Topic outline

  • Key Unit Competence

    Understand the functions of operating system; install and use application and utility software.

    1.1 Operating system (OS)

    operating system is a large and powerful program that controls and manages computer hardware and application software. It is the most important computer program.

    operating system software runs and manages all the operations of the computer. All electronic devices use operating systems to work, for example; laptop computers, tablet, desktop computers, smartphone, router, etc.

    he operating system that runs a laptop or desktop computer is commonly called Desktop Operating System (DOS). this includes; Microsoft Windows(with versions like Windows 10 and Windows 8, MacOS(from Apple and is formerly OSX), Chrome OS (designed by Google) and Linux (e.g. Ubuntu, Fedora).

    Mobile operating system runs on smartphones, PDAs, tablet PCs and other mobile devices. examples include Android (manufactured by Google Inc.) and iOS (manufactured by Apple) etc.

    Server operating system or server OS is installed and runs on servers e.g. web servers examples of server OS are: Windows server, Linux, and FreeBsD (Free Berkeley software Distribution)

     

    When the user runs an application, the program sends requests to the operating system and the operating system commands the hardware to work as required by the user. Most of the work done by the operating system is hidden from the user, meaning the user does not need all the details going on but just sees the results.

    1. Booting: the operating system is responsible for completing booting process of the computer. Booting is starting or restarting the computer. Cold boot starts the computer that has been turned off completely whereas warm boot restarts the computer’s operating system.

    2. The operating system provides an appropriate User interface. the interface enables the user to interact with the computer software and hardware. the user interface can be Command-line interface (CLI) or Graphical user interface (GUI). With CLI, the user interacts with OS by typing in commands at the command prompt to perform specific tasks. examples include Disk operating system (Dos) such as Ms.Dos (Microsoft Disk operating system).


    With GUI, the user interacts with OS by using a mouse to access windows, icons and menus e.g. Microsoft Windows (8 or 10)

        

    3. Operating system manages resource allocation to various programs. the operating system loads programs in computer’s primary memory, runs them and allocates them run-time, memory space, processor time, input/output devices and instructions to use.

    4. Memory management: the OS organizes how the primary memory is used by different programs through partitioning. Partitioning is the dividing of the primary memory to run different programs in different partitions or sections of the hard disk. When the size of the primary memory or RAM is not enough, the OS borrows a space from the hard disk and adds it to the primary memory or RAM. this memory is called Virtual memory or Virtual RAM. It enables the OS to run programs which require more memory than available RAM in the system, but it is much slower.

    5. Manages user’s files. the OS manipulates how files are created, stored and retrieved using file system. When you store a file on a disk, it is stored in pieces and when you open it, the OS organizes those pieces together and opens your file. OS also handles tasks related to cutting, copying and deleting files and folders.

     Note: File system is a method used by the operating system to name, store and organise files on a disk. For example Windows uses NTFS (New Technology File System).MacOS operating system uses a file system called HFS Plus or HFS+. HFS is written as Hierarchical File System. Linux has many file systems such as Ext 2, Ext 3, Ext 4, XFS, etc.

    6. Operating system controls input/output peripherals. the operating system manages reading from the input peripheral devices and writing to all peripheral devices. It controls access to all peripherals through small programs called device drivers. A device driver is a program that controls how a specific device works with specific operating system. examples are: Printer driver, network driver and graphics driver.

    7. Operating system manages files: operating system supervises the creation, storage, updating and deletion of files to various storage devices e.g. hard disk, flash disk, etc.

    8. Operating system manages backup storage (secondary storage or auxiliary storage). operating system locates and retrieves files needed by user from backup storage and monitors how they are used.

    9. Operating system manages security and access rights of computer users. In this case, the operating system monitors the creation of passwords, user names or account names on a computer. It also keeps record of who accesses the computer, the activities done and the resources used. In managing system security, the operating system guarantees that resources are used only for programs and users with appropriate authorization.

    10. Operating system handles errors as they happen. When the computer is used, without user intervention or knowledge. It can suggest to the user what to do to correct errors through error messages.

    there are several different types of operating systems and choice of which operating system to use depends mainly on; cost of buying the OS, hardware requirements to run the OS and user experience. the OS comes with two important components i.e. the Shell (which provide interface between the user and the operating system itself) and the Kernel (which provide interface between hardware and applications). You can install OS using different options among which are; fresh installation (done on a new computer or if the existing OS is damaged and cannot work); multi-boot installation (done when you install two or more different copies of OS on different parts of hard disk) and upgrading (done when you replace old version of OS with a new copy of OS e.g. replacing windows 7 with windows 10).

    Activity 1.1

    1. explain briefly the meaning of ‘operating system’ in the computer system.

    2. Identify the operating system(s) that is installed in your school computers.

    3. Discuss any five functions performed by the operating system in a computer.

    4. Give an example of operating system that can be installed on each of the following devices:

                     a) PDA

                     b) Laptop computer

    5. With clear examples discuss the following terms in computer system:

                     a) File system

                     b) User interface

    1.3 Types of license for software

    A software license is a legally binding agreement that specifies the terms of use for a software. It also defines the rights of the software producer and that of the end-user.

    there are two types of licenses for software:

                           .open source software

                            .Proprietary software

    1.3.1 Open Source License (General Public License or GPL)

    Open source software is a computer program in which the source code is available to the general public for use or modification from its original design and free of charge.

    Open source license is a license that allows the software to be freely used, modified and shared. this software license is widely used for free and guarantees end-users the freedom to run, study, share and modify software.

    1.3.2 Proprietary license

    Proprietary software is owned by an individual or company that developed it. the source code is kept almost secret, so you cannot modify it.

    his means that the software is under restrictive copyright and the source code is hidden from users. Anybody cannot copy or change proprietary software unless permission is sought from owners. Most software today is proprietary.

    Proprietary license is a software license in which the software publisher/owner grants a license to use one or more copies of software, but the ownership of those copies remains with the software publisher. the user must pay for the license before permission is given to use the software.

    1.4 Download software

    Download software means the transfer/copy of a software through the Internet from the remote computer (server) to a local machine or computer.

    Downloaded software installation files (executable files) are commonly used for program installations.

    Activity 1.2

    Using a browser installed on your computer, download Google Chrome installation file from Internet onto your computer.

    Step 1: open your Browser on the computer.

    Step 2:Use the search engine and type “download Google Chrome” installation file in the search book.

           

    Step 3:Press enter key (Return key) on your keyboard. Doing this will start the search for the specified item. After a short time, the search results display. Scroll to find the best result.

                  

    Step 4:Click the search result you think is best for you. this will take you to the items page. now click “for Personal Computers” the result will be as shown in the picture below.

                

    Step 5:Click the “Download Chrome” button.

    Note: If you download chrome, it automatically installs itself and so you may not see the downloaded file, but an already working program

                

    Step 6: open your downloaded file(s). Do this by clicking on the file’s name bar at the bottom of the browser or by navigating to the computer’s default download location, which is a folder called “Downloads”.

    Note: By default, all downloaded software and files are kept in the folder called Downloads on your computer from where they are transferred to another location of user’s choice.

    Some programs take long to download and to install and others strictly require Internet connection to complete installation.

