntugisobanure uko kiri ku bw’inyungu zawe bwite; gutesha agaciro.

                        Iposita: Urwego rushinzwe kwakira no kohereza ubutumwa bw’abantu muri rusange bunyujijwe mu mabaruwa.

                        Isunzu rya Kongo Nili: Uruhererekane rw’imisozi miremire isa n’ikikije igice k’Igihugu kitegeye ikiyaga cya Kivu.

                        Itazizigamye: Itaziretse ngo hashire igihe.

                        Itorero: Ahantu abasore b’ingimbi bajyaga bakigishwa indangagaciro na kirazira by’umuco nyarwanda, n’ibindi byose bigamije kubaka Umunyarwanda usobanukiwe.

                        Itumanaho: Uburyo bwo guhana amakuru akenewe hagati y’abantu batandukanye.

                        Iyo bigwa: Ahantu kure cyane.

                        Iyo gihera: Ahantu kure cyane.

                        Izenezene: Aha biravuga agasuzuguro.

                        Jenoside: Ubwicanyi ndengakamere bugamije gutsemba imbaga y’abantu bafite icyo bahuriyeho. Twavuga nk’ubwoko, ururimi, igihugu, imyemerere, ibara ry’uruhu n’ibindi.

                        Kera kabaye: Nyuma y’igihe kirekire.

                        Kera na kare: Hashize igihe kinini cyane.

                        Kinogeye ijisho: Gishimishije kukireba.

                        Kokama: Gucengera mu muntu ku buryo bidapfa kumuvamo (ubundi iyi mvugo ikoreshwa ku bintu bibi).

                        Kuba nk’imbwa yuriye urugi: Kunanuka birengeje urugero.

                        Kubika: Kumenyesha abandi ko umuntu yapfuye.

                        Kugabira: Guha umuntu ikintu mu buryo bw’impano.

                        Kugenda nka nyomberi: Kugenda ubutazagaruka.

                        Kunoga: Gutungana, kugenda neza.

                        Kuririra mu myotsi: Guhura n’akaga gakabije ariko akenshi ukaba wabigizemo uruhare.

                        Kuvunira ibiti mu matwi: Kwanga kumva ibyo abantu bakubwira ku bushake.

                        Kuzibukira: Kwitaza umwambi bakurashe cyangwa ikindi baguteye.

                        Kuzima (k’umuryango): Gupfa kw’abantu bagize umuryango bose ntihasigare n’umwe.

                        Kwiba umugono: Gucunga umuntu ugakora ibyo atashakaga wihishe.

                        Kwibombarika: Kwitwararika, gucisha make n’iyo waba utabishaka kugira ngo hatabaho intonganya.

                        Kwigengesera: Kwitwararika, kwitonda, gukorana ubushishozi bwinshi kugira ngo hatagira ibiza kwangirika.

                        Kwimakaza: Guha urubuga ikintu ngo kibeho.

                        Kwiroha: Kwisuka.

                        Kwisama wasandaye: Kwibuka gukumira ikintu bitagishobotse.

                        Mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya: Bidatinze na gato, mu kanya gato cyane.

                        Ndi Umunyarwanda: Gahunda y’Igihugu igamije gukumira no kurwanya amacakubiri mu Banyarwanda; ahubwo ikabashishikariza kumva ko ari bamwe.

                        Nshumbikiye aha ngaha: Ndekeye ahangaha, nshoreje ahangaha

                        Ntarondoye: Ntavuze byose mpereye ku murongo; n’ibindi ntavuze.

                        Ntibawumunge: Ntibawurye, ntibawurigise mu buryo butazwi.

                        Ntibyamutangwagaho: Byamugeragaho ari byinshi cyane.

                        Nyirabayazana: Uwateje ikibazo.

                        Terera iyo: Utagira icyo yitaho.

                        Ubugeni n’ubukorikori: Umwuga runaka ugaragaramo ubwenge bwo kubyaza ibintu ibindi binogeye ijisho.

                        Ubukangurambaga: Inyigisho ku kintu runaka zihabwa abantu benshi ku buryo buhoraho.

                        Ubutumwa bugufi: Ubwoko bw’inyandiko akenshi zitari ndende nk’uko izina ribivuga, zohererezanywa kuri terefone.

                        Ubuvanganzo: Ni igice cy’ururimi kiga ibijyanye n’ubuhanzi.

