Topic outline

  • UNIT 1:Intervals

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    Objectives
    By the end of this unit, I will be able to:
    ⦿ Explain the meaning and importance of intervals in music.
    ⦿ Identify how to differentiate intervals.
    ⦿ Listen attentively to note pitches.
    ⦿ Sol-fa music notes respecting their intervals.
    ⦿ Develop a spirit of patience, endurances, and orderliness.
    ⦿ Describe how music intervals can be used creatively in music.

    Lesson 1: Simple music intervals
    Introduction
    An interval is a period of time between two events or activities. For
    example in a soccer match the period between the first half and second
    half is an interval. Even at your school ,the bell rings at different
    intervals in order to change lessons. Similarly in music an interval
    is the distance in pitch/sound from one note to another. Intervals are
    described with numbers such as 2nd, 3rd e.t.c. They are referred to by
    letter names that is A, B, C, D, E, F and G.

    Activity 1
    1. What is an interval?
    2. Think of any other activities or events that have intervals and
    explain why you qualify them to be intervals.

    Look at this picture illustration of a key board and observe how the
    music intervals are arranged.

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    Intervals for our study are 1st or unison, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, sixth,
    seventh and octave study them as shown below:

    Activity 2
    Observe these intervals
    1. From note C to D there are only two letter names included. This
    is therefore an interval of a 2nd.

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    2. From note C to E includes three letter names C D E .
    This is therefore an intervals of a 3rd.

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                Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star

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    Activity 3
    1. Sing the song Twinkle Twinkle little star.
    2. Sing it by it’s solfas.
    3. Identify the different intervals in the song.
    4. Write them down in your books.

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    Intervals are used creatively to make music such as the one the children
    in the picture above are singing. Before you compose your own music,
    you need to know how intervals are arranged.

    Intervals can be arranged from the smallest to the biggest.

    Activity 4a
    Re-arrange intervals from the smallest to the biggest.

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    Activity 4b
    Re-arrange intervals from the smallest to the biggest.

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    Activity 5
    Have a look at the first example and add a second note to numbers
    2 to 5 to make them intervals.

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    Lesson 2: Types of intervals
    There are five types of simple intervals. These are major intervals,
    minor intervals, perfect intervals, diminished and augmented intervals.
    Intervals help us to compose songs and sing them with correct pitches.
    Here are some types of music intervals.

    Major intervals
    The major intervals are major seconds, thirds, sixths and sevenths
    major seconds, major thirds, major sixths and major sevens.
    In order to understand the other simple music intervals, you first need
    to know what a tone and a semitone means.

    Tones and semitones
    Most music is composed using a particular pattern of notes called scale.
    There are many different scales, each with its own special pattern. Two
    very popular ones are the Major and Minor scale. Each scale has its
    own pattern made up of tones and semitones.

    A semitone is the name given to the distance between two next-door
    notes on a piano or keyboard. Next-door notes can be black or white.
    A semitone measures the difference in pitch between these notes.

    A tone equals two next-door semitones. It measures the difference in
    pitch between two notes on a piano or keyboard which have only one
    note in between them.

    Major scale
    This is the scale that has five full tones and two semitones between E
    and F and also between B and C. The characteristic of a major scale
    is an Interval between the first and third consisting two full tones.
    This interval is called a ‘major third’ from which we take the name the
    major c scale.

    Minor scale
    A minor scale is one that has its tonic note on a ‘La’. Its characteristic
    is the interval between the first and third degrees of the scale which is
    a full tone and a semitone. This is called a minor third from which we
    take the name minor scale.

    Major second
    This is an interval that has two semitones on the piano. For example
    from C to D.

    second

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    T = tone
    ST = semitone

    Activity 6
    1. Draw the treble staff and indicate the major second interval.
    2. Listen to the melody that the teacher is going to play and write
    it down in your music books.
    3. Identify the intervals in the melody you have written.
    4. Many songs are composed to be sung during Christmas festivity.
    Write your own melody of eight bars with some intervals of the
    major second.
    5. Give your friends to sing it and discuss whether your use of the
    interval produces an interesting melody.

    Lesson 3: Minor second
    This is an interval which has one semitone. For example from C to Db
    or from C to C#.

    minor second

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    minor second

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    Activity 7
    Draw a staff show the major second and minor second on it.

    Lesson 4: Major third
    A major third is a simple music interval which is created by having a
    note and two tones next to it following each other successively.

    C-D =1 tone
    D-E = 1 tone
    D-E = 2 tones

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    Therefore, D-E is a major third

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    Activity 8
    1. Look at the music staff above, draw it in your music book.
    2. Sing the song Oh when the saints go matching.

    You will realise that in that song. Oh When the Saint go Matching, the
    first two words oh when form a major third.

    Oh when the saints go marching in

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    Activity 9
    1. Learn the song above and sing it.
    2. Draw the treble staff and on it place a major third and any other
    intervals in it.

    Lesson 5: Minor third
    A minor third is a simple music interval which is created by one and
    a half tones.

    C-D =1 tone
    D-Eb = ½ tone
    D-Eb = 1 and ½ tones

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    Therefore, D-Eb is a minor third
    Look at the piano below to identify the minor third.

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    So Long Farewell
                                                                                                                        Richard Rodgers

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    Activity 10
    1. Sing the song So Long Farewell again.
    2. Draw treble staff and on it place the minor third interval.
    3. Draw another treble staff and place on it a major third interval
    and any other intervals that you are able to identify.

    Lesson 6: Major sixth
    This is a music interval that has 4 tones and ½ tones.

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    Activity 11
    1. Draw the treble staff and on it mark the major sixth interval.

    Lesson 7: Minor sixth
    This is a music interval that has 3 tones and 2 halftones.

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    C- Ab = 3 tones and two ½ tones             Therefore, C -Ab is a minor sixth

    Look at the illustration on the Piano.

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    Activity 12
    1. Draw the treble staff and put on it notes to show major sixth
    minor sixth interval

    Lesson 8: Major seventh
    This is a music interval that has 5 tones and ½ tone.

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    C- B = 5 tones and ½ tone                         Therefore, C -B is a major seventh

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    Activity 13
    1. Draw a treble staff and on it mark the interval of a major
    seventh

    Lesson 9: Minor seventh
    This is a music interval that has 5 tones and two ½ tones.

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    C- B = 5 and two ½ tones                     Therefore, C –Bb is a minor seventh

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    Activity 14
    1. Draw a treble staff and on it mark the interval of a minor
    seventh.
    A summary of major intervals shown on staff.

    Minor intervals
    All the major intervals can form minor intervals and minor interval can
    form major intervals. A minor interval is formed by lowering the upper
    note of a major interval by a semitone and a major interval is formed
    by raising the upper note of a major interval by semitone.
    For example

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    When you lower the upper note of the example above then it will
    become a minor interval.

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    Similary when a Major 3rd is lowered it will become a minor 3rd.

    Major 3rd

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    Lesson 10: Perfect intervals
    In the perfect intervals we have perfect unison, perfect fourth, perfect
    fifth, perfect eight or commonly known as perfect octave.

    Perfect unison
    This is a simple music interval which is formed when you play a note
    twice. For example on the piano from c-c is a perfect unison.

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    Perfect unison

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    Another example that can help us understand the perfect unison
    interval is the song Twinkle twinkle little star. The first two notes of
    that song form a perfect unison interval.

    Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star

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    Activity 15
    1. Draw the example of a perfect unison interval in your music
    book.

    Perfect fourth
    This interval has 2 tones and ½ tone. For example from C-F is a
    perfect forth as shown on the staff below .

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    C- F = 3 tones and ½ tones       Therefore, C – F is a Perfect Fourth

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    Here comes the bride

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    Activity 16
    1. Sing the first two phrase of the song Here comes the bride

    You will realise that the first two words of that song form what is called
    a perfect fourth interval

    Activity 17
    1. Draw the treble staff and on it put the interval of a perfect
    fourth and perfect unison.

    Lesson 11: Perfect Fifth and Octave
    This interval has 3 tones and ½ tone. For example from C-G as shown
    on the staff below.

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    C- G = 3 tones and ½ tones        Therefore, C – G is a Perfect fifth

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    Activity 18
    1. Draw the treble staff and indicate the perfect fifth interval.
    Perfect octave
    This is a musical interval that has 5 tones and two ½ tones. For
    example from C-CI as shown on the staff below

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    C- C1 = 5 tones and two ½ tones           Therefore, C – C1 is a Perfect Octave

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    Activity 19
    1. Write a perfect octave interval on a treble staff.

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    Activity 20
    1. Individually draw the above staff showing the perfect intervals
    in your exercise book.

