Topic outline

  • Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of heroes and citizenship.

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    1.1 Oral work: Heroes

    1.1.1 Speaking activity

    1. Answer these questions.
          a) What is a hero?
          b) Do you think heroes are made or born?
          c) What does the saying ‘heroes never die’ mean? Do you think it is true?

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    2. Match the names of the famous leaders below with their achievements. These are not only Rwandan leaders, but leaders from across the world.

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       1.2 Reading and writing: Martin Luther King Junior

    1.2.1 Reading and writing practice
    1. Read the text about a famous person.

    Martin Luther King Junior
    Martin Luther King Junior was born in Atlanta, Georgia, on 15 January 1929. He was an Afro-American civil rights activist in the USA during the 1960s.
    He grew up in a racially divided USA and went to segregated schools. He attended university, where he graduated. He was later awarded a PhD (doctor’s degree) in Theology.

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    He worked as a Baptist pastor for many years. Mahatma Gandhi inspired him to choose non-violence in his fight for the rights of Afro-Americans.
    He was a strong believer in the equality of all races and worked hard for the civil rights of black people. In 1963, he led thousands of people in a protest march to Washington. Many whites also participated in the march to demand freedom and jobs for black Americans.
    During the march, Martin Luther King Junior delivered his famous speech, ‘I have a dream …’. The key message in his speech was his wish for equality of whites and blacks. He wanted all to live together in peace, and in a USA free of racial prejudice.

    In 1964, he became the youngest person to win the Nobel Peace Prize.
    On 4 April 1968 he was assassinated in the city of Memphis in Tennessee. His assassin, James Earl Ray, tried to escape. He was arrested at Heathrow Airport on his way to Rhodesia, which was then under white rule. He was brought back to the USA and charged with murder. He was sentenced to 99 years in prison.
    Martin Luther King did not die in vain. After his death, the USA government introduced changes to their laws. Racial segregation was reduced in public schools, transport services and in employment opportunities.

    2. Answer the questions.
        a) Who was Martin Luther King Junior?
        b) What does ‘racially segregated’ mean?
        c) What was Martin Luther King Junior’s highest academic qualification?
        d) Why did he prefer to use non-violent means to fight racial segregation in the USA?

        e) What was the purpose of the march to Washington?
         f) Did only black people take part in the march to Washington? Explain your answer.
        g) In your opinion, what effect did Martin Luther King Junior’s speech, ‘I have a dream …’, have on the 

            people of America?
        h) Why do you think Martin Luther King Junior was assassinated?
         i) Where was his assassin when he was arrested? Where was he going?
         j) Do you think Martin Luther King Junior’s dreams were realised after his death? Explain your answer.

    1.3 Vocabulary

    Use your S1 English vocabulary book or get a new one. Write all the new words that you learn in the vocabulary book. Add the pronunciation and meaning of the words. Use them in sentences so that you have good examples when you revise them.

    1.3.1:Speaking and writing practice

    Complete the table.

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    1.4 Language structure: Past simple tense

    Most verbs simply add -ed to form the past simple tense. There are many exceptions, however. Here is a list of some of the most common irregular past tense verbs in English. Learn as many of them as you can.

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    1.4.1:Writing practice

    1. Complete the text with the correct past simple tense of the verb in red. Then read the paragraphs aloud, with the correct form of the verbs.

    Martin Luther King Junior a) be the son of Martin Luther King. The family b) live in Atlanta, Georgia, which is in the southern part of the United States where discrimination against black people c) be worst. Because of racial segregation, Martin Luther King Junior d) attend a blacks-only primary school.

    After primary school, he e) study at a segregated high school. This is because the laws of the USA f) make it illegal for blacks to enroll in whites-only schools.

    While Martin Luther King Junior g) be growing up, he h) feel resentment against racial segregation. He i) decide to dedicate his entire life to fighting the evil of racial segregation. In 1963, he j) persuade his supporters to participate in the famous march to Washington. He k) plan to demand jobs and freedom.
    In 1968, Martin Luther King Junior l) be assassinated. His assassin, James Earl Ray, m) flee to Canada, and then to London. He n) want to move to Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) which o) be under white rule. At Heathrow Airport near London, the British police
    p) catch him. He was q) deport back to America where he r) appear in court. They s) sentence him to 99 years in prison. He t) die in 1998 at the age of 70.

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     1.4.2: Writing practice

    1. Complete the following text, giving the correct past simple tense form of the verb in red.

    The story of Ndabaga is not just a legend. According to the historians, her father a) do not have any sons who b) can take his place at the king’s court. Her father c) be getting old, and he d) will not be able to carry on much longer. To save the honour of the family, Ndabaga e) decide to take her father’s place, although she f) be a girl. She
    g) train herself until she h) excel in all the tasks usually done by boys. She i) become as skilled as the strongest boys. She j) hide the fact that she was female when she k) go to the palace. She was so good that the king l) make her leader of her peers.

    1.4.3:Writing practice

      1. Use the correct past simple tense of the verb in brackets.
      a) Ndabaga is famous in Rwanda because she (become) a warrior.
      b) King Kigera IV (extend) the boundaries of the kingdom during his rule.
      c) He (prevent) any Rwandans from being captured as slaves.
      d) Mao-Tse-Tung (be) the leader of the Chinese Communist party.
      e) Julius Nyerere (form) a strong, modern Tanzania during his term in office.

      f) Nelson Mandela (fight) against apartheid in South Africa.
      g) He (show) that it was possible to bring about reconciliation in a country.
      h) Agathe Uwiringiyimana (be) the first female prime minister.
      i) She and her family (be) executed during the Genocide.
      j) People believe that colonialists (assassinate) King Mutara III on his way to hospital for treatment.

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    Homework
    1. The text continues Ndabaga’s story. Fill in the correct past simple tense form of the verbs in red.

    Remember, in those days women and girls a) have very low status.
    It b) be unthinkable that a woman could take her father’s place. Some of her peers c) notice that she was different. They d) start a rumour that she was not a man at all. The rumours eventually e) reach the king’s ears. He f) send for her and g) ask her if she was a woman. Ndabaga h) can not lie to the king and i) admit that she was a girl. The king was so impressed with her courage that he j) decide to marry her. The story shows that men and women are equal. Women never need to feel inferior to men.

    1.5 Language skills: Describing

    You often have to describe something in both speech and writing.
    • When you describe the life of a famous leader or an event in history, for example, you write a narrative.
    • A narrative is a story.
    • You tell the story of a famous person in the past tense.
    • You usually start or introduce the story in the present tense.

      This is to explain why it is necessary to take note of the person or event.
    • Then you change to the past tense, and tell or write the story in chronological order.
    • Chronological order means the order in which things happened in the person’s life.
    • You end the narrative by returning to the present tense. You confirm why this narrative is important today.

    1.5.1:Reading and writing practice

    1. Read the completed text in the Writing practice 1.4.2 and the homework text again. They are actually one text.
    2. Write down the first sentence (the Writing practice 1.4.2) and the last sentence (Homework). Do you see that the text begins and ends with the present tense?
    3. Make a list of the events in the text. You do not have to write full sentences. Just list the event or situation.
    For example:
      a) Father did not have sons
      b) Father was getting old

    1.5.2:Speaking and listening practice

    Talk about the life of a famous person. You may choose any famous person, such as those people listed in the Speaking activity 1.1.1, for example:
    • Martin Luther King was born in 1929.
    • King Rwabugiri ruled Rwanda from 1853 to 1895.
    • Ndabaga is famous in Rwanda because she became a warrior.

    1.6 Language structure: Adverbials of time

    Use adverbials of time to tell:
    • when something happened
    Examples: yesterday, in 1994, later, during the night
    • for how long something happened
    Examples: all day, since 2010, from 1 July until 1 August
    • how often something happened (frequency)
    Examples: usually, sometimes, occasionally, never.

    1.6.1:Writing practice

    1. Insert the appropriate adverbial of time in each blank space to complete the sentences.

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     a) Agathe Uwilingiyimana was Prime Minister of Rwanda ________.
     b) She was assassinated ________ the Genocide, just ________ President Habyarimana’s plane was shot down.
     c) Six school girls of Nyange Secondary School were killed ________ they refused to separate themselves along ethnic lines.
     d) Félicité Niyitegeka was shot ________ because she protected refugees from the militia.

    1.6.2:Writing practice

    1. Insert the appropriate adverbial of time in each blank space to complete the sentences.

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      a) She became a hero ________ she sacrificed her life to save others.
      b) ________ Rwanda was ruled by a king.
      c) She hid the children ________, but then the soldiers found them.
      d) ________ the Genocide many people lost their lives.
      e) ________ people heard her story, she became a hero.

    1.6.3:Writing practice

    1. Insert an appropriate adverb of time in each blank space.

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    a) ________ the Genocide there was little left of Rwanda. Trust had been destroyed among the people. b) ________ the country was desperately poor without skilled labour or resources. Under the leadership of the new president, Rwanda decided to start afresh. c) ________, 20 years after the Genocide, it was clear that the country had made remarkable progress. d) ________ various foundations have helped with practical aspects of rebuilding the country. e) ________ the people of the country have constructed a new national identity, Rwandan, rather than Hutu or Tutsi.

    Homework
    You are going to write a text of three paragraphs on a Rwandan hero. Plan your writing at home. Read about a person, or ask the adults in your area about a famous person. Write down the plan for your introduction, the body of the text (middle paragraph) and your conclusion.

    1.6.4:Writing activity

    Write a text of three paragraphs on a hero in Rwanda. You can write about:
      • Fred Gisa Rwigema
      • Agathe Uwiringiyimana
      •BKing Mutara III Rudahigwa
      •Bany other Rwandan of your choice.

    Explain why the person deserves to be called a hero. Use the past simple tense and adverbials of time. Edit your work.

    1.7 Language structure: Modal verbs

    The word must is a modal verb. You use it when something is required
    or essential.
    Examples:
      • You must do your homework every day.
      • We must remember our history to plan for the future.
    Note: Must can be replaced by have to, or had to (past tense).

    1.7.1:Writing practice

    1. Complete the sentences to show that you understand when to use must.
      a) People must work hard because ________.
      b) Learners must be proud of what their country has achieved because ________.
      c) School children must ________ because they also have a duty as citizens.
      d) Adults must ________ because they have a duty as citizens of the country.
      e) Every worker must ________ because the country needs the revenue to deliver social services.

    1.7.2:Speaking and listening activity

    Talk about the roles of leaders in small groups.
      1. What do you understand by ‘a leader’?
      2. Do you think leaders require certain qualities?
      3. Are all leaders good?
      4. What are religious leaders responsible for?
      5. What are political leaders responsible for?

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    Homework

    Ask your family and neighbours what they think about political
    leaders. Are they important? Do they do their work well? What are they responsible for?
    Listen to a news broadcast in English, if possible. Take notes on what they say, listening for the main points of the news.

    1.8 Language skills: Listening

    • Listening is the ability to receive verbal messages accurately and understand them. It is a very important skill that you need to learn. It is the key to effective communication.
    • It is a social skill. You need to listen carefully when you take part in a conversation or when someone tells a story, or you might misunderstand.
    • It is important in the classroom, in all your subjects. You need to
    listen carefully when your teacher explains something or gives an instruction. You also need to listen to learners speaking during your group activities.
    • Listening is not the same as hearing. Hearing refers to the sounds that you hear, but listening requires focus. The best way to focus your concentration is to listen actively.
    • Your homework (listen to a news broadcast) was an exercise in active listening. You had to listen carefully, make notes and listen for the main points of the news.
    • When you listen actively, you use many of your senses. Make eye contact with the speaker if possible. Look at the expressions on
    the speaker’s face for clues to meaning. Is the speaker serious
    or making a joke? Listen carefully to the words spoken and also
    to the speaker’s tone. Make notes of the most important points as
    you listen.
    • Practise listening actively whenever you have to listen to something. Like any other skill, it will improve with practice.

    Homework
    Listen to the news over the radio again. Listen carefully, make notes
    and listen for the main points of the news. They are usually repeated at some point.

    1.8.1:Speaking and listening activity

    Listen to a text about the roles of leaders. Then answer questions on it.
    1. What are the most important qualities of a good leader?
    2. How has the new leadership managed to unite Rwandans?
    3. Mention at least three things that religious leaders are responsible for.
    4. Explain how religious leaders contribute to the stability of the nation.
    5. Mention at least four things that political leaders are responsible for.
    6. Mention at least two things that the government is expected to provide.
    7. Are religious and political leaders important in society? Explain your answer.
    8. ‘A society without religious leaders will not have stable families.’
    Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
    9. ‘Without political leaders, development might lag behind.’ Do you think this is true? Explain your answer.
    10. What would you advise political leaders to do to improve the welfare of the people in your local area?

    1.8.2 Writing activity

    Write a text of three paragraphs about the role of leaders in the community. Plan your text carefully, then write and edit it.

    Homework
    Speak to people in your community about the responsibilities of adults and children. Make a note of their responses.

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    1.8.3 Speaking and listening activity

    Talk about the following questions. Make notes. Then report your discussion to the class.
      1. What do you understand by citizenship?
      2. Do citizens have duties and responsibilities?
      3. Are there good and bad citizens?
      4. Do only adults have responsibilities?
      5. What responsibilities do children have?

    1.8.4 Reading and writing activity

    1. Read about the responsibilities of adults and children in the community. Answer the questions that follow. Remember to write all the new words in your vocabulary book.

    Responsibilities of adults and children in the community

    In Rwanda, citizens have certain duties and responsibilities. They do these things for harmony in the community, and for the safety and development of the country.

    For instance, adults must pay tax. The country gets revenue or income from taxation. It is illegal not to pay tax. The government uses taxes to finance social services like education, medical care, roads and recreational facilities. The government also uses the money it gets from taxation to finance development projects. People who love their country will pay their taxes and encourage others to do so.

    Adults should also participate in the democratic process by voting for leaders of their choice. This gives them an opportunity to replace bad leaders with good leaders.

    Adults must also obey the laws of the country and respect the rights of other citizens. Laws regulate the behaviour of people in the community. Citizens must aspire to live peacefully with their neighbours and assist each other, where possible.

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    As a sign of commitment to their country, adults must participate in Umuganda. This is a voluntary activity to harness community efforts for development. They must also be ready to defend their country from foreign threats, when necessary.
    Adults must take good care of their families. They must raise their children to be good citizens. They must also provide them with food, medical care, education and good moral guidance. On the other hand, children must obey their parents and respect elderly people. They must help their parents with household chores. They must also study hard and obey the rules and regulations of their schools. They must also keep their bodies and surroundings clean to avoid diseases.

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    a) What are the main reasons why citizens must pay tax?
    b) What do you think happens to a community when people do not obey the laws of the country?
    c) Do you think the adults that you know deserve to be called good citizens? Explain your answer.

    d) Do you think you are a good citizen? Explain your answer.
    e) Do you think community service (Umuganda) is a good thing? Explain your answer.
    f) How do some parents fail to take care of their children? Explain what you think their failings are.
    g) Do people get along well with their neighbours in your community? Explain your answer.
    h) What can people do to improve their relationships with
    their neighbours?
    i) Are there some responsibilities towards the community that citizens find hard to fulfil? Explain your answer.
    j) What more do you think adult citizens must do to make Rwanda a better country?

    1.8.5 Writing activity

    Choose any two responsibilities that citizens must carry out in the community. Write two paragraphs on how we could make Rwanda a better country. Use the modal, must, in the text that you write.

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    Checklist of learning
    In this unit you learnt to describe:

    • the life story of a famous leader
    • the responsibilities of adults in the community
    • the responsibilities of children in the community.

    1.9 Unit assessment

    Remember that all the exercises and the unit assessment in this unit can be used for formative, summative and formal assessment.

    1. Use the right tense of the verb in brackets to form correct sentences. Use the past simple tense.
      a) Some of the famous Rwandan heroes (be) women.
      b) The Genocide (end) after 100 days.
      c) The Genocide in Rwanda (occur) in 1994.
      d) The new government (take) on the challenge and (rebuild) the country.
      e) Rwanda (win) her independence from Belgium on 1 July 1962.
      f) The Ministry of Education (introduce) a new curriculum in 2016.
      g) The intention (be) to encourage learners to speak English to improve their preparation for the world of work.
      h) Julius Nyerere, the first president of Tanzania after independence, (die) of leukemia.
      i) Learners were (tell) to work hard to make the best use of their school years.
      j) The new school (open) its doors for learners two months ago. [10]

    2. Insert the correct adverbial of time in each blank space.

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    The rebuilding of the country started a) ________ the Genocide. b) ________ the Genocide many people died and medical and other social services were severely damaged. c) ________ people were mobilised to help build up the country. d) ________ people’s attitudes had to change, to move beyond ethnic groups and become a Rwandan nation. e) ________ this was happening, security and stability were rebuilt, because people had lost their trust. f) ________ basic humanitarian relief was provided and g) ________ attention was paid to improvements in health, education and people’s income.

    3. Read the extract from Martin Luther King Junior’s ‘I Have a Dream ...’ speech, and then answer the questions.

    ‘I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. … I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal”.

    I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

    I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character.

    I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.’

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    a) Why does Martin Luther King Junior refer to Georgia, Mississippi and Alabama in particular? (2)
    b) Do you think Martin Luther King Junior’s message at this time encouraged people to divide or unite? Explain your answer. (3)
    c) What does Martin Luther King Junior say about the state of Mississippi? (2)
    d) What is his dream about children in Alabama? (2)
    e) How many children did Martin Luther King Junior have? (1)
    f) Why was this speech so important? (3) [13]

    4. Write a text of 120 words on the qualities of a good citizen in the communities of Rwanda. [10]

    • Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of leadership and democracy.

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      2.1 Speaking and listening: Leadership

      2.1.1 Speaking and listening activity

      Study the picture. Explain what is happening in the picture.

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      For example:
      • Are there men and women in the queue? What does that tell you about election laws in Rwanda?
      • Why do people have to prove their identity?
      • What are the voting officials doing there?
      • Why are the voting officials not standing closer to the voting cubicles?

      2.1.2 Reading and listening activity

      1. Match the sentences with the pictures showing the electoral process:

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       M2. Talk about these issues.
      a) Do you know what Rwanda’s political leaders look like and what they talk about most of the time? Share what you know with
      the group.
      b) Do you think the media has an influence on what people think about politics and politicians?
      c) What do you think are the actions of a mature politician?
      What do you think are the actions of a mature voting public?
      d) What is the ‘legal route’ that can be followed if dishonesty is suspected?




      2.1.3 Reading and writing activity

      1. Read the text explaining the democratic and electoral process:

      Reading
      Democracy and the electoral process

      Democracy was introduced by the Greeks before the birth of Christ.
      It is a system of government in which the people themselves decide who will rule. All adult voters in a democratic country have the right to vote. Democratic governing has been embraced by most countries in the world including European countries, the USA and Britain.

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      In most countries women were not allowed to vote in the past. In the UK, the law that allowed all women age 21 and over to vote was only passed in 1928.

      Rwanda is a democratic country. All the leaders are voted into office by the people of the country. Every Rwandan of 18 years and older has the right to vote and to be voted into any office. Elections are held every five years.

      National elections are organised by the national electoral body called the Rwanda National Electoral Commission (RNEC).

      The president, parliamentarians, senators, women representatives and youth representatives are all elected by universal adult suffrage. Universal adult suffrage means the right of every adult to vote.

      There are groups of people who used to suffer in the past because they were not represented in government, or marginalised. These were the disabled, women, and in some cases, the youth. They had no representation anywhere and their voices were not heard. Now they are represented in parliament and the senate and they play an active role in all spheres of government.

      The government and governance of Rwanda is determined by
      the people. They choose their leaders. In a mature democracy, people accept the result of elections. If they suspect dishonesty, they challenge the results of the elections in the country’s courts. They do not resort
      to violence.

      2. Answer these questions.
      a) How long has the idea of democracy existed?
      b) What is the chief characteristic of a democratic country?
      c) Is it unusual for a country to be democratic?
      d) Have women always been allowed to vote? Explain your answer.
      e) Why do you think women were prevented from voting for
      so long?
      f) What is the legal voting age in Rwanda?
      g) Which body is responsible for organising national elections
      in Rwanda?
      h) Mention two types of people who were once marginalised but
      are now represented.
      i) What is the role of every Rwandan during elections?
      j) What is the sign of a mature democracy?

      2.2 Skills: Reading

      All reading is not the same. We read different texts differently and we read for different purposes. The different reading skills are like a toolbox with a variety of tools. If you need to drive in a nail, you need a hammer. But a hammer will not work when you have to turn a screw. Then you need a screwdriver.

      Here is your ‘toolbox’ of different kinds of reading and what each ‘tool’ is used for.

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      2.2.1 Reading and speaking practice

      Carry out each of the activities individually, and then in pairs.
      1. Open your textbook randomly at any text that you haven’t read before.

           Have your partner open at the same text. Speed-read the text individually.

          When you have both finished,  discuss what you have read with your partner.

          Find out how much you each understood without looking up the meaning of any of the words or phrases.
      2. Use the same text, and skim through it to find two main ideas. Share them with your partner.

          Do you agree on the main ideas?
      3. Turn to the contents pages of your textbook.

          Scan the pages to find out which units have to do with health and healthy living.
      4. When you read the text, Democracy and the electoral process, to answer questions,

          you were study-reading.

      2.3 Vocabulary

      1. Below are three groups of words. You have already come across them in this unit. Read through them. Write any words that are new to you in your vocabulary book.

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      2. Write three sentences for each group of words. Use at least two of the words in each sentence.

      Homework
      Find words from the vocabulary activity in the following word block. Words are arranged vertically, horizontally and diagonally. There are
      14 hidden words.

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      2.3.1 Speaking and listening activity

      Discuss the democratic and electoral processes. Talk about what you understand about these processes. You have read something about the processes and may have heard things at home and in your community.

      2.3.2 Writing activity

      Write a text of three paragraphs, describing the democratic and
      electoral processes. Use the knowledge you have gained so far. Use these ideas or guidelines:

      • People vote for their representatives.
      • Elections are held every five years.
      • Voters support candidates.
      • All citizens who are old enough have the right to vote and to be an electoral candidate.

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      Plan your text carefully before you start writing. Decide what information you want to include. Remember to start with an interesting introduction and end with a neat conclusion.
      Edit your text before handing it in for assessment. You could also exchange it with your partner for peer assessment.

      2.4 Language structure: Passive voice in the present simple tense

      A sentence always has a subject (the person or thing that is doing the action) and sometimes an object (the person or thing to which the action is being done).

      For example:
        • The voters favour that candidate.
        • The candidate addresses the crowd.
        • The RNEC organises the elections.

      A sentence with a subject followed by a verb and then an object is in the active voice. The one who does the action comes first.

      Sometimes you might want to turn things around and place the object first. This is the passive voice and it is done for a particular reason. Perhaps the subject is less important than the object. You might want the sentence to sound more formal, or less personal. Only a sentence with an object (real or implied) can be changed into the passive voice.

      For example:
        • That candidate is favoured by the voters.
        • The crowd is addressed by the candidate.
        • The elections are organised by the RNEC.

      Let us look at the mechanics of a passive voice sentence.

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      2.4.1 Speaking activity

      Read the examples used in the language notes aloud, first the active and then the passive voice.
      Explain how to change active voice into passive voice.

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       2.4.2 Writing practice

      1. Convert the sentences from the active voice to the passive voice.
         a) The people elect the president.
         b) The ministry pays the workers.
         c) The voters choose the candidate.
         d) The candidate visits the people.
         e) The police guard the polling station.

      2.4.3 Writing practice

      1. Give the correct passive form of the verb in brackets.
      a) The elections (organise) by the RNEC.
      b) The voters (guard) by the police.
      c) The voters (address) by the candidates.
                                                       d) The news (publish) by the newspapers.
                                                       e) The politicians (interview) by the TV reporters.