                        Ubuzira herezo: Nta gihe cyashyizweho ibintu bigomba kurangirira; igihe cyose.

                        Ubwomanzi: Imyitwarire mibi iganisha ku buraya, ku ngeso mbi z’ubusambanyi...

                        Uko ibihe biha ibindi: Uko iminsi igenda ihita.

                        Umucakara: Umuntu ukora imirimo y’uburetwa, ivunanye cyane kandi nta gihembo.

                        Umwihariko: Icyo ikintu gitandukaniyeho n’ibindi; icyo umuntu afite abandi badafite.

                        Umwirondoro: Amakuru agaragaramo ibiranga umuntu by’ibanze, byanditse mu byangombwa bye. Umwirondoro ukunze gukubirwa mu nyandiko iherekeza ibaruwa isaba akazi.

                        Urukererezabagenzi: Ikintu gishimishije mu kukireba ku buryo cyagutwara ukibagirwa ibindi byose warimo.

                        Urukingo: Umuti umuntu aterwa kugira ngo yirinde gufatwa n’indwara .

                        Urunana: Uruhererekane rw’ibintu bikurikiranye, akenshi bigiye bifatanye.

                        Urusobe: Ibintu byinshi bigiye bihuriranye ndetse hakaba ubwo bicomekeranyije bikarushaho kugira imbaraga.

                        Urusoro: Umwana ugisamwa mu nda ya nyina.

                        Urwuri: Isambu ngari bororeramo amatungo.

                        Utagira ifumba: Utagira inka. Ifumba ubundi ni ibyatsi bahambiramo umuriro. Ifumba ivugwa mu mwandiko ni yo gukongeza igicaniro gishushanya inka.

                        Uturingushyo: Utuvugo duto turimo uturango tw’ubusizi usanga dukunze kubwirwa abana ngo badufate mu mutwe kugira ngo bibatoze gukangura ubwenge bwabo buge bufata vuba.

                        Uw’akaboko karekare: Igisambo, umujura, utwara ibyo atahawe. Kugira akaboko karekare ni ukuba umujura.

                        Yabaye nk’umudugudu: Yabaye nto. Isi yabaye nk’umudugudu bisobanura ko kubera itumanaho ryateye imbere abantu bahanahana amakuru n’ubundi butumwa ku isi ku buryo bworoshye kandi bwihuse.


                        • Imigenzo n’imiziririzo mu Rwanda

                          Iyo witegereje Abanyarwanda usanga bararangwaga n’imyumvire ndetse n’imyemerere itandukanye. Muri ibyo byose rero ugasangamo n’icyo twakwita imigenzo n’imiziririzo. Ni ukuvuga ko mu bihe runaka babaga bafite ibintu ibi n’ibi bagomba gukoramo. Ibi byitwaga imigenzo. Hakabaho ariko n’ibindi bintu bibaho bigatuma bagira impungenge zo kugira ibintu runaka bakora cyangwa ngo bakoreho, bikitwa kubiziririza.

                          Imwe mu migenzo nyarwanda ikibukwa igaragaramo imyiza ndetse n’imibi bitewe n’igihe tugezemo ndetse n’imyumvire ya buri wese.

                          Ku bijyanye n’imigenzo rero hari iyo dusanga yerekeza ku iyobokamana, aha twavuga nko kuragura, kubandwa no guterekera, kuririmba indirimbo z’imandwa, gutukura (kuvumura) umwana, guhura bigamije kuvura umurwayi, kugangahura abantu cyangwa ahantu mu gihe inkuba yakubise n’ibindi.

                          Ku rundi ruhande twavuga indi migenzo idafatiye ku iyobokamana,harimo nk’indamukanyo (gusuhuzanya no gusezeranaho), kwarika no gutinyisha umugeni, kumuhogoza no kumuhoza, kumuheka no kumuherekeza, kumutwikurura, kurisha umusore n’umugeni baraye barushinze, umuhango wo gukirana no kumara amavuta ku barushinze, guhemba umubyeyi wibarutse, kurya ubunnyano no kwita izina, kurya amenyo, guhana inka no kunywana ku babaye inshuti magara, inyifurizo ku bakoze neza ndetse n’imivumo ku bakoze nabi cyanecyane abasuzuguye abakuru. Ntitwakwibagirwa guherekeza umurambo ku witabye Imana no guhambana ikara ku batabarutse badashatse cyangwa batibarutse, tutibagiwe n’imihango yakorwaga ibwami muri buri gihe kidasanzwe yari izwi ku izina ry’inzira z’ubwiru n’ibindi.