    Lesson 12: Diminished, augmented intervals
    These are intervals that are formed when the upper note of a minor
    interval is lowered.

    Diminished intervals

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    For example when the above Minor 3rd is lowered it will become a
    diminished 3rd.

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    Activity 21
    Study the treble staff above and draw the diminished intervals in
    your music books.

    Augmented intervals
    These are intervals that are formed when the upper note of a Major or
    perfect interval is raised.

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    For example when a Major 2nd is raised it will became an augmented
    2nd.
    Major 2nd

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    Major second will become.
    Augmented 2nd

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    Activity 22
    1. Draw the above staff showing the Augmented 2nd in your
    exercise book.

    Perfect 4th

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    Perfect 4th will become.
    Augmented 4th

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    Activity 23
    1. Individually draw the above staff showing the Augmented 4th
    in your exercise book.

    Perfect 5th will become.

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    Augmented 5th

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    Activity 24
    1. Individually draw the above staff showing the Augmented 5th
    in your exercise book.

    Activity 25
    1. Give the number of each of these intervals (2nd, 3rd, 4th etc. The
    first answer is given as an example.

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    2. Write the note to match the degree that is written below the
    staff. The first note is the keynote of the scale.

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    End unit assessment
    1. What is a music interval?
    2. Explain the difference between a major scale from a minor scale.
    3. List the types of intervals that you studied in this unit.
    4. Write each type of interval on a music staff.
    5. How different is a semi tone from a tone?
    6. Compose four melodies with the types of intervals you have been
    learning in this unit.
    7. Write the note to match the degree that is written below the staff.

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    9. Write down the following intervals on a staff.

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    Glossary
    Augment: this is to raise the upper notes of a major or
    perfect interval. For example when you have fifth
    note of a major interval raised by a semitone,
    then the interval is augmented.

    Degree: this is the name of a particular note of a scale to
    specify its position relative to the tonic.

    Diminish: this is to lower the upper note of a minor interval.
    For example, when a triad that has two minor
    thirds is above the root, a minor third with a
    lowered fifth is a diminished interval.

    Interval: the relative difference in pitch between any two
    tones.

    Music staff or stave: a set of five horizontal parallel lines
    and their four spaces on which music notes are
    written. These notes are written on the lines with
    the line running through the centre of the note, in
    the spaces. Above or below the staff there can
    be short extra lines known as ledger lines; being
    supplied as needed if the notes go beyond or
    below the main five lines and the four spaces.

    Tonic: the first note in any harmonic scale.

    Triad: a chord or group of three notes consisting of a
    root, a third and a fifth.



  • Unit 2:Alteration Signs

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    Objectives
    By the end of this unit, I will able to:
    ⦿ Differentiate a tone from semitone.
    ⦿ Explain different accidentals.
    ⦿ Identify the roles of accidentals in music.
    ⦿ Sing sol-fas respecting tones and semitones.
    ⦿ Listen attentively to altered notes.
    ⦿ Sol-fa respecting the accidentals.
    ⦿ Appreciate the use of major and minor scales.

    Introduction
    In your study of how to read and write music, you need to know the
    various signs and the meanings. However, let us first sing the song
    Baby Jesus.

    Lesson 1: Tone

    Baby Jesus

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    Activity 1
    1. Sing the song Baby Jesus.
    2. Say what you know about Jesus.
    3. Sing other songs in Kinyarwanda about Jesus.

    On the keyboard you saw that it has tones and semitones. The
    Semitones appear between E and F and then B and C, the rest are
    Tones that is C to D, D to E, F to G, A to B.
    In the song you have just sung, the first words “Baby Jesus” have the
    notes C D E C. (in sol-fas d r m d) which have full tones.

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    The words “I love you” in the song Baby Jesus have notes EFG (sol-fas:
    m f s) whereby from E to F is a semitone and then from F to G is a tone.

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    Activity 2
    1. Observe the next phrase “you are my savior” and find out where
    we have tones and semitones.
    2. Compose your own melody and create for it the lyrics (words)
    about baby Jesus.

    Activity 3
    1. Sing the major scale from d to d upwards and down words.

    Note that, you have sung big and little steps. The step you made from
    one note to another is what is called a tone. When you move a step
    from one note to the next on a music scale you get a tone. For example
    D to R, R to M etc.

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    Activity 4
    1. Look at the key board buttons below and see where the tones
    and semi tones are placed.
    2. Write in your books the tones using letters that you can see
    below.

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    Semi tones
    A half of a tone is called a semitone.
    For example C to C sharp, D to D sharp, E to F

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    Activity 5
    The major scale is made up of tones and semi tones.
    1. Listen to the played major scale from either a keyboard or a
    recording device and sing it.
    2. Listen to the following played semitones and sing them that is
    E to F and B to C.

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    Activity 6
    1. Draw a key board diagram and show with arrows the semi tone
    buttons.

    Activity 7
    1. Look at these music melodies. Write them in your books and
    put a tick on the pairs that are semitones.

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    Lesson 2: Accidentals
    An accidental is a note of a pitch that is not a member of the scale
    indicated by a given key signature. They are either flattened or sharpened
    notes as you are about to learn them using the activities below.

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    In music, the unexpected notes which are not the normal ones are
    called accidentals. They are marked by the following signs.
    Sharps (n ),flats (m ) and natural (n )

    Sharps
    Look at the notes below and listen to them being played on a piano or
    recorded device then do the following.

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    Activity 8
    1. Tell the sharpened note and explain why?
    2. Look at the notes again and identify the flat sign on the staff.
    3. Draw the sharp sign on a piece of paper.
    4. Discuss with the class your answers and find out whether you
    got the tasks above right.

    The sign that raises a note half step higher is known as a sharp. It
    looks like this (e
    ).

    Activity 9
    1. Observe the staff and identify the position of the sharp sign on
    the line and in space.
    2. Draw it in correctly in your exercise book.

    Activity 10
    1. Use your knowledge from senior one to name the spaces and
    lines where the sharp signs are.

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    Activity 11
    1. Draw a sharp in front of these notes.

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    Lesson 3: Flats
    Look at the notes below and listen to them being played on a piano or
    recorded device then do the following.

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    Activity 12
    1. Tell the flattened note and explain why.
    2. Look at the notes again and identify the flat sign on the staff.
    3. Draw the flat sign on a piece of paper.
    4. Discuss with the class your answers and find out whether you
    got the tasks above right.

    When you are singing some songs usually you find flats in music.
    The sign that lowers a note half step is known as a flat. It looks like
    this (m ).

    Activity 13
    1. Observe the staff again and identify the position of the flat sign
    on the line and in space.
    2. Draw it in correctly in your exercise book.

    Activity 14
    1. Use your knowledge of Senior One to name the spaces and
    lines where the flat signs are.

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    Activity 15
    1. Draw a flat in front of each of these notes.

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    Lesson 4: Natural
    Look at the notes below and listen to them being played on a piano or
    recorded device then do the following.

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    Activity 16
    1. Tell the naturalised notes and explain why.
    2. Look at the notes again and identify the natural sign on the
    staff.
    3. Draw the natural sign on a piece of paper.
    4. Discuss with the class your answers and find out whether you
    got the tasks above right.

    The sign that restores a note that was previously raised or lowered to
    its normal position is known as a natural. It looks like this (h ).
    Look at the following staff and do the activity that follows.

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    Activity 17
    1. Observe the staff and identify the position of the natural sign on
    the line and in space.
    2. Draw it correctly in your exercise book.

    Activity 18
    1. Restore the raised notes in the staff below using natural signs.

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    Activity 19
    1. Naturalise the sharpened notes on the staff.

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    Lesson 5: Keys and Key Signatures
    A key in music like the one for house doors is the starting note that
    guides us on to find the doh (starting note) on staff. Its what we call a
    key. Keys are represented by symbols known as key signatures. They

    are placed at the beginning of a piece of music like this. For a student
    to identify the key, they have to look at the signs (f)

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    Activity 20
    1. Place a sharp sign and a flat sign on each of the staff below.

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    Lesson 6: Construction of Keys
    In order to construct keys you need to know what a scale is.
    A scale is a series of notes arranged in alphabetical order from a given
    note to its octave. A scale can be started from any note from the staff.
    For our study we will start from the scale of C.

    Look at this scale

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    Activity 21
    1. Now construct your own scale of C.
    A scale can be divided into two equal parts of four notes each.
    Each of these parts is called a tetra chord (tetra to mean 4 notes).

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    The order of tones and semitones in a scale has to be like this:
    1st to 2nd is a tone
    2nd to 3rd is a tone
    3rd to 4th is a semitone
    4th to 5th is a tone
    5th to 6th is a tone
    6th to 7th is a tone
    7th to 8th is a semitone.