      2.4.4 Writing practice

      1. Change the sentences into the passive voice.
         a) The politician makes many promises.
         b) The radio announcers interview representatives of all parties.
         c) The officials check voters’ identity documents.
         d) The voter ticks the chosen candidate’s box.
        e) The voters elect the president.

      2.4.5 Listening and writing activity

      1. You are going to listen to a dialogue. First, discuss these questions.
      a) What do you think are the greatest problems in Rwanda at the moment? Education? Health? Nutrition? Unemployment?
      b) What are your families saying about conditions in the country?
      Are they happy with how things are going?

      2. Listen to a dialogue between two neighbours.

      They are discussing the improvements they would like to see.
      3. Answer the questions in writing.
         a) Who are the two neighbours, and where are they?
         b) Do they think a change in government is essential? Give a reason for your answer.
         c) Is there any corruption in Rwanda according to the text? Explain your answer.

         d) What sector does Ivan think needs the most improvement?
         e) Munezero does not agree with him. What does he consider to be most important?
         f) What does Ivan consider to be a serious problem in the health sector?
         g) Why does Munezero consider entrepreneurship to be so important?
         h) Why does Munezero want to see more money spent on teacher training?
         i) What is in-service training?
         j) Which of the two neighbours do you agree with? Give a reason for your answer.

      Homework
      Speak to ten people in your area. Ask them what improvements they would like to see in the community after the next elections. Write them down.

      2.4.6 Speaking and writing activity

      Plan a dialogue about improvements you would like to see in the country. You may use the suggestions that you collected from your community for homework.
      When you have finished planning the dialogue, write it in your notebook. Then practise saying it.

      2.5 Language structure: Comparatives

      Comparatives are adjectives used to compare two nouns (things or people).
      For example: She is taller than her husband.

      2.5.1 Writing practice

      Make sentences using the correct comparative form from the middle column. Say the sentences aloud.

      C

      2.5.2 Writing practice

      1. Complete the sentences by providing the correct comparative form of the adjective in brackets.
         a) The candidate says she will ensure (good) education than in the past.
         b) The candidate says he will place a (high) priority on health services.
         c) People say they do not believe the promises that life will be (good) than before.
         d) People believe in democracy for a (good) life than before.
         e) The percentage of voters will be (high) this year than ever before.

      2.5.3 Writing practice

      1. Complete the sentences by providing the correct comparative form of the adjective in brackets.
         a) This candidate is (much) convincing than that one.
         b) I vote for the candidate who promises to do (much) for us than the others.
         c) The expenditure on education should be (much) than before.

         d) If voters do not believe the candidates, the voting percentage will be (little) than before.
         e) We all vote for a Rwanda that will be (good) than ever before.

      2.5.4 Writing practice

      1. Write your own comparative sentences, using the words provided.
         a) candidate
         b) Rwanda
         c) education
         d) health
         e) poverty

      Homework
      Make up five sentences from the table. Write them in your notebook.

      B

      2.5.5 Writing and speaking activity

      Write five sentences about political objectives, paying attention
      to comparatives.
      For example:
      • People want more schools.
      • We want equal rights for people with disabilities.
      • People want better health services.
      When you have finished writing, divide into groups. Compare your sentences and talk about them.

      Z

                2.5.6 Speaking and listening activity

      Discuss the role of political leaders in the community. Who is the political leader in your area or district? Describe the role of that leader.
      For example:
        • The mayor of Kigali has a lot of work.
        • He/she is in charge of all the activities in the city.

      2.6 Language structure: Will for intentions

      Will is a modal verb. It is always followed by an infinitive, which is the basic form of the verb.
      For example: The candidate will (modal verb) speak (infinitive) at the political meeting on Saturday.

      2.6.1 Writing and speaking practice

      1. Change the paragraph into the future tense using will. Write the passage out with the correct form of the verbs in red. Say the paragraph out loud. Pay attention to your pronunciation.

      The candidate is speaking at a political meeting. She says she a) make sure that poverty is reduced in future. She b) try to find donations to improve the provision of electricity to the village. She c) make sure that the school has uninterrupted electricity. Then she d) contact international companies. She hopes they e) provide computers, laptops and tablets for use in the schools. She f) also try to initiate a feeding programme at primary schools. She g) ensure that young learners get a balanced meal each day. In this way she h) try to provide a better life for all.

      2.7 Sounds and spelling

      The letter /e/ (pronounced /iː/ as a letter of the alphabet) is pronounced differently in certain words. How you pronounce it depends on what letters appear before and after it. Use your dictionary and thesaurus to improve your vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation.

      B

      2.7.1 Reading and writing activity

      1. Read the political leaflet about what the politician intends to do if she is elected.

      My campaign
      • I will make sure that the economy is improved. I will support the farmers and see that they are given extra training.
      • I will attend to education. I will find funds to provide more classrooms, playing fields and teachers.

         I will help the teachers improve their teaching abilities.
      • I will improve health provision in this district.

         I will initiate negotiations for a new hospital to be built. More clinics will also be built.
      • As a woman, I understand the need for education and equality for women.
      • A strong, educated woman will improve the lives of her children and her husband.

         She is no threat to her husband and will make his life better.

      2. Answer the questions in writing.
         a) Mention four areas in which the candidate plans to make a difference if she is elected.
         b) Which of the intentions are realistic and can perhaps be achieved?
        c) Do you think all the promises can be achieved? Give a reason for your answer.
        d) Do you agree with the candidate’s statement in the last bullet point? Explain your answer.

      Homework
      Think about improvements that you would like to see at your school. Write down at least five points about such improvements. Would you like more books in the library or more computers? Would you like changes in the way learners are treated? Talk to people in your home and neighbourhood to find out what they think.

      2.7.2 Speaking and listening activity

      Discuss what improvements you would like to see in schools. Base the discussion on the research you did for homework. Talk about the improvements you will bring about, using will.

      2.7.3 Writing activity

      A leaflet is a small piece of paper on which information is printed. It is usually handed out as an advertisement.

      Pretend you are a politician. Write a pre-election leaflet about what you intend to do to bring about improvements in your school. The purpose of the leaflet is to persuade people to vote for you.

      The leaflet should be three paragraphs long. Plan thoroughly as you would for any piece of writing, using a mind-map or columns. Decide what you want to include in each paragraph.
      Edit your work before handing it in for formal assessment.

      n

                                      Checklist of learning
         In this unit you learnt to:

      • describe the democratic processes
      • describe the electoral processes
      • describe political objectives
      • write a leaflet promising improvements in school.

      2.8 Unit assessment

      1. In full sentences describe the purpose of these things in a democracy:
      a) ballot paper                                 b) ballot box
      c) manifesto                                    d) campaign
      e) candidate

      2. Identify four different types of leaders in your community.
      Explain each leader’s task. [8]
      3. What does ‘universal adult suffrage’ mean? [2]
      4. How often does your country have elections? [1]
      5. Give three benefits of having a democratic government. [3]
      6. What is the role of the voting officials during an election? [2]
      7. What kind of behaviour among politicians can divide the people of Rwanda?[2]

      8. What is the sign of a mature political system? [2]
      9. Give the correct form of the words in brackets.
      a) The candidate promises that education (good) in future. [2]
      b) The political party undertakes that the economy
      (make strong) in the next few years. [2]
      c) The candidate promised that he (ensure) that the health
      system (be) much (good). [3]
      d) The candidates all promise that they (make) everything
      (good) in future. [2]
      e) I do not think that everything (be) much (good) in future.
      All improvements need money which (not be) available. [3]
      One must be realistic. It (only be) possible to improve some
      things in the near future. The new government (have) to prioritise and decide what (do) first. [3]

      10. Pretend you are a candidate for the next elections. Write out a
      speech of three paragraphs. Describe what you are going to do
      for the local schools if you are elected.
      Plan your writing as you have been taught to do and edit your work.
      Make a neat copy if necessary. Hand it in for formal assessment. [20]

                                                                                                Total marks: 60

      File: 1
    • Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of the media.

      n

      3.1 Speaking and listening: The media

      3.1.1 Speaking and listening activity

      1. Look at the pictures. Name the different types of media that you see. Say the sentences aloud. Fill in the words that are missing.

      Some of the young people are watching ________. Someone is listening to the ________. One person is reading a ________ while another is paging through a ________.

      x c

      2. Use the questions as a guide for a discussion about the media.
      • Do you have a TV (television set) or radio in your home or in your dormitory? (Yes, I do. No, I do not.)
      • Where do you watch TV?
      • How often do you watch TV? (Sometimes, often, once a day, twice a week, never, all the time …)
      • What TV programmes do you like most? (I like music/ sport/the news/the weather forecast/the serials …)
      • What kind of radio programmes do you like? (I like …)
      • How often do you read a magazine?
      • Do you read your local newspapers?
      • What do you find most interesting to read in a newspaper?    

      v

      3.2 Skills: Describing

      To describe something, you have to give details about what it is like.

      If you want to describe people’s habits regarding TV and radio, or newspapers and magazines, you should say something like:

      • In our home we are only allowed to watch TV once we have finished our homework.
      • There are some programmes that our parents do not allow us to watch.
      • Our radio is on all day and we listen whenever we have time.
      • We only buy a newspaper when something important has happened and we want to read about it.
      • I read magazines when I can, but they are very expensive.

      3.2.1 Speaking and listening practice

      1. Look at the sentences above that describe people’s habits. Choose the examples that apply to you. Say the sentences aloud.
      2. If only some of the example sentences apply to you, make up your own sentences. Make three sentences of your own about your habits regarding watching TV and listening to the radio. Make another three sentences about your habits regarding reading newspapers and magazines. Say them aloud.

      3.2.2 Speaking and listening practice

      1. Complete the sentences orally.
          a) We buy a newspaper ________.
         b) The adults in our house read the newspaper ________.
         c) I only read ________.
         d) My sister reads ________.
         e) We like watching TV ________.
         f) We seldom buy magazines because ________.
         g) In the library I read ________.
         h) My favourite magazine is ________.
         i) Newspapers are important because ________.
         j) I seldom read newspapers because ________.
      2. Write down the best sentences.

      3.3 Vocabulary

      A: Media

      c

      B: Related vocabulary

      x

      z b


      3.3.1  Writing practice

      1. Copy tables A and B into your notebook. Complete them by looking up the missing meanings and pronunciations in a dictionary.

           Fill in the blank spaces.
      2. Write the words that you did not know in your vocabulary book. Also write sentences using the words correctly,

           so that you do not forget them.

      3.3.2 Speaking practice

      1. Say the words in Table A and B aloud. Make sure that you pronounce them correctly.

      3.3.3 Writing practice

      1. Complete the sentences. Use the words in tables A and B to fill in the blank spaces.
          a) Let us listen to the ________ ________. If it rains tomorrow we will not be able to go to the market.
          b) We must ________ carefully as the news is read quite fast.
          c) Have you listened to the ________ today? I hear there was a serious traffic accident near Kigali.
          d) What is your favourite ________? I like the sports review.
          e) We do not have a ________, but we watch our favourite programmes at our neighbour’s house.
          f) We have a ________, so we can listen to the news and weather forecast every day.

      3.3.4 Writing activity

      1. Complete the following sentences. Use the words in tables A and B.
          a) I like to read the ________ because an editor is an informed person.
          b) My sister listens to the ________ at three every afternoon when the ________ is broadcast.
          c) The ________ has a very pleasant voice and is easy to listen to.
          d) I make a point of listening to the ________ ________ every evening.

              This is so that I know whether or not to take a jacket to school with me the next day.
          e) The ________ consists of 200 episodes. One episode is broadcast at a certain time every day.
          f) The news ________ is more interesting on TV because you can see where things happened.

      3.3.5 Writing activity

      1. Write five sentences about people’s habits regarding TV, radio, newspapers and magazines.

          Think about the group discussions that you had before you write. Use the vocabulary that you learnt.
      2. Exchange notebooks with a partner and mark each other’s sentences.
          Check the language used and the spelling of the new words.

      b

      3.4 Language structure: Adverbs of frequency

      An adverb of frequency tells you how often an action happens.
      For example:
        • He sometimes listens to the radio.
        • She never reads the newspaper.
        • She always does her homework before she watches TV.

      It is important to understand which adverb of frequency to use. It may help you to remember the adverbs of frequency if you link them to a percentage. The percentage tells you how often the action happens.

      n

      z

      3.4.1 Writing practice

      1. Write the sentences in your notebook. Choose and fill in the appropriate adverb of frequency.

      n

      ba) Ngabo practises soccer every day, so he ________ has time to watch television.
      b) There is no TV in Mutesi’s home, but she ________ listens to the news on radio. She likes to know what is happening in
      the country.
      c) Ngabo ________ listens to the weather forecast to find out if it is going to rain the next day.
      d) Neza ________ watches television because she does her homework in the evenings.
      e) Ngabo ________ watches soccer on television when his favourite team plays.
      f) Neza ________ reads an English newspaper because she wants to improve her English.


      ng) If it was not so expensive Ngabo would read a sports magazine ________.
      h) Neza likes to read fashion magazines, but she ________ has enough money to buy one.
       i) Mutesi ________ goes to the library to read the newspapers.
       j) Neza goes with her because there are ________ some fashion magazines.


      n      m

      3.4.2 Writing practice

      1. Copy the text into your notebook. Choose and fill the blank spaces with appropriate adverbs of frequency.

      z x

      The learners a) ________ go to the library during break to read the newspapers.

      Their history teacher insists that they read the newspapers b) ________ so that they know what is happening in the country.
      Many of the learners are interested in sport.

      They c) ________ go to the library to see whether the latest sports magazine has arrived.

      Their English teacher d) ________ encourages them.

      She says that the only way to improve their English is to e)________ read and speak it.

      Neza thinks that is true, because her English has improved.

      She f) ________ reads the newspaper, because it is important to read some English every day.
      She g) ________ tries to read for half an hour, but h) ________ she has too much homework and can only manage ten minutes.
      Ngabo does not like reading much, but he i) ________ reads the sports page in the newspaper.

      He j) ________ reads the sports magazine from cover to cover.

      n

      3.4.3  Writing practice

      1. Write the sentences in your book. Choose and fill in the blank spaces with adverbs of frequency.

      j

      a) Isaro does not like reading and ________ reads a newspaper.
      b) Her friend, Mutesi, ________ invites her to listen to the radio with her.
      c) Shema ________ reads magazines because he wants to improve his English.
      d) He ________ listens to the English news bulletin to hear how to pronounce words correctly.
      e) Isaro prefers to find an English storybook in the library and reads ________ before bedtime.
      f) She ________ reads more than ten pages, however.
      g) Isaro is interested in fashion and ________ reads the magazines that her aunt buys.
      h) Shema likes soccer and he ________ reads a sports magazine.
      i) Isaro ________ watches TV because she likes to see what people are wearing.
      j) The teacher ________ tells Isaro that she will have to improve her English.

      3.4.4 Writing practice

      1. Write five sentences of your own, describing your reading habits.
      Use an adverb of frequency in every sentence.

      Homework
      Listen carefully to a news broadcast on the radio or TV. Make notes about what you hear.
      • What are the main points of the news?
      • Is the news mainly about politicians?
      • Have there been any serious accidents in the country?
      • Is there anything about education in the news?
      • Is the weather having an effect on food crops this year?
      • What was said about sport?

      3.4.5 Listening and speaking activity

      1. Before you listen to the extract, answer these questions.                                               x
         a) Do you sometimes listen to an English news broadcast at home?
         b) Do you understand what is being read?

      2. Listen to an extract from a news broadcast.                                                                                            
      3. Answer the following questions.
          a) What is the purpose of the three short sentences at the beginning of the news bulletin?
          b) Who is the presenter?

         c) In what way is the National Police Force being modernised?
        d) Is a career in the police only for men? Explain your answer.
        e) How will the floods affect the production of rice?
        f) What is a ‘fatality’?
        g) What is particularly tragic about the loss of these lives?
        h) Did you find this news bulletin interesting? Give a reason.

      4. Discuss your answers with a partner to check whether you understood what was said.

      3.5 Sounds and spelling

      The letter /e/ (pronounced /iː/ as a letter of the alphabet) is pronounced differently in certain words.

      The sound depends on what letters appear before and after it.

      v

      3.5.1 Speaking and listening practice

      1. Say the words in the table on page 45 aloud. Listen to one another and correct the pronunciation if necessary.
      2. Look up the pronunciation of the words below in the dictionary. Add them to the pronunciation group where they belong.

      c

      Homework
      Complete the crossword puzzle at home.

      v

      ACROSS                                                                              DOWN
      1 View on TV                                                                          2 Piece of writing in a magazine
                                                              
      6 Prediction                                                                            3 Information about recent events                                                                   
      7 A story printed or broadcast in consecutive parts               4 A regular show on TV
      8 The editor’s opinion                                                             5 Use your ears.
      9 Vertical strip of print in a newspaper
      10 A news report on radio or television
        3.5.2 Reading and writing activity        

      1. Pre-reading activity:
         a) In your dictionary look up the meaning of the words in bold in the following text.

              Write them in your vocabulary book and learn to spell them.
         b) What does the editor of a newspaper do?
         c) Look at the heading of the extract below. What do you think this story is going to be about?
      2. Read the extract from the story.        

       First day on the job
      Carrie walked into the editorial offices. It was 9.30 in the morning.

      For a moment she hesitated at the lift, unnoticed by the people seated at the many desks.     

          She took a deep breath and stepped into the office. A sudden silence descended as people looked up at the sound of her heels.

           She tried to relax as she walked across the floor and nodded to those who caught her eye    

            My first day on the job, she thought. Then the buzzing of telephones and the hum of conversation resumed.

            She tapped lightly on the glass door.  

          “Ms Milton!” The editor-in-chief came to his feet as he looked up to see Carrie at his door.

            “I was only expecting you tomorrow!”
             “Carrie please. I know, but I was free and I decided to come in.”
              “You’re welcome, anyway. Fred Laurence,” he introduced himself.       

                                  
              “I am very glad to see you. My doctor has insisted that I leave by the end of next week.

      It is good that you have come in sooner.”
      “The end of next week! I thought we would have at least a month to work together.

      I would then have a chance to get to grips with the work!”

      “Carrie, you are an experienced editor. You will pick up the routine soon enough.

      The staff know their jobs. Let me introduce you to the day editor.”

      Carrie looked in the direction Fred pointed, and saw a man looking at her intently.

      The expression in his eyes was so malevolent that she involuntarily took a step back.
      The next moment she heard a strangled sound behind her.

      She turned in time to see Fred collapsing at her feet, clutching his chest with both hands.

      3. Now answer the questions in writing in your notebook.
      a) Where (in what type of business) would you expect to find an editorial office?
      b) What job has Carrie been appointed to take over?
      c) Why was the editorial office suddenly quiet when Carrie walked in?
      d) What does Carrie mean when she says, ‘Carrie, please.’?
      e) You have looked up the meaning of ‘editor’. What do you think is an ‘editor-in-chief’?
      f) Why do you think the editor-in-chief is being replaced?
      g) Is everyone in the office glad to see Carrie? Explain your answer.
      h) What do you think has caused Fred to collapse?
      i) Do you think Carrie and Fred are going to spend any time working together? Explain your answer.

      3.6 Language structure: Present perfect tense

      You form the present perfect tense from the present tense of the verb have plus the past participle of a verb, or from have been plus the present participle.
      You use the present perfect tense:
      • for something that started in the past and continues in the present.
      Examples:
      – They have sold English newspapers in Rwanda for many years.
      – They have been selling English newspapers in Rwanda for many years.
      • with since for something that started in the past and is still happening.
      Examples:
      – The journalist has worked for the paper since she left university.
      – The journalist has been working for the paper since she left university.
      • when you are talking about an experience up to now.
      Example:
      – This is the most interesting article I have ever read.

      3.6.1 Writing practice

      1. Write down the correct form of the verb in brackets.
         a) Carrie (appoint) as editor-in-chief at a national newspaper.
         b) She is nervous about the appointment since she (be) working at a much smaller newspaper.
         c) The doctor (tell) the current editor-in-chief to retire for the sake of his health.
         d) Carrie (arrive) a day early to start her new job.
         e) The day editor is angry because he (not be appoint) as editor-in-chief.

      3.6.2 Writing practice

      1. Write down the correct present perfect form of the verb in bracket.
          a) The editor (have) many years of experience.
         b) Many journalists (work) at the newspaper for a long time.
         c) This newspaper (not have) a female editor-in-chief before.
         d) The editor-in-chief (just suffer) a heart attack.
         e) The staff (have) a lot of experience.

      3.6.3 Writing practice

      1. Write five sentences on your own about Carrie’s first day in her new job. Use the present perfect tense.

      3.6.4 Reading and writing activity

      1. Pre-reading activity:
         a) Look at the heading of the article. What is this news article about?
         b) Look at the structure of the article. Note the short paragraphs that are used.
      2. Read the article.

      Fatal accident causes traffic disruption
      A serious road accident has occurred on the road between Kigali and Muhanga, 10 kilometres from Kigali.

      It involves a bus with workers on their way to the mines.
      The accident has caused the death of five passengers with another 20 seriously injured.

      The driver has also been seriously injured. He has not been able to talk to the police.

      It is suspected that a burst tyre caused him to lose control of the vehicle.

      The road is currently closed. The accident response team, police and several ambulances are still at the scene. It has taken three hours to haul the bus out of the ditch where it landed. Paramedics are still busy tending to the injured and removing them from the wreck.
      Other vehicles headed in this direction are advised to take an alternative route. It is not yet known for how long the road will be closed.

      3. Answer the comprehension questions on the text.
        a) What is the purpose of the first paragraph of a news article?
        b) Why are there no articles (the, a, an) in the heading?
        c) Which word in the heading is most likely to attract the reader’s attention? Why?
        d) What is a possible reason why the driver has not been able to speak to the reporter?
        e) Why has the road been closed?
        f) What are other people to do who need to use the road?
        g) What is a paramedic?

      v

      3.6.5 Writing activity

      1. Write five sentences about a news event, as if it is to be broadcast on TV or radio.

          Pay attention to the present perfect tense.
      2. Exchange notebooks with a partner and edit each other’s work. Discuss the errors you have made.

      z 3.6.6 Speaking and listening activity

      Role-play a TV/radio news broadcast, using the text you wrote in the Writing activity 3.6.5. For example: An accident has taken place in Musanze. Take turns until each member of the group has had a chance to role-play broadcasting the news item. The best role-plays may be presented
      to the class.


      3.7 Language structure: Future simple tense with will

      The future simple tense with will is used when you make a decision about the future.
      For example:
        • The article will be in tomorrow’s newspaper.
        • The article will not be in tomorrow’s newspaper. (negative)
        • Will the article be in tomorrow’s newspaper? (question)

      3.7.1 Writing practice

      1. Give the correct future simple form of the verb in brackets.
           a) The reporter (submit) her article tomorrow.
          b) The editor (write) the editorial this evening.
          c) The crime reporter (not write) his story tonight.
          d) The night editor (see) that the newspaper is ready for printing at midnight.

      3.7.2 Writing practice

      1. Give the question form of the following sentences.
          a) The political reporter (be) at parliament tomorrow.
          b) She (write) her report after the session.
          c) She (cover) the discussion of the budget tomorrow morning.
          d) The fashion reporter (attend) the fashion show on Saturday.

      3.7.3 Writing practice

      1. Give the correct future simple form of the verb with will.
          a) The sports writer (watch) the soccer game tomorrow.
         b) He (not watch) the tennis tournament.
         c) To get the results he (telephone) the organisers.
         d) He (write) his sports review before midnight tomorrow.

      3.7.4 Writing practice

      1. Complete the text by filling in the correct future simple tense form of the verbs in red.

      Keza is the political reporter at one of the national newspapers. She does not spend all her time in parliament, but attends when important issues are discussed. She a) be in parliament on Tuesday when the budget b) discuss. There c) be a heated discussion because the opposition d) not satisfy with the increase in taxes. They e) propose an amendment, but it f) not approve.