                          Ku birebana n’imiziririzo, bagiraga bati: “Icyaziraga kiracyazira...”Kuva kera na kare, mu Rwanda hahozeho imiziririzo inyuranye; aho bagiraga bati: “Kirazira kwicara ku isekuru, ku ngata, ku ityazo (ngo byari ugukenya cyangwa gukungurira ababyeyi), kunywa amata uhagaze, kuvuga sobukwe cyangwa nyokobukwe mu izina, kumena igisabo (uwakimenaga yagombaga kunywa isubyo ngo ahumanuke, kuko ngo yabaga yahumanye), guterura uruhinja ku mugore uri mu mihango n’ibindi.


                          Ingamba zo kubungabunga umuco nyarwanda

                          Iyo witegereje mu bihugu binyuranye byo ku isi usanga buri gihugu gifite gahunda zitandukanye kiyemeje guteza imbere. Ibi byose ariko akenshi ugasanga bigenda bifatira ku muco wacyo aka wa mugani ngo: “Agahugu umuco akandi umuco”. Ni muri urwo rwego rero mu Gihugu cyacu uhasanga ingamba nyinshi Leta y’u Rwanda igenda ishyiraho mu rwego rwo kubungabunga umuco nyarwanda.

                          Duhereye ku bijyanye n’ubufatanye tubona ko hashyizweho gahunda y’umuganda, mu midugudu abantu batuyemo ndetse hakabaho n’umuganda rusange uba ku wa Gatandatu wa nyuma wa buri kwezi. Muri izi gahunda zihoraho z’umuganda ndetse no mu zindi zijya zishyirwaho mu bihe bidasanzwe igihe bibaye ngombwa Abanyarwanda bagerageza guhuriza hamwe imbaraga zabo mu kwiyubakira Igihugu no kwiteza cyangwa gutezanya imbere dore ko “Nta mugabo umwe”. Si ibyo gusa kandi, mu rwego rwo guhuza imbaraga Leta ihora ikangurira abaturage kwitabira gahunda zo kwibumbira mu mashyirahamwe n’amakoperative kugira ngo imbaraga zabo zidatatana.

                          Hashyizweho nanone gahunda y’Itorero ry’Igihugu, aho buri Munyarwanda akangurirwa ibijyanye n’indangagaciro na kirazira by’umuco nyarwanda. Iyi gahunda irebererwa n’umukuru w’intore. Igabanyijemo amashami kuva ku rwego rw’Igihugu kugera ku Mudugudu. Mu bigo bya Leta ndetse n’ibyigenga habariwemo n’amashuri hose hari amatorero. Abanyeshuri barangije Amashuri Yisumbuye baca muri gahunda y’urugerero aho bakora imwe mu mirimo y’amaboko iteza Igihugu imbere cyangwa izamura abatishoboye, mbere yo gusubizwa mu buzima busanzwe cyangwa gukomeza mu mashuri makuru.

                          Leta y’u Rwanda yashyizeho gahunda ya “Ndi Umunyarwanda” igamije kwibutsa Abanyarwanda ko ari bamwe kandi ko ibyo bapfana biruta kure ibyo bapfa. Igikwiye ni ugutahiriza umugozi umwe bagaharanira icyabateza imbere nk’Abanyarwanda. Tuzi twese kandi ko hariho na Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge isanzwe ifite mu nshingano zayo kunga Abanyarwanda nyuma ya Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994. Mu rwego rwo guca umuco wo kudahana kandi Leta yashyizeho Inkiko Gacaca zaciye imanza nyinshi z’abakekwagaho gukora Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi; hanashyirwaho na Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo kuyirwanya kugira ngo itazasubira ukundi.

                          Mu rwego rwo kwizigamira no guteganyiriza ibihe bibi hatangijwe Ikigega «Agaciro Deveropumenti Fandi» (Agaciro Development Fund) kigamije gufasha u Rwanda muri gahunda rushyize imbere yo guharanira kwigira ngo tudahora dutegeye amaboko abanyamahanga. Iki kigega kandi cyaje gisanga hariho ibigo by’imari iciriritse.