    This is represented on the staff like this

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    T = Tone
    ST = Semitone
    Hence C D E F G A B C
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    Sing the scale you have drawn in ascending and descending
    order.

    Activity 22
    1. Draw a on a treble clef and write a scale showing the two tetra
    chords as the above.
    From the second tetra chord you can form a new scale by just
    adding four notes to make a whole scale. Like this;

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    Then you only need a sharp sign on the third note of the new
    tetra chord to make the semitone occur in the proper place. i.e
    the semitones has to be between the 7th and 8th notes of the
    scale.
    Like this;

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    When we are writing the scale we put the sharp sign at the
    beginning of the staff like this:

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    What we have constructed is now called key G major.

    Activity 23
    1. Draw the staff with a scale G major.
    You can use the same procedure to form another scale

    3.2 Formation of major scales with Flats
    For the scales with flats, you take the fourth note of the first tetra chord
    as the starting note for the new scale and put a flat on the seventh note
    counting from the previous scale or the fourth note of the new scale.
    Like this

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    Activity 24
    1. Draw the staff with scale of F major.

    Activity 25
    1. Put key signatures needed to make the scales below F and G.

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    When you listen to the scales played in the two different keys of F and
    G, they will sound the same but with different ranges.

    Activity 26
    Listening and sol-fa singing
    1. Listen to the scale played in Key F and sing after it.
    2. Listen to the scale played in Key G and sing after it.
    3. Of the two scales which one sounded higher/had a higher
    range?

    End unit assessment
    1. Draw the accidental signs you have learnt in this unit.
    2. Name each of them and state their roles in music compositions.
    3. Explain the meaning of a key when studying music.
    4. Construct a major scale of G on a music staff.
    5. Construct a major scale of F on a music staff.

    Glossary
    An accidental: is a note of a pitch that is not a member of the
    scale indicated by a given key signature. They
    are either flattened or sharpened notes.
    Flats: is a sign which flattens/lowers a note.
    Key signature: is a set of sharps, flats and natural signs
    placed together on the music staff
    to determine the notes that are to be
    sung or played higher or lower than the
    corresponding normal notes
    Music Key: this is a group of pitches or scale upon which
    a music composition is made. It may be in a
    major or minor with a starting note (tonic) of
    either Doh in the major keys or La in the minor
    keys.
    Music note: is a sign used in staff notation to represent
    relative rhythm and pitch of sound.
    Natural: is a sign which normalises a raised note.
    Sharp: is a sign that raises a note.
    Tone: is a steady periodic sound.

  • Unit 3 :Sol-fa short scores

    Objectives
    By the end of this unit, I will be able to:
    ⦿ Know to sol-fa many songs.
    ⦿ Perform songs to the audience.
    ⦿ Teach the songs to the peers.
    ⦿ Create short song to demonstrate the use of sol-fa.
    ⦿ Sing with others in public.
    ⦿ Demonstrate self control.
    ⦿ Discover my own potentials.

    Introduction
    In this unit you have got an opportunity to sing various short songs in
    sol-fas and words on various themes. Performance is the final output
    of a musician or a performing artist in general. These songs that we
    are going to sing will give you an opportunity to exploit your talent as a
    singer, and an upcoming music professional.

    Lesson 1: Domestic violence
    Warm up
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    Activity 1
    1. Breath control is quite important to every musician. Therefore,
    breath in and hold the air in your lungs and release out the air
    slowly by slowly. Do this five times.
    2. Sing the sol-fa scale upwards and downwards many times.
    3. Read the lyrics/poem of the song below and find out what the
    song is about.

    Say No to Violence
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    Activity 2
    1. Sol-fa the song correctly “Say No to Violence.
    2. Match the sol-fa with the lyrics/words.
    3. Sing the song many times to memorise it.
    4. Sing as you clap with a steady beat.
    5. Now prepare the stage and perform to the class as a group.
    Allow your friends to comment on your performance skills so
    that you can know where you can improve.

    Activity 3
    1. Identify your own song on the theme domestic violence and
    teach it to your friends.

    Lesson 2: Poverty eradication
    Poverty eradication is the effort put in by people to remove poverty so
    that they become rich and have better standards of living.
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    Warm up
    Do some arm stretches, bend up and down many times and massage
    the neck.
    Sing the sol-fa scale in an ascending and descending order for about
    three times.

    Activity 4
    1. Sing the following song on the theme of poverty eradication as
    you perfect your ability to sol-fa sing using the activities that
    will follow.

    Poverty eradication
    nActivity 5
    1. Sol-fa the song correctly “Poverty eradication.
    2. Match the sol-fa with the lyrics/words.
    3. Sing the song many times to memorise it.
    4. Sing as you clap with a steady beat.
    5. Now prepare the stage and perform to the class as a group.
    Allow your friends to comment on your performance skills so
    that you can know where you can improve.

    Activity 6
    1. What does the song say poverty is?
    2. Identify what the song says should be done in order to eradicate
    poverty.
    3. In your own view, does hard work alone eradicate poverty? Yes
    or no. Support your answer. What other things can be done?

    Activity 7
    1. Identify a song on the theme Poverty eradication and teach it to
    your friends.

    Lesson 3: Saving money and time
    Money is a medium of exchange. We need it to buy whatever we want
    including services. We always need time to make money.

    Activity 8
    1. Discuss what you understand by the words saving money and
    time.
    2. What is the opposite of saving?
    3. How do we always waste time and money?
    4. What do you miss when you waste time?
    5. What is the effect of misuse or not saving money?
    6. What should we do in order to stop wasting time and money?

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    Warm up
    Sing the first five notes of the scale {d r m f s}in ascending and
    descending order in different keys.
    In groups, sing the following song on the theme of saving money and
    time as you perfect your ability to sol-fa sing using the activities that
    will follow.
    Saving money, Save time

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    Activity 9
    1. What does the song say about saving money and time?
    2. Identify what the song says that should be done in order to save
    time and money.
    3. In your own view is it necessary to save time and money?
    support your answer.

    Activity 10
    1. Since you have learnt about saving money and time, identify
    another song and teach it to your friends, then present to the
    class.
    2. Compose your own simple song on the theme ‘saving money
    and time’.

    Lesson 4: Good relationship
    Relationship is the way in which people or groups behave towards each
    other. This may be between our family members, fellow schoolmates,
    teachers, fellow workers, leaders, the poor and the rich, between
    villages and countries. We need to behave well and love one another
    by helping each other with what we have that they do not have. You
    also need to make peace with them by asking for forgiveness if we
    offend (annoy) them as well as accept their apologies when they do
    wrong to us too. This is what is called good relationship; which results
    into peace and a better world for us all to live in. Therefore we should
    always work for it by making many friends, not enemies.

    m
    Activity 11
    1. Discuss what you understand by the word friendship?
    2. What is the opposite of friendship?
    3. Friendship results into good relationships. Why do you think so?
    4. There are many benefits of good relationships. List some of
    them.
    5. Give some examples of bad relationships.
    6. Why should you avoid bad relationships?
    7. Why is it necessary for you to have good relationship with other
    countries?

    Warm up
    Sing the first five notes of the scale {d r m f s} in ascending and
    descending order in different keys.
    In groups, sing the following song on the theme Good relationships as
    you perfect your ability to sol-fa sing using the activities that will follow.

    Friends on the Way
    m
    n

    Activity 12
    1. Sol-fa the song correctly “Friends on the Way”
    2. Match the sol-fa with the lyrics/words.
    3. Sing the song many times to memorise it.
    4. Sing as you clap with a steady beat.
    5. Now prepare the stage and perform to the class as a group.
    Allow your friends to comment on your performance skills so
    that you can know where you can improve.

    Activity 13
    1. What does the song say about friendship?
    2. In your own view, is it necessary to be in good relationships
    with other people?

    Activity 14
    1. Identify a song on the theme of Good relationship, learn and
    teach it to your friends and present it to the class

    Lesson 5: Unity and Reconciliation
    As Rwandans we need to recall our genocide history of 1994 whose
    perpetrators against the Tutsi were discriminative, practiced tribal
    divisions and regionalism. This led to massive losses of lives and
    property. Widows, widowers, orphans and friends were separated from
    their dear ones for ever. This caused anger, sadness and misery. It is
    therefore vital that Rwandans forgive each other. We have to reconcile
    with one another and unite in order to build Rwanda together as a
    better country for all of us to live in.
    m
    Activity 15
    1. Discuss what you understand by the phrase unity and
    reconciliation.
    2. What is the opposite of unity?
    3. Where is unity needed?
    4. List some of the things that stop people from being in unity/
    united.
    5. Every time we annoy others we need to feel sorry and apologise.
    This is called reconciliation. Why do we need to reconcile with
    others?