      Homework
      Listen to the weather forecast over the radio or on TV. Note the vocabulary and tense(s) used.

      3.7.5 Writing and speaking activity

      Write sentences about a weather forecast using will. Role-play your weather forecast, pretending you are the radio announcer.

      Checklist of learning

      In this unit you learnt to:

      • describe habits regarding TV and radio, use of newspapers and magazines, etc.
      • read an extract from a work of literature
      • write a TV news broadcast.

      3.8 Unit assessment

      This section can be used for formative or summative assessment, or for revision.

      1. Write four sentences describing your family’s habits regarding the following media:
         a) TV
         b) radio
         c) magazines
         d) newspapers                         [4]

      2. Use the following words in sentences to show that you know what they mean:
         a) broadcast
         b) bulletin
         c) weather forecast
         d) editor
         e) presenter
         f) serial                                       [6]

      3. Write a brief news bulletin based on any news bulletin that you have listened to or watched recently. Write three short paragraphs, each covering one news item.                                 [10]

      4. Fill in an appropriate adverb of frequency in each of the sentences.

      x

      a) Our teacher ________ encourages us to read English.
      b) We enjoy TV, but ________ have time to watch programmes.
      c) We ________ listen to the radio to keep up with the news.
      d) We ________ buy magazines because they are expensive and we cannot afford them.

      e) Our library keeps magazines and newspapers, so we ________
      go there to read our favourite publications. [5]

      5. Write a weather forecast of five sentences, using the future simple tense. [5]

      6. Give the present perfect form of the verbs in brackets.
          a) Carrie (be appoint) as editor-in-chief at a large daily newspaper.
          b) She (dress) smartly to make a good impression on her first day.
          c) She (be look forward to) the challenge of the new job.
          d) The current editor-in-chief (be suffer) from a serious heart condition.

          e) The welcome from some of the other staff (not be) very warm. [5]

      “According to the newspaper it a) be very hot in Kigali for the past few weeks.”
      “Do you think it b) rain today?”
      “I do not think so. It c) be a dry season so far. According to
      the weather forecast there d) be no rain for the next few days.
      It e) [adverb of frequency] rains in July, anyway, as it
      f) always be our driest month.”
      “I g) [adverb of frequency] listen to the weather forecast in the morning, but there h) be no mention of rain. I don’t think we i) have any rain before September or October. I am afraid we j) have floods in October.

      • Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of education.

        b

        4.1 Speaking and listening: Education

        4.1.1 Speaking and listening activity

        Discuss your plans for your future education. ‘Educational aspirations’ are what you would like to become in the future. Use ‘when’-clauses in your discussion.

        For example:
          • When I have finished S3, I want to carry on with the senior secondary phase of my education.
          • When I am 18, I want to pass my examinations in order to continue my education.
          • When I have finished my training, I want to become …

        Write down your educational aspirations. Use these notes to share with the class.

        s

        4.2 Language structure: Adjective clauses with when

        An adjective (or adjectival or relative) clause with when has the following:
        • It will always start with a relative adverb (when), which indicates time.
        • It will always have a subject and a verb.
        • It will always tell you something about the noun.

        For example:
         • I am looking forward to the day when I write my final examination. (when modifies day)
         • He is planning for the time when he finishes school.

         • She is looking forward to a promising career when she completes her tertiary education.

        4.2.1 Speaking and writing practice

        1. a) Say the examples in the language structure section and in the Speaking and

                  listening activity 4.1.1 aloud.

              This will allow you to get a sense of the rhythm of the sentences.
            b) Repeat them until you are comfortable with the sentences.
            c) Write three more sentences in the same format. Repeat them aloud.

        4.2.2 Writing practice

        1. Complete the sentences with when-clauses.
          a) I always remember the day ______.
          b) This is the day _______.
          c) Tuesday is the day ________.
          d) The year 2020 is the year ________.
          e) That was the day _________.

        4.2.3 Writing practice

        1. Complete the when-clauses.
           a) He is looking forward to the day ________ finishes school.
           b) That will be the day ________ go for an interview.
           c) This is the year ________ decide on my future.
           d) That will be the year ________ finishes her studies.
           e) That was the year ________ went to college.

        4.2.4 Writing practice

        1. Complete the sentences, inserting a when-clause, or the main clause.
           a) ________ when Isaro passes her final school examination.
           b) That will be the year ________.
           c) This is the day ________.
           d) ________ when I decide on my future.
           e) July will be the month ________.

        4.3 Vocabulary

        4.3.1 Reading and writing practice

        1. Work in pairs and study the words listed in the table. Look at the pronunciation of each word. Fill in the blank spaces.

        b

        2. Write these words in your vocabulary book. Use them in sentences to illustrate their meaning.

        4.3.2 Writing practice

        1. Complete the sentences with words from the vocabulary table in the Reading and writing practice 4.3.1.
           a) Although he has good ________ he does not have any experience.
           b) Mutesi is going to a nursing ________ to obtain a nursing qualification.
           c) To get anywhere in life you have to ________ hard and pass exams.
           d) At the end of the year we have to pass an ________ to move up to the next level of education.
           e) If you want to be a doctor or a lawyer you have to go to ________.

        4.3.3 Writing practice

        n

        4.3.4 Reading and writing activity

        1. Read the text.

        The new curriculum in Rwanda provides a maximum of three years’ pre-primary education, six years primary education (P1–P6) three years secondary education (ordinary or lower secondary level, S1–S3). It then allows for another three years secondary education (advanced or upper secondary level, S4–S6). It also offers a further four years for a Bachelor’s Degree. From P4 the language of instruction is English.
        The lower secondary phase (S1–3) prepares learners for the upper secondary streams. These include general academic, primary teacher training or technical secondary school. This level also provides access to the vocational education and training centres (VETCs) for early employment.

        n

        The upper secondary level (S4–6) provides for entrance into various fields of study, including those offered at universities.

        2. Now do the following:
           a) Draw a diagram to describe the education system in Rwanda.
           b) Write five sentences about the education system in Rwanda.
        For example:
           • You go to primary school when you are six.
           • You go to secondary school when you are 12.
           • After secondary school you can go to technical college.

        Homework
        Interview your family members about their education. Write down notes on their responses.

        4.3.5 Listening and writing activity

        1. Talk about your family’s education.
        For example: My father went to primary school. My cousin went to technical college.

            My aunt did not go to school at all.
        2. Think about whether more children are going to school nowadays than in the past.
        3. Listen to the text in which someone talks about the education of their family members, focusing on the past simple tense.
        4. Now answer the questions on your own (individually) in writing.
           a) Why does Mugabo think that access to education has improved?
           b) Why do you think girls were seldom sent to school when Mugabo’s grandfather was young?

           c) What did Grandfather learn at school?
           d) Do you think Grandfather studied mathematics?
           e) Why is Mugabo’s family proud of their grandmother?
           f) What does it mean to be ‘illiterate’?
           g) What are the disadvantages of being illiterate?
           h) Did Mugabo’s parents, uncles and aunts have more education than their parents? Explain your answer.
           i) Do you think Mugabo’s cousin, Keza, will be able to fulfil her dream of becoming a doctor?

               Explain your answer.
           j) What does Mugabo want to do?

        4.4 Language structure: Past simple tense

        You have already learnt about the past simple tense. Study the notes to refresh your memory.
          • Most verbs are changed to past tense by adding -ed at the end of the verb.
        For example: Mugabo visited his grandparents last week.
          • A list of the most common irregular past tense verbs can be found in Unit 1 on page 6.
          • You use the past simple tense to talk about:
          • something that happened in the past.
        For example: He started school when he was six. He was at school for four years.
          • something that happened again and again in the past.
        For example: When I was a boy I walked two kilometres to school every day.

          • You use did with the infinitive to form a question in the past tense.
        For example: When did you start school? Where did Grandfather go
        to school?
          • You use did not with the infinitive to form a negative in the past tense.
        For example: His grandmother did not go to school. He did not leave school after P6.

        v

        4.4.1 Speaking and listening practice

        Read the paragraph aloud, paying particular attention to the past tense verbs.

        Grandfather says he spent four years at school. At least he learnt to read and write, but not very well. He also learnt a bit about numbers and how to add and subtract. Grandmother did not go to school at all. When she got married to Grandfather she was still very young and she was illiterate. She was able to attend an adult literacy programme when her children were grown up. Now she can read the newspaper slowly and she can sign her name and write a shopping list. We are very proud of her.

        4.4.2 Writing practice

        1. Complete the text by filling in the correct form of the verb in red.

        Mutesi a) find a different history of education in her family. Her grandfather b) be one of the few children of his time who c) go to secondary school. He d) spend three years at secondary school and then he e) go home to help with the farming. He f) be very interested in learning new things. He g) go on short courses to increase his farming skills. He soon h) become the most capable farmer in the region. Although he i) be still young, other farmers
        j) come to ask his advice.

        4.4.3 Writing practice

        1. Give the correct form of the verb in brackets in each sentence.
          a) John (not go) to S4.
          b) Instead he (go) to a technical and vocational centre.
          c) He (want) to go to university?
          d) No, he (decide) he would do better as a technician.
          e) Mutesi (want) to be a nurse.
          f) She (not know) what to do to become one.
          g) She (go) to the career guidance teacher to ask for advice.
          h) John (believe) that ICT (be) the best option for him.
          i) Isaro (think) she would like to become a TV announcer.

        4.4.4 Writing practice

        1. Complete the text by filling in the correct form of the verb in red.

        Our careers teacher a) begin to tell us about our options for further studies. She b) teach us to think out of the box. There were many new options for careers that had not c) exist before. We d) understand her purpose. She e) want us to think beyond the traditional careers in teaching and nursing. She said parents f) spend a great deal of money to give their children a good education. She g) encourage us to talk to different people. There h) be wonderful opportunities for in-service training available for those who i) be prepared to work hard. She j) inspire us to start thinking creatively about our future.

        4.4.5 Writing activity

        1. Think about the interviews that you did with your family members about their education.
        2. Plan to write three paragraphs on the education of your family members.

        Use a spider diagram like the one below, a mind-map or simply columns to indicate how you are going to structure your text.

        h

        j

        3. Write out the three paragraphs about the education of your family members.
        4. First edit your work yourself and then exchange notebooks with a partner for further editing.

             Hand your writing in for formal assessment.

        4.5 Sounds and spelling

        Here are some more examples of the various pronunciations of /e/.

        v

        1. Practise saying these words aloud.
        2. Look up the words you do not know in a dictionary.

        Write them down with their pronunciation and meaning.

        Homework
        How many five-letter words can you find in this block? The words are arranged vertically, horizontally and diagonally. Make a list of the words you find. There are 22 words in total.

        n

        4.5.1 Speaking and writing activity

        1. You are going to listen to a talk. First, discuss these questions.
           a) What is an academic career?
           b) What skill is very important for any young person who wants to follow an academic career?
           c) What is a PhD? Perhaps you will find it in your dictionary. If you do not know, ask your teacher.

        2. Now listen to your teacher, who is pretending to be a visiting academic.
        3. Answer the following questions after you have listened to the talk.
            a) Was there a library at the primary school the visitor attended?
           b) What, according to the visitor, can you do to improve your English?
           c) What other advantage did her reading have?
           d) What is a bursary?
           e) Which students are lucky enough to get bursaries?
           f) How was the visitor able to study at a university in the UK?
           g) What is a scholarship?
           h) Why did the visitor return to Rwanda?

          i) What hope did the visitor express?
          j) Would you like to become an academic? Why?

        4.6 Language structure: Would like to, Have to and In order to

        Would like to is a polite way of expressing a desire to do something. It is always followed by to + infinitive (base form of the verb).
        For example:

        • I would like to study at university. (present simple tense)
        • He said he would like to study at university. (past simple tense – note that the format does not change)

        Have to/has to/had to (modal verbs) mean the same as must. These words are always followed by the infinitive.
        For example:
          • Isaro has to work much harder than she is doing at present.
          • I have to study tonight because I have to write a test tomorrow.

        In order to is used like a preposition. It is always followed by the infinitive.
        For example:
        • In order to pass, he has to work hard./He has to work hard in order to pass.
        • In order to perform well, she has to put in more effort./She has to put in more effort in order to perform well.

        4.6.1 Speaking practice

        1. Work in pairs. Say these sentences aloud to get used to using the phrases.
           a) Ngabo had to study much more because he had performed poorly in the previous examination.
           b) The teacher told Shema that he would have to work much harder.
           c) Keza said she would like to go to university to study English.
           d) Her teacher told her that she would have to read more English to improve her language skills.
           e) He is taking extra lessons in order to improve his reading.

        h

        4.6.2 Writing practice

        1. Use would, have to, has to, had to or in order to + infinitive to complete the sentences.
           a) Akaliza said she ________ to university, but she did not know if her marks were good enough.
           b) Mutanguha said he ______ much harder because he was not performing well.
           c) I ______ this examination if I want to continue to S3.
          d) ______ his English marks, Mutanguha enrolled for extra classes.
          e) Ingabire ______ harder if she wants to improve her marks.

        4.6.4 Writing practice

        1. Write five sentences of your own. Use has to/have to/had to/would like to/in order to in each of the sentences.
        2. Exchange books with a partner and mark each other’s work. Talk about the sentences that you do not agree with.

        Homework
        Think carefully about what you would like to achieve in your life.
        Write five sentences about:

        1. What type of job would you like to do one day?
        2. Why? Is it the best-paid job you can think of, or do you really have a passion for it?

        Or are you choosing it because you think it is all you will be able to do?

        3. Do you intend to leave school after S3, or do you want to continue up to S6? Why?
        4. Do you need to go to university or another higher education institution to qualify for the job you want to do?
        5. How long will it take you to qualify?

        m

        4.6.5 Reading and writing activity

        Develop the habit of researching new words that you come across when reading texts.
        1. Talk about the homework task on the type of job you would like to do one day.

        Tell one another about your ideas and compare notes.
          • Do you want to go to university? Or do you want to find a job directly after finishing school?
          • Are there other options for further study except university?
        2. Now read the text about jobs and the qualifications they require.

        Further studies in Rwanda

        There are many opportunities for further study in Rwanda.

        For many careers you have to have certain qualifications.
        In order to be a doctor you have to study for a degree in medicine. It takes about six years in order to become a general practitioner.

        For some of the specialised areas you might have to study abroad.

        In order to become a nurse you have to study for a nursing diploma at a school of nursing.

        There are eight schools of nursing in Rwanda, one dental school, and one school of public health.

        There are also five government schools of nursing and midwifery.
        It is also possible to get a nursing degree from university.

        In order to become a lawyer or an accountant, you also have to go to university.

        Secondary school teachers have to study for a university degree after S6.

        Primary school teachers have to have a teacher’s diploma from one of the 13 teacher training colleges in order

        to teach in the country’s primary schools.

        Several countries offer scholarships for African students to further their post-graduate studies overseas.

        There are enough opportunities for hard-working and motivated students.
        Centres for Vocational Education and Training teach a number of interesting skills that enable people to be employed and to start their own businesses. They offer courses for those who wish to become plumbers, electricians, chefs and motor mechanics. They also offer entrepreneurship courses.
        Learners who want to return to the family farm to continue producing food can improve their skills. Agricultural organisations offer numerous short courses, from technical and management to irrigation and fertilization.

        3. Now answer the questions.
            a) How long does it take to become a medical doctor?
            b) Can doctors specialise in heart surgery in Rwanda?
            c) Can post-graduate students in Rwanda afford to study overseas?
            d) Where do you need to study if you want to become a nurse?
            e) Where do you have to go to become a secondary school teacher?
            f) Name four courses that you could study at a Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training.
            g) How can young farmers improve their farming skills?
            h) Have any of the fields of study mentioned above captured your interest as a possibility for future studies? Explain your answer.
        4. Exchange notebooks for peer assessment of your answers.

        n

               The University of Rwanda, College of Business and Economics

        4.6.6 Speaking and listening activity

        Drawing on the information you have received, discuss your job aspirations and the qualifications they require.

        Think carefully about what you want to do. Talk to your group members about where you might study after finishing school.

        Focus on using in order to be and have to when you speak.
        For example: I would like to go to a vocational and technical centre in order to become a chef.

        What would you like to do after secondary school?

        Homework
        Ask your career guidance teacher for information about further studies
        in Rwanda. Draw up a table of tertiary institutions and what you can study there.

        4.7 Language structure: Conditionals

        There are various kinds of conditionals. The first one is called the zero conditional.

        This is used to refer to general truths.

        n

        4.7.1 Writing practice

        1. Complete the sentences correctly.
           a) If you had done your homework ________.
           b) If he had read English for half an hour every day ________.
           c) If you had looked after your textbooks ________.
           d) If your English was better ________.
           e) If you went to bed earlier ________.

        4.7.2 Writing practice

        1. Provide the correct conditional in the sentences.
           a) ________ the crops grow well.
           b) ________ the sun comes up.
           c) ________ you will pass at the end of the year.
           d) ________ you will be able to study further.
           e) ________ you would be able to find a job.

        d 4.7.3 Writing practice

        1. Complete the sentences.
        a) If you were not late for school every day ________.
        b) If he had spent more time on his studies ________.
        c) ________ she would have won a bursary.
        d) If you had done more research on careers ________.
        e) If you had completed your further studies ________.


        m 4.7.4 Writing activity

        1. Prepare to write a text about education and job aspirations, paying attention to would like to.
        2. Decide how you are going to plan the text. Use a spider diagram (like the one on the left) or a mind-map. You could also draw a column for each paragraph and write the related ideas in each column.
        3. Exchange notebooks with a partner to look at your planning and comment on it. Improve your planning if necessary.
        4. Write the text and edit it.
        5. Exchange notebooks with a partner and edit each other’s writing.
        6. Do any corrections suggested by your partner, if you agree. Hand in the text for formal assessment.


         

         Checklist of learning
        In this unit you learnt to:

        • describe educational aspirations
        • describe the education of family members and friends
        • describe the qualifications required for jobs
        • write about education and job aspirations.

        4.8 Unit assessment

        This section can be used for formal assessment or for revision.
        1. Write three sentences about your ideas for your future education. Use when-clauses. [3]

        2. Use two of the words below in sentences of your own to show that you understand their meaning:

        k                     [2]  

        3. Answer each of the questions in a full sentence.
        a) How many years do learners usually spend in primary school (if they do not have to repeat a year)?
        b) How long is the ordinary or lower secondary course?
        c) How long does it take one to complete a Bachelor’s Degree at university?          [3]

        4. Write two sentences about your family’s education. [2]
        5. Give the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
        a) Last year they (start) secondary school.
        b) They (be) nervous about starting a new school.
        c) Some of them (go) to boarding school.
        d) They (learn) to take responsibility for their own work.
        e) The teachers (keep) them very busy during their first term. [5]

        6. Do the planning for a three-paragraph text on the education
        of your family. Use a spider diagram or a mind-map. You do
        not have to write the text, just do the planning. [5]
        7. Write five sentences about your plans for the future, after leaving school. [10]

        8. Complete these sentences correctly.
        a) If you want to study further, ________.
        b) If he had worked harder, ________.
        c) ________ she would have finished school by now.
        d) ________ she would not have been late for school.
        e) If Mutesi had not lost her textbook, ________. [5]

        9. Read the text and then answer the questions that follow.

        Shema was getting tired of studying and reading every day.

        He had to get up early every morning to walk to school and by the time he got home in the afternoon he was exhausted.

        He was really drained from having to spend a few hours on homework every day.

        Shema was afraid to complain to his parents, but one day his uncle Ntwari came to visit.

        They sat outside under a tree while waiting for Shema’s father to come home from work.

        “Uncle Ntwari, I am getting so tired of studying every day. Every day I have a pile of homework to do.

        I do not know how I am going to keep going for many years to come.”

        Uncle Ntwari did not answer immediately. He drank some water from the mug his sister had brought and then he cleared his throat.

        “Shema, I can understand that. School is not easy and it is a lot of work. But what are your options?

        Do you want to be one of the unemployed like me? If you choose not to be educated, that is what
        will happen.”

           a) Why was Shema getting tired of studying?
           b) Why did he not speak to his parents about his problem?
           c) Why do you think Uncle Ntwari was unemployed?
           d) What does it mean to have options?
           e) What would your advice to Shema be?             [5]
                                                                     Total marks: 40

        • Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of Rwanda and East Africa.

          n

          5.1 Speaking and listening: Rwanda and East Africa

          5.1.1 Speaking and listening activity

          Brainstorm the position of Rwanda and its neighbours. Look at the map on page 72. Pay attention to the compass points when you say where other countries are in relation to Rwanda.

          1. In relation to Rwanda, where is:
             a) Uganda situated?
             b) the Democratic Republic of the Congo?
             c) the Republic of Tanzania?
             d) the Republic of Burundi?                   
             e) the Republic of Kenya?       

          c

          2. a) With which countries does Rwanda share a common border?
              b) Do you think Rwanda’s position in East Africa provides it with any benefits?
             c) Are the citizens of Rwanda in any way different from other East Africans?
             d) What is the East African Community all about?

          x

          5.2 Language structure: Comparatives and superlatives

          There are various ways to express comparison.
            •  You can use comparatives to compare two things.

               You can use superlatives to compare more than two things.
            •  When you use (as … as) to express the comparative, the adjective remains unchanged.
                For example:
               Tanzania is many times as big as Rwanda.
            •  When you use than, the adjective changes.
               For example:
              Tanzania is much bigger than Rwanda. (er – comparative)

            •  A word consisting of one syllable takes -er for the comparative and -est for the superlative.
                For example: colder, coldest.
            •   the adjective is a short word (consonant-vowel-consonant), you double the second consonant.
                For example: bigger, fatter, better.
            •  When a two-syllable word ends in y, the y changes to i+er or i+est.
                For example: happier, happiest; friendlier, friendliest.
            •  Some two-syllable words and all three-syllable words form the comparative or superlative

                by adding more and most.
                For example: more careful (comparative), most competitive (superlative).

          5.2.1 Speaking and listening practice

          1. Say these sentences aloud so that you become used to the sound.
             a) Tanzania is bigger than Rwanda.
             b) Rwanda is the smallest country in the region.
             c) Rwanda is more fertile than many other countries.
             d) The people of Rwanda are friendlier than many other people.
             e) The villagers are happier than the city dwellers.

          5.2.2 Writing practice

          1. Give the comparative forms of the adjectives in brackets.
             a) The population in Rwanda is (friendly) than in many other countries.
             b) Burundi is a little (big) than Rwanda.
             c) People are (aware) of values than in other countries.
             d) Rwanda is the (small) country in the sub-region.
             e) Rwanda has a (high) economic growth rate than other countries in the sub-region.

          5.2.3 Writing practice

          1. Give the superlative forms of the adjectives in brackets.
             a) Rwanda is perhaps the (friendly) country in the world.
             b) Burundi is Rwanda’s (small) neighbouring country.
             c) Rwandan people are the (aware) of the values of all their neighbours.
             d) Rwanda is not the (big) of the East-African countries.
             e) Rwanda has the (high) growth rate of all.

          5.2.4 Writing practice

          1. Give the correct comparative/superlative form of the adjective in brackets.
             a) Rwandans are (careful) than most to maintain peace.
             b) Are some countries (small) than others?
             c) Are some of the mountains (high) than others?
             d) Tanzania is the (big) country in our region.
             e) Kigali is the (large) city in Rwanda.
             f) Our village is the (small) in the region.

          c

          5.2.5 Writing practice

          1. Give the correct comparative/superlative form of the adjective in brackets.
             a) Rwanda is economically (viable) than many other countries.
             b) Rwanda’s population is the (dense) of all the East African countries.
             c) Rwanda has (little) mineral wealth than the DRC.
             d) Rwanda grows (much) tea than many other countries.
             e) Rwanda’s tea is the (high) quality of all tea produced in East Africa.
             f) Rwanda’s government is (stable) than many others in Africa.

