Topic outline

  • UMUTWE WA 1: Ibidukikije

    Akamaro k’amashyamba



    Amashyamba afitiye akamaro kanini cyane abatuye isi. Mu mashyamba habonekamo ubwoko bunyuranye bw’ibinyabuzima. Umumaro wayo nturondoreka; amashyamba ni intaho y’inyamaswa n’inyoni. Amashyamba atuma haboneka amadovize (amafaranga y’amahanga) atangwa na ba mukerarugendo. Amashyamba ayungurura umwuka duhumeka ndetse amababi y’ibimera yakira umwuka mubi dusohora noneho yo agatanga umwuka mwiza duhumeka.

    Amashyamba arwanya isuri, atwikira ubutaka akaburinda imiyaga y’ishuheri, akanaburinda gutwarwa n’amazi y’imvura. Ahari imisozi ihanamye yambaye ubusa, iyo imvura iguye ikukumba ubutaka bwiza bwagahinzwe maze amazi akabwijyanira mu migezi, imigezi na yo ikabwijyanira mu mahanga tugahomba. Ahatari amashyamba iyo imvura iguye ari nyinshi inkangu ziracika rimwe na rimwe n’ubuzima bwa benshi bukahatikirira.

    Iyo imvura iguye, igasanga ubutaka buteweho ibiti n’ibyatsi bihagije, ibitonyanga bigwa ku bibabi n’amashami bikagabanya umuvuduko n’ubukana. Amazi acengera mu butaka gahorogahoro agasomya ubutaka ariko ntibuhite butwarwa n’isuri.Imizi y’ibiti igira akamaro kanini cyane; ifata ubutaka ikaburinda gutembanwa n’isuri. Imizi y’ibiti yongerera ubutaka ubushobozi bwo gufata no kubika amazi akenewe bikaturinda ubutayu. Amazi ahunitswe mu mizi y’ibiti, ibidendezi ndetse n’ayatangiriwe n’ibimera, atuma amashyamba akomeza kubonekamo inzuzi n’imigezi. Haba no mu gihe gikakaye k’izuba, ahari amashyamba kimeza imigezi ntishobora gukama.

    Abantu bakeneye amashyamba mu mirimo myinshi inyuranye; benshi bifashisha inkwi mu gihe cyo gutegura amafunguro, bakarara ku bitanda bikozwe mu biti n’ibindi... Icyakora umuriro w’amashanyarazi wunganira inkwi. Si ibyo gusa kuko n’inzu nyinshi usanga mu bizubatse higanjemo ibiti cyangwa ibibikomokaho. Ndetse uretse amagorofa ahambaye usanga afite ibisenge by’ibyuma, andi mazu menshi ibisenge biba byubakishijwe ibiti cyangwa imbaho. Hari n’abavuga ko inzu yubakishijwe ibiti iramba kurusha iyubakishijwe amatafari ya rukarakara.

    Si ibyo gusa kandi kuko n’imitako ikozwe mu biti usanga iteye amabengeza. Hari ibiti byamamaye cyane kubera ugukomera kwabyo. Muri byo twavuga nk’imisave, ribuyu, muvura n’ibindi. Mu Rwanda hari amashyamba yinjiza amadovize kubera ba mukerarugendo. Twese nk’abitsamuye dusenyere umugozi umwe; tuyabungabunge aho kuyatutira kuko arimo gukendera kubera ibikorwa bya muntu. Yego turayakeneye, ariko tuyamazeho uyu munsi abadukomokaho bazaririra mu myotsi kandi iyi si tuyiriho kugira ngo tuzayisige irushijeho kuba nziza.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko, munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Rondora nibura imimaro itatu y’amashyamba yavuzwe mu mwandiko.