                          Dukomeje kandi ku bijyanye no kwiteza imbere no kuzamurana ntitwakwibagirwa gahunda y’ubudehe, iya “Gira inka Munyarwanda”, iya VUP Umurenge ndetse na Gahunda y’Igihugu y’Imbaturabukungu ikiciro cya mbere n’icya kabiri. Muri izo gahunda zose Leta y’u Rwanda ikaba ifashirizamo abaturage bayo kwiteza imbere. Aha kandi ntitwakwiyibagiza ko gufasha umuntu harimo no kumujijura, aho Leta y’u Rwanda yatangije Uburezi bw’Ibanze bw’Imyaka Cumi n’Ibiri.

                          Abanyarwanda kandi ntibibagiwe gukomeza kungurana inama nk’uko byahoze; n’ubundi “Umutwe umwe wifasha gusara!” Ndetse “abagiye inama Imana irabasanga”. Ni muri urwo rwego abayobozi bakuru b’Igihugu cyacu bategura buri mwaka umwiherero ubahuza n’abayobozi bo mu nzego z’ibanze bakungurana inama ku byaba bitagenda, bakanafatira hamwe ingamba zo kubikemura. Si rimwe si kabiri buri mu mpera y’umwaka hategurwa Inama y’Igihugu y’Umushyikirano, abayobozi bakajya inama n’abaturage ndetse n’ababa hanze y’Igihugu bakaza gutanga ibitekerezo biteza imbere Igihugu. Muri ibi byose kandi ntitwakwibagirwa ko hariho na gahunda yo gukorera ku mihigo mu nzego zose.

                          Ikindi gikomeye kijyanye no kubungabunga umuco nyarwanda ni Inteko Nyarwanda y’Ururimi n’Umuco yashyizweho mu Gihugu cyacu ikaba yaratangiye imirimo yayo ku mugaragaro mu kwezi kwa gatanu muri 2012. Iyi nteko rero Abanyarwanda bayitezeho byinshi. Ingamba zo kubungabunga umuco kandi zigishwa no muri za gahunda zinyuranye z’itangazamakuru nko kuri radiyo cyanecyane muri gahunda y’inkera y’igitaramo, aho batwibutsa ko “Agahugu kabuze umuco kibagirana kagasibangana”.

                          Umuco rero si ikintu kiri aho kidashobora kugira ibihindukaho mu gihe ba nyirawo babyumvikanyeho. Uko ibihe biha ibindi, ni ko hari ibihinduka bitewe n’iterambere rigezweho. Abantu ntibakomeza kwambara inyonga, ibinyita, impuzu n’ishabure kandi harabonetse imyenda ikoze neza. Ntibanakomeza no kugenda batambaye inkweto cyangwa ngo bakazanure, bakora n’ibindi bisa bityo ngo ni ukugira ngo badaca umuco!


                          Bateye rwaserera

                          Uyu mugani bawuca iyo babonye abantu basahinda bateye imvururu, ni ho bavuga ngo: “Bateye rwaserera!” Wakomotse kuri Rwaserera w’i Rusororo mu Rukaryi (Kigali) ahagana umwaka wa 1700.

                          Ubwo hari ku ngoma y’umwami Cyilima Rujugira maze hatera akanda k’inzara kayogoza u Bwanacyambwe, u Rukaryi n’u Buganza. Abantu bo muri ako karere bicwa n’inzara karahava. Nuko i Rusororo mu Rukaryi hagatura umugabo witwa Rwaserera, akaba umukungu ukomeye cyane, afite amasaka yuzuye ibigega. Abantu bo muri utwo turere bakajya bamucaho inshuro, ndetse n’abafite ibimasa n’amasuka bakazana akabahahira.

                          Inzara igumya guca ibintu muri utwo turere. Bukeye umugabo wari utuye i Buganza bwa Kiramuruzi witwa Rubanguka rwa Mpama arikora ajya gukeza Rwaserera. Ageze iwe ati: “Nje kugukeza ngo unsindire iki cyago k’inzara.” Rwaserera aramwemerera aramuhaka. Amushyira mu bahinzi be barahingana. Bukeye ajya kureba uko abahinzi be bahinga nuko asanga Rubanguka yihagarariye. Amubonye aramutonganya, aranamutuka ati: “Dore iyo nyana y’imbwa y’Umuganza w’umudeshyi irandehereza abahinzi; nkabona iwanyu mwararimbuwe n’inzara ni ubwo bunebwe bwanyu!”