    Activity 1.3

    Create a folder on your desktop using your first name and use it to save all the downloads.

    Using installed browser, download the following software installation files.

    a) Avast antivirus                 b) Mozilla Firefox

    c) VLC media player             d) Adobe reader

    e) Chess game                     f) skype

    1.5 Installation of software

    the term Software Installation means, the process of copying installation files of a given program onto hard disk in a format that allows the computer to run the program. It means putting a computer program on a computer and ready for use.

    You should always read the manufacturer’s installation manual to correctly install programs. this manual describes all the procedures and the necessary system requirements for successful installation.

    System requirements for installing software

           .Processor speed (the higher the speed the better)

          . RAM size

          .Hard disk space

          .Graphics card

       e.g. to install Windows 10, the minimum requirements usually include:

    Processor  1 Gigahertz (GHZ) or faster processor or SoC (system on Chip or integrated circuit known  as a chip).

    RAM     1 Gigabyte (GB) for 32–bit or 2GB for 64-bit

    Hard disk space    16GB for 32-bit OS or 20GB for 64-bit OS

    Graphics Card Direct X 9 or later with WDDM (Windows Display Driver Model) 1.0 driver

    WDDM is a graphic driver architecture for video card drivers running Microsoft Windows.

    1.5.1 Installation of Operating system

    operating system is installed in a separate section of hard disk referred to as disk partition. the hard disk is usually divided into multiple sections and each section or partition can operate independently of the other. Dividing hard disk into partitions is called disk partitioning.

    Before you partition a disk, save or backup important files onto another disk because disk partitioning erases all the data on the disk and prepares it for new data using a particular file system such as FAT (File Allocation table) or NTFS.

    the hard disk is usually partitioned when installing operating system. to partition your hard disk, insert in the optical drive a bootable DVD containing a desired operating system e.g. Windows 8 or Windows 10.

    Note: While installing the OS, determine the type of file system you should use. File system is a method used by Operating system to keep track of files stored on computer. File systems commonly used by operating systems include: FAT32 and NTFS.

    Modern operating systems such as Windows 10 mainly use NTFS (New Technology File System). Consider the type of file system best supported by OS or application software you want to use.

    Since an Operating system has to take control of all other programs you will use, it must be installed first before other programs.

    Activity 1.4

    Provided with Windows 10 installation DVD or flash disk containing Windows 10 installation files, perform a fresh installation of Windows 10 on your computer.

    Step 1:Backup all your data on an external storage device such as a flash drive or external hard drive. this is because clean installation deletes everything on your computer’s hard drive.

    Step 2: start your computer and then connect the bootable USB flash drive or insert the bootable Windows 10 DVD on the PC where you want to install Windows 10.

    Step 3:Restart your PC, and then press any key to boot from the USB flash drive or the DVD. Press the key after seeing the message as shown below.

      

    If you restart your PC and your current version of Windows starts, then open a boot menu or change the boot order in your computer’s BIOS or UEFI (Unified extensible Firmware Interface) settings so that your computer boots from the media.

    Note: To open a boot menu or change the boot order, press a combination of keys (such as F2, F8, F9, F10, F12, Delete, or ESC) as soon as you turn on your PC. However, the key (s) you press depends on the manufacturer of your computer’s motherboard and it is usually displayed immediately the computer starts. Check it out.

    once you get the boot menu, select the best boot order such as Optical disk drive then press enter key.

    Step 4: on the first screen for Windows setup, select your language, time, keyboard preferences and then click on Next button on lower right.

            

    Step 5: In the next screen, click on “Install Now” to install Windows.the new OS Windows 10 will start its installation. Make sure you don’t turn off your PC.

            

    Step 6:In the next screen, you will be asked to provide a 25-character product key in the space provided. After entering it, click Next. However, if you don’t have a product key at the moment, click on Skip button so you will enter the product key later.

    Step 7: the next screen is the License Agreement Window. If you have time, read through and then check the option labelled “I accept the License terms”. afterwards click Next button.

              

    Step 8: In the next screen, you will see two options. to perform a clean installation, select Custom.

             

    Note: Custom is selected to make fresh installation.

    Step 9: select the drive on which to install Windows 10. You may need to format the drive for clean installation. select the drive and click on Format at the bottom of the window. In case you have just installed a new hard disk, you need to create a new partition to install Windows.

    To create a partition

    • select the hard drive and click on “New” button

    • Allocate the space you want depending on the capacity of your hard disk.

    • Click “Apply” to complete the process.

    Note: The system additionally creates a partition with name “System Reserved” to ensure that the system works fine. Its size usually is 100MB.

            

    Step 10: select partition where you want to install Windows 10 and click Next button.

    At this point, the installation of Windows will start. It will take about 25 minutes to complete the installation process.

    During the installation, your system may reboot two or three times but don’t press any key, leave everything to work automatically.

            

    Step 11: once the installation is completed, a blue color screen displays.

    Click on “Use Custom Settings” button if you want to go with default settings. You can also click on “Customize”button if you want to customize settings.

        

    Follow on-screen instructions and a few minutes Windows 10 will be ready for use.

    Note: If you did not enter the 25 character windows key above, then go to Settings -> Update & Security -> Activation. Enter the key to activate the windows.

      

    1.5.2 Install Microsoft (MS) Office 2016 on selected computer(s)

    Activity 1.5

    You are provided with office 2016 Installation DVD. Install this application on your computer. Follow the steps below.

    Step 1: obtain Ms office installation DVD (or download Installation file from the Internet.)

    Step 2:Insert the disc in the optical drive (e.g. DVD Drive)the installation disc automatically launches setup wizard. (If the setup wizard doesn’t start automatically, open the disk drive or folder for office 2016 and double-click Setup file.see the picture below.

         

    When the setup file is double-clicked, it displays the office screen as shown in Picture 1.16.

    Remember:

    to install application software successfully you must use an Administrator account, without which installation cannot take place. other types of accounts such as standard or limited accounts and Guest accounts do not have the privilege to install or uninstall software.If you normally use limited accounts for doing other practical activities, this time you should use an administrator account to install Microsoft office 2016 and other applications.

            

    After a short time, the office installation screen appears to show the status of installation process as shown in picture 1.17.

               

    Step 3: Wait as office installs to complete the installation process. Click Close after the installation is complete (see picture 1.18).

             

    Step 4: open an office application such as Word 2016. the message as shown in picture 1.20 may display on top of office (Word) 2016 Open back stage screen. In case you purchased a licensed product, close it and will not show again, start using office normally.

    If you purchased a non-licensed product, and you have the product key, click on “enter a product key instead” (see picture 1.20).

            

    he Product key screen displays as shown below. type in your product key which must be 25 characters and then click on continue.

         

    MS Office 2016 may not require a product key once you purchase a licensed copy.

    Note: Product key is a specific software-based key for a computer program and certifies that the copy of the program is original. If you do not have product key, you may fail to use the software installed normally or if the product key is required before installation you may fail to install the software. The location of your product key depends on how you got a copy of the software.

    Step 5:Afterwards office installs; click close after installation is complete.

    Step 6:If the activation wizard displays, click “I want to activate the software over the Internet” and then follow prompts.