          5.3 Vocabulary

          Develop the habit of researching new words that you read in texts.
          1. You will find the following words in the next text you are going to read.
          2. Say the words out loud, paying attention to where the accent should be placed (note the accent marks).
          3. Copy the table into your vocabulary book. Look up the meaning of the words and phrases used.
          4. Use each word or group of words in a sentence so that you remember its meaning.

          5.3.1 Writing practice

          x

          5.3.2 Writing practice

          1. Use the correct words from the table to complete the sentences.
             a) Rwanda’s economy is performing ________.
             b) Teachers, lawyers and doctors are called ________ because they are well trained for their jobs.
             c) ________ opportunities are available for people who study hard.
             d) IT is the future and therefore IT ________ are in high demand.
             e) It is difficult to ________ the medium of instruction from one language to another.

          v

          5.3.3 Writing practice

          1. Use the correct words from the table to complete the sentences.
             a) The ________ ________ of Rwanda with their gentle slopes are very beautiful.
             b) When governments of different countries work together it is called an ________ ________.
             c) There are ________ opportunities for skilled people in Rwanda.
             d) The ________ to English in the schools is not easy.
             e) It is important to take out ________ for your car, in case you have an accident.

          z

          5.3.4 Writing practice

          1. Use the correct words from the table to complete the sentences.
             a) Life ________ provides for the breadwinner’s dependants if the breadwinner should die.
             b) The population of Rwanda has ________ ________.
             c) It has been said that the government has shown ________ ________ in taking the country forward.
             d) They have appointed ________ to advise them on the best procedures.
             e) Rwanda’s population _______ is the highest in the region.

          5.3.5 Reading and writing activity

          1. Pre-reading activity:
          Discuss the questions.
            a) Rwanda is a very small country. Do you think this makes the country unimportant?
            b) What changes do you think still need to happen in Rwanda?
            c) Are you aware of many foreigners in Rwanda? Do they become part of Rwanda’s culture?
          2. Read the text comparing Rwanda and its neighbours in the East African community.

          Rwanda and its neighbours

          Rwanda is known as ‘the land of a thousand hills’, because of its landscape of numerous rolling hills. It shares common borders with the Democratic Republic of Congo to the west, Tanzania to the east, Uganda to the north and Burundi to the south.
          Although Rwanda is small in size, it has one of the highest economic development rates in Africa. At an annual economic growth of between 6% and 8%, its growth rate is much higher than that of its neighbours.
          Rwanda has one of the highest population densities in Africa. This has, however, not affected its economic development or food security. Rwanda has been able to satisfactorily feed all its people, thanks to the enviable vision of its leadership.
          In 2009, Rwanda joined the East African Community, an intergovernmental organisation of five countries in the region. The countries are Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya and Burundi. One of the main aims of this organisation is to promote closer cooperation among member states.

          Rwanda has a scarcity of natural resources. However it has still managed to attract many investors from the East African region. These are mainly in the services sectors like banking, insurance and education.
          The language of communication and instruction in school has shifted from French to English. This has attracted many professionals from English-speaking East Africa to Rwanda. They have come in as teachers, doctors, agricultural officers, IT specialists and consultants in different fields. The number of foreigners in the country has increased significantly. However it has not affected the warmth of Rwandans towards their East African brothers and sisters.

          c

          3. Answer the questions on the text in writing.
          a) How has Rwanda managed to satisfy the food needs of its high population despite its small size?
          b) Do you think Rwanda was wise to join the East African Community? Explain your answer.
          c) Explain in what ways foreign investment is likely to affect/improve the lives of Rwandans.
          d) Is Rwandans’ attitude towards foreigners good for the country? Explain your answer.
          e) What people do you consider to be professionals?
          f) Apart from the professionals mentioned in the text, name other examples of professionals in Rwanda.
          g) List the three main natural resources in Rwanda.

             Explain how each contributes to the development of the country.

          5.4 Language structure: Connectors of contrast and similarity

          Words that show similarity: the same, like, similar
          Connectors of similarity: in the same way, likewise, equally, in a similar manner, both … and
          Words that show contrast: different, unalike/not alike/unlike, dissimilar
          Connectors of contrast: on the contrary, while, whereas, however, although, on the one hand/on the other hand, but, yet, though, in spite of, nevertheless
          Table 1 Information on the countries of the East-African Community

          v

          c 5.4.1Speaking practice

          1. Say the sentences out loud to get used to the sound of the words.
          a) Rwanda has three official languages, whereas Uganda has only one.
          b) Rwanda has a denser population than Kenya, although it is
          much smaller.
          c) In spite of the fact that Rwanda has a smaller population, its population density is greater.
          d) Rwanda and Uganda are dissimilar in respect of the number of official languages.
          e) Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda are similar. They all have English as one of their official languages.



          5.4.2 Writing practice

          1. Choose and write down an appropriate connector of similarity or contrast for each blank space.

          z

          a) Rwanda is the smallest country in the East African Community, ________ its economic growth is the highest.
          b) Tanzania is the largest country with the most people, ________ its population density is the lowest.
          c) Kenya has a high population, ________ it has fewer people than Tanzania.
          d) Burundi has a smaller population than Rwanda, ________ it is a
          little bigger.
          e) ________ Rwanda being so densely populated, its level of literacy is relatively high.

          5.4.3 Writing practice

          1. Use words from the list in the Writing practice 5.4.2 to write down an appropriate connector of similarity or contrast.
          a) ________ Rwanda has the densest population, it has the highest economic growth rate.
          b) ________ Kenya has the highest literacy level, it doesn’t have the highest economic growth rate.
          c) ________ Burundi is bigger than Rwanda, its population is smaller.
          d) ________ Rwanda and Burundi are the smallest countries, they have the densest population.
          e) ________ Burundi also has two official languages, neither of them are English.

          5.4.4 Writing practice

          1. Complete each sentence so that the connector of similarity or contrast is proved to be correct.
             a) In spite of Rwanda’s density of population, ________.
             b) Tanzania has the largest population, nevertheless ________.
             c) Burundi, likewise, ________.
             d) Rwanda has three official languages, whereas ________.
            e) Whereas Burundi is part of the East-African community, ________.

          5.4.5 Writing activity

          1.   Make use of the data (information) in Table 1 on page 78.

                Prepare to write three paragraphs about  Rwanda and its neighbours.

                Do the preparation thoroughly and  exchange books with a partner to evaluate the planning.
          2.   Use your planning to write three paragraphs about Rwanda and its neighbours.

                Try to use connectors of  similarity and contrast in your writing.
          3.   When you have finished writing, edit your work yourself to correct any errors.

                Then hand it in for formal assessment.

          Homework
          You have read that the level of literacy in Rwanda is 71%. That means that about seven people out of every ten should be able to read and write. Prepare a little score sheet like this:

          v

          Speak to 20 people you know in your area. Ask them whether they can read and write. You can assure them that this is confidential; their names will not be written down anywhere. If you are at boarding school, ask your fellow boarders about their families. You could also talk to the staff.

          5.4.6 Reading and writing activity

          1. Read the text about Rwanda and international organisations.

          Rwanda and international organisations

          • Rwanda belongs to several regional organisations: the East African Community, the Common Market for East and Southern African countries, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development and the International Conference for the Great Lakes region. It is also a member of various powerful international organisations.
          • Firstly, Rwanda is a member of the United Nations Organisation. This is a body that groups together all independent countries in the world. One of the main duties of the United Nations is to keep peace. Rwanda, as part of this organisation, has significantly contributed to peace-keeping in the world. Rwanda has slightly over 5 000 soldiers and policemen, deployed under UN mandate, in different countries. This makes Rwanda the fifth peace-keeping force contributor in the world.
          • Secondly, Rwanda is a member of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, as well as the World Trade Organisation. This has enabled the country to get grants. It has also accessed long-term credit to implement development programmes.

          s

          • Thirdly, Rwanda has a close cooperation with UN agencies like the United Nations High Commission for Refugees. This has enabled the country to take care of numerous refugees for neighbouring countries like the Democratic Republic of Congo and Burundi. Rwanda has provided them with shelter, food, medical care and education for their children.
          • Likewise, Rwanda enjoys close cooperation with the World Health Organisation. This organisation has helped carry out various country-wide immunisation programmes targeting infants. The purpose is to improve the health of Rwandan children. It is also aimed at reducing infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Hepatitis and Tuberculosis.
          • Rwanda’s cooperation with UNESCO, UNICEF and UDEP has assisted the country to improve its education system, as well as its environmental management and sustainability.

          KEY to abbreviations and acronyms
          EAC – East African Community
          COMESA – Common Market for East and Southern Africa
          IGAD – Intergovernmental Authority on Development
          ICGLR – International Conference for the Great Lakes Region
          UN – United Nations organisation
          IMF – International Monetary Fund
          WTO – World Trade Organisation
          UNHCR – United Nations High Commissioner
          for Refugees
          UNESCO – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
          UNICEF – United Nations Children’s Education Fund
          UNEP – United Nations Environment Programme

          What is the difference between an abbreviation and an acronym?
          An abbreviation is any shortening of a word or a name.
          Examples: Dr (Doctor) and e.g. (for example)
          An acronym is also an abbreviation, but one that forms a pronounceable word from the first letters of the words.
          Examples: COMESA, UNESCO or UNICEF

          z2. Answer the questions and then exchange notebooks for marking.
          a) List four examples of regional organisations of which Rwanda is
          a member.
          b) What is the main duty of the UN?
          c) In what way does Rwanda make an important contribution to the UN’s peace-keeping activities?
          d) Do you think Rwanda has been wise to cooperate with UN agencies? Mention two points, negative or positive, to support your opinion.
          e) What has Rwanda done in its role as member of the UNHCR?
          f) Which international organisation helps Rwanda to control contagious diseases?
          g) Which UN agency has helped Rwanda with the development of education?
          h) What benefit has Rwanda enjoyed as a result of being a member of the IMF?

          Homework
          Write two paragraphs on how the leaders of the DRC and Burundi can stop refugees from their countries leaving for Rwanda. Work individually and prepare to present the texts in class.
          Or
          Choose ONE international organisation that works in Rwanda. Write two paragraphs describing its activities in the country. Work individually and then prepare to present the work in class.


          v

          5.4.7 Speaking and listening activity

          1. Use your knowledge of transport in Rwanda to discuss these questions. While you are talking, take care to speak with clear pronunciation and correct grammar. At the same time, show tolerance of classmates’ language mistakes. Making mistakes is an important part of learning a language.

          a) Name the modes of transport that you know. Which is your favourite?
          b) Do you enjoy travelling?
          c) Which are the fastest and the slowest forms of transport that you know of?
          d) How are most goods transported in Rwanda?     

          v
          e) Are there any travel agencies in your area?
          f) Have you ever travelled to distant places?

          5.4.8 Reading and writing activity

          1. Read the text on your own.

          Transportation inside and outside Rwanda

          Rwanda is a landlocked country, but it boasts an efficient transport system for people and goods.
          RwandAir and Kenya Airways are the national carriers for passengers from Kigali
          to the main cities in the East African region. They operate on a daily basis all year round. These two airlines serve the following routes: Kigali to Nairobi, Kigali to Dar-es-Salaam, Kigali to Kampala and Kigali to Bujumbura.
          Road transport in Rwanda is also efficient. It has a good network of tarmac roads that connect the cities and all East African neighbours. This enables people and goods
          to move inside as well as outside the country. Buses and commuter taxis transport people to the capital cities of neighbouring countries.
          While buses and commuter taxis transport people, trucks transport goods to and
          from Rwanda. They use the same routes.

          This form of transport facilitates exports from Rwanda and imports from overseas countries.
          Road transport in the region may be efficient but it is relatively expensive and slow. That is why the East-African Community is constructing a state-of-the-art, four-gauge railway line. They started construction work two years ago. The railway line is to run from Mombasa (the Indian Ocean coastal port in Kenya) through to Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya. It will run across Kenya towards Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. It will then cross Uganda to Kagitumba, a Rwandan border post, all the way to Kigali. From Kigali, it will run westwards across Rwanda to Cyangugu, a Rwandan border post on the border with the DRC. Once completed, the railway line is expected to make all transportation faster and cheaper.

          2. Answer the questions. Then exchange books to mark the answers.
          a) What does it mean to be ‘landlocked’?
          b) How many cities in East Africa are served by RwandAir and Kenya Airways? Name the cities.
          c) Which sector of the population makes most use of air transport?
          d) What makes road transport in Rwanda efficient?
          e) Do buses and commuter taxis transport people within Rwanda only? Explain your answer.
          f) What form of transport do the ordinary people of Rwanda make most use of? Explain your answer.
          g) In what way does road transport facilitate exports and imports?
          h) What transport project has the East African Community undertaken?
          i) In what way will this project improve transportation within the East African countries?
          j) What is your opinion of transport in Rwanda?

          5.4.9 Speaking, reading and writing activity

          1. Pre-reading activity:
          a) What do you understand by trade?
          b) Have you ever sold anything for profit?
          c) Why do you think people go to the market?
          d) List the most common trade items to be found in your local market.
          2. Read the text.

          Rwanda’s local trade

          While farmers in the rural areas grow a variety of food crops, pastoralists keep different animals.

          Pastoralists in the rural areas keep animals like cows, goats and sheep.
          The cows are kept for milk. The goats are slaughtered
          for meat to be sold in the neighbourhood or to be taken to the market.

          Commercial farmers keep pigs and chickens. The pigs are slaughtered and sold locally as pork. However, Rwanda has a population of Muslims for whom pork is taboo.

          Pork is also made into sausages that are very popular.
          Chickens are raised for eggs and meat. Chicken is popular among all Rwandans.
          Shopkeepers are traders. They stock and sell things needed in the home such as sugar, salt and cooking fat.
          Many items are sold at the local markets. These include cereals, fruits, vegetables, beans, dried fish, fresh fish, beef, goat and chicken. People even sell used clothes and shoes.

              s

          3. Now form groups of four to discuss these questions.
          a) What are the different types of local trade in Rwanda?
          b) Agriculture is the mainstay/backbone of Rwanda’s economy. Mention at least four food crops and four cash crops in Rwanda.
          c) Give examples of at least three types of commercial farming in Rwanda.
          d) Why do you think traders at the market sell used clothes and used shoes, when new ones are available in shops?
          4. Write 10 lines to describe how your family or neighbours engage in local trade in your area. Include your opinion of this type of informal trade. Exchange your notebooks for peer marking.

          5.4.10 Listening and speaking activity

          Pre-listening activity:
          1. Answer these questions.
          a) What do you understand by trade?
          b) Name the items of trade common on the Rwandan market.
          c) Give examples of countries that trade with Rwanda.
          d) Which items does Rwanda sell to overseas countries?

          2. Listen carefully to the text your teacher will read to you.
          3. Now discuss these questions. Write down the important points and report back to the class.
          a) List Rwanda’s international trade partners.
          b) Minerals are important sources of revenue for Rwanda. Give two examples of minerals mined in Rwanda.
          c) Why does Rwanda export unprocessed coffee?
          d) Rwanda’s imports far exceed its exports. Why is this so?
          e) Is there anything Rwanda can do to increase its exports?
          f) What are the main commodities imported from:
             • COMESA and the East African Community?                
             • Asia?

          x

          5.4.11 Reading and writing activity

          1. Read the information carefully.

          z

          2. Use the figures to compile two tables showing Rwanda’s imports and exports over three years.
          3. Write five sentences suggesting what Rwanda should do to improve the balance between imports and exports.
          4. Exchange books and edit each other’s work. Choose the best sentences to read to the class.

          Checklist of learning
          In this unit you learnt to:

          • describe Rwanda’s position relative to its neighbours
          • compare and contrast Rwanda to its neighbours
          • describe goods sold at a local market
          • write about Rwanda’s international trade.

          5.5 Unit assessment

          This assessment can be used for formative or summative assessment or
          for revision.
          1. Use the comparative form in brackets to complete the sentence correctly.
          a) Rwanda is ________ in size than Burundi. (small/big)
          b) Tanzania has a ________ population than Kenya. (large/small)
          c) Kenya’s surface area is ________ than that of Uganda. (extensive)
          d) Rwanda’s population in the west and south is ________ than in the east. (high/low)
          e) Tanzania’s coastline is ________ than that of Kenya. (long/short)
          f) RwandAir has ________ aircrafts than Uganda Airlines.
          (many/few)
          g) Burundi has ________ ethnic groups than Uganda. (many/few)
          h) Rwanda imports ________ products from Kenya than it imports from Tanzania. (many/few)
          i) Burundi’s economic growth is ________ than that of Rwanda. (low/high)
          j) Rwanda’s population density is ________ than that of Burundi.(high/low)        [10]

          2. Insert the most appropriate connector in the blank space to complete the sentence correctly.                     

          x

          a) ________ Kenya has more than 40 ethnic groups, Rwanda has only one.
          b) ________ agriculturalists grow food crops, pastoralists keep animals.
          c) Pork is a delicacy to some Rwandans, ________ Muslims do not eat it.
          d) People buy used shoes in the market ________ there are new shoes in shops.       

          e) ________ Rwandans in the western province produce a lot of Irish potatoes, they are still very expensive.
          f) ________ agriculturalists and livestock-keeping are beneficial to Rwandan farmers.
          g) ________ Kenya which processes its agriculture produce, Rwanda sells its agriculture produce unprocessed.
          h) Rwanda has the highest population density in Africa, ________
          it is able to satisfactorily feed its entire population.
          i) ________ Rwanda’s farming sector is quite strong; it needs to create more jobs to supplement people’s income.
          j) ________ the high density of its population, Rwanda is able to provide food for all its people.      [10]

          3. a) Write two paragraphs. Discuss Rwanda’s ability to feed its population in spite of its density. [10]
          b) Write two paragraphs. Discuss the ways in which the balance between imports and exports can be improved and jobs created.                                                                                               [10]
                                                                                                                                  Total marks: 40

                                                                       

          URL: 1
        • Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of the environment.

          b

                6.1 Speaking and listening: The environment

          6.1.1S peaking and listening activity

          Look at the picture and discuss these questions.
          • What are resources?
          • What resources can we see in the picture?
          • How can we use these resources?
          • Why do we need to protect these resources?

          v

          6.1.2 Speaking and writing activity

          Match the pictures of Rwanda’s resources with the descriptions.

          s

          b

          6.2 Skills: Identify and classify

          To identify something is to recognise or establish its identity.
          • To classify something is to place it in a group with other similar items.
          For example:
          Identify: This is a cow.Classify: It is an animal, a farm animal, one of a herd of cattle.

          6.2.1 Writing practice

          Go back to Activity 6.2 on page 90. Identify the objects/people/animals in the pictures and classify each of them.
          For example: A river: It is a natural resource – water.
          Now carry on from number 2.

          6.2.2 Speaking and listening activity

          1. Discuss different resources and give examples using these guidelines:
              a) Talk about natural resources, including land, forests, rivers, lakes, plants, animals and minerals.
              b) Talk about renewable resources, including water, plants, animals and human resources.

             Why are they called ‘renewable’?
             c) Talk about non-renewable resources, such as minerals like oil, gold, copper and clay-sand.

             Why are they called ‘non-renewable’?

          6.3 Vocabulary

          You will come across the words in the table in Exercise 6.2 on page 92. Write them in your vocabulary book.

          Learn to spell and pronounce them.

          z

           6.3.1 Writing practice

          1. Copy the table into your notebook. Look up the pronunciation and meaning of words that have been left out.

          x

          2. Use these words in sentences of your own to show that you understand the meaning.

          Exchange notebooks so that your partner can check if your sentences are correct.

          z

          Homework
          Write out the words that you find in the word search. There are eight words in total.

          z

          6.3.2 Reading and writing activity

          1. Pre-reading activity:
              a) You have spoken about resources in this unit. What have you learnt about resources?
             b) Look up the meaning of the word ‘exploit’ or ‘exploitation’. Write it down.
             c) Look at the title of the text. What do you think it is going to be about?
          2. Read the text on your own.

          v The exploitation of natural resources in Rwanda

          All of us, particularly the rural population, rely heavily on the natural resources of the country for our livelihood. Conservation is not a pie-in-the-sky ideology.
          Exploitation can have a positive and a negative meaning. When we use our natural resources, we need to do so sustainably. We cannot reduce and destroy them. For example, we need factories to create jobs. However, if factories pollute our air and water, we are solving one problem, but creating another. Industries should find ways to deal with the pollution from manufacturing processes. They are sometimes reluctant to do this, because it means extra expenditure.

          The rapidly-increasing population is placing additional strain on our resources.

          Every year we need more water, more land to be cultivated and more
          fuel for cooking. We also need more food to feed
          the people and animals and more jobs. We can only satisfy these needs if we use our resources in a sustainable way.

          We need to maintain efficient sewerage works in the cities. Fertilisers on farms should be used with care so that they do not pollute water sources. We should cultivate land so that it does not cause erosion.

          This will prevent soil and fertiliser from being washed away and polluting the rivers.
          Trees are cut down to provide fuel for cooking, charcoal and more land.

          Trees are the ‘lungs’ of the earth, absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen.

          Their roots also lock moisture in the soil. Without trees, we will experience erosion and a build-up of carbon dioxide.

          When trees are cut down, they must be replaced. But trees take a long time to grow.

          We must control the removal of trees to prevent deforestation.

          v

          2. Answer the questions.
            a) What do you think a pie-in-the-sky ideology is?
            b) Why is conservation not a ‘pie-in-the-sky ideology’?
            c) Explain the meaning of exploitation.
            d) What is the importance of forests? Mention two facts.
            e) Why do you think it is important to prevent the pollution of our water?
            f) How can the pollution of water by sewage be prevented in the rural areas?
            g) How can the pollution of water by sewage be prevented in the cities?
            h) How do fertilisers end up in the rivers?
            i) What does the author mean by trees being the ‘lungs’ of the earth?
            j) Why do people cut down trees?
            k) How can deforestation be prevented?
            l) In your opinion, are ordinary people, like you and your family and friends, concerned about pollution? Explain your answer.
          3. When you have answered the questions, exchange your notebooks with a partner. Mark each other’s answers.

          6.4 Language structure: Past simple tense

          Study the notes on the past simple tense in Unit 1, page 6.

          6.4.1 Writing practice

          1. Fill in the correct past simple tense form of the verb in brackets.
             a) The first mining activities (pollute) the river.
             b) They (cut) down too many trees in the past, now erosion is occurring.
             c) They (set) fire to the bush and it (burn) out completely.
             d) People (use) nets to catch fish and they (deplete) the number of fish in the lake.
             e) They (be) careless with the use of fertilisers and the run off (pollute) the river.

          6.4.2 Writing practice

          1. Fill in the correct past simple tense form of the verb in brackets.
             a) The farmer needed more land to plough, so he (clear) the trees from the land.
             b) When his son grew up he also needed land, so he (cut) down more trees.
             c) The rains (be) heavy that year.
             d) The water (wash) away the soil.
             e) Soon there (be) deep gullies in the land where the soil (be) washed away.

          6.4.3 Writing activity

          1. Choose a resource that interests you. It could be land, water, forests, lakes, rivers, animals or minerals.

          Read up or find out as much as you can about it.
          2. Plan three paragraphs giving your thoughts about sustainable (responsible) use of this resource.
          3. When you have finished planning, write the text.
          4. Edit the text and rewrite it if necessary. Hand it in for assessment.

          6.5 Language structure: First conditional

          The first conditional is used to refer to a present or future situation that is possible.

          If something is done, something else will, or will not happen.
          For example:
            • If people control the amount of fish they catch, the fish population will not be depleted.
            • If people use the correct cultivation methods, they will prevent erosion.