    2. Vuga abiri mu moko y’ibiti byiza yavuzwe mu mwandiko.

    3. Abantu bahumeka umwuka bakuye he?

    4. Vuga ingaruka ebyiri z’isuri ku mibereho y’abatuye isi.

    5. Ni gute umwanditsi yasobanuye ko amashyamba arwanya isuri?

    6. Uretse gutera amashyamba, vuga ukundi bashobora kurwanya isuri.

    7. Garagaza ibyo ubona bishobora gukorwa kugira ngo amashyamba adakomeza gutemwa no kwangizwa ku bwinshi.

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    (a) Isuri

    (b) Inkangu

    (c) Amafu

    (d) Gukukumba

    (e) Gututira

    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe nasubize ibibizo bikurikira:

    Koresha aya magambo mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

    a) Isuri

    b) Inkangu

    c) Amafu

    2. Uzuza izi nteruro ukoresheje amagambo wungutse mu mwandiko:

    a) Iyo umuyaga w’.........uje, ishyamba rirawukumira ntiwangize byinshi.

    b) Ahatari ibiti, umuvu uratemba........ubutaka bwose ukamaraho.

    c) Ntawashyigikira ko umuntu.......ibiti akamaraho kandi n’ejo tuzabikenera.

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Garagaza ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. “Ngo amahanga arunguka tugahomba” Byaba bisobanuye iki ukurikije ibivugwa mu mwandiko?

    3. Umaze gusoma uyu mwandiko ni iki wumva wabwira bagenzi bawe?

    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

    Mu matsinda, mwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    Insanganyamatsiko: “Ni iki cyakorwa ngo amashyamba abungabungwe?” Garagaza uruhare rwa Leta, uruhare rw’ababyeyi n’uruhare rw’urubyiruko rukiri mu mashuri.

    Amategeko y’imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda: Utwatuzo twungirije

    Itegereze izi nteruro zikurikira nurangiza urondore ibimenyetso by’utwatuzo byakoreshejwemo.

    - Abantu bayabungabunga binjiza amadovize (amafaranga y’amahanga) atangwa na ba mukerarugendo.

    - Abantu bakeneye amashyamba mu mirimo myinshi inyuranye aho batuye; benshi bifashisha inkwi mu gihe cyo gutegura amafunguro, bakarara ku bitanda bikozwe mu biti n’ibindi...

    - Hari abagira bati: “Igiti ni idorari”.

    Tumwe muri two ni utwatuzo tw’ibanze utundi ni utwatuzo twungirije. Utwatuzo tw’ibanze, dusoza interuro uretse akitso gakoreshwa hagati mu nteruro.

    Utwatuzo twungirije ni utwatuzo tudafite agaciro nk’ak’utwatuzo tw’ibanze. Iyo tubuze mu nteruro kandi twagombaga kubonekamo ishobora gukomeza kumvikana n'ubwo iba itaboneye. Mu twatuzo twungirije hari udusoza interuro n’utujya hagati.

    a) Utwatuzo dutangira n’udusoza interuro

    Akanyerezo (-)

    Akanyerezo ni akarongo kagufi gatambitse(-) gashobora gukoreshwa ahantu henshi ariko dore uburyo butatu bw’ingenzi gakoreshwamo:Gakoreshwa mu kiganiro kugira ngo berekane ihererekanywa cyangwa iyakuranwa ry’amagambo.

    Urugero

    - Wari waragiye he?

    - Gusura ishyamba kimeza.

    - Wararibonye se?

    - YegoGakoreshwa kandi bakata ijambo ritarangiranye n’impera y’umurongo, bikurikije imiterere y’umugemo.

    Urugero:

    Hari n’ubusitani bugezweho abantu basigaye bifoto-                                                                           rezamo cyangwa bakaburuhukiramo ngo bafate amafu.

    Kanakoreshwa imbere n’inyuma y’interuro ihagitse.

    Urugero:

    Ejo tuzajyane kwifotoza-ushobora kuba uzi ubusitani bwiza- ni umunsi w’ikiruhuko nta masomo ahari.

    Uturegeka (...)

    Dukoreshwa iyo berekana irondora ritarangiye, interuro barogoye cyangwa iyo mu nteruro hari ijambo bacikije.

    Ingero

    - Ibiti bivamo ibikoresho byinshi: ibitanda, inzugi, ibyansi, isekuru, imitako...