    1.5.3 How to install application software (installing skype)

    Procedure

    Step 1: obtain a disc that contains the software to be installed. If you earlier downloaded the software, then check for the software from the folder where you save on the desktop.

    Step 2: Insert the disc in the disk drive.

    Step 3: open the disc. open the folder containing installation files.

    Step 4: Double click on the setup file for skype to install. the wizard for installation starts as shown in picture 1.21.

       

       

    Note: Many Application programs require internet connections. So ensure Internet is available for proper and complete installation.

      

    f you are using the latest version of Windows 10, skype is already installed on it. Just sign in with skype name, email or phone.

    Step 5: Repeat step 4 above and install the rest of the software you downloaded that includes: Adobe Acrobat Reader, Chess game, Avast antivirus and nero burning software.

    Activity 1.6

    Locate the software you downloaded in activity 1.3. Perform software installation of each of the installation files for;

    a) Avast antivirus         b) Mozila firefox

    c) VLC media player     d) Adobe (Acrobat) reader

    e) nero burning software

    1.5.4 Install Antivirus

    this is a utility program used for scanning computer viruses and removing them from the computer.

    Viruses can corrupt computer data on hard disk, delete most important operating system files and can make the system to crash. Always install updated antivirus software and ensure you scan your system regularly with the program. You can download and install the antivirus you want depending on user experience or information from other users like norton, Kaspersky, AVG, McAfee, Avast, etc. similar steps are used to download and install different anti-viruses.

    Uninstall application software

    take the following steps to uninstall (Google Chrome) an application software.

    Step 1:Right click the start button and select Control Panel. (or type “Control panel” in the search box at the start and press enter).

             

    Step 2:In the control panel window that displays (as shown in picture 1.25) select Uninstall a program under Programs option.

                             

    Step 3: In the Programs and Features screen, select Google Chrome (you can select another program you are sure you do not need and uninstall it). then click on Uninstall tab above programs list.

     

    Step 4:Wait for the Windows Installer (as shown in picture 1.27) to gather all the features of (Google Chrome) program and remove them. Lastly close Control Panel.

               

    Note: After uninstalling some applications such as MS Office, it requires to restart the computer to completely remove all the features. When you see a message prompting you to restart, please accept it.

    1.6 Software add-on

    this is a piece of software that adds a specific feature or capability to an existing software application. A software add-on cannot be run independently, it is just a software extension.

    Examples of common add-ons are AdobeFlash, QuickTime and Silverlight.

    Role of add-ons

      .Interface change: the application can be dynamically extended to include new features which have friendly interface suitable for different users.

      .Adding features: More features are added to the browser (program) to increase its usability

    Download and install add-ons

    Activity 1.7

    Using Mozilla firefox Carryout a download to add various software extensions to your browser.

    Step 1:Go to the Mozilla home page. You can use

                www.mozilla.org.

    Step 2:Click Add-ons (First scroll down the page).

      

    Step 3: on the new page that displays, go to the add-on or extension you want to add.

       

    Step 4:Click the add-on you want to download. this automatically installs on your computer.

    Download Helper

    this is a tool used to extract videos and image files from websites and save them to your hard drive. As you are surfing the web Download Helper can detect that it can do something for you, the toolbar icon highlights and a menu allows you to download files by simply clicking an item.

    Download file (Video) using add-ons/download helper

    Step 5:In the new tab for Add-ons Manager, click in the search box at the upper right hand corner of the window. type in the word YouTube and press enter key.

         

    Step 6:Click the Install button next to the result “1-click YouTube Video Download”.

    Step 7: once the installation is complete, wait for a few seconds and then restart Firefox.

    Step 8: type in the Address bar “www.YouTube.com”. Locate your favorite video and click on it.

    Step 9: If “I click You tube video download” is used, to download a video on You  tube, there is a red button under Active Video download.

    If Download Helper is used and there is an active video on any website, the icon is active to let you download it, see pictures 1.31 and 1.32.

    Copy the URL for your favorite video.

    Step 11:From Save as dialog box, select location to save your video and click save continue to download the page.

     

    Click the Download button below the active video and the options it brings, select a suitable format. the save as dialog box displays.

    Step 12: once the download is complete, watch the downloaded video at any time you want, using location specified.

    Note: YouTube has been designed for users who only watch and view videos on their website. In case you want to download and save the video to your computer, you may have to select from a variety of online down loader programs or use YouTube down loader page to download the video.

    Note: Ad blocker

    this is software extension that reduces the number of unwanted, uncalled-for pop up ads which appear on the user’s display in a browser. Ad is short for Advertisement. Pop up ads usually appear unexpectedly.

    Ad block Plus is the most popular ad blocker for Firefox, opera, chrome, safari and internet explorer. It blocks banners, pop-ups, tracking and some malware.

    Why should you remove ads?

    there are many reasons why people choose to remove ads. some of the most frequent arguments are:

         .People do not want to be manipulated by online advertising.

        .Advertising is annoying in most cases.

        .Advertising often uses heavy graphics which slows the page loading.

        .online advertising imposes a security risk for the Internet user, as the third-party banner ads may introduce security breaches to the site.

    How to disable or remove browser plug-ins and add-ons

    Internet explorer, Firefox, and Google Chrome each allow for the use of plug-ins and add-ons, which are scripts that supplement the functionality of the browser.

    For - Mozilla Firefox

    In the menu bar, select Tools > add-ons or click the Open menu button on the upper right page and select add-ons.

    1. In the Add-ons Manager screen, find the add-on from the list of currently loaded add-ons on the right.

    2. select it and click on the Disable button at the bottom right.Windows users may also be able to uninstall add-on files through the Control panel.

    Activity 1.8

    Download and install the following add-ons:

    a) Media player for You tube

    b) Mail notifier

    c) screen Capture

    End of Unit 1 Assessment

    Theory Questions

    1. a) Define the term Software Installation.

       b) Briefly describe the steps for installing an operating system.c) explain the role of operating systems.

    2 Apart from fresh installation, explain other choices that are available for installing operating system on computer.

    3. explain the following terms:

    a) File system               b) Booting     

    c) Disk partitioning        d) Microsoft office

    4. Use Internet facility to research and then discuss the role of open source applications over proprietary software.

    5. open your browser and download the following applications:

    a) Microsoft Office                            b) Chess master

    c) A shampoo burning software        d) PDF reader

    e) Ludo game                                   f) Kerspersky Antivirus

    g) Adobe Photoshop

    6. Install the following programs you downloaded on to your computer:

    a) Ashampoo burning software        b) Adobe Photoshop

    c) Chess game                                 d) PDF reader

    e) Mail notifier (add-on)

    7. Uninstall the following software from your computer:

    a) Acrobat Reader                      b) Media player for You tube

    c) screen capture


    • Key Unit Competence

      Generate a table of contents and use one document to have multiple copies for different recipients.

      2.1 Table of Contents (TOC)

      A table of Contents is a piece of information used by readers to quickly find or locate what they are looking for in a book, magazine or any piece of literature.

      Activity 2.1

      Creating Table of Contents

      Follow the following steps carefully to create a table of Contents:

      Step 1: start Ms Word and then create a new document in which you need to add table of Contents. You will save the document asb

      now use Microsoft Word and type the following text as it appears; then you will use it to create table of Contents and Lists of tables and figures in activity 2.2 and 2.3.