                          Rubanguka abyumvise ararakara, isuka ayijugunya hasi aragenda n’inshuro yaciye arayita nuko ataha iwabo i Kiramuruzi. Agezeyo abitekerereza abaturanyi be, ababwira uko Rwaserera ari umugome wasagutswe n’umurengwe bikabije. Amaze kugenda Rwaserera biramubabaza ati: “Nta wundi muganza nzongera guhingisha cyangwa ngo muhahire.” Kuva ubwo, uje kwa Rwaserera guhakwa, akamubaza aho aturuka. Yamubwira ko aturuka i Buganza akamwirukana. Abanyabuganza babura aho bahahira. Hashize iminsi Rubanguka abagisha inama yo gutera Rwaserera ngo bamunyage ubwo bukungu akangisha. Baranga bati: “Nta bwo twakwiteza umuntu ejo bitazatugwa nabi mu batware cyangwa ibwami”; abandi barembejwe n’inzara bati: “Tuzamutera ahubwo bazatwice aho kwicwa n’inzara.”

                          Nuko ngo bugorobe, barikora baboneza iy’i Rusororo ijoro ryose. Umuseke wa mbere utambitse bavuza induru ndende bati: “Umwami yatanze Rwaserera!” Rubanda bakangukira hejuru, abanyanzara bose babyumvise batanguranwa kwa Rwaserera. Mbese Igihugu cyose kirashika n’isahinda gitera Rwaserera. Baramusakiza bamutwara ibyo yari atunze byose. Kuva ubwo rero, babona abantu bari ku musozi basahinda, bakavuga ngo: “Bateye Rwaserera”. Ubwo baba bagereranywa n’abateye Rwaserera w’i Rusororo azize agasuzuguro k’umurengwe.“Gutera rwaserera” ni ugutera imvururu z’urudaca.


                          Nabuze ituze

                                     Niyitegeka nge ni ko nitwa

                                     Izina ryange rirankwiye

                                     Ndi umwari utari umwana

                                     Kugira uwo mbwira utwange twose

                                5.  Kugira uwo nongorera turyamye

                                     Kugira uwo mfumbata nkarikesha

                                     Kugira uwo ndundurira urukundo

                                     Kugira uwo nkumbura ntamuhaha

                                     Kuba umubyeyi nange i Rwanda

                              10.  Kwitwa « mawe » n’abo mbyaye

                                      Gufata ibere ndiha ikibondo

                                      Irari ryange ni iryo ngiryo.

                                      Narabishatse ndabihebura

                                      Imyaka myinshi kugeza n’ubu

                                      Nsigaye nitwa “uruta-itabi”

                               15.  Nkaba kandi “nyina w’abakobwa.”

                                       Abo tungana mu mavuko

                                       Barahiriwe barashaka

                                       Birabahira baranabyiruye

                                       Naho nge intimba iranyesura!

                                20.  N’amafaranga aya avugwa hose

                                        Nabuze n’umwe nayahonga

                                        Ngo ampungure aya masunzu

                                        Ambuze gusazira mu bugaragu

                                        Ngire ikibondo nitwe “mawe”

                                 25.  Murumuna wange ubu afite inshuke

                                         Inshuro kandi ibaye iya kane

                                         Mana ihoraho, Mana yange

                                         Gira ugerure igihano cyange.

                                          Ndabona iminsi ibaye myinshi

                                  30.   N’amafaranga nkorera iteka

                                          Nirukanse amasoko yose

                                          Mbura urukundo rugurwa na make.

                                          N’abambeshya ko bankunda

                                          Ni abashaka izo miya zange

                                   35.  Ni abashaka ubusugi bwange

                                           Banshukisha akarimi keza.

                                           Hari abo ndeba hirya hino

                                           Bihebye rugikubita

                                           Babona umuhungu nk’aho hafi

                                    40.  Bakihonga kumwenyura

                                           Ngo ni yo ndamukanyo y’abasirimu.

                                           Bakamuhata utubazo twinshi

                                           Bakamushimira kuba ingenzi

                                           Akabaratira ko abakunda

                                    45.  Ko azabapfira ibi byateye

                                            Naho yapfiriye ibyo batunze.

                                            Akabibamaraho mu cyayenge

                                            Na rwa rukundo rukaba nta rwo!

                                             Mana ihoraho, Mana yange

                                      50.  Urandinde ayo marorerwa!

                                              Igishuko nk’icyo kirantera

                                              Nkumva nshaka iraha mu bandi

                                              Umubiri wange nkawonona

                                              Nyamara kandi ingaruka yabyo

                                       55.  Yatumye nanga gukora icyaha

                                               Ngo mbe Kabwera mbwerabwere.