    - Baragenda ngo bagere ku Ruyenzi bahahurira na mwene... simuvuze nzamuvumba!

    b) Utwatuzo twungirije dushyirwa hagati mu nteruro

    Hagati mu nteruro hashobora gukoreshwamo utu twatuzo dukurikira: akanyerezo, udukubo, utwuguruzo n’utwugarizo, akanyerezo, udusodeko, akabago n’akitso, utubago tubiri n’utundi.

    Utubago tubiri (:)

    Dukoreshwa mu nteruro iyo hari ibigiye kurondorwa, gusobanurwa cyangwa iyo bagiye gusubira mu magambo y’undi.Dukoreshwa kandi inyuma y’ingirwanshinga “-ti”, “-tya”, “-tyo” n’ijambo “ngo”.

    Ingero

    - Burya habaho ibiti byinshi: imisave, muvura, ribuyu...

    - Abantu bagira bati: “Igiti ni idorari”.

    - Mu Kinyarwanda baravuga ngo: “Ntawutinya ishyamba atinya icyo bahuriyemo”

    Akabago n’akitso (;)

    Dukoreshwa mu nteruro kugira ngo batandukanye ibice bibiri bigize interuro kandi byuzuzanya.

    Urugero:

    - Kubyaza ishyamba umusaruro si ukurigurisha; kuribyaza umusaruro neza ni ukurikorera no kuritunganya rikinjiza amafaranga.

    Utwuguruzo n’utwugarizo (“ ”)

    Dukikiza amagambo y’undi asubirwamo, imvugo itandukanye n’imvugo isanzwe, cyangwa ingingo igomba kwitabwaho. Dukikiza amagambo ateruwe n’ingirwanshinga “-ti”, “-tya”, “-tyo” n“ijambo “ngo”. Dukoreshwa nanone iyo hari inyito ikemangwa cyangwa kugira ngo bakikize amazina nteruro n’amazina y’inyunge agizwe n’amagambo arenze ane.Dukoreshwa kandi mu magambo y’amatirano atamenyerewe mu Kinyarwanda.

    Ingero

    - Mu biti bikomera kandi byiza harimo “muvura” na “ribuyu”

    - Igikeri kirarikocora kiti: “Guhora mu mazi si ko gushira amaga”.

    - Ubwo “Inshyikanya ku mubiri ya Rugema ahica” aba arahashinze.

    Udukubo ( )

    Dukikiza amagambo cyangwa ibimenyetso bifite icyo bisobanura cyangwa icyo byuzuza mu nteruro.Banadukoresha iyo bashaka kwerekana uko amazina bwite y’amanyamahanga yanditswe mu Kinyarwanda bayandika mu ndimi akomokamo.Dukikiza kandi umubare wanditse mu mibarwa mu nteruro iyo uwo mubare wabanje kwandikwa mu nyuguti. Twerekana n’ibihekane cyangwa inyuguti bidakunze gukoreshwa.

    Ingero

    - Umuyobozi w’Akarere yabwiye abaturage ko kugira ngo barwanye inzara, bagomba gushoka.ibishanga (impeshyi yari yabaye ndende) kandi kwirirwa banywa bakabifasha hasi.

    - Rishari kanti (Richard Kandt) yayoboye u Rwanda mu gihe cy’ubukoroni.

    - Kongo (Congo) ibonekamo amashyamba kimeza menshi.

    - Igihembo twumvikanyeho ni amafaranga y’amanyarwanda ibihumbi magana atanu (500 000 Rwf ).

    - (L) cyangwa (Vy) ntibikunze gukoreshwa cyane mu Kinyarwanda.

    Imyitozo ku twatuzo

    1. Vuga mu magambo make nibura imimaro ibiri y’utwatuzo mu nteruro.

    2. ( “ ”) Ibi bimenyetso biri mu dukubo byitwa ngo iki?

    3. Rondora ahantu hatatu gashobora gukoreshwa ibyo bimenyetso bigaragajwe haruguru.

    4. Sobanura impamvu agakubo kakoreshejwe muri iyi nteruro ikurikira:

    - Bagomba gushoka ibishanga (impeshyi yari yabaye ndende) kandi kwirirwa banywa bakabifasha hasi.