      Information and Communication Technology Syllabus

                                    

      ICT syllabus in secondary schools contains a number of items of study. one of the interesting items in the syllabus is about software. When a teacher plans to have an ICT lesson from the Computer Laboratory, all learners smile (like a smiley face shown on the right) because they are going to use computers practically. there is some information about software as shown above:

      Computer Software

      Definition of computer software

      Computer software is defined as a series of instructions that tell the computer hardware how to process data. Computer software is sometimes called computer program. It is divided into two main categories;

                   .system software

                  .Application software.

                                                       

      About three quarters of what learners study is application software. As shown in the figure above.

      System software

      these are computer programs that control the operation of a computer and its hardware devices. system software act as an interface between the user, application software and computer hardware. Modern computers are complex machines having many running parts all of which need system software to keep running. systems software also provide general functionality for other programs to use, tools to speed up the computer, tools to develop new software and programs to keep the user safe from attacks.

      System software is divided into:

              .Operating system: For example, Windows 8, Windows 10, Linux and many others.

             .Utility programs: For example, Antivirus, Disk defragmenter and others.

             .Translator software: For example, Assembler, Interpreters and compilers.

             .Programming languages: For example, machine code, Assembly and Java.

        The table below summarizes system software

        

      Application software

      these are programs that help end-users to accomplish specific tasks using a computer. these programs define what a computer can be used for. Most application programs are available as packaged software that can be bought and installed on your computer. the common categories of application software include:

      Word processing software

                           

      Word processing software is the key to learning other application programs. on the above is a 7-point star for Microsoft word.

      Spreadsheets software

                       

      Management of figures is best learnt from lower level with spreadsheets software. this knowledge is important in business calculations. We give Microsoft excel a six-point star as shown on the above.

      Presentation software

                       

      It is important that learners can convey information to particular audience in an organized way using a computer program. We can now give Microsoft PowerPoint a 5-point star.

      other applications are equally good and learning the first three (above) gives a learner a good foundation for understanding other professional applications as given faster.

      • Graphics and Multimedia software.
      • Computer Aided Design (CAD) software.
      • Database Management systems.
      • Desktop Publishing.
      • Project Management.
      • Geographic Information systems.
      • education software.
      • entertainment software and many others.

      The table below summarizes Application software


      Step 2:Apply Heading styles to the text that you want to include on the table of Contents (Ms Word will use these styles to build the TOC automatically).

      Note: the objects you see in text were wrapped. to wrap them and appear like that, you have to do the following:

      • Click shape (the drawing tools automatically display under Format tab).
      • Click Wrap text in the Arrange group on the Format tab.
      • In the Wrap text menu, select tight (you can also test other options to see how they work).
      • Move the picture or shape to the right until all the text appears on the left of the shape.
      • Release the mouse button. Justify your paragraph or block of text in case of need by clicking Justify button in paragraph on Home tab.
      Procedure to apply heading styles

      select text you want to be included in Table of Contents In our activity select the heading “Information and Communication Technology Syllabus” and apply Heading1 style. Do this by selecting Heading1 style from the Styles group on the Home tab. Repeat action above for heading “Computer software”.

      Bold your title. Repeat the procedure on subsequent titles using heading 2 in styles group and bold command in the font group on the Home tab:

      the titles to apply heading 2 in the text are:

      • Definition of computer software
      • system software
      • Application software

      Apply heading 3 style to text headings below:

      • operating system
      • Utility programs
      • translator software
      • Programming languages
      • Word processing software
      • spreadsheets software
      • Presentation software
      Repeat this step for every text heading you think should be in your TOC.At this stage insert page numbers. Align right page numbers in the footer using 1, 2, 3 number format.

      Step 3:Generate an automatic Table of Contents for the document at the beginning of your document.

      To create Table of contents, do the following below:

      Creating table of Contents

      Click where you want to insert the table of contents (usually at the beginning of the document).

      Click References tab > Table of Contents, and then choose Automatic Table 1 style from the list (see picture 2.2).

      Note: If you use a Manual Table of Contents style, Word won’t use your headings to create a TOC and won’t update it automatically. If you opt for manual method, then everything has to be done manually.

      When created, you can format or customize your TOC by changing font, number of heading levels, etc. A TOC can also be created in any other location in your document but it is most suitable at the beginning of your document.
       

      the table of contents that results from activity 2.1 is shown in picture 2.3.


      Activity 2.2

      open My-toC file and perform the following activities:

      a) Insert a page break at the end of the document.

      b) type the heading ‘Computer Hardware’.

      c) Generate a list of computer hardware available in your computer laboratory on the following categories:

      • Input Hardware
      • output hardware
      • Processing hardware
      • storage hardware

      d) Apply heading 1 style on the new heading and heading 2 style on the sub headings.

      e) Update your Table of Contents (follow the steps given).

      Update Table of Contents

      If you add or remove some headings or information from the TOC in your document, you can update quickly using the following procedure:

      Step 1: on the References tab, in the Table of Contents group, click Update Table (see picture 2.2). You can also click “Update table” button in the selected table of Contents (see picture 2.3).

      Step 2:In the Update table of Contents dialog box that displays, select “Update entire table”. the new table of contents displays.
                       

      When the TOC as shown in picture 2.3 is updated, the new table of contents reflecting changes/updates you have made may appear as shown below.


      Delete Table of Contents

      Step 1: on the References tab, in the Table of Contents group, click Table of Contents.

      Step 2:From the table of Contents menu click Remove Table of Contents (see picture 2.2). the table of contents automatically disappears from its original location.

      Customize Table of Contents

      Step 1: on the Table of Contents menu, select Custom Table of Contents.
      the table of Contents dialog box displays as shown below.

      Step 2: select the tab leader you need, number of levels and other options.

      Step 3:Click on OK to save changes you need in the TOC.


      2.2 List of tables and list of figures

      List of tables and figures is used to keep information organized and provide easy access to a specific element needed in the document, for example a table or particular figure such as a drawing or photo, etc.

      Creating a list of tables and list of figures

      Activity 2.3

      open My TOC document. Just below the table of Contents:

      a) Create a list of tables in the document.

      b) Create a list of figures in the document.

      c) save the document as List of Figures.

      Follow the procedure below to generate a list of tables (table of Figures);

      a) Creating a List of Tables

      Step 1: Add Captions to every table in the document using procedure given below:

      • First select a table on to which you need a caption.
      • Click “Insert Caption” command on References tab. (see picture 2.7 below).
      • edit table caption and click OK. (see picture 2.8).

      Repeat the procedure for all the tables in the document

      Repeat step 1 for all other tables in the document.Use the following text for table 1 and 2 as table captions:

      Table 1: summary of system software

      Table 2: summary table for application software

      Step 2:Click where you want to insert the table of Figures.

      Step 3: on References tab in the Captions group, click on Insert Table of Figures to build the table.

      Step 4: In the table of figures dialog box (as displayed in picture 2.9), select the caption label as “table” and click OK.


      The resulting list of tables is shown in picture 2.10.

      The resulting list of tables appears as shown below.