                                               Mana ihoraho, Mana yange

                                               Dore ndashaje, nakuze kera

                                               Itegeko ryawe ni ryo ntegereje

                                         60. Kora igikwiye mbone urukundo

                                               Rusabanya umutima wange

                                               Mbone ikibondo, mbone ububyeyi

                                               Mbe nduhutse “rumara inkwi”

                                               Hato ntaziheba ngata iryera

                                               Nkanaritesha n’aho mvuka.

                                                                                                                                                Umusizi: Niyitegeka Apollinaria

                          Minisiteri y’Amashuri Makuru n’Ubushakashatsi mu by’Ubuhanga, 1982, igitabo k’Ikinyarwanda, imyandiko mfashanyigisho, umwaka wa kabiri.


                          5. Semikizi n’umugore we

                          Umugore yabajije umugabo we ati: “Mbe Semikizi ko utahanye imikizi ni ibiki?

                          Umugabo araceceka.

                          Umugore ati: “Ndakubaza indaro.”

                          Umugabo ati: “Indaro ni iya so na sogokuru!”

                          Umugore ati: “Ndakubaza inturo.”

                          Umugabo ati: “Inturo iba mu rubingo!”

                          Umugore ati: “Mbe nyine uruzi wambutse rungana iki?”

                          Umugabo ati: “Ni inshuro y’uruho n’umwariko w’iwacu!”

                          Umugore ati: “Ubwatsi buri mu kibaya se bungana iki?”

                          Umugabo ati: “Hepfo ni bubiri, haruguru ni bubiri; bwose ni bune!”

                          Umugore ati: “Mbese ko utashye uvuga nabi?”

                          Umugabo ati: “Navugaga neza se ngo untume iwanyu!”

                          Umugore ati: “Nagutumaga iwacu se ngo uzahavuge ryiza?”

                          Umugabo ati: “Nahavugaga ryiza se narahakuye mwiza!”

                          Umugore ati: “Wahakuraga mwiza se warahakoye nziza?”

                          Umugabo ati: “Nahakwaga nziza se ngo nzahabone urwabya!”

                          Umugore ati: “Wabonaga urwabya se ngo uzasigire umugaragu!»

                          Umugabo ati: «Nasigiraga umugaragu se nakoye ize n’izange!»

                          Nyirabukwe w’umugore ati: «Ihorere uwo mugore w’ububere bw’impenebere!»

                          Umugore ati: «Mbe mukecuru ko wameze maremare, Rwakibamba yabuze kuduca ku mata?»

                          Umugabo ati: «Wa kagore we naguterura nkakurenza urugo!”

                          Umugore ati: “Wandenza urugo abarenzi b’imuhana bakansama bakansimbagiza.”

                                                    

                                                       Musenyeri Aloys Bigirumwami, Ibitekerezo


                          Ibyo kunywa

                          Umuntu ugize inyota ayimarwa n’icyo anyoye. Inyota y’igihe kirekire itera umwuma, ubwumagare bukabije busiga umuntu cyangwa inyamaswa ari igikanka. Ibimera na byo biruma burundu bikaba byatemwa bigacanwa. Twiyibutse kandi ko ibinyobwa bihuza abantu bagashyikirana, bagatarama. Si ibyo gusa, ibinyobwa bihuza imiryango, bivugirwaho imisango maze bikizihiza ibirori.

                          Nta kinyobwa kiruta amazi meza ayunguruye, atetse, afutse. Ayanduzwa n’amatungo ashotse cyangwa ayivurugutamo, ayanduzwa n’abantu bayameseramo, bayiyuhagiriramo cyangwa bayatamo imyanda, ahinduka indiri y’indwara zinyuranye nk’impiswi, korera, macinya, n’inzoka. Nyamara ngo: «Uwagumiwe n’amenyo ahagamwa n’amazi». Amazi asukuye yongewemo umwuka (mu ruganda) nk’ay’Inyange na Huye na yo aryohera bamwe.