    Kwitoza kwandika

    Mwandukure umwandiko ukurikira, musimbuza akatuzo gakwiye ahari uturegeka turi mu dukubo: (akabago n’akitso, udukubo, utunyerezo, uturegeka, utubago tubiri). Murasabwa kandi kubahiriza imyandikire yemewe muri rusange.

    Twite ku bidukikije

    Uwimana na musaza we barakundana cyane ahantu hose baba bari kumwe. Umunsi umwe bari mu muhanda batembera babona umwana arimo gutashya inkwi.Baramwitegereza babona arakora ibidakwiye (...) yari yaranduye ibiti byose byatewe ku muhanda. Bimwe muri byo ni ibi (...) ibiti by’imikindo, gereveriya, indabo zose z’umurimbo ndetse na (...) (nibagiwe uko icyo giti kitwa) bakunda kubitera ku muhanda.Byose ngo agiye kubicana. Dore amwe mu magambo baganiriye:

    (...) Yewe mwa, witwa nde?

    (...) Nitwa Kamana

    (...) None se ko urimo kwangiza?

    (...) Wimbeshyera. Nangije iki ko ndimo gutashya inkwi?

    (...) Izo si inkwi ahubwo ni ibiti wangije

    .(...) Ariko n’ubundi nta cyo byari bimaze bino biti ni ibya Leta.

    (...) Ugomba guhindura imyumvire. Umutungo wa Leta ni uwacu twese, tugomba kuwubungabunga. Barakomeje bamugira inama ataha yiyemeje kutazongera kwangiza ibidukikije.

    Ibyanya by’inyamaswa


    Icyanya ni ishyamba rigari ryateganyirijwe kubamo inyamaswa n’ibindi binyabuzima bitandukanye. Abatwawe n’indimi z’amahanga bamenyereye kubyita pariki. Mu gihugu cyacu hari ibyanya byagenewe kubungabunga ubuzima bw’inyamaswa n’ibindi binyabuzima. Ubu mu Rwanda habarurwa ibyanya by’inyamaswa bigari birenga bitatu. Hari n’aho abifite bagenda biyubakira imbuga nto bakororeramo zimwe mu nyamaswa z’inkazi nk’ingwe, inzoka n’izindi.

    Mu byanya byamamaye mu Rwanda bikanahuruza imbaga y’abatuye isi, twavuga nk’icyanya cy’Akagera mu burasirazuba bw’u Rwanda. Icyanya cy’Akagera kibarizwa mu gace k’umukenke mu ntara y’iburasirazuba kikambuka kigafata intara y’Akagera mu gihugu cy’abaturanyi cya Tanzaniya. Habonekamo zimwe mu nyamaswa z’inkazi zitakiboneka henshi ku isi. Muri zo twavuga nk’intare n’ingwe, imbogo n’impongo, inzovu ndetse n’isatura. Hagaragaramo kandi nyamaswa nyinshi ziteye amabengeza nk’impara n’imparage, isha, inzobe, twiga n’izindi. Yewe ngo harimo n’impyisi mahuma n’imigana y’imbwebwe zahunze abantu.

    Uwavuga iby’Akagera bwakwira bugacya; Akagera gafite umwihariko wo kugira ibiyaga byinshi bigaburirwa n’uruzi rw’Akagera. Rwambukiranya iyo pariki kuva mu magepfo kugera mu majyaruguru. Ibyo biyaga byabaye icumbi ry’imvubu n’ingona. Utembereye mu Kagera kandi, yibonera amasenga n’imyobo y’inyaga zitakiboneka henshi mu gihugu. Ntiwava mu Kagera utabonye umugana wa za ngurube z’ishyamba n’amashyo y’imbogo rwarikamavubi.

    Abikundira amajwi y’inyamaswa n’ibindi bintu nyaburanga rero nababwira iki! Ubwo hari abatinya kumva intare yivuga cyangwa itontoma, hari ba mukerarugendo ahubwo bazanwa n’uwo mutontomo ukura abantu umutima ukanabuza inyoni kuririmba. Abagana icyanya cy’Akagera banezezwa n’utugezi dusuma cyangwa se iyo bwije impyisi zitangiye guhuma. Ngo harimo n’impongo zikorora!