          6.5.1 Writing practice

          1. Complete the sentences appropriately.
             a) If they plant young trees when older trees are cut down, deforestation ________.
             b) If people reduce the number of cattle they keep, overgrazing ________.
             c) If latrines are built far from water sources, ________.
             d) If contour ploughing is done, erosion ________.
             e) If more terraces are built, erosion ________.

          6.5.2 Writing practice

          1. Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets.
             a) If we take care of our rivers, they (not pollute).
             b) If farmers do contour ploughing, they (not cause) erosion.
             c) If we (not litter), our streets (not pollute).
             d) If the farmers practise (not overgraze), they (prevent erosion).
             e) If we (not pollute) rivers, we (not get) waterborne diseases.

          6.5.3 Writing practice

          1. Complete the following sentences appropriately.
             a) If ________, forests will be saved.
             b) If ________, overgrazing will lead to erosion.
             c) If ________, air pollution will increase.
            d) If fertiliser is not used properly, ________.
            e) If wild animals are not protected, ________.

          6.5.4  Speaking and listening activity

          1. Brainstorm pollution and the exploitation of resources. Use the following as guidelines:
             • We cut down too many trees, and therefore ________.
             • We put too much waste into rivers, and therefore ________.
             • We make too many fires, and therefore ________.
             • We build too few terraces, and therefore ________.
             • We catch too many fish, and therefore ________.

          Add your own thoughts to these statements.

          Homework
          Keep paper or a notebook and pencil with you as you walk home after school today.

          Take particular note of your environment. Is everything clean and tidy? Is there litter lying around? Are there bins for litter?

          Is there water in the streets? Make a note of what you see.
          When you get home, write a paragraph of ten lines on the condition of the environment you live in.

          Should people be congratulated on keeping their surroundings clean?

          Do they have to think about a serious clean-up? You will discuss your paragraph in the next lesson.

          6.6 Vocabulary

          6.6.1 Writing activity

          Copy the table into your notebook. Use your dictionary to insert the meanings.

          b

          6.7 Language structure: Gerund

          The gerund is the -ing form of a verb functioning as a noun.
          Be careful not to confuse it with the continuous form, for example: It is raining (the action is happening right now).

          You use the -ing form as a gerund after some verbs such as enjoy, admit, appreciate, deny, avoid.
          For example: We must avoid littering. (Littering is working as a noun in
          this sentence.)

          The gerund can also be used with other verbs, after a preposition such as approve of, feel like, talk about, used for.
          For example: Terraces can be used for controlling erosion. Bins are used for collecting litter.

          6.7.1 Writing practice

          1. Fill in the correct form of the verb in brackets.
            a) We do not approve of (litter).
            b) They need to talk about the negative effects of (pollute) our water.
            c) They told us that the water is used for (irrigate) their lands.
            d) The company denies (cause) air pollution.
            e) The inhabitants approve of (take) steps against those who pollute their drinking water.

          6.7.2 Writing practice

          1. Fill in the correct form of the verb (gerund).
            a) Stop (litter)!
            b) The farmers must avoid the practice of (overgraze) their fields as it leads to erosion.
            c) They approve of (plant) new trees to replace those that are cut down.
            d) The fishermen must avoid (deplete) the fish resources by overfishing.
            e) The teachers teach us to enjoy (look) after our environment.

          6.7.3 Writing practice

          1. Complete the sentences using a gerund.
            a) We must avoid (pollute) our water sources.
            b) The fishermen like (fish) but must guard against overfishing.
            c) The government should control the number of vehicles in the city to avoid (cause) air pollution.
            d) They feel like (swim) but the water is polluted.
            e) They are talking about (collect) litter in bigger bins.

          6.7.4 Listening and writing activity

          1. Pre-listening activity:
            a) Talk about what you have learnt so far about pollution and protecting our resources.
            b) Talk about what will happen if there is no longer any clean water to drink.

          2. Listen to a text about pollution and the exploitation and protection of resources.

          Ask your teacher to read it a second time if necessary.

          3. Answer the questions in writing.
            a) Why is it important to protect our resources?
            b) Why do people cut down trees?
            c) What happens to the soil when too many trees are cut down?
            d) What happens to the soil when too much fertiliser is used?
            e) How do lakes become polluted?
            f) What happens to fish when water is polluted?
            g) What is the result of overfishing?
            h) What happens to people when they eat too little protein?

          6.8 Language structure: Determiners of quantity

          When we talk about quantity we use determiners of quantity such as few, little, many, much, lots of, a lot of.
          We use these determiners with countable and uncountable nouns.
          • Countable nouns: many, a lot of, lots of, few, a few, some
          For example: Many trees are cut down (trees: countable noun).
          • Uncountable nouns: much, a lot of, lots of, little, a little, some
          For example: A lot of pollution is taking place (pollution:     uncountable noun).                        
                                                                                                 n

          6.8.1 Writing practice

          1. Fill in an appropriate determiner of quantity in each blank space.
             a) There are ______ forests left in the area because so many trees have been cut down.
             b) The fishermen caught ______ fish, so the resource is being reduced.
             c) ______ soil is eroded every year.
             d) ______ people suffer ill health because they eat too little protein.
             e) There are ______ cars in the cities nowadays.

          6.8.2 Writing practice

          1. Fill in an appropriate determiner of quantity in the blank space.
             a) _______ needs to be done to prevent pollution.
             b) They cut down _______ trees because they need wood to cook their meals.
             c) There are _______ trees left because too many have been cut down.
             d) We have to boil most of our water because _______ of our rivers are polluted.
             e) Some factories cause _______ air pollution because they do not use proper filters in their chimneys.

          6.8.3 Writing practice

          1. Complete the sentences, making use of determiners of quantity.
             a) The forests are becoming smaller, because ________.
             b) Because the rivers are being polluted, ________.
             c) Air pollution is caused when ________.
             d) People catch ________, so the fish population is being reduced.
             e) Because the quality of the soil is reduced, ________.

          Homework
          Plan a questionnaire (list of questions).

          Think of at least five questions to ask your family members how they are going to recycle materials (bottles,

          boxes and paper) to reduce litter. Interview your family members and fill in the answers on your questionnaire.

          6.8.4 Writing activity

          Think about your own experience, and what you have learnt about pollution in this unit.

          Write five sentences about exploiting resources.
          Use determiners of quantity such as too much, many, too few, lots of, etc.
          Exchange notebooks with a partner to mark each other’s sentences.

          6.9 Language structure: Modal verbs

          You have already learnt about modal verbs: need, have to, should, must, might, had to.

          Remember that the modal verb is always followed by the infinitive (basic form of the verb, without the s).

          See Unit 1 page 11 and Unit 4 page 63.
          Example: We need to/must/should/have to take greater care of our environment.

          k6.9.1 Writing practice

          1. Fill in an appropriate modal verb and the correct form of the verb in brackets to complete the sentences.
          a) People (not litter) as it causes pollution.
          b) We (take care of) our environment because our survival depends on it.
          c) People (pollute) the area before they understood the importance of preventing pollution.
          d) We (boil) water before we drink it as our rivers are already polluted.
          e) We (build) toilets far from our water sources.

          6.9.2 Writing practice

          1. Provide an appropriate modal verb for each of the blank spaces.
          a) Farmers ________ not keep so many cattle that they overgraze their land.
          b) We ________ take care of our rivers otherwise we will not have clean water to drink.
          c) Mining companies ________ pollute the areas where they work if they are not careful.
          d) They ________ use the correct farming methods to prevent erosion.
          e) Every person ________ be aware that littering causes pollution.

          6.9.3 Writing practice

          1. Write your own sentences. Use the modal verb provided to show that you understand how to use them.
             a) should
             b) need to
             c) have to
             d) might
             e) must

          6.9.4 Reading and writing activity

          Pre-reading activity:
          1. Talk about these questions.
             a) What, in your opinion, is the main cause of pollution in Rwanda?
             b) What can be done about this pollution?
          2. Read the text on the next page about causes of pollution.

          zCauses of pollution

          Pollution usually happens when there is a rapid increase in the population. When there are more people in an area, more food and houses are required. This leads to more waste being generated.
          In the cities, this often means that sewerage works are overloaded and become ineffective. Refuse remains uncollected and accumulates in the streets. It gets blown about by the wind and soon the cities become dirty. Gutters become blocked and the city in general becomes an unhealthy place to live.

          When sewage is processed ineffectively, untreated sewage may end up in the water sources. If sewerage pipes become blocked or broken, stagnant water accumulates in the streets. This breeds mosquitoes and bacteria that may cause diseases. Polluted water leads to the spread of waterborne diseases.

          In the rural areas, increased population means pressure on food production. If more land is cleared to plant crops, it leads to deforestation. The roots of trees hold water in the soil, and when too many trees are cut down, erosion follows.

          Incorrect farming methods on slopes and overgrazing cause erosion. It not only causes a loss of valuable topsoil, but the soil that is washed away ends up in the river system. On its way to the river the runoff picks up fertilisers, animal dung and litter. This causes the rivers to become polluted.

          People living in rural areas often build their houses close to rivers to be near water. This means that latrines are dug fairly close to the water source, which causes further pollution.
          Where the population increases, people need to be aware of the strain it places on natural resources. They have to take steps to combat pollution.

          3. Answer the questions.
             a) What, according to the text, is the main cause of pollution?
             b) Name three implications of increased population.
            c) What happens when a city’s sewerage system becomes overloaded (it can no longer cope with the increased load)?
             d) What will happen if litter is left on the street?
             e) What can happen if stagnant water collects in the streets?
             f) What does ‘waterborne diseases’ mean?
            g) What is a common cause of deforestation?
            h) Why does deforestation lead to erosion of the soil?

            i) What else, besides deforestation, can cause erosion?
            j) What is meant by ‘the rivers silt up’?
            k) Why do people like to build their houses close to water?
            l) How does the practice of living close to water cause pollution?

          6.9.5 Speaking and listening activity

          Talk about the ways to protect our resources.
          Use the following suggestions as guidelines.
          • We must protect our water supplies.
          • We must reduce industrial waste.
          • We need to save water.
          • We should recycle more materials.
          • What should we be doing to protect the environment?
          • We should avoid polluting water.
          • We should stop cutting down trees.

          6.9.6 Writing activity

          1. Think about the dangers to the environment and measures to protect it that you have learnt

              about in this unit.
          2. Plan a text of three paragraphs. Write about the dangers to the environment and measures to protect it.    Use a mind-map or columns to organise your thoughts before you start writing.
          3. Write the three paragraphs. Exchange notebooks with a partner to edit each other’s work.

              Do the necessary corrections and then hand in your work for formal assessment.

          Checklist of learning

          In this unit you have learnt to:

          • identify and classify resources and describe their uses
          • describe the exploitation of resources
          • describe the causes of pollution and environmental protection
          • write about dangers to the environment and measures to protect it.

          6.10 Unit assessment

          1. Identify and classify the resources in the pictures.

          n

          2. Describe in one sentence how each of these resources are exploited.
              a) minerals
              b) water
              c) wild animals
              d) forests                                                                                                               [4]

          3. Write down five causes of pollution. For each of them, give a way to protect the environment against that form of pollution. Number them a) to e).                                                                                              [10]

          4. Give the correct past simple tense form of the verb.
          a) They (organise) a team to pick up litter in the streets last Saturday.
          b) It (be) a very successful event.
          c) After the learners had done their job, the streets (look) much better.
          d) They (decide) to do this at least once a month.
          e) They also (ask) the public not to litter.                                                   [5]

          5. Give the most appropriate determiner of quantity for each blank space.
          a) There are ________ ways of protecting our water sources.
          b) ________ of these ways are very easy.
          c) Farmers should use ________ fertiliser on their lands to reduce pollution of rivers.
          d) ________ trees are cut down to provide fuel.
          e) The Greenpeace organisation is planting ________ young
          trees to replace those that have been cut down.                                           [5]

          6. Use the verb in brackets as a gerund in each of the sentences.
             a) Farmers must avoid (pollute) the rivers.
             b) They want to talk about (plant) more trees.
             c) The boys used to like (swim) in the river, but now it is too polluted.
             d) The officials intend to act against (litter) in future.
             e) They are considering (upgrade) the city’s sewerage system.                   [5]

          7. Complete the sentences appropriately.
             a) If ________, they will have to do something about it.
             b) If the teachers want the children to stop littering, they ________.
             c) If the government want to stop the cutting down of trees, ________.
             d) ________, they will have to control the amount of fishing in the lake.
             e) If they want to reduce air pollution, the factory owners ________.               [5]

          8. Write three paragraphs on preventing pollution in Rwanda.
          Plan properly using a mind-map or columns. Edit your work before submitting it.                                                                                                                            [20]

          • Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of community services.

            x

            7.1 Speaking and listening: Community services

            Discuss how many people use local transport.
            Use determiners of quantity, that you learnt about in Unit 6, such as some, many, a few, lots of, etc.

            Here are some guidelines to help you:
              • We have regular road transport in our district.
              • Many people travel by bicycle.
              • Some people use river transport for freight (the transport of goods).

            Write down the main points of the discussion.

            n n

            7.1.2 Writing activity

            Write five sentences about how many people use local transport and how frequent it is. Pay attention to some, many, a few and adverbs of frequency. For notes on adverbs of frequency, see Unit 3, page 41.
            For example:
              • Most people use buses as they run at the same time every day.
              • Boats are not as frequent as buses.

            When you have finished writing, exchange books with a partner and mark each other’s work.

            7.1.3 Reading and writing activity

            Match the picture of each road problem with the appropriate sentence.

            n

            n

            7.2 Vocabulary

            Remember to use a monolingual (one language, English) or bilingual (two languages, Kinyarwanda or French and English) dictionary in every lesson.
            Study the vocabulary that you will come across in this unit.
            • Forms of transport: by road, air, water, on foot (not by foot)
            • Accommodation: service, price, management, hotel, guesthouse, etc.
            • Road users: pedestrians, cars, vans, lorry/lorries, etc.

            7.2.1 Writing and speaking practice

            Copy this table into your notebook. Look up the pronunciation and meaning of words where they have been left out. Write the words that are new to you in your vocabulary book. Use them in sentences to remember their meaning.

            b

            b

            Homework
            Complete the word block. See how many words you can find. Write down the words that you have found. There are 16 of them. They are arranged right to left, left to right, up and down, and diagonally from both sides.

            n

            7.2.2 Speaking and listening activity

            Discuss road problems and how to solve them, using should. Use the pictures and descriptions in Activity 7.3 as a starting point. Speak from your own experiences. Discuss the different things you can do to prevent accidents on the roads.

            For example:
              • Is it dangerous to be a pedestrian in Rwanda?
              • Are there pavements for pedestrians to walk on?
              • Is it dangerous to ride a bicycle in Rwanda
              (your town or village)?
              • Do drivers obey the rules of the road?
              • Are there many accidents?
              • How should we improve our roads?
              • Accidents cause problems on our roads.
              • We should build better roads.

            After the discussion, present your findings to the rest of the class. Compare notes.

            v

            7.2.3 Writing activity

            Write three paragraphs on road use and road safety in Rwanda. You may base your writing on the discussion in the Speaking and listening activity 7.2.2.
            • Plan your text carefully as you have been taught.
            • Write the text and edit it.
            • Hand it in for formal assessment or exchange books for peer assessment.

            7.3 Language structure: Revision of conditionals, modal verbs and adverbs of frequency

            You have studied all these language structures before:
            • Conditionals: (if sentences) Unit 4 page 67; Unit 6 page 96.
            • Modal verbs: (should, would, have to, need to) Unit 1 page 11; Unit 4 page 63; Unit 6 page 100.
            • Adverbs of frequency: (every day, every two days, once a week) Unit 3 page 41.

            Read the notes on these structures in the units mentioned. You could also turn back to the exercises you did in your notebook, which you marked and corrected.
            Then do the following exercises.

            7.3.1Writing practice

            1. Use the correct conditional structure to complete the sentences.
            a) If people obey the rules of the road, ________.
            b) If pedestrians walk facing the oncoming traffic, ________.
            c) If potholes are repaired properly, ________.
            d) If the hard shoulders of the road are properly maintained, ________.
            e) If drivers do not drink and drive, ________.

            7.3.2 Writing practice

            1. Complete the conditional sentences.
                a) If ________, there will be fewer accidents involving bicycles.
               b) If ________, motorists will be able to see them at night.
               c) If ________, the tyres of vehicles will not be damaged so often.
               d) If ________, there will be fewer accidents.
               e) If ________, traffic will move more swiftly.

            7.3.3 Writing practice

            1. Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb.
            a) Pedestrians ________ wear light-coloured clothing at night to make them more visible.
            b) Drivers ________ not drink and drive.
            c) Road users ________ not use their cell phones while walking, cycling or driving as they will not be concentrating on the road.
            d) Motorcyclists ________ obey traffic signs to avoid accidents.
            e) Potholes ________ be repaired quickly, because they cause damage to tyres.

            7.3.4 Writing practice

            1. Use appropriate adverbs of frequency to complete the sentences.
            a) The bus stops at our village ________.
            b) We walk to school ________.
            c) People ________ ride motorcycles in Rwanda.
            d) There is an accident at that crossing ________.
            e) He ________ rides his bicycle to school, otherwise he walks.m



             

            7.3.5 Reading and writing activity

            1. Discuss these questions before you read the text.
              a) How do you travel to school? Do you walk or take a taxi?
              b) Are there any services close to your school?
              c) Where is the nearest bank or post office?
              d) What do you do when you pop into a shop?
            2. Read the text.

            Enocle’s school
            Enocle attends a school in the city and it is very busy. There are many activities for learners to take part in. These include sport, debate, school choir, traditional dancing and drama.
            If the learners want to compete with other schools, they have to travel. Sometimes a bus is hired for them. If they go in smaller groups, the school will hire a taxi.

            The school is not a boarding school. The learners have to travel to school every day. Transport services are available, but most of the learners walk. On their way to school and home again, they are pedestrians. At school they are taught the rules of the road.

            They have to be careful when crossing the road. They should look both ways before they cross. There are pedestrian crossings at the main roads, but not everywhere. Other learners ride their bicycles to school. If they are carrying their heavy bags on their backs, it can be dangerous. Some travel by bus or taxi. Others are brought to school by motorcar, if their parents have cars. There are very few of them.
            Because the school is in the city, there are many services available. The school has a tuck shop. There is also a café, a small supermarket, a bank and a post office near the school. The bus stop is right outside the school grounds and a taxi rank is nearby.
            The learners like their school and are happy there. The many activities keep them off the streets and out of trouble after school. Enocle’s mother sometimes gives him money.

            He uses this to buy bread or sugar at the supermarket on his way home.

            The cashiers are friendly; they know him well because he pops in there most days.  n


            3. Answer the questions in writing.
               a) Do you agree that Enocle’s school is very busy? Explain your answer.
               b) How do learners travel to other schools for tournaments and competitions?
               c) Why do you think most learners walk to school?
               d) What does the school do to encourage learners to use the roads safely?
              e) Apart from walking, mention four ways in which learners travel to school.
               f) What services are provided near the school? Name four.
              g) How does the school benefit the learners with after-school (extracurricular) activities?
              h) What does a cashier in a shop do?
               i) Where else does one find cashiers?
               j) What does one need a post office for?
            k) Read the text again. Identify all the examples of the conditional tense that you find, and write them down.
            4. Exchange notebooks with a partner for peer marking.

            7.4 Language structure: Comparatives and superlatives, determiners of quantity and adverbs

            You have studied these structures before:
              • Comparatives and superlatives: Unit 2 page 29, Unit 5 page 72.
              • Determiners of quantity: Unit 6 page 99.

            A word which modifies a noun or pronoun is called an adjective.
            Nouns can be compared using comparative and superlative adjectives.
            For example:
            A taxi is fast. A bus is faster than a taxi. An aeroplane is the fastest of them all.
            Study the notes in the units referred to. You can also look back in your notebook to find the exercises that you did and corrected.

            7.4.1 Writing practice

            Complete the table.

            n

            7.4.2 Writing practice

            1. Complete the sentence using the correct comparative or superlative form in brackets.
              a) Air transport is generally thought to be the (safe) form of transport and also the (fast).
              b) Roads that are well-maintained are (dangerous) than roads where maintenance is not done regularly.
              c) A motorcar as a taxi is (comfortable) than a motorcycle taxi.
              d) Buses may be (slow) than aeroplanes, but they are much (expensive).

            7.4.3 Writing practice

            1. Fill in an appropriate comparative or superlative in each sentence.
               a) Air transport is the (fast) of all, but it is also the (expensive).
               b) Road transport is (popular) than water transport in Rwanda.
               c) Taxis are (small) than buses, but are also popular.
               d) Motorcycles are the (small) taxis that there are in Rwanda.

            7.4.4 Writing practice

            1. Fill in an appropriate comparative or superlative in each sentence.
            a) Air transport is usually used only by businessmen and by the (rich) citizens of Rwanda.
            b) Rail transport is being planned and will be (fast) and (safe) than road transport.
            c) Buses are (regular) in the cities than in the rural areas.
            d) Small passenger vehicles are becoming (popular) in Rwanda, but motorcycles are still the (popular).

            7.4.5 Listening and writing activity

            1. Before you listen to the text, discuss these questions.
                a) How do you get to school every day?
                b) Does someone in your family have a motorcar?
                c) Have you ever travelled by aeroplane? Do you know anyone who has?
            2. Quickly read through the questions below. Keep them in mind when you listen to the text.
            3. Listen carefully to the text your teacher will read to you. The teacher may read it to you a second time if you need it. Pay particular attention to the comparatives and superlatives that you hear.

            4. Now answer the questions in writing. When you have finished, exchange books and mark each other’s work.
                a) Why can people travel fairly comfortably in Rwanda?
                b) What is the oldest form of transport that can still be seen on the roads?
                c) Why can this form of transport be a problem in the cities?
                d) Why do you think motorcycles are so popular? Give two reasons.
                e) Of what type of vehicle has there been a sharp increase?
                f) Does this mean that people no longer use public transport?
                g) How do most people travel to work?
                h) Is there a lot of water transport in Rwanda?
                i) Which is the fastest type of transport?
                j) Which is safer, road transport or air transport?

            7.5 Skills: Conduct a survey and write a report

            A survey is a piece of research on any topic to gather information. Surveys are done all the time. People do surveys to find out how many children there are in an area for a new school. Others may conduct a survey to find out how many vehicles use a road which needs repairing. There are five basic steps to follow:

            1. Create the question/questions.
            2. Formulate your hypothesis (the probable answer you are expecting to get).
            3. Ask the question or observe the situation.
            4. Tally (calculate) the results.
            5. Present the results.n






            The results can be presented in different ways. You can write a report. You can also present the results visually, in a graph.
            For example:

            Let us do a quick survey in class to practise this skill. Work in your notebook so that you have an example. Work in groups of eight, so that each group surveys a small portion of the learners in the class. In the end you just add the findings together to arrive at the results.

            1. Create the question: How do the learners in my class get to school in the morning?
            2. Formulate your hypothesis: I think most of them walk to school,

            but there are other ways they may travel to school.
            3. Now ask the question in each group. ‘How do you get to school in the morning?’

            Tick the appropriate space, as illustrated in the table.

            n

            (Leave some blank space to write responses you did not think of.)
            4. In your group, four learners walk to school, two use a bicycle, one arrives by taxi, and one by bus. The ticks in other colours represent the other groups’ information that you have collected. Your questionnaire (list of questions and answers for doing a survey) might look like the sample when all the groups have been added. Let us say there are 42 learners in your class.

            5. Present the results.
            6. Look at the examples below. Which form of reporting has the greatest impact, in your opinion?

            In writing
            Of 42 learners in our class, 19 walk to school (45%); 6 ride their bicycles (14%); 3 ride their motorcycles (7%); 2 travel to school by
            taxi (5%); 8 travel by bus (19%); and 4 are brought to school by a
            parent or relative (10%).
            Conclusion: The majority of learners walk to school.
            The smallest number travel by taxi.