    Unity and reconciliation
    There is need for people to live together in love and friendship. This
    enables working together. In the process, much work can be done in
    a short time which would rather not be completed by one person in a
    short time. This follows the saying, ‘United we stand and divided we
    fall.’ However, since man is weak and is always making mistakes that
    can annoy another person, there is always need to forgive and make
    peace with them. This is what we mean by unity and reconciliation.
    Sing the song below about unity and reconciliation.

    Unity and Reconciliation
    m
    Activity 16
    1. What does the song say about unity and reconciliation? Do you
    agree with the composer’s message? If yes, give your reasons.
    2. The song mentions the history of Rwanda Genocide of 1994
    perpetuated against the Tutsi. Discuss what happened.
    3. Genocide should never happen again, so we need to forgive
    and reconcile with each other and look forward to building our
    nation for a better future. Mention at least four things which
    you can do in order to achieve this.

    Activity 17
    1. Identify a song on the theme of Unity and Reconciliation. Learn
    and teach it to your friends and present it to the class.

    Lesson 6: Religion
    Activity 18
    1. Discuss what you understand by the word religion?
    2. Do you belong to any religion? Which one and when do they
    worship?
    3. In your opinion what do you think religions are doing right and
    wrong?
    4. Suggest solutions to what is done wrongly in religions.

    Warm up
    Sing the first five notes of the scale {d r m f s} four times in ascending
    and descending order on different keys.
    Sing the scale in ascending and descending order using key C,D E F G.

    Religion
    In Rwanda, most people are Christians, Muslims and others
    traditionalists who believe in African traditional gods and the spirits of
    the dead ancestors.
    The purpose of these groups (religions) is for human beings to worship,
    praise and pray to God or the ancestors for blessings and avoid curses.
    They believe that God created them. People believe that to have a
    happy life, we have to respect God and if we do not do so, we are to
    suffer due to his punishment called a curse. Religion does many things
    including uniting us since we believe that He is our only creator and
    father. Hence children of the same family blessed by our father – God.
    Sing the song below about religion to learn more about it.

    We are One in God
    m
    Activity 19
    1. Sol-fa the song correctly “We are One in God.”
    2. Match the sol-fa with the lyrics/words.
    3. Sing the song many times to memorise it.
    4. Sing as you clap with a steady beat.
    5. Now prepare the stage and perform to the class as a group.
    Allow your friends to comment on your performance skills so
    that you can know where you can improve.

    Activity 20
    1. What does the song say about religion?
    2. Identify the two religions mentioned in the song. Mention others
    that are not mentioned.
    3. What does the song advice the believers to do in order to show
    that they love their God. What else should they do?
    4. In your own view, is it necessary to belong to a religion? Support
    your answer.

    Activity 21
    1. Identify a song on the theme of Religion learn and teach it to
    your friends and present to the class.

    End unit assessment
    1. What do you understand by the following themes:
    a) Domestic violence
    b) Poverty eradication
    c) Saving time and money
    d) Good relationship
    e) Unity and reconciliation
    f) Religion
    2. Collect songs on each of the themes above and perform them in a
    school or class concert.
    3. Compose your own song using one of the themes above.
    4. Why do we need to compose thematic songs?

    Glossary
    Breath control:             to breath with ease as you sing.

    Descending order:       this is opposite of the ascending order.
                                            It means the gradual movement of
                                            pitches from the highest to the lowest
                                            when we are singing or writing them
                                           such as d t l s f m r d instead of d r
                                           m f s l t d which is referred to as the
                                           ascending order.

    Opportunity:              a chance to do something.

    Own view:                 personal way of thinking about
                                       something.

    Sol-fa:                        is a method of learning, writing and
                                      reading music using letter symbols such
                                      as d, r m, f, s, l, t, d.




  • Unit 4: Composing and Performing Sketches in English or French

    Objectives
    By the end of this unit, I will be able to:
    ⦿ Know the structure of a sketch.
    ⦿ Know how to differentiate a sketch from a story.
    ⦿ Convert a story into a sketch.
    ⦿ Imitate the characters according to the story.
    ⦿ Compose a sketch.
    ⦿ Act out a sketch before an audience.

    Introduction
    As noted in Senior One, drama is a product of a story. Probably you
    cannot compose a sketch without a story. A story is a narration of
    events or happenings. These events are always full of exaggerated or
    interesting actions and feelings exposed through the words used by the
    characters in the stories. It is from these aspects that we are able to
    compose and act out sketches and eventually get drama pieces.

    Writing sketch and acting them out
    Since you already know that a sketch has got a structure which has
    a beginning event, middle and ending event. You also need to know
    that a story also has the same structure. In addition a story also has
    characters and place and time settings which should also be considered
    in a sketch. However some parts of stories such as descriptions are
    not needed when you are creating a sketch out of a story instead you
    have to bring out these descriptions through the behaviours that the
    characters portray as they act.

    Structure of a sketch
    You should realise that from the activities you have done, you have
    can now develop a longer sketch with three major parts. That is the
    introduction part 1 the middle part or climax part 2 and 3 and part 4
    the conclusion which has provided the end. This is called the structure
    of a sketch.

    Lesson 1: Composition of sketch in English
    Theme 1: Love
    Activity 1
    One of the themes for our drama sketch is love
    1. As you read the story list the domestic chores that Steven did
    to show love to his mother; explain what love means.
    2. What is the opposite of love?

    Instruction:
    Read the story below about Steven and do the activities that follow in
    order to learn how to compose and act out sketches in English.

    Part 1
    Every morning, after helping his mother in the garden, Steven could
    milk gaju, their spotted cow, and take it to the pastures with Lando
    the playful calf. He would then fill some jerrycans with water and take
    them home in a wheelbarrow that he had made out of short poles and
    ball bearings.

    One day he walked slowly towards the big umuvumu tree at the edge
    of Ngarama Primary School and sat down. He leaned against its brown
    truck, dropped his face in his hands and cried like a baby.

    “God, why have you forgotten me? My father is sick with AIDS, and
    my poor mother cannot get enough money for fees. God, why did you
    make me pass my Primary Leaving Examinations, yet you knew that I
    am a poor woman’s child?” he cried until his shoulders shook.

    Teacher Niyonzima, his former class teacher and teacher of the drama
    club, saw Steven seated against the tree in hot sun and walked over
    to him. He called, “Steven! I have been observing you for the last one
    week. You come here, then you sit and cry. Is it your father’s sickness
    that is worrying you?”

    “My father has been feeling a little better of late,” he responded.
    “Thank God!”

    “But that is not what is worrying me. I want to go to school, Teacher
    Niyonzima, but I have failed to get fees.”

    “The last time we talked, you said you had written to your uncle in
    Kigali about your problem, hasn’t he replied yet?”

    “Uncle John wrote back. I have his letter here,” he said, pulling a
    khaki envelope out of the back pocket of his faded blue jeans. Teacher
    Niyonzima read the letter. In the letter, Uncle John said he could only
    provide accommodation for Steven as a day scholar because he was
    paying a loan he borrowed for his wife’s funeral expenses. He did not
    have money to help with fees. Teacher Niyonzima gave him back the
    letter, scratched his head and looked up at the sky.

    “What can I do to help this young man?” the teacher thought. Then
    something came to his mind. “Steven, we are preparing to go to Kigali
    to represent Rubavu District in the schools National Music, Dance and
    Drama Festival. What do you think about joining us?”

    Steven’s face lit up like the morning sky and he replied, “That is good
    Teacher. I have never been to Kigali before. But…” he hesitated. “What
    can I do? I am no longer a pupil of Ngarama School!”

    Pulling him up by the hand, the teacher assured him, “Do not worry.
    You have always been a very well behaved boy. Come along with me
    to the headmaster’s office. I will talk to him. You can repeat P.6 and if
    you perform very well, you might win a scholarship. You can register
    with us and re-sit Primary 6.”

    n

    Activity 2
    Developing a sketch on the theme of love
    You already know what love is. Read part two of the story and do
    the following
    1. Use the knowledge of setting from Senior One and identify it
    from the story.
    2. Identify the two characters in Part two of the story.
    3. Pick out their speech/dialogue, learn it.
    4. Act out the conversation which the two hard using interesting
    actions, voice changes and facial expressions.
    5. Suggest the costumes and props which you could use to make
    the sketch more interesting
    6. Use the costumes and act out your skit/sketch to your friends,
    then after wards allow them to comment on what you did best
    and where to improve.

    Part 2
    Teacher Niyonzima knew that Steven was very gifted in the performing
    arts. He could act just about any role. Once he acted the part of an old
    man, then that of a baby, another time that of Ninja and then that of a
    talking cow. His acting was excellent.