                          Amata na yo afite umwanya wihariye kuko ari ikimenyabose. Bahamya ko ari ikiribwa cyuzuye. Yubaka umubiri wacu akaturinda indwara nka bwaki mu bato. Amata n’amashereka arera umwana agakura nta nkomyi , akagira ubuzima bwiza. Abakunzi bayo batwarwa n’inshyushyu, umubanji, ikivuguto, amirire, amacunda, umwerera n’umujago. Ayera ahemba ababyeyi, arera abana, ahembura uwarembye akamwondora. Aracundwa maze akavamo amavuta barungisha. Iyo anyujijwe mu nganda, bashobora kuyumutsa bakayakamura akaribwa akomeye nka foromaji (cheese). Amata bayavanga n’umutobe w’imbuto akabyara yawurute (yaghourt). Abasomera bararyoherwa. Abanyenganda bakora amata y’ifu yongerwamo isukari n’amazi ashyushye akanyobwa. Aho abaye make agobokwa n’amazi aka wa mugani ngo “Amata make atera induru, amazi akayunganira”.

                          Hari ibinyobwa tunywa bishyushye, bikadusana tugasusuruka. Abasirimu bamenyereye icyayi, ikawa, kokowa n’ibindi. Hari abikundira igikoma cy’amasaka, ibigori, soya, ingano cyangwa imyumbati. Abafite inshuke bamaze kumenyera SOSOMA, uruvange rukusanya intungamubiri za soya, amasaka n’ibigori. Uretse isukari ibiryoshya, hari ubwo byongerwamo ibirungo n’ibihumuza. Hari n’abakunda inshyushyu ishyushye, igikamwa cyangwa ivuye ku mashyiga.

                          Hari ibinyobwa bidasindisha kandi biryoha bigizwe n’imitobe yakamuwe mu mbuto zinuranye nk’ibitoki, inanasi, ibinyomoro, amatunda (marakuja), amacunga, indimu, mandarini, inkeri, imyembe, amapomu, n’izindi. Umuhama n’umushongi wazo ufunguzwa amazi. Amadini abuza ibisindisha agira inama abayoboke bayo kwinywera agatobe, akadahiye katabagusha mu bishuko. Abanyarwanda barihoreye bati: “Agatobe gatoba inzara”. Gusa ikibangamira abanywi ni uko ibyo binyasukari bihaza vuba. Tumenyereye imitobe ya kizungu itunganyirizwa mu nzengero za kijyambere nka soda (fanta z’ubwoko bwose).

                          Hari n’ibisindisha nk’amarwa, urwagwa, inturire, inkangaza, n’inzoga za kizungu z’ubwoko bwinshi. Abanyarwanda babanza gusogongera, baryoherwa bagasoma babunda intama, byavaho bakagotomera bakaroha. Abakera badusigiye imigani ivuga ibibi by’inzoga. Bagira bati “Uyikura mu kabindi ikagukura mu bagabo”, “Yoshya ubutwari, rwarema ikagutererana” cyangwa bati “Imara ubwoba ntimara ubworo”. Uwasinze ashobora kubanza kumwenyura, gutwengatwenga, akagira ibinezaneza. Ariko hari abakurizaho kurakara, gutongana, bakaba banarwana. Tunywe akaringaniye, burya “inzoga ni mucyurabuhoro.”

                          Ubuki bw’inzuki na bwo bushobora kunyobwa bufunguye cyagwa bukiri umutsama. Inzuki zitara ahantu henshi, ngo “Uwavuga ay’inzuki ubuki ntibwanyobwa”. Ubuki babusiga ku migati, babuvanga n’amavuta yisigwa cyangwa bukavangwa n’ibindi binyobwa, maze byaba bihiye bikarushaho gukara. Ubuki kandi buvamo n’imiti ivura indwara zinyuranye.


                          Imbwa n’injangwe

                          Kera habayeho imbwa n’injangwe bikuzura bitangaje; bikabana neza. Imwe ntibe yacura indi, iyabo ryose zikarisangira. Bukeye, Kabwana na Nyabujangwe bijya mu isoko kwigurira amamesa. Biyagejeje imuhira biyashyira mu keso bigahisha mu isanduku bene urugo bari baratereye iyo. Iyo sanduku ntigire ingufuri.

                          Birangiye Kabwana na Nyabujangwe bijya guhinga ibikoro. Bigeze ku gasusuruko Nyabujangwe ibwira Kabwana iti: «Hari inshuti yacu yansabye kuyitira izina, none nibutse ko ari uyu munsi.» Kabwana iti: «Genda utabatinza bakazatugaya.» Nyabujangwe iboneza muri ya sanduku. Yorosora agatambaro kari gatwikiriye amamesa, irumaho vubavuba isubira mu murima. Igarutse Nyakabwana iti: «Umwana yiswe nde?» Nyabujangwe iti: «Bamwise Bendako.» Bikomeza kwiganirira ibindi no guhinga. Nimugoroba birahingura. Byakundaga kwiririza.