      Optional steps you may take before clicking OK

      Step 5:Adjust table’s formatting such as setting whether to show page numbers or changing the style of tab leader. You can use a preset style from “Formats” drop down menu. In case you want to customize the style, leave it set to “From template”.

      Step 6:Click “Modify” and click again “Modify” in the style dialog box to customize the style of the table. You can change the table’s font, size and other settings in the two dialog boxes. then click OK.

      Step 7:Click “Options” in the table of Figures dialog box. Check ‘Style’ and select style used for your figure labels to build table based on text style rather than data taken on insert caption. If you used insert caption you can skip this step.

                 

      Using the modify style dialog box, if font size is 12, bold and underline styles are used on our list of tables, and a table leader is also changed, the list of tables will appear as shown below.

      b) Creating a List of Figures

      Step 1:Repeat steps 1 in (a) above (creating a List of tables). In this case add captions for all the figures. see procedure in the picture below (picture 2.14).

      Step 2:Repeat step 2 of part (a) i.e. (step 2 in creating a List of tables).

      Step 3:Repeat step 3, however in the table of Figures dialog box, select Figure.

      Step 4:Click OK.

      The resulting table of figures may appear as shown in picture 2.15.


      2.3 Mail merge

      A mail merge is the process that produces personalized letters by combining a database of names and addresses with a formal letter created in a word processor.

      Activity 2.4

      a) Create the letter below in Microsoft Word, that will invite parents to their meeting at GS Bumbogo school. save the letter as “Parents Meeting”. Follow other instructions after this letter.

      b) Use mail merge feature to generate letters for the following parents in the table below.

      Creating a mail merge document

      Step 1: Create a letter which you will send to various persons; similar to the one shown on screen in picture 2.16, save it as ‘parents meeting’.

      Step 2: on the Mailings tab, click the Start Mail Merge button and then select Letters in the menu.

      Step 3: Click on the Select Recipients button which is next and in the list that appears select Type a New List.the new Address List box appears.

      Step 4: In the new Address List, click Customize Columns.the Customize Address List appears to enable you customize the fields. (see picture 2.18).

      Note: You do not need all the fields that come with the program, so you can customize them by clicking on the Customize Columns as shown in picture 2.18.

      Referring to the data in table 2.1, the customized fields could appear as shown in picture 2.19:

      Step 5: After customizing your fields, click OK. then start entering in your data i.e. Recipients list.

      Step 6: Click OK after entering Recipients list. You will be prompted to save the file (the Data source).

      Step 7: the Save Address List dialog box will display to enable you save the data file. type in the file name as “parents” and select suitable location, then click save button.

      Step 8: Click on Edit Recipients list on the Mailings tab, in case you want to edit some Recipients (or you can ignore this step). see picture 2.21.

      Step 9: a) Click a location in the main document (Letter) where you want to insert the first merge field.

      b) Click on the Insert Merge Field button, a drop down list of fields used will appear, click on the appropriate field to be inserted in the cursor position.

      c) Repeat the above step until all fields in the data file are inserted in the document (Letter) in appropriate positions.

      d) Preview results using the Preview Results group buttons.

      Step 10: see picture 2.21:a) Click on Finish & Merge button in the Finish group; select Send Email Messages—to send merged documents as emails; or select Print Documents—to send merged documents directly to the printer to be printed or select ‘Edit individual documents’ to edit and print copies after merging them.

      b) now select Edit individual documents, the Merge to New Document dialog box will display. select All and click OK.

      c) the merged document will appear with a temporary name (Letters1); save the document using a new name or location.

      d) Print your document when you need.

      Activity 2.5

      1. open Microsoft Word and make mailings tab active. study your screen and then compare it with buttons you see in picture 2.23.

      2. Using picture 2.23 above; identify the buttons used to perform the following activities:

      a) to delete or add more names and addresses.

      b) Display items you create using mail merge.

      c) to see the letters before you merge.

      d) to insert merge fields at the cursor position.

      e) to send merged letters as mail or print them directly on the printer.

      3. Mr. Gatete is a secretary of Biscuit trading Company Ltd. His company intends to invite its shareholders for the Annual General Meeting (AGM) this year.

      the content of the letter is to be similar to all shareholders except for each shareholder’s personal details and titles.

      Mr. Gatete has prepared the letter below to be sent to various shareholders.


      Required

      a) type the letter as it appears and save it as Biscuit letter.Include a Header as your name.

      b) Use mail merge features in Microsoft word to create the table above, save it in your folder as shareholders.

      c) Link the table to the letter and generate letters for various shareholders. save the new generated file as Biscuit-Data.

      Activity 2.6

      1. Ms. Mutesi Mary is the head of ICT in Maranyundo Academy. she is organizing an ICT learners’ seminar at her school. she intends to send letters to ICT teachers of various schools requesting for their learners to attend this seminar in September 2018. the content for the letter is the same for all schools except school names, ICT teachers and other details.A copy of the letter to be sent to schools.

      a) type the letter and save it as ICT seminar.

      Required

      (i) Indent the body of the letter left and right by “0.5”.

      (ii) Apply single line spacing on each paragraph of the body.

      (iii) Put a spacing of 12pt before and after each paragraph.

      (iv) Apply a bold Heading1 style to the subject for the letter with font size of “15.5” and dashed underline.

      (v) Insert a text watermark of 2018 and save the changes.

      (vi) Using a mail merge feature create the table above and save it as “ICT Schools” in your folder.

      (vii) Use a suitable word processing feature to merge the table to the letter (ICT seminar) in order to generate individual letters to be sent to various schools.

      (viii) save the resulting file in your folder as “ICT Letters”.

      Suggested answers for each of the letters required in Activity 2.6 is displayed in picture 2.24 below.


      2.4 Organize, print and view shortcuts

      Before you print your document, you should preview your document and specify which pages you want to print.

      Activity 2.7

      open ICT Letters file you created using the right password, organize and print one copy of the letter for Mr. ngabo Desire and 2 copies of the letter for Mrs. Mutesi Desire.

      Follow the procedure given below to print the required document.

      Steps to preview your document

      1. on the File menu/tab click Print.

      2. to preview each page, click the forward and backward arrows at the bottom of the page.

      3. If the text is too small to read, use the Zoom Slider at the bottom of the page to enlarge it.

      4. enter the number of copies, to print. (see picture 2.25).

      5. Under Printer, select a printer to use (in case you frequently change printers).

      6. Under Settings, select options you need i.e. select Print Current Page.

      7. Click on Print button to produce a hard copy of the document. (see the picture 2.25 shown below)

      Note: Before you click on Print, ensure that the printer you select is connected to your computer and switched on.

      View Shortcuts

      In case you need to use view shortcuts to see your document in different ways, click a desired view button on the lower right of the document. see picture 2.26.

      2.5 Protect your document

      Use passwords to prevent other people from opening or modifying your documents. However, if you use a password and forget it, Word processors like Microsoft Word cannot retrieve the forgotten passwords. there are two methods to protect a document with password.

      Steps to protect your document with a password

      Method 1

      1. Create or open an existing document, in this activity open the file ICT Letters. click the File tab. the Backstage view opens.