    Activity 3
    Developing Acting skills
    1. Just like Steven try to imitate an old man who is annoyed with
    children who have stolen his mangoes.

    He got many certificates which he hung on the wall of his grassthatched
    hut. So when Teacher Niyonzima introduced the matter to
    the headmaster, he asked if there was a role he could take.
    “Yes, Teacher Niyonzima,” Mugabo replied. “Kamali, a Primary Six
    boy who was taking the lead part, lost his mother yesterday. We have
    only a few days left.
    When he was given his role, Steven mastered it within two days.
    Teacher Niyonzima was very happy with him.

    Ngaboyisonga was happy for his son too, and Ineza, Steven’s mother,
    danced when Steven told her that he was back in school and that they
    would be going to Kigali the next day.

    m

    “My son, be very careful when you go to Kigali. Make sure you look
    careful before crossing the road. You are all I have. This money,”
    she added, giving him 2,500 francs from her bra, “keep it in your
    socks. Keep it away from thieves (pick pockets). It will help you in
    emergencies.”

    Activity 4
    Composing own sketches
    1. In small groups create a sketch out of the part of the story
    above.
    2. Choose a role in the sketch and create the words for the
    character.
    3. Rehearse your sketch and act it out before the audience.
    4. Allow the audience to correct you so that you can improve.

    Part 3
    After a day’s long journey, Steven and the school mates arrived in Kigali
    city and they were taken to Kanombe school where accommodation
    had been prepared for them.

    Kanombe was a stone’s throw from the national theatre. They walked
    in single file. Soon they were ready and waiting backstage when
    teacher Rukundo John, the master of ceremonies, announced, “And
    now ladies and gentlemen, lets welcome the wise men and women
    from the Ngarama Primary School, with the traditional Intore dance.”

    Steven at once developed stage fright. His heart was beating like a
    drum. “I have to do it. How can I come all the way from Ngarama to
    make a fool of myself in the capital city of my country? I have to do it!
    He breathed in and out and smiled to himself.

    Then he saw giant curtains, tall as a tree and wider than a hut, parting
    in the middle. One part went to the left, and the other to the right, and
    yet he could not see anybody moving them. He wondered whether it
    was a ghost moving the curtains.

    “Look in front of you Steven,” teacher’s quiet voice came in from one
    side. After overcoming the stage fright, the boys and girls of Ngarama
    were soon shaking their bodies like they had no bones. They moved
    their heads, shook their shoulders, twisted their waists, bent their
    knees and pushed back their buttocks like the wasps in the swamps.

    m

    During the climax, while shaking only his shoulders and keeping his
    buttocks raised like a lonely wingless white ant. Steven danced around
    the drummers at first. Then he started moving backwards towards
    the audience, shaking his shoulders rhythmically. When he reached
    the edge of the stage, the audience screamed because they feared he
    would fall off. Steven thought they were cheering his good dancing. So
    he started dancing backwards like a night dancer, enjoying his own
    act. Within seconds, he had slipped off the stage and landed on the
    top of the orchestra pit. The whole audience went still.

    For some time, Steven did not know what had happened to him and
    his dance or even how he had ended up sitting among the audience.
    Then he realised that he had fallen down but he did not want to show
    that he had made a mistake. So he started shaking his shoulders while
    still seated, as he had been doing before he fell. He got onto his feet
    and continued dancing upstage, and the Intore drum resumed. The
    audience went wild. They yelled for more. And the boys of Ngarama
    drummed and danced wildly as they went offstage. Steven and his
    team were rewarded with prolonged clapping. He did it really well.
    Teacher Niyonzima was so happy that he brought him a big bottle of
    soda.

    Activity 5
    Acting out feelings
    1. A good actor/actress should be able to act out feelings outwardly.
    Try out to act how Steven felt when they were called upon to
    get on the stage.
    2. Present to your friends so that you see how different their
    gestures/body use and facial expressions are different.
    3. Act out the event of the dance which took place on the stage
    4. Did the teacher love Steven? Yes or No. Why do you say so?

    “And the best overall performer at this year’s Music, Dance and Drama
    festival is a humble boy from Ngarama Primary School called Steven.”
    That did it. There was deafening clapping as Steven stood up.
    “That is the one I told you about,” a voice shouted.
    “He deserves it,” another responded.

    “That boy is a dance wizard. I have never seen anything shake itself
    like he did,” another one added.

    “Order, ladies and gentlemen! Steven, step forward and take your
    prize and certificate,” said the masters of ceremonies. The moment
    he got on the stage, cameras flashed like a thousand fireflies. Teacher
    Niyonzima screamed, running onto the stage: “Yes my boy! And it is
    me who trained him.” He lifted Steven’s shoulders high, and danced
    with him backstage, then outside.

    The children of Ngarama followed their teacher, screaming their
    lungs out. When they reached outside, Steven jumped down from the
    teacher’s shoulders and started running in excitement. Some of the
    boys and girls screamed, others running after him.

    “Children you have been good ambassadors. Although you will not
    come first, second or even tenth, you have represented our school and
    our district well,” teacher Niyonzima shouted as he continued dancing.

    “Thank you Teacher for training us and for bringing us to Kigali,” one
    child said.

    “And thank you also for behaving well. I have already talked to the
    headmaster on his mobile phone. They are waiting for us at the District
    Education Officer’s office in Nyagatare. So let’s return to Kanombe
    ready to take home the good news.

    There was maddening noise.

    “We should make you the headmaster,” one shouted

    “No we make him the Member of Parliament,” another said

    “Bring us back next year!” another said.

    Steven somersaulted three times before landing on his feet.

    There was a great deal of noise. The children were like weaver birds.
    A crowd was formed. The teacher had to shout in order to have them
    move to Kanombe. He and Steven caught up with them latter because
    the reporters from leading radio stations, news papers, and television
    needed to interview them. They asked about the school, about Steven,
    about who his parents were and about, what they did for a living. They
    asked many questions. Teacher Niyonzima tried to answer them as
    best as he could. When they finished they found a group waiting for
    them.

    m

    In Ngarama, they were met by the headmaster and the District
    Education Officer (DEO) the following day, who congratulated them.
    Then the District Education Officer turned to Steven. “And young man,
    congratulations for the scholarship you have won yourself,” he said,
    stretching out his hand to Steven.

    “Sir, it was a dictionary and a certificate of merit that I got,” he tried
    to clarify.

    “Come on young man, are you behind the news? It is all there!” he
    said, showing him The New times newspaper.

    “Even the New Vision has it as the lead article,” the headmaster added
    with the smile that touched both his ears. It read: GOOD ACTING
    WINS STEVEN A SCHOLARSHIP. There were wild cheers from his
    group mates. People from neighbouring offices came to have a look at
    and shake hands with Steven, the wonder boy.

    Lesson 2: Juvenile delinquency

    Bad behaviour by young people is what is called juvenile delinquency.
    Activity 6
    Sharing experiences
    1. Mention some bad behaviours that young people do both at
    school and home.
    2. Have you ever been involved in any of them? What happened
    after? Do you feel bad or good about it. Yes or No. Why?
    3. How can these behaviours be prevented?

    Instruction:
    Read the story below about Steven and do the activities that follow in
    order to create a sketch and act out it.

    After the Music, dance and drama competitions in Kigali, Steven got
    a scholar ship and joined secondary school. On his first day at The
    Lord is Able Secondary school, Steven was warmly welcomed by the
    Deputy Headmaster. After that, Steven and Monica his cousin went to
    the dormitory allocated to him.

    As soon as they arrived in his dormitory a thin boy with narrow eyes
    and baggy trousers jumped to the verandah and shouted. “Halt! This
    is the quarter guard for suicide Base 599. Show me your gate pass!”
    Steven was confused. “We have to search your things. You might be a
    terrorist.” Then he turned and said, “Military police, advance!” a group
    of boys sprang from inside the dorm and pulled his belongings into the
    dormitory.

    “And next time do not come along with your wife to the barracks,”
    another boy yelled, pointing a finger in the face.

    “But she is my cousin!” Steven protested.

    “That is even better,” the thin boy said, moving towards Monica. “This
    is a barracks, so I will have to drill you. Are you single or married? I
    want nothing but the whole truth,”
    Monica took cover behind Steven. “Do I look like I have AIDS?” he said,
    reaching out to pull her.

    The other boys shouted, “Commander Advance!”

    Some of the boys were already eating the grub from Steven’s box. They
    ate most of the grub but did not finish it. The ‘commander’ attempted
    to pull Monica into the dorm and she screamed. Steven pushed the
    ‘commander’ off. The other boys, all of them in Senior Two, fell silent
    because they knew that the thin boy was going to fight Steven.