                          Bukeye, hakaba haraye imice ku gitebo. Bisubira mu murima. Ku gasusuruko Nyabujangwe iti: “Hari undi wari wambwiye kuzaza kumwitira umwana, uwanyaruka nkagerayo ko nabonye bidatinda ntiwagira ngo ndakuvunisha?” Nyakabwana iti: “Ihute.” Nyabujangwe icoka umunwa mu isanduku ariko ntiyamaraho. Igaruka ibyina akabyino byari bimaze iminsi bihimbye. Nyabwana iti: “Umwana yiswe nde?” Nyabujangwe iti: “Byendagusetsa” Nyakabwana iti: “Ayo ni amazina? Nzahinga ibikoro uge ujya kwita ayo mazina ataba ahandi? Ngaho rero gira umwete iki kivi tugomba kurara tugituye, kandi nta muce usigaye.” Birashishikara birahinga. Bimaze akanya Nyabujangwe iti: “Aba bantu baranshakaho iki? Ngo nanone ningaruke kwita. Aho bigeze ngiye kubyanga, bashake abandi. Abo bana bose nazajya mbasura nte? Cyangwa wowe kuguharira umurimo ntibikubabaza?” Nyakabwana iti: “Ntukagire ibyo. Kugutoraho umubyeyi wo kwita izina ni ukukwizera. Genda ariko ubanguke, noneho ariko wihute, mubanze mushake akazina keza.” Hagenda Nyabujangwe. Yiganira nanone kuri ya sanduku amamesa imaraho. Iragaruka ikomeza guhingana na Nyakabwana.

                          Ahagana mu mahingura, Nyakabwana iti: “Urabizi? Ndumva nshonje. Shyira biriya bikoro mu gitebo, nge utagize urugendo runaniza ndihangana mbyikorere, tubiteke muri ya mamesa mpembuke, kandi nawe ni uko.” Birakumanukiye n’imuhira. Ibikoro bishyira ku ziko , bitangira koza amasahane no gutegura ameza. Nyakabwana ikaba ifite ubwira, inyaruka igiye kuzana amamesa ngo birunge. Ntikoze mu isanduku isanga akeso karayihamagara. Yibuka ya mazina umujinya wenda kuyituritsa. Igaruka ituka Nyakajangwe iti: “Wa kontazi we kunshuka wabitewe n’iki? Nagakenze ya magenurano y’abana bawe. Ndaje tubisubiremo.” Injangwe ikaba yicotse munsi y’agatanda kari hafi y’iziko. Imbwa yoherezayo umunwa, injangwe iwakiriza inzara irashishimura. Iti: “Duteranywe n’akeso k’amamesa? Ntubaze n’iriya nyamanza!” Igihe imbwa ihindukiye igiye kubaza inyamanza, injangwe itarukira mu mugongo w’imbwa, no ku nkingi, no ku rugi, no ku giti cyari hafi aho, yiterera mu bushorishori bw’umuvumu w’inkike yo haruguru igwa mu nzuki zari zivuye mu muzinga, zirayimanura yitura hasi ivunika imbavu. Si yo yabonye ihikura. Imbwa na yo uko injangwe yakayisize isigara yibabarijwe n’inzara yayibagaga amagara n’inzara z’injangwe. Ariko kuva ubwo aho Nyabujangwe iciye Nyakabwana ikaba yahacisha umuriro.


                          • 1. IBITABO

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                            2. INYANDIKO:


                            Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside, (2014), Kurwanya jenoside n’ingengabitekerezo yayo, Kigali.

                            Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside, (2015), Ikiganiro ku ihakana n’ipfobya bya jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda 1994, Kigali.

                            3. IMBUGA NKORANYAMBAGA


                            http://www.newsofrwanda.com/featured1/23600/nyarugenge-binyuze-ku-nkunga-ya-vup-bahabwa-bashinze-koperative-yatumye-biteza-imbere.

                            http://www.lestrucsdunjournaliste.com/2009/06/le-communique-de-presse.html.

                            https://www.docpourdocs.fr/IMG/pdf/structure_de_l_article_de_presse_4e_3e.pdf.