            As a pie chart

            n

            As a line graph

            c

            As a bar graph

            m

            bHomework
            You have prepared a questionnaire for your homework in class. In class
            you should:

            1. Create the question and write it at the top of your survey form. Include which hour of the day you are doing this survey. Try to choose between four and five o’clock in the afternoon.
            2. Formulate your hypothesis (I am expecting pedestrians. What vehicles am I likely to see? Passenger cars, bicycles, lorries, etc.). Write the sentences down the left-hand side of your questionnaire, like the example you did in class.
            3. Choose a suitable location: a road or at an intersection (where two roads cross) and observe the situation. Put a tick in the appropriate block every time a pedestrian or vehicle in one of your categories passes. Leave space for unexpected new categories.
            4. Take your record of findings to school for your next lesson.

            7.5.1 Writing and speaking activity

            1. You are going to report your findings. First check whether you can answer all the following questions.
               • How many passenger cars used the road in one hour?
               • How many people walked along the road?
               • How many vans/lorries/buses/taxis/bicycles/motorcycles used the road? (Each type of vehicle in this  sentence represents a separate category.)

            2. Then calculate the percentage of each of the categories of users as follows:
            Calculate the road users in the various categories as a percentage of the total (number of users in a category ÷ total of all users × 100 = %).
            3. Now prepare a written report, including details on which road you observed and your findings in detail.
            4. Compare your findings. Who observed the busiest road?

            7.5.2 Writing and speaking activity

            Use the same data as you used for your written report. Design a graphic report to illustrate your findings. Choose one of the graphic methods of reporting on page 116 (pie chart, line graph, bar graph). Compile one of them to illustrate your findings.
            Share this graph with members of your group. Choose the best graph in the group. Your teacher will give those who produced the best graphs an opportunity to show them to the class.

            7.5.3 Reading and writing activity

            1. Read the short text about service provision in Rwanda.

            Service provision in Rwanda
            The government is the largest service provider in Rwanda, and in most other countries. Many of the services are provided with government funding and foreign funding.

            The Water and Sanitation Corporation is in charge of water supply in urban areas. Most of Rwanda’s electricity comes from hydropower.

            Solar power generates some of the electricity. An interesting new development is a solar farm established in the Eastern Province. A large number of solar (sun) panels have been erected to capture the power of the sun. This is then changed into electricity. There is gas at the bottom of Lake Kivu. This is soon going to be pumped out to provide power for a power plant which will produce electricity.

            We throw away solid waste every day –
            paper, food remains, cans, boxes and so on.
            Plans are being made to improve waste collection and management. Waste must be reduced by recycling as much as possible. There are also plans to turn waste into compost and briquettes for burning.

            The health system is decentralised and focuses mainly on primary health care. This is the prevention of diseases (immunisation including vaccination) and the provision of basic care for illness or accidents. Education is also a service which the government provides.

            Many more services are provided by private enterprise. These include transport, banking and cell phone services.

            s

            b  2. Answer the questions.
            a) Who is the largest service provider in Rwanda?
            b) What does ‘foreign funding’ mean?
            c) What is hydropower?
            d) Why, in your opinion, does Rwanda make use of mainly hydropower to generate electricity?
            e) What is a ‘solar farm’?
            f) What is ‘solid waste’?
            g) How do you think your family can reduce the amount of solid waste you throw away?
            h) What plans do the government have to reduce waste?


            7.5.4 Speaking and listening activity

            Discuss the kind of services provided in your community.
            What services are provided in your area?
            • What is the quality of the service? How good or bad is it?
            • Is the service regular? Can you rely on it?
            • Are the service providers friendly and helpful?
            • How do members of the community treat the service providers?
            Do they treat them with respect and friendliness?
            • Are these services useful to the community?
            Are there services that are not available or that should be improved?

            7.5.5 Speaking and writing activity

            Use your discussion in the Speaking and listening activity 7.5.4 to draw up a plan for improving local services, to present to the authorities. The plan should include at least five services that you would like to be provided or improved.

            When you have finished drawing up the plan, write it in your notebook. Hand it in for formal assessment.

                                                         Checklist of learning

            In this unit you learnt to:

            • describe how many people use different forms of transport and the frequency
            • describe road problems and their solutions
            • compare forms of transport
            • carry out a survey of local road use and talk and write about it
            • talk about and write a plan of local facilities.

            7.6 Unit assessment

            This section can be used for formative or summative assessment or for revision.
            1. Who provides the following services in Rwanda?
            a) Health care               b) Banking                                c) Education
            d) Electricity                  e) Solid waste removal                                                      [5]
            2. Write five sentences using the following phrases including adverb of frequency.

            a) every Sunday               b) three times a day              c) once a week
            d) twice a month              e) every year

            3. Provide the correct format of the comparative or superlative.
            a) Air transport is the (fast) type of transport.
            b) Water transport is a (slow) type of transport than road transport.
            c) Bullock-cart is probably the (slow) type of transport, even slower than walking.

            d) Road transport is the (popular) form of transport in Rwanda.
            e) Air transport is the (expensive) type of transport.                                           [5]

            4. Use the most appropriate modal verb in each sentence.
            a) The workers ______ use road transport to get to work because
            it is too far to walk.
            b) The business woman ______ make use of air transport more often
            as it will save her a lot of time.
            c) The government ______ have a railway line built because railway transport is cheaper.
            d) The learner ______ take the bus to school because she has injured her leg.
            e) He ______ rides his bicycle to school, except when it is raining.                            [5]

            5. Complete the conditionals.
            a) If she catches the bus, ______.
            b) If the mine provides transport for its workers, ______.
            c) If motorcycles are banned, ______.
            d) If more motorcars are allowed in the city, ______.
            e) If buses are more regular, ______. [5]
            6. Fill in an appropriate word from the vocabulary you have learnt in this unit.
            a) Collecting solid waste in the city needs good ______ to make sure that everything is collected.
            b) Products are transported overseas from the nearest port by ______.
            c) People use ______ on the river.
            d) ______ delivery is all about attending to people’s needs.
            e) Drivers need to be aware of ______ walking alongside the road.                  [5]
            7. Plan and write a three-paragraph text on transport in Rwanda.
            Edit your work yourself and hand it in for assessment.                                      [20]
                                                                                                                     Total marks: 50

            • Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of measurements.

              x

              8.1 Speaking and writing: Measurements

              8.1.1 Speaking and writing activity

              • Form groups of six to eight learners. Stand next to your desk. Who is the tallest and who is the shortest in your group? Form a line. The tallest in the group should be at one end and the shortest at the other end. The group scribe should write down the names of the learners in your group. Write the names from the tallest to the shortest. Now you can sit down again.
              • Get out your ruler and study it. What is the length of your ruler? Are all eight rulers the same length? Write down the number of centimetres in total.
              • How many centimetres are there in a metre?
              • Ask your teacher to give each group a space against the wall. Make little centimetre marks on the wall with a piece of chalk or a pencil. Use something that you can wipe off when you have finished.

              z

              • Each learner should take a turn to remove their shoes and socks. They will then stand against the wall. Another learner places a ruler horizontally on the head of the learner standing against the wall. They must press the end of the ruler up against the wall. Take care not to tilt the ruler. A third learner makes a mark on the wall where the ruler touches. Use a pencil or a piece of chalk to mark the learner’s height. Repeat this with each of the group members.
              • Check that the learner measuring is being accurate. You will have
              to mark the wall at the length of your ruler (usually 30 centimetres). Then you will have to measure the length of your ruler again from the mark made on the wall. Do this as often as necessary. Add the measured lengths together to get each person’s height.
              • The scribe writes down the number of centimetres next to each name on the list.

              • How did you arrive at the total height of each learner? For example, Isaro is the shortest in the class. We measured three ruler lengths,
              plus 20.5 centimetres.
              30 + 30 + 30 + 20.5 = 110.5 centimetres (cm) = 1.105 m, or
              30 × 3 = 90 + 20.5 = 110.05 cm = 1.105 m.
              • The scribe should read the names of the learners from the list and each learner’s height. That way each member of the group can write down the information.

              8.2 Skills: Measure height, length and breadth or width

              As you have seen in the Speaking and writing activity 8.1.1, you need a ruler or a measuring tape to measure height. The longer and more clearly marked your measuring instrument, the easier it is to measure. Keep the ruler or tape flat, level and straight. Do this when measuring vertically (up and down) or horizontally (from side to side). A measuring tape, for example, should not be twisted or slack. It should not loop from one point to the next.
              Mark measured points clearly (against a wall or on a piece of paper).

              z

               Height usually refers to the vertical distance between top and
              bottom. We measure the height of a person, a tree or a building.
              We say that a building or a tree is 50 metres high. We also speak
              of a tall building or a tall tree. When we speak of people, we usually say:
              He is two metres tall.
              Length usually refers to the horizontal distance of an object, from
              end to end. A metre of string measures one metre from one end to
              the other.
              Breadth or width usually refers to how wide something is. It is also measured with a ruler or a measuring tape.


              8.2.1 Speaking and writing practice

              1. Do not be shy to speak in English, even if your English is not quite right. Making mistakes is part of the process of learning a language. Look past the mistakes to the day you will be able to speak fluent English.

              z a) Take your English textbook. Measure its length (from the top edge to the bottom edge of the cover). Write the length down.
              b) Now measure its breadth (how broad it is) or width (how wide it is). ‘Breadth’ and ‘width’ mean the same in the context of measurement.
              c) Also measure its depth or thickness, from the back cover to the front cover.
              d) Measure the surface of your desk or table and its height from the floor.
              e) Measure the seat of your chair and the height of the seat from the floor.

              8.3 Language structure: Comparative and superlative adjectives

              You have already learnt about comparative and superlative adjectives in Unit 2, page 29, and Unit 5, page 72. We use comparative adjectives to compare people and things.
              For example:

              How high is that cupboard? It is higher than the one next to it.
              The cupboard behind the teacher’s table is the highest in the class.
              • Higher is a comparative adjective. It compares two things and says that one is higher than the other.
              • Highest is a superlative adjective. It compares more than two things and says which one is the highest.

              Regular comparatives

              x

              Irregular comparatives

              v

              You use than to compare two things.
              For example:
              • This bench is longer than that one.
              • My book is wider than yours.
              • I need more help than you do.

              x

              When you want to express how things change, you may use two comparatives linked by and.
              For example:
              • Things are getting better and better.
              • Grandfather is looking older and older.
              • Food is getting more and more expensive.

              You use the with the comparative to show that one thing depends on another.
              For example:
              • The quicker you work, the sooner you will finish the task.
              • The slower you work, the longer it will take to finish.

              You use the with superlatives.
              For example:
              • He is the tallest boy in the class.
              • She is the shortest of all the girls in the school.

              When an adjective consists of more than two syllables, you usually use more or most.
              For example:
              • This chair is more comfortable than that one.
              • The teacher’s chair is the most comfortable of all.

              8.3.1 Writing practice

              1. Use the correct comparative or superlative form in each sentence. Exchange books and do peer marking.
              a) Mihigo is much (tall) than me. In fact, he is the (tall) in the class.
              b) We are doing (good) and (good) in English as the year progresses.
              c) This table is (high) and (wide) than that one.
              d) This subject is (interesting) than that one. Mathematics is the (interesting) of all.
              e) The ceiling of the class is (high) than usual. That is why it is (cool) than the other rooms.

              8.3.2 Writing practice

              1. Use the correct comparative or superlative form in each sentence. Exchange books and do peer marking.
              a) My aunt is very short. She is (short) than I am. She is the (short) in the family.
              b) They are building a new hospital in Kigali. They say it is going to be (big) and (good) than the old one.
              c) Our books are all of different sizes. Our Maths book is the (thick) of all.
              d) Some books are (wide) than others.

              8.3.3 Writing practice

              and the superlative form of the word. Exchange books for peer marking.
              a) high b) tall c) short d) wide e) narrow

              n

               n

              Homework
              Measure the height of your family and friends. List them in order of height, from the tallest to the shortest. Also measure a few pieces of furniture in your home. What is the length and breadth of your bed? The kitchen table? And the seat of a kitchen chair?



              8.3.4 Speaking and writing practice

              1. Compare the data you collected for homework about people’s height. For example: My brother is the tallest person in our home. He is 1 m 90 cm tall (or 1,9 m). How tall are you? I am 1 m 45 cm tall.
              Repeat the data you collected aloud. For example: How tall is your grandmother? She is very short. She is only 1.4 metres tall. She is the shortest in our home.
              2. Also compare the measurements of furniture that you took at home.

              8.3.5 Writing practice

              1. Complete the sentences. Write down the correct comparative form of the adjective in brackets.
              a) Mutesi is (short) than her best friend.
              b) Singh is (tall) than his brother.
              c) My desk is a little (wide) than yours.
              d) I think my chair at home is (comfortable) than my chair in class.
              e) It is (hot) today than it was yesterday.
              f) Fidele is (thin) than Ngabo.
              g) My bed is (narrow) than the kitchen table.
              h) The kitchen cupboard is (high) than the table.
              i) Bwiza’s hair is (long) than Karisa’s.
              j) Mutesi has (small) feet than I have.

              8.3.6 Writing practice

              1. Write down the correct comparative form of the adjective in brackets.
              a) Bwiza is (tall) than Karisa.
              b) Mutesi’s feet are (small) than mine.
              c) Mutesi is (short) than me.
              d) Fidele is (thin) than his brother.
              e) Singh is (good) at Maths than Fidele.

              8.3.7 Writing practice

              1. Write down the correct superlative form of the adjective in brackets.
                 a) My bed is the (comfortable) in our house.
                 b) Our teacher is the (good) English teacher in the school.
                 c) He is the (bad) player in the soccer team.
                 d) Mutesi is the (bright) girl in Mathematics in the school.
                 e) In our school most of the (good) performers are girls.

              8.3.8 Writing practice

              1. Make a sentence with each of the following comparatives or superlatives. 

              Show that you understand how to use them.
                a) best
                b) more comfortable
                c) tallest
                d) most beautiful
                e) prettier

              8.3.9 Writing activity

              Write five sentences. Compare the people in your class or in your family. Use comparatives and superlatives in each sentence. Edit your work. Exchange notebooks with a partner and mark each other’s work

              Homework
              Do the following quiz. Write down the whole sentence and the option you think is correct.

              x

              n

               8.4 Skills: Weight, volume and area

              English is the medium of instruction in your Maths class. It is important to learn to use English terms with confidence.
              Here are a few examples:
              Weight measures the mass of something. If you do not have a scale at home, visit the nearest health centre or clinic. Sometimes a doctor or nurse measures a child’s weight. They do this to judge whether the child is the right weight for its age. If a child is too light, it may be a sign of malnutrition or illness.

              Volume is the amount of space that an item occupies. For example, the amount of water that can be held in a jug. If you have a one-litre jug, it means that it can hold one litre of water or milk.
              Area is the size, extent or measurement of a surface. For example: What is the area of this floor (the flat surface of a room)?

              nCalculations
              • To measure weight you need a scale. You can use a bathroom scale to weigh yourself. To weigh something in the kitchen, you need a kitchen scale. We measure weight in grams or kilograms.

              • To calculate the volume of a box with straight sides, you need to find the cubic volume. You do this by multiplying the height by the width, by the depth. The answer will be in cubic centimetres (cm³). To measure the amount of water or milk you can pour into a jug, you can use a cup. A medium-sized cup holds 250 millilitres (ml). If you can pour four cups of water into a jug before it overflows, you have a one-litre jug. (A litre is 1000 millilitres, so a litre is four cups of 250 ml each.)

              • To calculate the area of a flat surface you multiply the length by the width. This will give you an answer in cm² (square centimetres). To measure the area of your bedroom, measure the length of one wall. Then measure the length of the next wall from the one corner to the other. Multiply the two. For example, one wall measures
              2 m and the other 3 m. The area is 3 × 2 = 6 square metres (m²).

              b8.4.1Writing practice

              1. Explain these concepts in your own words.
                 a) weight
                 b) volume
                 c) area
              2. Now answer the questions.
              a) How many 250 ml cups of water can you pour into a two-litre jug?
              b) How many 250 ml glasses can you pour out of a 750 ml cold drink bottle?
              c) How do you measure weight?
              d) One wall is 4 m long and the other is 3 m long, in a room. What is the area of the room?

              8.5 Vocabulary

              1. Some words look almost the same, but are pronounced quite differently. Say them a few times and remember the pronunciation.

              n

              2. Choose one of the words to complete each sentence.

              m

              a) How much water does this jug ________?
              b) I want one ________ of meat, please.
              c) There are 100 ________ in a metre.
              d) The material is ________ 1.15 metres long.
              e) I am quite big, so I have to buy an ________ shirt.
              f) Please ________ the area of this room after you have measured its length and width.
              g) You work out the ________ by multiplying the length of the room by the width.
              h) Height is a ________ measurement.

              8.5.1 Speaking and listening activity

              Form small groups (four to six). Have an informal discussion about weight, and size in clothes. Have you noticed that clothes from different countries often have different sizes? Use the following as guidelines:
              • I weigh 40 kilos.
              • She is heavier than me. Who is the heaviest?
              • I have big feet. It is difficult to find shoes that fit.
              • How much does he weigh?
              • I wear size 7 shoes.
              • He wears a size 15 shirt.
              • What size shoes/shirt do you wear?

              8.5.2 Reading and writing activity

              1. Read the text on body proportions.

              Body proportions

              Artists study body proportions. They need to make sure that a drawing of a human figure looks like a real person. Proportion means that the head must not be too big for the body. It is fun to look at body proportions and measure your own against them!

              h

              Hold your open hand against your face. You will probably find that your longest finger touches your hairline. Your chin probably touches the bottom of your palm. Measure your flat hand with a ruler. Measure from the tip of the longest finger to the bottom of your palm. That is how long your face is! Add a centimetre for the curve of your skull, and that is the height of your head.

              The space between your two eyes is probably the same as another eye. Your nose is the same as three eyes, stacked one above the other.

              Your mouth is about the size of one eye below your nose. The mouth is about two eyes wide. Look at yourself in a mirror. Use your fingers to measure one of your eyes. Then use that measurement to check the proportions of the rest of your face.

              A grown man and woman each measures between seven-and-a-half and eight of their own heads. A child of about five measures six of their own heads. The crotch (or top of the legs) is generally the middle point of the body. Look at the length from the top of the head to the crotch. You will see that it is roughly the same as the length from the crotch to the soles of the feet.

              Men usually have wider shoulders than women. Children have narrower shoulders in proportion to their size than adults.
              Do not take these proportions too seriously. There are many variations.

              2. Answer the following questions in writing, and then mark them yourself (self-assessment).
              a) What does the word ‘proportion’ mean?
              b) Why do artists study human proportions?
              c) How can you quite easily measure your face?
              d) What is the approximate width of one’s eye? And its height?
              e) Some people have smaller mouths than others. What is the width of your mouth?
              f) What would make one man appear taller than another?
              g) How many heads make up the height of a child of about five years?
              h) Where is the middle point of your body, in length?

              8.6 Sounds and spelling

              Here are some more examples of the various pronunciations of /e/.

              b

              Say the words out loud until you are comfortable with them. Then look them up in a dictionary and check their pronunciation. Use any new words in sentences and write them down in your vocabulary book.

              Homework
              As you go home from school, measure the width of a road. You can also measure the route you walk to school. Just take care not to get in the way of traffic! Find out what distance you walk to school. Write down this information.

              u

              8.6.1 Speaking and writing activity

              Measure the height and width of a classroom. Measure the size of your desk, the width of a chalkboard, bookshelf, etc.
              Use the following as guidelines:
              • How high is it? The building is 3 m high.
              • How wide is it? The road is 4 m wide. This building is wider than that. The building is exactly 5 m wide.
              • How long is it? The car is 3 m long and 1,5 m wide.
              • Describe your calculations. The car covers an area of ________ and you calculate that by ________.

              8.6.2 Writing activity

              Write a text of three paragraphs. Explain the importance of measurement. Compare measurements, using comparatives and superlatives.
              Do thorough planning. Arrange your thoughts. First paragraph: Explain the importance of measurement. Second paragraph: Give examples and compare measurements. Third paragraph: Repeat the importance of measurement very briefly. Conclude your argument.
              After planning, write your text and edit it.
              Either hand it in for formal assessment or exchange books with a partner for peer assessment.

              g 8.6.3 Speaking and writing activity

              Measure the volume of water in a container. Use a smaller container which you know the volume of. Write down your findings. Use the following guidelines:
              • There are 3 ℓ of water.
              • There are about 3 ℓ of water (not precise).
                                    • The bottle holds 1 ℓ of milk.
                                    • How much water is there?
                                    • How much milk/water does the jug hold?

              h
              Writing activity 8.6.4 

              Consider the containers you used in the Speaking and writing activity 8.6.3. Write five sentences comparing the volume of the containers. Write down the information in your notebook. For example: We used a cold drink bottle which holds 750 ml to measure volume.

                                                       Then we filled three cups equally to find the volume of the cups.

              Homework
              Measure the areas of your bedroom and kitchen. Write the measurements down, showing how you arrived at your answer.

              8.6.5 Listening and writing activity

              1. Pre-listening activity:
                a) What is the farthest you have ever travelled in Rwanda?
                b) How far from Kigali city do you live?
                c) How far do members of your family have to travel to work?
                d) How far do you live from school?

              2. Read the questions in Question 4, so that you can listen for the answers.
              3. Listen to the text on comparing distances in Rwanda. Your teacher may read it to you a second time.
              4. Answer the questions. Talk about each answer. Then write down the answers in your own notebook.
                 a) Name two neighbouring countries that are much bigger than Rwanda.
                 b) What does ‘landlocked’ mean?
                 c) What is the equator?
                 d) Where does the capital city, Kigali, lie in relation to the rest of Rwanda?

                 e) Two towns are mentioned in the text. One is in the far north-eastern part of Rwanda.

                      The other is in the far south-western part. Name the two towns.
                 f) How far apart are these two towns, in kilometres (more or less)?
                g) Which town is mentioned that is 156 km from Kigali, but almost level with it?
                h) How far is Muhanga from Kigali?

              8.6.6 Reading and writing activity

              1. Read the short text on comparing distances in Rwanda.

              Comparing distances in Rwanda

              Distances between cities are often given as as the crow flies, flying or straight line distance. This distance does not consider the loops caused by going through mountain passes or around obstructions. The distance by road may be longer than the straight line distance, but not shorter.
              The distance from Kigali to Huye is shorter than the distance from Rusumo to Kagitumba. It is further from Rusizi to Rwamagana than from Karongi to Muhanga.
              The condition of the road is important. It plays a significant role in the time it takes to travel from one city to another.

              b

              2. Answer these questions in your book.
              a) Explain the expression ‘as the crow flies’ in your own words.
              b) Why do you think a road will be longer if it has to cross
              a mountain?
              c) Find Kigali and Huye on a map. Measure the straight line distance and the approximate distance by road. What is the difference between the two?
              d) Find Ngoma and Rusumo on the map. Measure the actual road distance between them. Are they less than 20 km apart? How do you know this?

              8.6.7 Speaking and writing activity

              1. Measure distances on a map, using the scale provided on the map. Write down the results.
              2. Look at the scale that is provided. It can be about two or three centimetres to 50 km. Not all scales are the same. One scale was
              1 cm : 11 km. You have to check carefully to see what scale the map
              has been drawn to.

              3. Once you have established the scale, measure the distances carefully with your ruler.
              4. Which distances should you measure? Think about a place where a relative of yours lives. Measure the distance you would have to travel
              to get there. If you do not live in Kigali, think about a visit to the city. Work out the distance to travel. Or consider where you would like to spend a holiday.
              Some guidelines:
                • How far is it from Kigali to Rubavu? It is 150 km from Kigali to Rubavu.
                • It is further to Huye.