    “Hey, watch out! A police dog!” said a student, pointing to his left.
    There was a prefect coming. They all dived into the dormitory and
    acted innocent. Steven explained everything to the prefect and the
    prefect apologised.

    “Bullying is not allowed in this school. Those who attempt to bully and
    are caught are severely punished.” He then asked Steven to point them
    out; he touched one head after another. The perfect wrote down their
    names and told them to see him after prep. Monica bid Steven farewell
    and ran back home.

    That evening, when Steven returned from a ‘short call,’ he found his
    bed sheets missing and someone had urinated in his mug. “Who has
    taken my bed sheets?” he asked.

    “I have borrowed them,” the thin boy boasted. “In fact, you will be
    lending me the sheets every evening and every morning remember
    to pick them up for washing. So from today onwards you will be the
    commander’s official wife,” the dormitory roared with laughter.

    “And as for your blanket,” another shouted, “it will be my pillow!” and
    they laughed again. Steven cried like a baby. He regretted coming to
    school. He wished he were at home with his mother. Steven covered
    himself with a shirt and tried to sleep.

    m

    As he went for breakfast the following morning a boy stopped and

    asked him: “What is your name?”

    “Steven Karangwa,” he answered politely.

    “What?” he asked.
    Steven repeated, “Steven!”

    Okay, said the boy. So in case someone annoys you, just walk away and
    inform me.” When Steven tried to walk away, the bullies surrounded
    him.

    ‘Commander’ asked “why did you report us yesterday? Now as
    punishment, take these fifty Rwandan francs and go to the canteen;
    and bring me a loaf of bread, two sodas, three sausages, four eggs
    and queen cake. And do not forget to bring back my change,” the boy
    concluded.

    “Eeeh…, how can I buy the whole canteen with just fifty Rwandan
    francs ?” Steven asked, feeling confused, as the thin boy tried to push
    Steven. Another boy, one with a ring in his ear walked in, grabbed
    ‘commander’, by the collar and flung him two meters away. The others

    scattered. These two in Senior Two were always fighting. Jimmy for
    that was his name, warned, “Next time you touch my friend I will flush
    you down the toilet.”

    Steve had never met this Jimmy before. How can he call me his
    friend? He wondered. But because he had saved him, he accepted his
    friendship, and soon Jimmy had eaten the rest of the grub that Steven
    had brought, in return, he gave Steven protection.

    Activity 7
    Developing a sketch on the theme juvenile delinquency
    1. What does the story say about the boys?
    2. What is the right thing they should have done?
    3. Identify the bad behaviour revealed in this text.
    3. Identify the beginning, middle and ending event.
    4. Identify the characters and choose a role you will act out.
    5. Rehearse your sketch with a speech/dialogue and act it out
    before an audience.
    6. Allow the audience to correct you so that you can improve.
    7. Which type of sketch is this you came up with?

    Project work
    Find another story of your own choice about Juvenile Delinquency
    and develop a sketch from it. Give out character roles, rehearse
    and act out to the audience.

    Lesson 3: Drug abuse and Alcoholism
    Introduction
    Drugs used as medicine are useful to help us be cured from diseases.
    However if it is used for consumption for fun to get drunk it becomes
    poisonous to our bodies.

    Activity 8
    1. Name some drugs and alcohol types that you know.
    2. What are the symptoms and characteristics of people who
    abuse drugs and take much alcohol?

    Instruction:
    Read the following part of the story about how Jimmy taught Steven to
    become a drug abuser and alcoholic

    School was quite interesting to Steven, bright and excelling in both
    performing arts and class work. One day his friend Jimmy persuaded
    him to escape out of school to go to town to meet his friends

    “Who are these friends of yours? What do they do?” Steven would ask
    Jimmy.
    “They have color, real money. They go to Dubai every week. They
    like young people. Let us go and meet them tonight! Let us go for
    adventure man,” he insisted.

    “I do not have permission,” Steven declined. The following morning
    Jimmy brought some cakes, which he gave to Steven. After taking the
    first bite, he realised the cake tasted funny, and he threw it away. He
    started feeling dizzy. He felt the world slopping and his feet felt light.
    He was confused.

    “Come on! It is made out of a special wine,” Jimmy lied and took
    Steven behind the school toilet. He gave him a magazine. It was full of
    obscene pictures, it had naked men and women, some having sex. It
    was pornographic magazine!

    Steven was curious. “Who gave you this magazine?” he asked.
    “Mamie and her friends. They said I should give it to you.”

    During the term Steven would sell his grub and exercise books and use
    all his pocket money to buy alcohol and cigarettes. He did not want to
    go to the village during the holidays to help his mother in the gardens.
    He wanted to be with Jimmy.

    In class, Steven could not concentrate. He was always thinking of films
    and cigarettes and alcohol. Even as he walked alone, he would stop
    along the road, jump in the air and say, “yaaa chup, chup chup chup,
    yaaah chup!” then he would somersault before landing Ninja style.

    One day when his mother called him Karangwa. He shouted at her
    “That is not a name for Generation X. Call me Stevo” he said to his
    mother. His mother could not understand what had happened to her
    son. She complained but he did not care.

    “Stevo, you are so fashioned!” Jimmy praised him.

    Among his peers he was called Stevo the Rhombus because of walking
    on his toes when drunk. At school he became quite popular but for the
    bad things he did. He was also proud. Girls started giggling at him and
    some jealous boys threatened him: “Do you think that because you
    are Stevo the Rhombus you will take away our girls.” Although Steven
    did not have a girl friend, they felt threatened. But Jimmy was always
    there for him. He would drag such boys behind the school toilet and
    punch them into silence.

    Steven no longer read. Soon his academic performance started declining.
    One day the class teacher called him and asked him, “Steven, why is
    your performance becoming poor?”

    Steven claimed that being an orphan, he had no pocket money and
    this was affecting him and the teacher gave him five thousand Rwanda
    francs, Steven used this money to by opium, cigarettes and alcohol

    When he came to the end of the second year, the headmaster called
    him and warned him: how can you fail from the first position in class
    to the second last? Do you realise that you were number 105 out of
    106 students and with 50 out 1,200 marks? My friend, if you do not
    get serious, I will consider withdrawing the scholarship.”

    The head master openly warned him at the end-of-year assembly. Many
    of the teachers and students wondered what could have happened to
    Steven.

    (Adapted from Fountain Junior Living Youth Series, “The Great Temptation”, by Patrick Mangani)

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    Activity 9
    1. Create a sketch from any event in the above story.
    2. Identify the characters and choose a role you will act out
    3. Identify the setting and create it.
    4. Rehearse your sketch with your own words.
    5. Identify the costumes and props that will make your acting
    interesting.
    6. Allow the audience to correct you so that you can improve.
    7. Which type of sketch is this you came up with?

    Lesson 4: Fidelity
    Have you ever heard of the word fidelity?
    This is being kind, faithful, trustworthy, good to your friends and
    every other person.

    Read the following story and study how to compose sketches and
    acting them out on the theme of fidelity. However, before you can read
    choose from these statements which one means fidelity.

    Activity 10
    1. Choose one answer that is correct to mean fidelity.
    a) Having one wife.
    b) To love and hate.
    c) To be good, faithful, loving, trust worthy to your friends or
    wife or husband.
    d) To be holy.
    2. Discuss your answer with friends.

    While she was still talking to George, she saw Kwezi. Kwezi was
    covering her eyes and Mrs Rukondo walked straight to her desk. “You
    do not seem to be fine. Are you? Why are you crying?”

    m

    There was silence in class. The pupils who had seen her cry all wanted
    to know why she was crying.

    Before Kwezi could answer, Mrs Rukondo saw the notes that she had
    scribbled and asked more questions. “What is this you are writing?
    Why are you not using your Maths book?”

    Kwezi did not answer but cried even more. Her eyelids were growing
    big like those of a tadpole. Her eyes were very red because of crying.

    While Mrs Rukondo rushed to the blackboard, Kayitesi, one of Kwezi’s
    friends, passed over a note to Kwezi asking for pardon in case she was
    the one who had made her unhappy. “I am sorry Kwezi, if I disturbed
    you while we were having breakfast,” the note read. Kwezi read the
    note and quickly dropped it in her school bag. She never answered it
    but only gazed politely at Kayitesi.

    Mrs Rukondo gave the pupils a sudden revision test. “I want you to
    follow the instructions written on the board,” she said. “After one hour,
    you will hand in your work to the class monitor, who will take it to the
    staffroom. You are free to go after that.”

    She stood by the door and watched the pupils pull out their pencils,
    pens and papers as they got ready for the test. Kwezi was moving
    about the class asking friends to help her with paper and a pencil yet
    she had them already on her desk.