      2. In the Backstage view, click Info (see picture 2.27).

      3. Click Protect Document. see picture below for Protect Document options.

      Meaning of various options

      ·Mark as Final: make the document read-only.

      ·Encrypt with Password: set a password for the document.

      ·Restrict Editing: control what types of changes that can be made to the document.

      ·Restrict Permission by People: use a Windows Live ID to restrict permissions.

      ·Add a Digital Signature: add a visible or invisible digital signature.

      4. Click ‘Encrypt with Password’.

      5. In the Encrypt Document dialog box that displays (as shown on picture 2.28), type in the desired password for your document and click OK.

      6. Retype the password again in the dialog box to confirm it and click OK.

      now, you have protected your document with a password.

      Method 2

      1. Create or open an existing document for which you want to apply a password.

      2. Click File tab; on the backstage view that displays, click Save As.

      3. the save As backstage view displays save locations, click Browse. see picture 2.29.

      4. the Save As dialog box displays, click Tools drop down arrow (see picture 2.30)

      5. Click General Options (see picture 2.30).6. In the dialog box that appears, type in password to open the document. Retype the password and click OK.

      End of Unit 2 Assessment

      1. Use Microsoft Word, typeset the following document and save it as ‘Certificate of Appreciation’ this document is a certificate and should have a page border as shown.

      Other Instructions

      a) Use 1.5 line spacing for your work and no space after each paragraph.

      b) Make the following changes to the title:

      (i) Change the name of the school to stencil bold font face, font size 26 and dark blue color.

      (ii) Change the second line to font size 16 and bold.

      (iii) Change the third line to font size 14 and bold.

      c) Leave enough space between “Southern Province”, Rwanda and ICT Club to accommodate a suitable graphic (good image) that will work like your school badge.

      d) Underline the heading, “Certificate of Appreciation” change it to size 20 and color dark red. Apply a double strike through.

      e) Use blue font color for signatories in font size 15

      . f) Apply dark red color to page border.

      g) ensure that your work fits on one page of your document Center all text. Format the rest of the text as you wish correctly.

      h) the certificates are to be awarded to the following members. Create a data source and save it as ‘data file’.

      i) Using a word processing facility, merge the fields above to the certificate ( place fields in appropriate positions). Change the color of the merged fields in red bold color in your main document.

      j) Merge the document and the certificate such that each member of the club in the data source has a complete certificate for printing.

      k) name the new file as ICT certificates with a password as, ‘joint1001’. Print a copy of the new document and close the file.

      2. explain the meaning of the word Formal letter and explain how it differs from the database of names and addresses?

      3. open a blank document and in it create the following items:

      a) type two brief paragraphs about the history of your school. Add a suitable picture such as a clip after.

      b) type five points about why you joined your school, the good about your school and the bad about your school. Insert one picture related to computers. Provide a suitable heading.

      c) Insert a new page in your document. type a heading “Science Teachers”. A brief information about science subjects such as physics, chemistry. Create a table with science teachers and the subjects they teach. Include a suitable picture on the page.

      d) type a list of Arts Teachers in a table, with a suitable heading on a new page. type a brief information about Arts subjects.

      e) Create a list of Sports activities in your school with brief information related to your school. Provide a suitable heading that should be on a new page. Insert two pictures related to sports listed.

      f) Insert a new page in your document and create a list of favorite sports stars in your country and on International level. Use two column table.

      g) Generate reason(s) why you should not change your school. Do this on a fresh page.

      h) save your file as ‘Love4-myschool’.

      Instructions

      ·Generate a table of Contents for your document.

      ·Create a List of tables for the document.

      ·Create a list of Figures you have added in your document.


      • Key unit competence

        Present data graphically and use different objects in a document.

        3.1 Charts

        A chart is a diagram or object used to display numerical information in details. A chart can also be called a graph.

        Data in a chart is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart.

        Learners can see results of numerical data in a chart and can use it to predict current and future.

        3.1.1 Role of charts

        • Charts are used to summarize and display information in an easy manner to understand.
        • Charts act as useful tools for conveying financial information.
        • they are used to make patterns and trends in numerical order much easier to see.
        • Charts facilitate data analysis.

        3.1.2 Types of charts

        there are several types of charts used to display data. the most popular types include among others the following:

        A. Bar Chart (Bar graph)

        A bar chart is a graphic representation of data with horizontal bars or objects. Bar charts usually display horizontal bars or objects going across the chart vertically, with the values displayed at the bottom of the chart.

        B. Column Chart

        A column chart is a graphic representation of data with vertical bars or objects. Column charts display vertical bars (categories)going across the chart horizontally (along the horizontal axis), with the values organized along the vertical axis (on the left side of the chart).

        Chart Overview


        C. Line Chart (Line Graph)

        A line chart is a graphic representation of data plotted using a series of lines. Line charts display lines going across the chart horizontally, with the values axis being displayed on the vertical axis (left side of the chart).

        D. Pie Chart

        Pie chart is a circular chart sliced into sections; each section represents a percentage of the whole. Pie charts do not display horizontal and vertical axes as other charts.

        3.2 To create a chart or graph

        Use the steps given below to create a graph. All the charts already shown above were created using similar data as in the ones below. Use this data to create these charts as they are in Microsoft Word. save the file as ‘Common charts’.

        Step 1:Prepare the data that you need to make the chart (this data can be on paper or in a book).

        Step 2: start Microsoft Word and then click where you want to place the chart.

        Note: First create table data in Microsoft Word, but this is an option you may ignore.

        Step 3: on the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group click Chart.


        Step 4:In the Insert Chart dialog box (that displays as shown in picture 3.6), select the type of chart that you want on the left side, then select the chart sub type and finally click OK.

        Step 5: the Chart remains selected and Chart tools display (on Design, Layout and Format tabs). Use Chart tools to modify your chart the way you want.

        Step 6: Replace the sample data (edit data) by clicking on a cell and then typing the data that you want.

        Note: to delete a column or row data, right click on column letter e.g. column D or row number e.g. row 5. then select delete.

        The resulting chart for our data in table 3.1 will appear as shown below

        Activity 3.1

        1. S.3 class has a total of 120 learners. the class teacher carried out a data survey to find out how many learners regularly eat meat, pork, chicken or fish at home. the data below in table 3.2 was collected.

        Instructions

        a) open Microsoft Word and create the table 3.2 above as it appears.

        b) Use the data given in table and create:

        (i) A clustered bar chart on page 1 just below table

        (ii) Pie Chart on page 2 (with data call outs).

        c) Apply Chart titles and Axis titles in b

        (i) and b

        (ii) above.

        d) save changes to your file and save it as ‘Sauces’.

        2. a) the picture below is displaying chart tools. Use it to answer the questions that follow.

        (i) name the tab that is active. Identify two buttons displayed by this tab.

        (ii) Identify how many tabs display Chart Tools. state the use of any one button on each tab.

        b) study the Chart Tools on the Design tab in picture 3.9. Identify the name of the button used to:

        (i) Change from one chart type to another

        (ii) Add titles to axes and add/remove legend.

        c) Which type of chart might have been selected according to picture 3.9?

        d) Which button on design tab can be used to quickly apply axis labels or titles?

        3. a) Picture 3.10 below shows another set of Chart tools. study the picture. Which tab is displaying chat tools?