              Checklist of learning

              In this unit you learnt to:

              • measure height, weight, length, width, volume and
              • area describe calculations
              • write a text comparing measurements.

              8.7 Unit assessment

              This section can be used for formative or summative assessment, or
              for revision.
              1. Use the correct comparative or superlative form in each sentence.
                  a) We measured their height, and found that John is a little (tall) than Mutesi.
                  b) John is also (heavy) than Mutesi because he is (round) than she is.
                  c) Isaro is the (tall) boy in the school, even (tall) than John.
                  d) We live (far) from the school than they do. We have a (long) distance to walk every day.
                  e) The area of this class is (big) than that one.
                   f) This mountain is (high) than that one, but the (high) peak is Mount Karisimbi.                                                                                                 [10]

              2. Answer these questions from what you have learnt in this unit.
              a) How do you measure height?
              b) How do you measure weight?
              c) How do you measure length?
              d) How do you measure width?
              e) How do you calculate volume?
              f) How do you calculate area?                                                       [6 × 2 = 12]

              3. Do these calculations.
              a) A wall you want to paint is 4 m high and 6 m wide. What is the
              area of the wall?
              b) The path from the gate of the school is 500 m long and 4 m wide. What is the area of the path?
              c) How many 250 ml cups can you fill out of a litre bottle of water?
              d) If you can fill six 250 ml cups, how much water was in your container?                              [8]

              4. Write a three-paragraph text about the importance of measurements. Compare different measurements. Plan the text carefully. Then write and edit it before handing it in for assessment.                   [20]
                                                                                                                                              Total marks: 50

              • Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of health.

                g

                9.1 Speaking and listening: Health

                Discuss common diseases in Rwanda. Name the illnesses and describe their symptoms. 

                x

                 z

                Guidelines:
                • What are the most common illnesses?
                • The most common illnesses in Rwanda are malaria, HIV and tuberculosis.
                • Many people get malaria.

                9.1.2 Reading and writing activity
                1. Read the text:

                Types of diseases in Rwanda
                There are different types of diseases in Rwanda. Some diseases affect the majority of Rwandans. Others affect only a small number of the population.
                The most common diseases in Rwanda today are malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, typhoid or typhoid fever. Many Rwandans also suffer from amoebic dysentery, Hepatitis B and C and the common cold.

                Some communicable diseases, like typhoid and amoebic dysentery, are waterborne. This means you get these diseases when you drink water that is not clean and boiled. Diseases like tuberculosis and the common cold are airborne. The bacteria or viruses are ejected into the air via coughs or sneezes.

                When you breathe in this air, you become infected.
                Hepatitis B and C and HIV/AIDS are transmitted through body fluids.

                Infections and diseases, such as hepatitis are most often carried through the semen and blood of infected persons. Malaria is transmitted through the bite of a female anopheles mosquito. It injects infected blood into your body when it bites you.

                Communicable diseases are caused by causative agents. Typhoid, amoebic dysentery and tuberculosis are caused by bacteria. Hepatitis B and C, HIV/AIDS and the common cold are caused by viruses. Malaria is caused by a parasite called plasmodia.
                Other diseases are sometimes referred to as lifestyle diseases. These are steadily increasing in Rwanda. The best examples are coronary disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity and mental illnesses.
                Coronary diseases, diabetes, obesity and mental illnesses can be caused by a combination of genetics and lifestyle. Cancer results from the malfunctioning of body cells.

                2. Answer the questions.
                a) List three of the most common diseases in Rwanda.
                b) What are communicable diseases?
                c) What is a ‘causative agent’?
                d) What causes malaria?
                e) How can you avoid getting typhoid fever or amoebic dysentery?
                f) How can you avoid getting Hepatitis B or C and HIV/AIDS?
                g) Which diseases are steadily increasing in Rwanda?
                h) Name two lifestyle diseases.
                i) What is meant by ‘lifestyle diseases’?
                j) What disease is caused by body cells that malfunction?

                9.2 Vocabulary

                1. Use a dictionary and look up the missing meanings and pronunciation of the words. Copy the table into your book and fill in the blank spaces.

                x



                 z





                2. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to look up the meaning and pronunciation of these words/phrases.

                3. Write one sentence for each word/phrase to illustrate how they are used.

                Homework
                You have learnt a lot of vocabulary in the past two lessons. At home,
                test your family to find out how many of the words they know. Teach
                them those that they do not know. It is important for everyone to know these words.

                1. Pre-reading activity:
                a) Do you know someone who has had malaria?
                b) What symptoms do people with malaria have?
                c) What symptoms do people with typhoid fever have?
                2. Read the text about disease symptoms.

                Disease symptoms

                Disease symptoms are important to medical practitioners and ordinary people. They provide an indication of what disease a patient may be suffering from. The first thing doctors look for when they are consulted by patients, are symptoms.
                Some diseases have symptoms which are similar. However a well-trained medical practitioner employs his knowledge and experience to distinguish between different diseases.

                n

                In many diseases, symptoms present differently. A person suffering from malaria will have a high temperature and a headache. They will be sweating and shivery and at times have no appetite.
                A person suffering from typhoid may also have a high temperature and headache. They will suffer from sweating and a loss of appetite too. But their stomach will also be upset.
                Someone with amoebic dysentery experiences upset stomach, diarrhoea, headache, nausea and loss of appetite. A person suffering from tuberculosis might have a headache, a persistent cough and may at times spit blood. They could lose weight and also experience loss of appetite.

                HIV/AIDS sufferers may experience general body weakness, headache, loss of appetite, and loss of weight. They might also catch opportunistic infections. Hepatitis B and C sufferers could experience general body weakness, headache, high temperature, loss of appetite and dizziness. Other symptoms are a swollen abdomen or liver failure

                There are many symptoms for so-called lifestyle diseases, like coronary diseases, diabetes and obesity. High blood sugar may serve as an indicator for diabetes. Excessive weight may point to obesity. Palpitations of the heart and shortness of breath could be a sign of a heart ailment.
                Although the incidences of cancer and mental illnesses are
                also on the rise in Rwanda, their symptoms are hard to identify.
                A tumor in any part of our body may suggest the presence of cancer. Hallucination is a common symptom experienced by people who suffer from a mental illness.

                3. Now answer the questions on the text.
                a) Why are symptoms important?
                b) Is it true that symptoms are important only to medical practitioners? Explain your answer.
                c) Mention two diseases that have similar symptoms.
                d) Which disease can be suspected when a patient coughs blood?
                e) What are the symptoms of Hepatitis B and C?
                f) Which opportunistic disease often attacks people with HIV/AIDS?
                g) Name two symptoms that could indicate that a person has a
                heart disease.
                h) What is a common sign of cancer?
                i) Why are diseases like diabetes and obesity called lifestyle diseases? Explain your answer.
                j) What symptom does a person who is suffering from a mental illness often have?

                9.2.2 Reading and writing activity

                1. Match the disease in the first column with the symptoms in the second column.

                c v

                c

                2. Say your answers aloud, beginning your sentences with If. For example:
                1. If a person has malaria, *they will experience a high temperature, headache, sweating,

                    loss of appetite and feel shivery.
                *To avoid the clumsy him/her when referring to a person in modern English, it is acceptable to use they.

                  The implication is that it refers to both male and female.

                3. Now write down the sentences in your book. Start with If in each case,

                     as you did when you said them aloud.
                4. Exchange books to check whether you have written the sentences down correctly.

                9.2.3 Writing activity

                Write three paragraphs about disease symptoms and their importance.
                1. Plan your text carefully, using a mind-map or other type of planning instrument. The first paragraph should be an introduction to the topic. The second paragraph must contain the detail of what you want to say about disease symptoms. The third paragraph should conclude your text. It should have a brief summary and repeat your statement about the importance of symptoms.

                2. You may want to exchange your book with a partner to check your planning.
                3. Write the text neatly.
                4. Edit the text. If there are many errors, you may need to rewrite it neatly.
                5. Hand the text in for assessment or exchange notebooks for peer assessment.

                9.3 Language structure: Modal verbs

                Modal verbs: can, could, should, ought to, may, might, will, would, must, have to, etc.
                Revise the use of modal verbs in Unit 1 on page 11, Unit 4 on page 63, Unit 6 on page 100, and Unit 7 on page 110.

                9.3.1 Writing activity

                Read the text Disease symptoms (Reading and writing activity 9.2.1) again. Write down all the modal verbs that you can find in the text.
                Use the modal verbs that you have found in sentences of your own about disease symptoms. If there are three examples of one modal verb, you need only write one sentence.

                9.3.2 Writing activity

                1. Complete the sentences with can or could.
                a) Nobody ______ leave the hospital before they were tested for cholera.
                b) They ______ leave if the tests were negative.
                c) The doctor ______ decide what is wrong with me because my symptoms are too general.
                d) People ______ die from dehydration if they suffer from diarrhoea.
                e) The hospital ______ not provide beds for all the people who had typhoid fever.
                f) We ______ avoid getting cholera by boiling all our water.
                g) Doctors ______ avoid getting contagious diseases if they wear protective clothing.
                h) Nurses ______ be exposed to infection if they are not careful.
                i) The situation ______ be improved if they washed their hands regularly.
                j) The health situation ______ become very dangerous if people do not look after themselves.

                x

                9.4 Language structure: Modal verb can or could and by + ing

                Take note of this structure: the modal verb + the infinitive + by + -ing.
                For example:
                • You can (modal verb) avoid (infinitive, basic form of the verb) infection by (preposition) washing (present participle) your hands regularly.
                • We can get typhoid fever by drinking water that has not been boiled.
                • People can protect themselves against malaria by taking measures to prevent mosquito bites.

                s  9.4.1 Writing activity

                1. Complete the sentences with the correct by + -ing form of the verb
                in brackets.
                a) We can get HIV/AIDS (have) sex with an infected person.
                b) We can prevent diseases (avoid) their causative agents.
                c) We can catch tuberculosis (come) into contact with infected people.
                d) We can prevent Hepatitis B (be) vaccinated against it.
                e) Bwiza can improve her health (eat) the right foods [or following the right diet] for at least a year.


                9.4.2 Writing activity

                1. Complete the sentences by replacing the verb in brackets with by + -ing.
                  a) You can keep healthy (wash) your hands regularly.
                  b) You can prevent polio (be) vaccinated against it.
                  c) You can avoid tuberculosis (keep) away from infected people.
                  d) You can prevent malaria (sleep) under a mosquito net.
                  e) You can keep healthy (follow) a balanced diet.

                9.5 Language structure: Modal verbs and if- sentences

                For example:
                • If you have been vaccinated, you will not get polio.
                • If you lead a responsible life, you will not get HIV/AIDS.
                You studied the first conditional in Unit 6 on page 96. Study the notes again and then do the exercises that follow on page 146.

                9.5.1 Writing activity

                1. Complete each sentence by providing appropriate words at the beginning or end.
                a) If you wash your hands regularly, ________.
                b) ________, you will not get malaria.
                c) If you boil all the water you use, ________.
                d) ________, you will not easily get colds.
                e) If you eat a well-balanced diet, ________.

                a9.5.2 Listening and writing activity

                1. Pre-listening activity:
                a) What is a dialogue?
                b) What is happening in the picture on the left?
                c) What piece of equipment does the doctor have around his neck?

                2. Listen to a dialogue between a patient and a doctor that your
                teacher and a learner will read to you. Listen to it a second time.
                3. Answer the following questions on the dialogue.
                a) Why, in your opinion, does the doctor wear rubber gloves
                when he examines Neza?
                b) What happened to Neza?
                c) Does the doctor clean Neza’s cuts himself? Explain
                your answer.
                d) Why does the doctor want to take x-rays of her legs?
                e) Do you think Neza had ever been injured before this accident happened? Explain your answer.
                f) What causes tetanus?
                g) How does the doctor make sure that Neza does not get tetanus?
                h) What is the main symptom of tetanus?
                i) What is gauze?
                j) Why would the nurse fetch a wheelchair to take Neza to the x-ray section?

                cHomework

                Have you ever been to see a doctor or visited a clinic or the emergency ward in a hospital? If you have not, ask someone who has what they experienced. Make a list of 10 words that you know about medical treatment. This is to prepare for your next lesson. For example, the doctor wears a stethoscope around his neck. He uses this to listen to your heart and lungs.



                9.5.3 Speaking and listening activity

                Work in pairs. Write a dialogue between a patient and a doctor. It must not be too long, not more than a page. Produce it for the group. You may have more than two speakers, for example, the patient’s relative and a nurse. Write the dialogue in your book.
                The best dialogues may be presented to the class.

                9.5.4 Reading and writing activity

                1. Pre-reading activity:
                Discuss these questions.
                  a) What is HIV/AIDS?
                  b) Can you see when someone is HIV positive?
                2. Now read the text silently.

                x How you can get HIV/AIDS

                HIV/AIDS is one of the most dangerous diseases in the world. It is transmitted in different ways. You can get this disease by having unprotected sex with an infected individual. You can also get the disease by sharing needles and tattooing implements. You can also get the disease by using unsterilised shaving equipment and razor blades.


                HIV/AIDS can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Sometimes you are given blood from another person in a hospital. If this blood is not tested to make sure it contains no HIV/AIDS viruses, you can be infected.

                To avoid getting HIV/AIDS, you should practise abstinence, which means not having sex at all. You can also avoid this disease by using condoms, whenever you have sex. Doctors and nurses in health centres should not use needles more than once. All instruments that pierce or cut the skin must be sterilised before use.
                Every Rwandan has to take personal responsibility for controlling HIV/AIDS. If people think about what they are doing and take precautions, the disease will not spread. ART (Antiretroviral Treatment) is the medicine that controls HIV/AIDS.

                It cannot cure the disease, but it helps to reduce the symptoms. It is very expensive and is only given to people who are very ill. If you want to live a long and healthy life, you must take care of yourself. The best weapon against HIV/AIDS is knowledge.

                Read and find out as much as you can about the disease. Do not have sex without a condom, not even once. When you are older you will want to get married and have children.
                Make sure both of you are tested to check that you are not infected. In this way Rwanda can become an HIV/AIDS-free country.

                3. Answer the questions in writing. Then exchange notebooks for peer marking.
                a) Why does the author call HIV/AIDS ‘one of the most dangerous diseases in the world’?
                b) Name three ways in which HIV/AIDS can be transmitted.
                c) What does ‘sterilise’ mean? How do you sterilise something?
                d) What does it mean to practise ‘abstinence’?
                e) There are two things that health workers can do to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. What are they?
                f) Can the government take responsibility for protecting every person against HIV/AIDS? Explain your answer.
                g) What is your responsibility to avoid becoming HIV-positive? Name at least two things.
                h) What should a couple do before they get married?

                9.5.5 Speaking and listening activity

                Combine the three parts of the table to make sentences about diseases.

                Say the sentences aloud to get used to the sound of the language structure.

                n

                9.5.6 Writing activity

                You have read and listened to a lot of information about illnesses in this unit.
                Write a three-paragraph text describing how you can get and prevent illnesses. Before you write, plan your text properly. Decide what information you want to include in each paragraph.
                Edit your writing when you have finished.

                Then hand it in for formal assessment or exchange books for peer assessment.

                9.5.7 Listening and writing activity

                1. Listen to the text about diseases that your teacher will read to you.

                You may need to listen to it a second time.
                2. From memory of what you heard and read in this unit, complete the following table.

                First copy the table into your book.

                b

                3. When you have finished, compare what you have written with your partner’s work.

                9.5.8 Speaking and listening activity

                1. Complete the sentences orally. Use can and by+ -ing. Say the sentences aloud. For example: If we get malaria, we can treat it by taking anti-malarial tablets.

                9.5.9 Speaking practice

                a) We _____ identify if we are suffering from typhoid fever (test) _____ a sample of our blood.
                b) If we get HIV/AIDS we _____ fight it (take) _____ antiretroviral drugs.
                c) If we get flu, we _____ reduce its effect (drink) _____ lots of fluids.
                d) The flu _____ not be cured (take) _____ antibiotics. It is caused by a virus and antibiotics have no effect on viruses.
                e) If we get tuberculosis, we _____ treat it (take) _____ antibiotics. Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria, which are killed by antibiotics.
                f) If we have a cough, we _____ soothe the throat (take) _____ a spoonful of honey.
                g) If we get a skin infection, we _____ soothe it (use) _____ the right skin cream or ointment.
                h) If our eyes are red and sore, we _____ cure them (use) _____ eye drops.
                i) If we have a serious cough, we _____ get rid of it (take) _____ cough mixture.
                j) If we are obese, we _____ remedy it (reduce) _____ our daily food intake. We can help by (get) _____ enough exercise.

                Homework
                Write five sentences about the treatment of ailments. Use the conditional, ‘If …’

                9.5.10 Reading and writing activity

                1. Read the brochure with advice about healthy living.

                v

                2. Choose any 10 of the instructions in the brochure. Write them out in full sentences, using should.

                For example: You should bend and stretch to keep your body supple.
                3. Exchange books with a partner and mark each other’s work.

                9.5.11Writing activity

                1. Look at the brochure again. Discuss these questions.
                   a) What is a catchword? Identify the catchwords in the brochure.
                   b) What are the characteristics of a brochure?
                   c) Are brochures important? Give reasons for your answer.
                2. Write your own advice brochure about healthy living.

                It should be short and make its point briefly and clearly.
                3. Exchange books to edit each other’s work.
                4. Hand your book in for formal assessment.

                Checklist of learning
                At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

                • name illnesses and describe their symptoms
                • describe how we get and prevent those illnesses.

                9.6 Unit assessment

                1. Fill in the gaps with can and use the correct form of the word in brackets by adding by + -ing.
                a) You ________ avoid contaminating your food (wash) your hands before cooking or eating.
                b) People ________ prevent malaria (sleep) under a mosquito net.
                c) They ________ avoid becoming HIV-positive (abstain) from sex.
                d) We ________ prevent cholera (boil) water before using it.
                e) Polio ________ be avoided (be) vaccinated as a baby.                                  [5]
                2. Complete the if-sentences correctly.
                a) If we do not want to get HIV/AIDS, we ________.
                b) If we want to protect ourselves against malaria, ________.
                c) If we do not want to get cholera, we ________.
                d) If we want to be healthy and active, we ________.
                e) If we want to avoid getting the flu, we ________.                                            [5]
                3. Read the text and answer the questions that follow in full sentences.

                If you want to stay healthy, you should eat a balanced diet. A balanced diet will strengthen your immunity so that you do not become ill so quickly. You should not overeat, but eat just enough.
                You should also exercise moderately but regularly. This helps your body to function more efficiently.

                You should get enough rest. The most beneficial sleep is before midnight. Go to bed early and get up early. A good night’s sleep increases your energy.
                Keep yourself and your environment clean. Dirt brings diseases.

                a) What is a balanced diet?
                b) What is the most important result of a balanced diet?
                c) What happens if we always overeat?
                d) What do you think happens if we do not eat enough?
                e) What does it mean to exercise regularly?
                f) How would you describe moderate exercise?
                g) Why is it important to get enough sleep?
                h) Do you think it is true that one should go the bed early and get up early? Give a reason for your answer.
                i) How do you keep yourself clean?
                j) How do you keep your environment clean? [10 × 2 = 20]
                4. Write a three-paragraph text on how to prevent any two of the following diseases: malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid fever.
                Plan your writing carefully. Make sure you have an introduction. You also need a middle paragraph providing the information you wish to share.
                Your conclusion should be good too.
                                                                                                                                            [20]
                                                                                                                          Total marks: 50

                • Key unit competence: To use language learnt in the context of gender.

                  n

                  10.1 Listening and speaking: Gender

                  10.1.1 Listening and speaking activity

                  1. Use the following questions as guidelines to talk about what you see in the pictures.
                    a) What are the men and women doing on the various work sites?
                    Are there any differences in their roles?
                    b) Which jobs in the pictures were not done by women in the past?
                    c) Which jobs were not traditionally done by men?
                    d) Do you think there should be a division of labour, with men and women in different roles?

                  n

                  x

                   Homework
                  Speak to people at home and in your community about famous
                  Rwandan women. Make notes to prepare for a class discussion about
                  famous Rwandan women.

                  10.1.2 Listening and speaking activity

                  Discuss the famous Rwandan women that you found out about. Write down the main points of your discussion.

                  10.1.3 Reading and writing activity

                  1. Read a text about famous Rwandan women.

                  Some famous Rwandan women

                  Many Rwandan women have made their mark in the arts and in various other fields. There are many women in politics, but hardly any in top executive positions. Is there a perception that women are not strong financial administrators?

                  This perception can be questioned. In 2016, Kampeta Sayinzoga became Director of Cabinet in the Office of the Prime Minister. Prior to this role, Sayinzoga spent a decade in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, as Permanent Secretary to the Rwandan Ministry of Finance. She was one of the youngest people in this kind of position in Africa. She qualified at Nottingham University in the UK. She has worked throughout the world, including for a period at the World Bank. She controls the country’s coffers.

                  Surely there are more women out there with similar administrative and financial abilities?

                  Laura Kabasoni Kakoma, popularly known as Somi, is a singer and songwriter. She was not born in Rwanda but in Illinois, USA. Her father was Rwandan. He was busy with his post-doctoral studies in America when she was born. She is in her early thirties. As a young child she spent some time in Zambia when her father was sent to work in Ndola. Recently, Somi spent time in Nigeria on a sabbatical to recharge her batteries. After that she was signed up by an international label. This was a huge breakthrough for her. Her first album under this label was released in 2014. Her talent has been recognised in many international music publications.

                  Odile Gakire Katese is a theatre practitioner from Rwanda.
                  She is a Rwandan playwright, director, poet, musician and actor. She started the first women’s drumming company in Rwanda. She also founded the first professional contemporary dance company.
                  This is by no means a complete list. It is a tiny sample of
                  some Rwandan women who have achieved great heights in different fields.

                  2. Answer the questions. Then exchange notebooks with a partner for peer marking.
                  a) What does it mean to say people have ‘made their mark’?
                  b) In what type of position have women not really made their mark?
                  c) What perception might there be about women in those positions, according to the author?
                  d) The author mentions one exception. Who is that exception and what position does she hold?
                  e) What does the author mean by ‘she controls the country’s coffers’?
                  f) What is Somi’s remarkable achievement?
                  g) What does it mean to ‘recharge one’s batteries’?
                  h) What is a ‘sabbatical’?
                  i) Who is the Rwandan playwright mentioned by the author?
                  j) Name two companies that she started in Rwanda.
                  k) Are the women mentioned in the text the only Rwandan women who have achieved great success? Explain your answer.
                  l) Mention two other women, not mentioned in the text, who you think are worth adding to this list.

                  Write one sentence for each woman, giving the reason why you think so.

                  10.2 Vocabulary

                  1. Read the following sentences aloud.
                  a) ‘Odile Katese is a well-known playwright.’
                  ‘Playwright? Playwrite? Why not a playwriter?’
                  ‘The suffix –wright (pronounced the same as write) means a maker of something. We speak of a wheelwright (someone who makes wheels). A playwright is someone who writes (makes) plays.’
                  b) There are several businesswomen in our town.

                    Some of them have clothing shops and one has a dry-cleaning business.
                  c) If you want to start a business (buy and sell products or deliver a service) it is wise to open a bank account. This means that you can deposit your money in the bank every day to keep it safe.

                  You can then pay your suppliers with a cheque or a bank card so that you do not need to have cash with you all the time.

                  d) We used to call a man who acts in a play or a television programme an actor, and a woman an actress. Nowadays we often do not differentiate between male and female. A woman can also be called an actor.
                  e) Traditionally women were expected to fetch water, cook, look after the home, etc. Nowadays women also work in shops, offices, schools or hospitals and men often help with domestic tasks.
                  f) A woman can also be a Member of Parliament. She has to run for election, which means to make herself available for election. She will also have to address (speak to) voters and convince them that it will be to their advantage to vote for her.
                  2. Write new words or phrases in your vocabulary book.
                  3. Make your own sentences with each of the bold words or phrases.