    Kwezi was unable to do the test. She looked very weak and confused.
    Mrs Rukondo walked out of class with Kwezi and asked her what the
    matter was. Kwezi was very frightened and said nothing. The teacher
    took her to the school canteen and asked her what she wished to eat.

    Kwezi first kept quiet for a while and then said, “Fanta.” “And what?”
    Mrs Rukondo asked. “And biscuits,” Kwezi said. “Kwezi, tell me,” Mrs
    Rukondo insisted. “I am your teacher. I love you so much, do not
    be afraid to tell me. Look here Kwezi, I am here to help. I will not
    hurt you. Whatever the matter is, I am sure you will get over it,” Mrs
    Rukondo said while Kwezi ate her ice cream.

    “Ju-ju-just after we had bu-bu-buried my mother,” Kwezi burst out and
    started crying loudly. She stood up and sat down again. Mrs Rukondo
    put Kwezi on her lap saying, “Take heart my daughter and stop crying.
    All will be well.” Both of them were quiet for some time before Mrs
    Rukondo spoke again. “So, what happened?” she asked.

    “It was just after we had buried my mother in the banana plantation in
    the village,” Kwezi began the story afresh. “I was in the house alone,
    resting on grandmama’s bed when Daddy’s friend, Mr Nzozi, tiptoed
    into my room. And everyone on the hill knows he has AIDS.”

    m

    “Eeee! What time was it?” Mrs Rukondo asked.

    “I do not remember. All I know is that it was in the evening but it was
    not yet dark outside.”

    “So, what happened, did he do anything?”

    “Yes, he told me not to scream and said that if I made any noise, I
    would not be his friend any more or he would even kill me. I was so,
    so scared that I felt dizzy. Mr Nzozi held me down with his strong
    arms and brought his body close to mine while spreading my legs
    apart.” Kwezi held on to Mrs Rukondo’s shoulder and said, “I was in
    terrible pain, I screamed so Mr Nzozi closed my mouth with his hand.
    I thought that I was dying. I could not easily move so I stayed on the
    bed for some time. When I got up, Mr Nzozi had disappeared from the
    room.”

    “I am sorry my daughter,” Mrs Rukondo said in a tearful voice. “Did
    anyone come to help?” she asked.

    “No, no one was at home,” Kwezi answered.

    “So what did you do?” asked Mrs Rukondo.

    “It was after I had seen my skirt all stained with blood that I ran to my
    mother’s grave to tell her. But Mama was silent,” Kwezi began to shed
    more tears.

    “Shooo! Do not cry, I’m sure your mother heard. Did you also go to the
    police?” Mrs Rukondo asked.

    “You know it’s one of the government’s regulations that such cases be
    reported to the police or even to the local area leaders.

    “No, I did not,” Kwezi replied.

    “Did you ever go to the doctor?”

    “Not at all. Mummy is the one who always took me but this time as I
    told you she was silent.”

    Mrs Rukondo and Kwezi agreed to go to the doctor for a check-up and
    she was told to come back after four days for her results. Kwezi did not
    tell anyone about the results.

    (Adapted from Fountain Junior Living Youth Series, How Kwezi
    Got Into Trouble, by Loice Busingye)

    Activity 11
    In small groups
    1. What is the story about?
    2. What shows that
    (i) Mrs. Rukondo was full of fidelity.
    (ii) Mr. Nzozi was not with fidelity.
    (iii) Who do you admire of the two. Mrs Rukondo or Nzozi?
    (iv) What lessons do you learn from?

    Using our first theme of love you learnt that a sketch has got a structure
    which has a beginning event, middle and ending event. Read Kwezi’s
    story again and do the following activity

    Activity 12
    1. Compose a sketch out of Kwezi’s story.
    2. Identify the characters and choose a role you will act out.
    3. Rehearse your sketch with a speech/dialogue in English or
    French and act it out before the audience.
    4. Allow the audience to correct you so that you can improve.
    5 Which type of sketch is this you came up with?

    Lesson 5: Peace Building
    Every person has a responsibility to contribute to bringing peace to our
    homes, villages, regions or provinces and the entire country. Everybody
    must ensure that there are no conflicts and wars among the people
    living together. This is known as peace building. In Rwanda, every
    Rwandan has a duty to bring peace to their villages and the entire
    country.

    Activity 13
    1. Name some crimes and punishments given to the criminals.
    2. Do you know anyone who has contributed to peace building in
    either your family, village, region or country?
    3. What did they do to build peace?
    4. What can we learn from them and also do towards peace
    building?

    We can create a drama by imitating real situations. Use this activity
    to do so.

    Activity 14
    Imagine you have caught a cow thief in your village:
    1. Organise an Abunzi (Mediation committee)
    2. Divide yourselves and share roles such as;
    a) a thief                                              b) judge
    c) villagers in attendance                     d) owner of cow
    3. Act out a court session.
    Note: Bring out the voice tone, facial and body expression, the
    appropriate movements expected in a court scene.
    4. Perform to the class and allow them to tell you where you need
    to improve.

    Lesson 6: Gahigi The great hunter
    Instruction:
    Read the following folk story and do the activities that will follow to
    enable you to write sketches to short play

    Once upon a time, there lived a man called Gahigi. Gahigi was a very
    famous hunter. He had a big family of ten wives, one hundred and
    twenty children and one hundred and eighty grandchildren. This big
    family lived in one big homestead. Each wife had her own round big
    hut and the family lived a happy life. Because of his hunting, Gahigi
    was a very rich man. Since he was the most successful hunter in so
    many villages, he used to bring home a lot of meat. Those who wanted
    to buy the meat would give him cows, goats, sheep and cowries in
    exchange for the meat. That is how he became very rich.

    In all the surrounding villages, everybody knew what a brave hunter
    Gahigi was. Stories were told of how he had been attacked by ferocious
    lions not once, not twice but many times and how he had killed them
    all.

    One day he had a big kill. His heartbeat quickening with worry, he doubled
    his pace and soon reached his homestead. He was struck by the silence
    there. There was no one in sight, no boy or girl, no woman or man.

    He quickly, called out the names of his wives but nobody answered
    him. He threw the carcass down and quickly moved to the hut of his
    first wife. He was struck by the skin which she usually wore. It was

    bloodstained and lay in a heap near the entrance. Alarmed, he ran to
    each of the other huts and was met with the same picture. He was now
    like a mad man frantically moving around the homestead. His three
    dogs, sensing calamity, closely followed on the heels of their master,
    anxious. There was not a single soul in the homestead.

    Gahigi dashed to the kraal – not a single cow could be seen. Madly, he
    rashed to the sheep pen. Nothing – No goat, no chicken. The whole
    village had been eaten up by the orgre.

    He then stood in the middle of the homestead, threw off the skin that
    covered his chest, tore at his hair and let out a fearsome wail.

    “The ogre! It has eaten all my children, wives, grandchildren, my cattle,
    goats, sheep and every living creature in my homestead.” He beat his
    chest and wailed louder. His dogs, sensing what had happened, lifted
    up their heads and howled. The animals in the thick grassland and
    jungle heard the combined cry and hid.

    “But I will get you, cruel ogre. I am Gahigi the brave hunter,” he roared.
    The dogs barked ferociously, promising revenge against the ogre.
    Gahigi picked his spear. He whistled to the dogs and, with determination,
    walked towards the tall grass and the jungle.

    “For the first time in my life, I am not going to hunt for food but to kill
    and bury,” he shouted to the unseen listeners.

    For many days, Gahigi and his dogs walked through the tall grass and
    thick jungle, hunting for the ogre. They climbed hills and mountains.
    They crossed rivers and lakes. They looked for the ogre in the forests
    and thickets but could not see it. They walked until they were so tired
    that moving even just one step was almost impossible. The tongues of
    the dogs hung out of their mouths. They were thirsty and tired. Gahigi
    grew thin, and his eyes could not see properly. Many times when he
    was about to give up the hunt, he would think of his family and get
    renewed strength to look for the ogre and kill it. On and on Gahigi and
    his dogs went. Finally, when they reached the barren land of the great
    rocks, the dogs smelt the ogre. Gahigi also felt something strange in
    the air and knew he was about to get the ogre. The dogs’ ears went
    up, and their noses dipped to the ground. They hurried towards the big
    rock, Gahigi closely following.

    m

    There was an opening in the rock, and the dogs entered. Gahigi
    followed: it was a cave. Slowly, carefully, Gahigi and his dogs walked
    over the stones in the cave. It was long and dark and they felt their
    way carefully along. Suddenly the dogs stopped barking and started
    growling in low, dangerous tones. Across a streak of light that streamed
    in through a crack in the cave, Gahigi saw the huge, dark form of the
    ogre. His blood boiled with revenge. He rose to his full height and
    roared.