        3.3 Formatting an object and chart

        Formatting an object and chart means to change the appearance of object and chart to look nice. A chart is an object in a document. A chart can be formatted to look attractive to the user. to format a chart, different features or buttons are used to make these changes. Most of the buttons are located on format tab under Chart Tools as shown in picture 3.9.

        To format a chart

        Step 1: select a chart you want to format.

        Step 2:Click Format tab under Chart Tools and select a formatting button you want. the changes immediately take effect.

        example:

        To apply Word Art styles on your Chart

        a) select a chart or chart element or a particular data series.

        b) Click Format tab under Chart Tools.

        c) In the Word Art Styles group, click Quick Styles and select a style you want (or use Text fill and or Text outline drop-down arrows and select desired colors you want). Refer to picture 3.8 or 3.9.

        Alternatively perform (a) to (b) above and then use Shape styles group buttons/commands i.e. select from Shape Fill and Shape Outline drop-down lists.

        Adjust chart size

        a) select a chart or object you want to resize.

        b) Click Format tab under Chart tools.

        c) In the Size group type or scroll in to adjust the Shape Height and Shape Width of the chart (Refer to picture 3.9).

        To format an object

        Follow the same steps as those used to format a chart.

        Activity 3.2

        1. a) open Ms Word, create and display table 3.3 on a 3-D clustered column chart. save the file as ‘House competitions’.

          

        b) Include a chart title and axis titles.

        c) Copy the chart and paste it on page 2 and page 3.

        d) Change the chart type on page 2 to a 3-D pie chart and use a suitable chart style. Apply style 3 of pie charts.

        e) Change the chart on page 3 into a line graph.

        f) Page your work and save changes.

        Activity 3.3

        the following table was prepared by Director of studies of Gs nyarusange pertaining to extra lessons covered by 10 teachers for the 4th week of the term. Values are in minutes.

                

        a) typeset the table above as it appears in the new document and save it as ‘Overtime’.

        b) Bold all column headings.

        c) Center all the figures in your table.

        d) sort the data as A-Z to the names of teachers.

        e) Insert the heading at the top of your table as “TeachersDaily Overtime in GS Nyarusange”.

        f) Create a 3-D stacked column graph for all teachers for Mon, tue and Wed. Place the graph on page 2.

        g) Create a line graph for the first five teachers (in ascending order) for Mon to sat. Place this chart on page 3.

        h) Create a pie chart for Mon and sat for all teachers. Place the chart on page 3 below the line graph above in (g).

        3.4 Add objects from file

        An object is something that you can see. In Word, processing objects can be inserted from other files already created, for example; documents, workbooks, presentations, PDF and so on.

        3.4.1 To add object from file

        Step 1: on the Insert tab, click Object command from the text group.

        3.5 Add objects

        In word processing, you can add different types of objects created with other programs such as Ms excel, Presentation, and equation applications in a document.

        3.5.1 To add Microsoft Excel Worksheet as an object in a document (or another type of document)

        Step 1:Create a new document or open an existing document where you want to insert an object.

        Step 2:Click where you want to insert the object.

        Step 3: on the Insert tab in the Text group, click Object button. the object dialog box appears. see picture 3.12.

        Step 4:In the Object Type list, scroll and select the type of object you want i.e. Microsoft excel Worksheet. (You can display the object as an icon if desired by ticking the “Display as Icon” check box. see the picture 3.14.

        End of Unit 3 Assessment

        1. Data given in table 3.5 shows learners performance in 4 subjects. Use this data to generate on separate page(s):

        a) A 3-D Clustered column chart showing all the learners’ performance in percentages. Change chart colors and the style you want.

        b) A stacked line chart for all learners.

        c) A pie chart representing the performance of learners in ICT. Use a desired chart style and color.

        d) Apply page numbers in the Footer and your name and class in the Header.

        e) save your file as your ‘Name-Class’.

        2. type the following data in Microsoft Word and save as ‘Learning ICT’.

        Learning ICT in Rwanda

        ICT syllabus for Rwanda is very interesting. there are many topics that were added for purposes of improving and enhancing the skills of learners. thanks for our Government, a caring mother for all Rwandan children, taking charge of our future livelihood.

        there are many topics and units that we learn on different levels gradually from lower secondary.

        The following topics are learnt right from S1 to S3

        • ICT Fundamentals
        • safety and security
        • Word processing
        • GIS
        • Computer network and Communication
        • scratch Programming for Juniors

        At s.2 level spreadsheet software is added to equip learners with basics of managing numerical data with a computer program.

        At s3 level more topics are added to build learners with more skills in using graphics and multimedia presentation. they include:

        • Presentation
        • Graphics and Multimedia
        Required

        a) Justify your document and save it with a name, ‘ICT in Rwanda’.

        b) Insert Sauces file you created in unit 3 as object- icon (you can open from here) at the end of the text you typed above.

        c) Add a bitmap Image and Microsoft excel Worksheet as objects at the beginning of your text.

        d) Insert an equation as below the image.

        e) save changes to your file.



        • Key unit competence

          Query a map using selections (attribute and location). Create a map layout and insert map elements. Use advanced symbology and labeling. Print, export and send a map.

          4.1 Introduction

          the most effective selection method one can use to select features in a layer is to select features using an attribute query.

          4.2 Querying data/information (Query methods III)

          4.2.1 Selecting features by attribute

          one of the selection methods you can use to select features in a layer is to select features using an attribute query.

          Activity 4.1

          Which parcels of Cyiri Cell belong to Birambo Village? the attribute query to use is from Picture 4.1;

          • “Village”: name of attribute field.
          • “=”: Relationship between attribute field and value (operator).
          • ‘’Birambo’’: name of value.

          Method 1:

          Step 1:Click selection > select By Attributes to open the select By Attributes dialog box.


          Step 2: Choose the layer to perform the selection against.

          Step 3: specify the selection method.

          Step 4: enter a query expression.see Building a query expression for information on the syntax of a query.

          Step 5:Validate your query expression by clicking Verify.

          Step 6:Click OK or Apply to execute your selection expression and work with the selection results.

          Step 7: optionally, you can save your query expression for later reuse before closing this dialog box


          Method 2

          Step 1:Click selection > select By location.


          Step 2:Constructing a location query

          • target layer: Parcels
          • spatial relationship: Intersect
          • source layer: Wetland

          4.2.2 Select by location

          Buffering features

          • What neighborhood is affected by 10m river buffer?
          • open Arc catalogue.
          • Analysis tool.
          • Proximity.
          • Buffer- a dialogue box is open.
          • In the Input Feature put River.
          • output feature class—browse to your data storage and give the name.
          • Linear Unit: 10 – select Meters.
          • Leave other tabs as default.
          • oK.


          Overlaying features

          • open Arc Catalogue.
          • Analysis tool.
          • overlay.
          • Union- a dialogue box is open.
          • In the Input Feature put Polygons to unite.
          • output Feature class -browse to your data storage and give the name.
          • Leave other tab as default.
          • OK.

          • explore other functions in Arc toolbox
          Activity 4.2

          Using Arc GIS, create an administration map of Rwanda, the map should present provinces, districts and lakes.