                  10.3 Language structure: Used to

                  You use the phrase used to when you want to say that something happened in the past, but no longer happens. Used to is always followed by the infinitive (the basic present tense form of the verb).
                  For example:
                  • Women used to be considered inferior to men, but this is no longer so.
                  • Parents used to keep their girls at home and only sent the boys to school.

                  c

                  10.3.1 Writing practice

                  1. Answer the questions with a sentence containing used to.
                     a) Does the government appoint only men in their offices?
                    b) Do girls go to school now?
                    c) Are there any women in parliament?
                    d) Are women thought to be inferior to men?
                    e) Are there women teachers at your school?

                  10.3.2 Writing practice

                  1. Complete the sentences. Make it clear that what used to happen, no longer happens.
                  a) There used to be only male teachers at secondary school, but ____.
                  b) Girls used to spend only a year or two at school, but ________.
                  c) Boys used to be favoured in the family, but ________.
                  d) There used to be only men in parliament, but ________.
                  e) There used to be more boys than girls at school, but ________.

                  10.3.3 Writing practice

                  1. Complete the sentences by adding a first part + used to.
                  a) ________, but nowadays there are more women than men in parliament.
                  b) ________, but today many women are studying at university.
                  c) ________, but now men often help with these tasks.
                  d) ________, but nowadays boys should be taught to look after themselves in the home.
                  e) ________, but nowadays many men enjoy cooking.

                  10.3.4 Listening and writing activity

                  1. Pre-listening activity:
                  Answer the following questions.
                  a) Who is Michelle Obama?
                  b) Who is Michelle Obama’s husband?
                  c) Have you heard anything about Michelle Obama? What do you know about her?
                  d) Do you admire her?
                  e) What was an important result of the American Civil War (1861–1865)?
                  f) What is the White House and where is it?
                  2. Listen carefully to the text your teacher will read to you. If necessary,

                    your teacher will read the text a second time.

                  3. Work individually. Answer the following questions in writing. When you have finished, exchange notebooks with a partner. Your teacher will provide the answers.
                  a) How old is Michelle Obama now, if she was born in 1964?
                  b) What made it possible for black people to migrate from South Carolina to Chicago after the Civil War?
                  c) What does ‘gifted’ mean?
                  d) Where did she study after leaving school?
                  e) Where did she meet her future husband, Barack Obama?
                  f) Why was it difficult to help campaign for her husband to be elected president?
                  g) What practical arrangement did they make for the children when they moved to the White House?
                  h) What is Michelle’s particular interest, as First Lady of the United States?
                  i) Do you think she is a good advertisement for healthy eating and physical activity?
                  j) Explain ‘fashion icon and role model for women’ in your own words.

                  10.4 Language structure: Revision – Adverbials of time

                  Adverbials of time tell you when something happened.
                  For example:
                  • She returned to the country last year.
                  • She was born in 1978.
                  • She was killed during the Genocide.
                  • We will talk about that later.
                  •You can also use adverbials of time to say for how long.
                  For example:
                  • They waited all day for her to arrive.
                  • She has lived in Chicago since 1964.
                  • She will visit the country for two weeks.

                  c

                  10.4.1 Writing practice

                  1. Complete the sentences by choosing one of the adverbials of time.

                  v

                  a) Kampeta Sayinzoga is _____ the Permanent Secretary for Finance.
                  b) She studied at a university in the UK _____.
                  c) She worked at the World Bank _____.
                  d) As a young child, Somi Kakoma spent _____ in Zambia.
                  e) _____ she spent time in Nigeria on a sabbatical.

                  10.4.2 Writing practice

                  1. Use one of the adverbials of time in each sentence.

                  v

                  a) Somi was signed up by an international company _____ her sabbatical in Nigeria.
                  b) Her first album under the new label was released _____.
                  c) _____ Odile Gakire Katese started the first drumming company in Rwanda.
                  d) _____ she also started the first professional dance company.
                  e) _____ businesswomen are starting to make their mark in Rwanda.

                  10.5 Language structure: Connectors of contrast

                  Sentence connectors combine sentences. You can also use them to express the relationship between ideas.
                  In this lesson you will learn about sentence connectors that join two contrasting ideas. Some of them are but, although, despite the fact that, however, nevertheless, despite, in spite of, yet.
                  For example:
                  • She wanted to take care of her family. She wanted to help her husband’s campaign.
                  • She wanted to take care of her family, however/but/although she also wanted to help her husband’s campaign.

                  10.5.1 Writing practice

                  1. Complete the sentences, using one of the connectors of contrast.

                  c

                  a) _____ Michelle Obama had her own career, she gave it up to support her husband.
                  b) Her mother takes care of the children, _____ Michelle misses them when she is away from home.
                  c) While living in the shadow of her husband, she has _____ influenced the lives of women.
                  d) She remains down to earth, _____ she has become a fashion icon.
                  e) She spends as much time as possible with her daughters, _____ they are growing up quickly.

                  10.5.2 Writing practice

                  1. Complete each of the sentences by filling in an appropriate connector of contrast.
                  a) Winnie Madikizela-Mandela is still a popular figure, _____ she was accused of several crimes.
                  b) She married a very important man, _____ had to raise her children alone when he was imprisoned.
                  c) _____ they were married when Nelson Mandela became president, they had separated two years earlier.
                  d) Her supporters still refer to her as the Mother of the Nation, _____ she committed serious crimes.
                  e) She visited Nelson Mandela every day when he was in hospital

                       _____ they were divorced and he had remarried.

                  10.5.3 Reading and writing activity

                  1. Read the following sentences and arrange them in sequence,

                       paying particular attention to adverbials of time.

                  f Winnie Madikizela-Mandela

                  • They were married in 1958 and had two daughters.
                  • Much later she earned a bachelor’s degree in international relations from the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. She met lawyer and anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela in 1957.

                  • Winnie Madikizela-Mandela was born on 26 September 1936.
                  • In 2003, she was found guilty of fraud and she was given a suspended sentence.
                  • She was married to Nelson Mandela for 38 years, including 27 years during which he was imprisoned.
                  • She remains a popular figure among her supporters despite her advanced age.
                  • In 1985, she was awarded the Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights Award along with other South African activists.
                  • She and Nelson Mandela were separated in 1992 and finally divorced in 1996.

                  • Despite restrictions on the education of black people during apartheid, she earned a degree in social work.
                  • She was a controversial figure during Nelson Mandela’s imprisonment.
                  • From 1986, her reputation was damaged by her radical speeches and accusations of torture and murder.
                  • She was regularly detained by the South African government, kept under house arrest, held in solitary confinement for over a year and banished to a remote town.

                  2. Write the sentences in your notebook in the correct sequence.
                  3. Exchange notebooks for peer marking.

                  cHomework

                  This homework is preparation for the discussion you are going to have in class.

                  In this unit so far you have read and listened to stories about famous and influential women. They are by no means the only women that fall into this category. Think about what you can learn from all or some of these women. Write down at least five points about the lives of the women who you admire. You could use women from the following list: Winnie Mandela, Jeanette Kagame, Margaret Thatcher,  

                                                              Graça Machel, Speciosa Kazibwe, Yvonne Chaka Chaka.

                  10.5.4 Speaking and listening activity

                  Discuss the lessons learnt from one or all of the influential and famous women you have read or talked about in this unit. Perhaps they have inspired you in some way? Is there anything these women have in common?

                  10.6 Skills: Compare

                  To write a comparative text you need to compare two things. For example: the traditional position of women and the position of women in modern times.
                  The introduction should state what it is that you are comparing. Then you write one paragraph for each aspect that you are comparing, stating how they are similar and where they are different.
                  In your conclusion you summarise your findings and you give your own opinion.

                  v

                   10.6.1 Writing practice

                  Practise applying the skill of comparing.
                  Draw a Venn diagram like the one on the left. A Venn diagram consists of two overlapping circles.

                  In the left-hand side of the circle put three aspects of women’s lives that have changed over the years. In the right-hand side put how they have changed (or what it is like now). In the middle, where the circles overlap, enter three aspects that have remained unchanged.
                  Now plan a suitable introduction and then a suitable conclusion. Exchange notebooks with a partner and see what your partner has done. Talk about each other’s work. Improve your diagram and your introduction and conclusion where possible.

                  vHomework

                  Use your Venn diagram and the preparation that you did in class. Write a text about the way women’s lives have changed over the years. Your text should consist of an introduction, three paragraphs in which each aspect of women’s lives is compared and then a conclusion.

                  Here are some examples to help you:
                  Traditionally women used to look after the home, fetch water and cook food. Women were not allowed to run businesses. Women could not open bank accounts.

                                                                                        Only men could plant trees. Men were allowed to name children.

                  s Modern girls go to school and university. Women do many jobs in society. Today women are the majority of the members of parliament. Women are ministers in the government.

                  10.6.2 Reading and speaking activity

                  Exchange notebooks with a partner. Edit each other’s texts. Point out errors in the text to your partner. Also look at how closely your partner has kept to the planning that you did in class. If you think your partner has done a good piece of work tell your teacher. You may be allowed to read it out to the class.

                  10.6.3 Reading and writing activity

                  Read the story and answer the questions.

                  A meeting of two old friends

                  Rutayisire and Rutagengwa were great friends. They used to play together when they were young and they went to school together. When they grew up, they lived in different places, far apart. Nevertheless, they kept in touch.

                  One day, Rutayisire went to visit his friend, Rutagengwa. When he got there, he found Rutagengwa’s children, a son and a daughter, getting ready to go to university. They were both going to study engineering.
                  “Where are your children going?” asked Rutayisire.
                  “They are going to university,” answered Rutagengwa. “When they have completed their degrees, they will both be civil engineers. They will be repairing our roads and building bridges”.

                  “Even the girl!” exclaimed Rutayisire.

                  “Oh yes. Both boys and girls can study similar courses. They could not in the past, but girls can do as much as boys can. Men and women do the same kind of work these days.”

                  “Aren’t women now going to think they are equal to men? Is this a good thing? Will they remember that men are superior?” asked Rutayisire.

                  “There is no difference between a man and a woman. We are all equal. Our elders were not right to keep women at home. We all deserve equal opportunities,” said Rutagengwa.

                  “I did not want my daughter to study medicine, although she wanted to. I told her to study nursing, because medicine is for men.”
                  “I do not think that is fair,” replied Rutagengwa. “She worked hard at school, did she not? Did she not do better than her brother?”

                  “Yes she did. I think I have to change my mind and allow my daughter to study medicine. She will be very pleased,” said Rutayisire.
                  “That is a good idea,” said Rutagengwa. “We have to accept that the world is changing and we have to change with it or stay behind!”

                  1. Since when had Rutayisire and Rutagengwa been friends?
                  2. What was Rutayisire surprised to see when he was visiting his friend?
                  3. What important information did Rutagengwa give Rutayisire about modern gender roles?
                  4. What fear did Rutayisire express?
                  5. Do you think Rutayisire is right to think this? Explain your answer.
                  6. What decision had Rutayisire taken about his daughter’s future?
                  7. What was his reason for that decision?
                  8. How was Rutayisire’s family going to benefit from this visit?
                  9. Do you think men benefit when women are not allowed to improve themselves?

                      Give a reason for your answer.
                  10. If you had the opportunity to change gender roles, what would you do? Write two sentences.

                  10.7 Language structure: Modal verbs

                  Modal verbs can also be used in the past simple tense.
                  For example: allowed to, could, could not, should, should not, might, had to, would not

                  10.7.1 Writing practice

                  1. Choose the best word from the list in the language section on modal

                       verbs above for each of the sentences.
                      a) In the past, the rights of the women and children ________ be

                      protected because there were not  appropriate laws.
                      b) Even if girls were very clever they ________ remain at school because

                      their parents ________ allow   them to stay.
                      c) Women were not treated with the respect they ________have had.
                      d) Women were expected to stay at home because they ________ be allowed access to universities.
                      e) For many years in England and America women were not ________ become doctors.

                       Some women even disguised themselves as men to train as doctors.

                  Homework

                  1. Give the past simple tense form of the verbs in brackets.

                     Your teacher will allow you some time to mark your answers in the next lesson.
                    a)  In the past, conservative men (do not like) progressive women.
                    b)  Forward-looking men (will prefer) to marry progressive women but were prevented by public opinion.
                    c)  In the past, women sometimes (experience) discrimination in favour of men.

                     It sometimes still happens today.
                    d)  In the past, the practice of discrimination against women (be) very bad.
                    e)  In the past, parents (do not even send) the girls in the family to school for more than the first few years.
                    f)  Slowly parents (come) to realise that girls (be) just as intelligent as boys.


                  n 10.7.2 Speaking and listening activity

                  Hold a discussion in which you talk about gender equality. Use the following guidelines to shape your discussion.
                  1. Gender equality

                  • Has gender equality been accepted in your community?
                  • If not, what do you think needs to change? (Be sensitive but do not be afraid to talk about gender issues.)
                  • Compare traditional and modern gender roles, using the connectors of contrast that you have learnt. For example: Women were not allowed to run businesses, but today many women do so. Women used to work in the home, but today women can be members of parliament. However, traditionally, they could not. Parliament was only for men.

                  2. Your role at home
                  • Are the roles performed by boys and girls different?
                  • What taboos were there in respect of women’s and girls’ behaviour? For example: Were they allowed to climb trees, ride a bicycle, eat chicken, drink beer or drive a car?
                  • Which of the above taboos still exist? Which of the above taboos should be preserved?

                  10.7.3 Listening and writing activity

                  Listen to a talk about a woman’s job and household roles and how she arranges her day. While you are listening, write down some questions that you would like to ask. You may be given an opportunity to ask these questions.

                  10.7.4 Speaking and writing activity

                  1. Read the following dialogue. Read it twice. Exchange roles for the second reading.

                  fKayitesi and Nsabimana are talking about their plans for the future.
                  kayitesi:  I want to become a businesswoman. I want to open a shop and fly to Dubai to get my products.
                  Nsabimana: Dubai! Is that not too far? Why do you not get your goods from Kigali? It is usually men who travel so far. Is it appropriate to do things that men do?
                  kayitesi: In this era we all need to work hard, men and women. We all have to do our best to build the economy.
                  Nsabimana: You mean we can all board planes and go overseas for trade if we want to?
                                                              kayitesi: Yes, of course, but also locally. We can do anything men can do.

                                                             The days of gender discrimination are over.
                                                             Nsabimana: But would men not refuse to marry women who work like men?
                                                             kayitesi: Only those who are conservative and backward.

                                                             Most men would like to marry a competent woman who can contribute to the

                                                             family income.
                                                             Nsabimana: And who is supposed to take care of the home and children and

                                                             cook?

                  F     Kayitesi: Do you know what? My mother works at the bank. 

                       Sometimes she has to work late. We have a rule at home.

                        We all help to tidy the house before we leave for school or work in the 

                                        morning.

                       The person who gets home first starts cooking supper.

                                                               Sometimes it is one of us, sometimes it is my father.

                                                              Because he is a teacher, he sometimes gets home early.

                                                              We have all learnt to cook and my father is quite good!

                                                              He knows some traditional recipes that are delicious!
                                                              Nsabimana: Wow! That sounds wonderful.

                                                              I would like to become a politician,  but I thought it would be impossible if

                                                             I also wanted to get married and have children. I could even become a senator!

                  2. Now answer the following questions in writing.

                   When you have finished, exchange books for peer marking.
                  a) What does Kayitesi want to become when she has finished school?
                  b) Why is Nsabimana unsure about women travelling abroad?
                  c) What has Kayitesi realised about the economy of Rwanda?
                  d) Does a person have to go overseas to buy products for a business?
                  e) What does Nsabimana fear about being too independent?
                  f) In three sentences, summarise the work arrangements in Kayitesi’s home.
                  g) What do you think about their arrangements? Will they work in your home?
                  h) What new insight has Nsabimana gained?

                  10.7.5 Writing activity

                  In the dialogue, Kayitesi expresses ideas that might seem quite radical to some of you.

                  Write a text of three paragraphs. Express your opinion about household and external roles for men and women, boys and girls. Use modal verbs like should, and should not. For example: I think women should do the cooking. I think men should not be expected to clean the house. I think women should be allowed to stand for parliament. Try to express your own opinion as well as you can.

                  Plan your writing. Write your text, edit it and then hand it in for assessment.

                  N

                  Checklist of learning
                  In this unit, you have learnt to:

                  • describe traditional gender roles in Rwanda
                  • compare traditional and modern gender roles
                  • give opinions about the jobs men and women should do and the household tasks they should carry out.

                  10.8 Unit assessment

                  1. Complete the following sentences using used to.
                     a) Although he now believes in equality for women, ________.
                     b) Michelle Obama ________, but then she became the First Lady of the USA.
                     c) Women can now study at universities, but in the past ________.
                     d) Winnie Mandela ___________________,
                     e) Teaching and nursing ________, but nowadays they can
                  become anything they want to and are prepared to work for.                                  [5]
                  2. Use one of these adverbials of time to complete the sentences.

                  H




                  a) Michelle Obama was born in Chicago ________.
                  b) She went to university ______ she finished high school.
                  c) The White House was built ________.
                  d) Barack Obama was elected president and ________ the family moved into the White House in Washington.
                  e) ________ he was elected they lived in Chicago.                                                           [5]

                  3. Complete the sentences, using one of the connectors of contrast.

                  F

                  a) Equality for women has improved over the years, ________ many women feel there is still much to be done.
                  b) ________ women have been appointed in new posts, there are still very few female CEOs or financial directors.
                  c) In some rural areas women are still regarded as inferior, ________ government’s policy of equality.
                  d) Men are encouraged to treat women with dignity, ________ abuse of women is still taking place.
                  e) More girls than before are continuing their education; ________ still too few girls go to university.                                                                                                                                      [5]

                  4. Use each of the following words in sentences of your own to show that you understand their meaning.
                    a) playwright
                    b) businesswomen
                    c) deposit
                    d) bank account
                   e) perception                                                                                                                                                  [5]
                  5. Write a paragraph of about ten lines about a woman you know of who has made her mark in life.        [10]
                  6. Write a text of three paragraphs in which you compare the roles of men and women in society today. [20]
                                                                                                                                                                     Total marks: 50

                  Glossary

                  academic     – a scholar in a university
                  accumulate – gather
                  airborne      – carried or transmitted by air
                  amendment – change
                  antiretroviral treatment  – a treatment for HIV/AIDS
                  area           – the amount of space that a flat surface covers
                  aspire        – to desire and work towards achieving something important
                  banished   – forced to leave
                  blood transfusion   – the process of putting blood into someone’s body as a medical treatment
                  breakthrough          – an important new discovery or progress made
                  calculate                  – to find out how much something will cost mathematically
                  candidate                – someone competing to be elected
                  certificate         – an official paper that states that you have completed a course of study
                  civil                  – relates to citizens
                  coffers             – the money that a government or organisation has to spend
                  commercial     – linked to commerce (sales); for business rather than private use
                  commitment    – a promise to do something or to behave in a certain way
                  commodity     – a useful or valuable thing
                  consecutive    – following one after the other
                  conservation   – the protection of animals and plants to prevent them from being spoiled or destroyed
                  contemporary  – belonging to the present time
                  controversial   – causing public disagreement
                  cooperation     – things that you do with someone else to achieve a common purpose
                  creed               – a statement of beliefs
                  critically          – judging the good and bad
                  cultivation      – the preparation and use of land for growing crops
                  data                 – information
                  decentralised  – moved from a single centre to other locations
                  degree              – a course of study at a university
                  democracy       – a system of government where everyone in the country can vote to elect representatives
                  democratic       – (adjective) a system of democracy (everyone has a vote)
                  democratic process – the process by which citizens elect their political leaders
                  density              – quantity of people or things in a certain area
                  descended        – went downwards to a lower level
                  dictatorial         – typical of a ruler who has total power
                  diploma            – a document showing that someone has successfully completed a course of study or passed an examination
                  dissimilar       – not the same, different
                  economy        – the system by which a country’s money and goods are produced and used
                  editor – the person who decides what will be published in the newspaper
                  editorial – a piece of writing in a newspaper giving the editor’s opinion about something
                  efficient – working well and effectively without wasting time, money or energy
                  enterprise – business or organisation
                  entrepreneurship – to develop and run a new business
                  ethnic – relating to a specific group of people
                  experience – an event that leaves a lasting impression
                  favour – prefer or recommend
                  financial – connected with money or the management of money
                  forecast – prediction
                  foreign – located away from your country
                  fulfil – achieve or realise
                  freight – transport goods in bulk
                  habit – a behaviour that is done regularly and hard to give up
                  hallucination – perceiving something to be real when it is not
                  harmony – living together without fighting or disagreeing with each other
                  harness – to control and use the natural power of something
                  heated discussion – a discussion in which people get emotional or angry
                  heights – a high level of achievement
                  hypothesis – a possible way of explaining something that has not yet been proved to be true
                  ideology – a set of ideas on which a political or economic system is based

                  academic – a scholar in a university
                  accumulate – gather
                  airborne – carried or transmitted by air
                  amendment – change
                  antiretroviral treatment – a treatment for HIV/AIDS
                  area – the amount of space that a flat surface covers
                  aspire – to desire and work towards achieving something important
                  banished – forced to leave
                  blood transfusion – the process of putting blood into someone’s body as a medical treatment
                  breakthrough – an important new discovery or progress made
                  calculate – to find out how much something will cost mathematically
                  candidate – someone competing to be elected
                  certificate – an official paper that states that you have completed a course of study
                  civil – relates to citizens
                  coffers – the money that a government or organisation has to spend
                  commercial – linked to commerce (sales); for business rather than private use
                  commitment – a promise to do something or to behave in a certain way
                  commodity – a useful or valuable thing
                  consecutive – following one after the other
                  conservation – the protection of animals and plants to prevent them from being spoiled or destroyed
                  contemporary – belonging to the present time
                  controversial – causing public disagreement
                  cooperation – things that you do with someone else to achieve a common purpose
                  creed – a statement of beliefs
                  critically – judging the good and bad
                  cultivation – the preparation and use of land for growing crops
                  data – information
                  decentralised – moved from a single centre to other locations
                  degree – a course of study at a university
                  democracy – a system of government where everyone in the country can vote to elect representatives
                  democratic – (adjective) a system of democracy (everyone has a vote)
                  democratic process – the process by which citizens elect their political leaders
                  density – quantity of people or things in a certain area
                  descended – went downwards to a lower level
                  dictatorial – typical of a ruler who has total power
                  diploma – a document showing that someone has successfully completed a course of study or passed an examination
                  dissimilar – not the same, different
                  economy – the system by which a country’s money and goods are produced and used
                  editor – the person who decides what will be published in the newspaper
                  editorial – a piece of writing in a newspaper giving the editor’s opinion about something
                  efficient – working well and effectively without wasting time, money or energy
                  enterprise – business or organisation
                  entrepreneurship – to develop and run a new business
                  ethnic – relating to a specific group of people
                  experience – an event that leaves a lasting impression
                  favour – prefer or recommend
                  financial – connected with money or the management of money
                  forecast – prediction
                  foreign – located away from your country
                  fulfil – achieve or realise
                  freight – transport goods in bulk
                  habit – a behaviour that is done regularly and hard to give up
                  hallucination – perceiving something to be real when it is not
                  harmony – living together without fighting or disagreeing with each other
                  harness – to control and use the natural power of something
                  heated discussion – a discussion in which people get emotional or angry
                  heights – a high level of achievement
                  hypothesis – a possible way of explaining something that has not yet been proved to be true
                  ideology – a set of ideas on which a political or economic system is based