    “Ogre. It is me Gahigi the brave hunter. I have found you at last.”

    And before the ogre could get up, Gahigi speared it over and over again
    while the dogs bit at each and every part of it. The ogre tried to fight
    back, to devour Gahigi, but Gahigi had taken it unawares and had the
    best advantage.

    Slowly, blood oozed out of the ogre and Gahigi knew it was about to
    die. The ogre too realised it was about to die. In a hoarse whisper, it
    told Gahigi: “Before I die, cut my smallest toe and all your family and
    animals that I ate will come out, but…”

    “But what?” interrupted Gahigi who was about to cut its smallest toe.

    “Even though I am dying, I will resurrect in another form and I will eat
    you.”
    Then the ogre started chanting:
    I will be a beautiful walking stick,
    You will buy me in the market and I will eat you.
    I will be a beautiful pipe,
    You will smoke me and I will eat you.
    I will be a beautiful woman,
    You will marry me and I will eat you.
    I will be a beautiful cow,
    You will buy me and I will eat you.
    I will be a beautiful skin,
    You will buy me and I will eat you.
    I will be a strong spear,
    You will take me and I will eat you.
    I will be a beautiful milk pot,
    You will buy me and I will…

    m

                        Figure 10: Gahigi saw the huge dark ogre

    Gahigi was no longer listening. He cut the ogre’s smallest toe and
    all the things it had eaten came out – the children, grandchildren,
    the wives and all the animals. Gahigi and his family and all his cows
    moved back to his homestead and feasted for many months.

    (Adapted from Fountain Step by Step reading Series by Mary
    Karooro Okurut)

    Activity 15
    1. Identify the beginning, middle and ending event in the story
    above.
    2. Identify the characters and choose a role you will act out.
    3. Identify the setting and create it.
    4. Rehearse your sketch with a speech/dialogue and imitate the
    animals and ogre in English or French and act it out before the
    audience.
    5. Identify the costumes and props that will make your acting
    interesting.
    6. Allow the audience to correct you so that you can improve.
    7. Which type of sketch is this you came up with?

    b. Project work
    1. Find another story about peace building of your own choice and
    develop a sketch from it, give out character roles.
    Rehearse and act out to an audience.

    Activity 16
    Composing resolutions/ending events
    A good sketch should have a concluding part to show that the play
    has ended.
    1. Read the last part of this story and come up with a sketch.
    Consider the major events such as reading of the results and
    the school choir meeting the DEO and the Headmaster, Steven’s
    journey home with a bodaboda cyclist.
    2. Choose a role in the sketch and create the words for the
    character.
    3. Rehearse your sketch and act it out before an audience.
    4. Allow the audience to correct you so that you can improve.

    Activity 17
    1. Write all your sketches above together as one.
    3. Rehearse your sketch again as one play and act it out before
    the audience.
    4. Allow the audience to correct you so that you can improve.
    5. In Senior One you studied about the three major types of
    drama such as tragedy, comedy and tragicomedy. Which type
    of sketch is this you came up with?

    Chiefdom of Gahinga
    Act one: Scene 1
    The time setting is in the morning and the place is a remote village
    at the chief’s courtyard.
    (Servant enters and finds the chief seated on a stool brushing his
    teeth with a stick brush)

    Servant: My lord, (terrified), It is my fault to interrupt your morning
    Chief: (with pride.) Can you get straight to the point or else..........
    Servant: My lord the elders are waiting with your people outside
    Chief: Why so early, (a bit worried) let them in

    (A chant of mob justice is heard as the elder leads them in)
    Elder: My lord, this woman is before you because she is a witch.
               The whole village is suffering of an unknown disease
               because of her. (Approval by the masses to banish the old
               woman is heard)
    People: Yeees, yeees..............
    Chief: (thinks in shock) How can you prove this? This woman has
                always treated you from various diseases.
    Elder: My lord, the spirits of our ancestors possessed one of the
              children who is sick.
    Chief: And so?
    Elder: Our ancestors (He pauses as the masses cheer him to
               speak) said it all.
    Chief: Is that the reason why you bring her here to accuse her
               without clear evidence yet she has always helped us?
               Woman do you know anything about what these people
               are talking about?
    Woman: My great chief, I only know that the disease is strange, so
                   we have to be patient
    Elder: Chief, we are all to die of famine if this drought is to
               continue and disease
    Masses: (chanting) Disease, disease!
    Elder: Almost in every home!
    Chief: All right (meditatively), if it is your wish to banish this
               woman, I hand her over to you. Guards take her, but make
               sure she is not hurt
    Woman: (looks at him for mercy) My great chief, I am only a woman
                  protect me against these men.
    Chief: Sorry, I cannot do much.
    Drunkard: We go, we go and burn her hut, never to see her again in
                       our village (others chant, we go, we go)

    They all move out
    Act one: Scene 2
    At the poor old woman’s hut, awaits a medical officer to rescue the
    woman
    The scenery setting is of two old houses, with some animal skins
    hanging as a curtain for the small room which is a shrine.

    Masses: We go, we go enough is enough
    Police officer: Stop. Why are you here?
    Elder: Who are you to stop us when the chief has allowed?
    Medical officer: Allowed, allowed what?
    Masses: To send her away.
    Police officer: The law cannot allow you.
    Elder: The law is not above our chief.
    Police officer: No one is above the law.
    Medical officer: Besides the medicine has been found out. Here it is.
                                (shows them)
    Police officer: Just take your patients to hospitals and leave the
                             poor woman alone.
    Elder: I suppose you are not fooling us
               (Elder and the masses walk away in shame)
    Medical officer: Old woman get up and go to your house
    Police office: You are free mama (they walk away)
                                             End
                                                                                                (By Oyire Deogratius)


    1. What is the conflict in the play about?
    2. Who are the major characters in the play?
    3. Name the characters who contribute to peace building in the play
    above?
    4. Who of the characters in the play portrays the theme of fidelity?
    5. What other themes are developed in the above play?
    6. In small groups ,distribute the character roles to yourselves, study
    the dialogue carefully in order to reflect the tone, facial expressions
    and body movements as you act.
    7. Identify some costumes and props that will support your acting in
    order to bring out the meaning of the play.
    8. Rehearse the play.
    9. Organise the stage and present your drama to the classmates.
    10. After the performance allow the other class members to comment
    on your drama by telling you where you did well and where you
    should improve. Do the same to them.

    End unit assessment
    1. Compose a sketch from your own story on the following themes:
    love, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse and alcoholism, fidelity and
    peace building.
    2. Identify the characters and choose a role you will act out.
    3. Rehearse your sketch with a speech/dialogue in English and act it
    out before the audience.
    4. Allow the audience to correct you so that you can improve.


    Glossary
    Character role: a part that an actor/actress takes and is
    supposed to bring out in a play/sketch
    Deafening clapping: clapping too loud in excitement by a big
    group of people
    Dialogue: speech between two or more people in
    a play
    Disrupt: stop something from continuing normally
    Ogre: a creature that is just imagined that
    looks ugly , scary and dangerous
    Scene: one place setting where one major
    event takes place
    Schoolmates: people you study with
    Script: a written play
    Stage freight: fear that comes when you are to sing,
    dance or act in front of people/an
    audience
    Stage: acting area

    Musical instruments

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    References
    Bloomfield, A. & Childs, J. (2000). Teaching Integrated Arts in the
    Primary School: Dance, Drama, Music and the Visual Arts. London:
    David Fulton Publishers.
    Burton, B. (1987). How to Teach Primary Drama (2nd Edition)
    Melbourne: Longman Cheshire
    Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. (1980). Dance Education and
    Training in Britain, Calouste Gulbenkain Foundation, London.
    Cone, T. & Cone, S. (2005). Teaching Children Dance. (2nd Ed). Lower
    Mitcham: Human Kinetics.
    Exiner, J & Lloyd. P. (1987). Learning through Dance: A Guide for
    Teachers. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
    Geoghegan, W. (1995) Re-placing the Arts in Education. SET Research
    Information for Teachers. Item 9. No 1. 1995. Armadale: Eleanor
    Curtain Publishing.
    O’Toole, J. & Dunn, J. (2002). Pretending to Learn: Helping Children
    Learn through Drama.
    Riley, R. (2000). Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on
    Learning, Washington: Department of Education.
    Russell, J. (1965). Creative Dance in the Primary School. London:
    MacDonald & Evans Ltd.
    Swanson, B.R. (1969). Music in the Education of Children. 3rd Ed.
    Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc. Victorian Curriculum
    and Assessment Authority. (2005).