          Use the steps below

          Step 1: start Arc GIS Pro.

          Step 2: open an empty map.

          Step 3:Add new data or file.


          Step 4: on the Open page, under Open, click Computer and click Browse .

          Note: That the folder that contains data to use must be connected to Arc GIS.


          The following result will be prompted to you



          4.3 Display of a layer (II)

          4.3.1 Symbolize layer

          Step 5:If you want to change color of the layer, double click on the color, this window will open.


          Step 6: Add Districts layer.

          Repeat step 3 and 4.




          Step 7: to change all Districts layer color, do the same as step 5.


          Step 8: Add lakes layer.

          Repeat step 3 and 4



          4.3.2 Add and remove label of layer

          Activity 4.3

          1. Add province labels and districts labels to the map of Rwanda.

          2. Remove the labels you have added in number (1) above.

          Use the following steps.

          Step 1: Right click on the layer, (province).


          Step 2:Click on Properties, the layer properties dialog box below displays.


          Step 3:Click on Labels tab. Perform actions 1-5 in dialog box above. After following steps in picture above, the results are shown in picture 4.23.


          Step 4: Add labels on Districts layer. Right click Districts Layer.



          Step 5: select Labels tab, as shown below.


          After performing actions 1 and 2 with the Layer properties box above, the result will be as shown below:


          Remove labels

          to remove labels on a layer, follow the steps given below;

          Step 1: Right click on layer, e.g Districts then select properties.


          Step 2: Click OK at the bottom of layer properties dialog box.

          Activity 4.4

          a) Using the Activity 4.3, remove labels on provinces and then add labels on lakes.

          b) Add rivers layer and apply labels on it.

          4.4 Map layout

          the basic 4 elements that a map should have: title, legend, scale, date, author, orientation and text. We will show how to insert them in a map as an activity. Follow the steps given on each element.

          4.4.1 Insert Legend

          Using the map of Rwanda we used in previous activities, follow steps given below to insert a legend.

          Step 1:Change from data view to Layer out view. Use view button or view menu on the lower left side of the Arch map window.

             

          Step 2:Go to Insert menu, then Choose Legend.
                   
                        

          Follow the instruction given by Arc GIS, then after click OK.


          4.4.2 Insert Orientation

          Step 1:Click Insert menu.

          Step 2: Choose North Arrow


          Step 3: select how to use, then Click OK



          4.4.3 Insert Scale

          Step 1:Repeat step 1 and 2, above (under Insert orientation).

          Step 2: select Scale bar.

          Step 3: scale Bar dialog box will be displayed, then choose the scale you want to use, then click OK.



          Step 4: A map with scale is displayed as shown below.



          4.4.4 Insert Text

          there are several kinds of text you can insert in a map. text can be meaningful words, characters or numbers placed on a map. to add text, follow steps given below:

          Step 1:Click Insert menu, point to Dynamic text.


          Step 2: select text category you want to insert e.g Author, Document name, etc.

          4.4.5 Insert Title

          Step 1:Click on Insert menu.

          Step 2: select Title.

          Step 3: type text as title in the dialog box that displays.


          4.5 Use Page and Print Setup Menu

          the purpose of page and print setup is to organize your map ready for printing.

          Activity 4.5

          Perform a page and print setup of the map you added in the previous Activity (4.3). Follow the steps below:

          Step 1: navigate to File > Page and Print Setup.
           

          Step 2: select the printer.

          Step 3: select the Printer Paper size and orientation for the map. see the link in the Related Information section for information on setting up a custom page size.



          Step 4:Check, if the map has already been created, on ‘Scale map elements proportionally to changes in map size’ at the bottom of Print and Print setup dialog box.

          Step 5: select ‘Use Printer Paper Settings’. this grays out the bottom section, Map page size, because the map is now using the Printer paper size and orientation settings.

          Step 6:Click OK.

          4.6 Save and send a map

          to save a map is to store it for future references using a specific name and location on a storage device. to save or export a map is to prepare the map in format that can allow it to be easily moved or exported from one computer to another.Save a map

          Follow steps below:

          Step 1:Click File menu and select “Save As...



          Step 2: Choose the location and the name of the map.



          Export a map

          Prepare to send your map by following the steps given below:

          Step 1: on File menu, click Export Map



          Step 2:In the export Map dialog box, select File name and File format from Save as type drop down menu.


          End of Unit 4 Assessment

          1. Given Rwanda administrative boundaries data ,open a new map document and add the following data on the map:

          a) Provinces
          b) Districts
          c) sectors
          d) Rivers
          e) national parks

          then do the following:

          (i) Add label to each layer.
          (ii) Insert legend, scale and orientation.
          (iii) Insert map title, author and date.
          (iv) export the map in PDF file and send it to your teacher’s email.

          2. Given the map of Kigali city, open the new map and add the following data.
                    ·City divisions.
                    ·Roads.

          then perform the following:

          (i) Add a label to each layer.
          (ii) Insert a map title, author and date.
          (iii) export the map in .jpg. file format.



          • Key Unit Competence

            Use Charts and objects in a spreadsheet, use different techniques to organize a printable datasheet.

            5.1 Charts (Graphs)

            A chart is a graphical representation of numerical data. It is a sheet of information in form of a table, graph, diagram or object.

            Charts enable users to see results of data in detail, interpret and predict current and future data in a much easier way.

            5.1.1 Uses of charts

            • Used to summarize numerical information.
            • View relationships between different variables e.g. Price against sales volume.
            • Detect trends overtime and make forecasts.
            • search for patterns among a large amount of figures.

            Note: In unit 3, we looked at how we create charts in MS Word and this means you already know something about charts. Like in MS Word, a chart is created almost the same way in MS Excel but the difference is in steps you take to create it.

            5.1.2 Types of charts

            there are several types of charts used to present data pictorially. the charts mainly include; column, bar pie, line and scatter graphs.

            Activity 5.1

            You are given the following data to enter in Microsoft excel. save the data as ‘ICt marks’. Use the data to create a column, bar, pie, line and scatter charts. (Follow steps for creating a chart in section 5.2).

            1. Column chart:A column chart displays data as vertical bars. If the data in table 5.1 above is entered in spreadsheet and a column chart created for ICT marks, it may appear as shown in picture 5.1.


            2. Bar chart: A bar chart represents data mainly as horizontal bars or objects.

            When the data in table 5.1 is used in Ms excel to create a chart, a bar chart for ICT marks may appear as shown in picture 5.2.

            Difference between column and bar charts

            A bar chart represents data using horizontal objects but a column chart uses vertical objects.

            Similarity between column and bar charts

            Both bar and column charts represent data using bars or columns to compare items. the length of each bar or column is proportional to the data that it represents. this means that a bar or column corresponding to a value of 100 would be twice as long as one corresponding to value of 50.

            3. Line chart (line graph)

            A line chart is a graphic representation of data plotted using a series of lines.

            If the data in table 5.1 is used to create a line chart, it would appear as shown in picture 5.3.

            4. Pie chart

            Pie chart is a circular chart sliced into sections; each section represents a percentage of the whole. Pie charts do not display horizontal and vertical axes as other charts.

            If the data in table 5.1 is used to create a pie chart, it would appear as shown in picture 5.4.