    Icyanya cy’Akagera kibangamiwe n’ubwiyongere bukabije bw’Abanyarwanda bagenda bashaka amasambu. Hari na ba rushimusi bahiga imvubu n’abashakisha amahembe y’inzovu. Ibyo byatumye Leta ifata ingamba zirimo ubukangurambaga buhoraho, aho abaturiye icyo cyanya bahora basobanurirwa akamaro kacyo. Umubare w’abashinzwe kurinda icyo cyanya na wo ugenda wiyongera kandi hanashyizweho ibihano bikarishye ku bakomeje ingeso mbi yo kwica no gushimuta inyamaswa. Mu gukomeza kubungabunga icyanya cy’Akagera, hubatswe urukuta rw’amashanyarazi rukizengurutse. Urwo rukuta rutuma inyamaswa zidatoroka ngo zonere abaturage baturiye Akagera.

    Ibyo ariko ntibihagije. Buri muturarwanda wese akwiye kwiyumvisha ko ibyanya ari umutungo rusange. Ibyanya by’inyamaswa bifite akamaro kanini mu rwego rw’ubukungu kuko bikurura ba mukerarugendo. Usibye no kuba birimo ibiti bihembera umwuka tukabona imvura binaba intaho y’inyamaswa n’inyoni by’amoko anyuranye bifitiye runini abaturarwanda. Ntawe rero ugomba kwangiza uwo mutungo dukesha byinshi ngo arashaka inyungu ze ku giti ke.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Vuga akamaro k’ibyanya by’inyamaswa mu rwego rw’ubukungu bw’ igihugu.

    2. Uretse icyanya cy’Akagera, haba hari ikindi uzi? Kivuge.

    3. Vuga izina ry’umugezi wambukiranya icyanya cy’Akagera.

    4. Icyanya cy’Akagera giherereye mu bihugu bingahe? Bivuge.

    5. Izina "Akagera" ryitiriwe icyo cyanya rikomoka he?

    6. Rondora amoko atanu y'inyamaswa ziboneka mu cyanya cy'Akagera.

    7. Ni ubuhe buryo bwashyizweho bwo gukumira inyamaswa zonera abantu?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Subiza yego cyangwa oya ukurikije ibisobanuro by’aya magambo cyangwa itsinda ry’amagambo dusanga mu mwandiko bikurikira.

    a) Rushimusi ni umuntu usenya amazu y’abandi akanabiba.

    b) Amasenga ni ahantu ibisimba nk’impyisi birara.

    c) Imbuga ni ahantu abantu bakinira bakidagadura.

    d) Kubungabunga ni ukuzerereza ikintu hirya no hino wabuze uwakigura.

    e) Bikanahuruza imbaga bivuze ko bituma abantu baturuka impande zose baje kureba.

    2. Tanga imbusane z’aya magambo:

    a) Zaziranaga

    b) Zabangirije

    c) Rwihishwa

    3. Garagaza ijambo riri mu mwandiko risobanura kimwe n’aya akurikira :

    a) Abagashize

    b) Zisa neza cyane

    c) Ntiyabirondora byose

    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe arasubiza ibibazo bikurikira:

    1.Koresha aya magambo wungutse mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

    a) Rushimusi

    b) Amasenga

    c) Kubungabunga.

    2. Uzuza izi nteruro wifashishije amwe mu magambo ari mu mwandiko

    a) Si impyisi gusa zibera mu....kuko n’izindi nyamaswa nyinshi ari ho ziba.

    b) Utunyamaswa duteye....turasurwa cyane muri pariki.

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane, nimusubize ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Garagaza ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. Ushingiye ku bivugwa mu mwandiko n’ibyo usanzwe ubona aho utuye, Sobanura kandi ugaragaze ububi bwa ba rushimusi.

    3. Wahuza gute “ubwiyongere bw’abaturage” n’iyangirika ry’ibidukikije birimo amashyamba n’ibyanya by’inyamaswa?

    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro: kujya impaka

    Mu matsinda mwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    Insanganyamatsiko:“Urukuta rw’amashanyarazi rwubatswe mu rwego rwo gukumira inyamaswa ngo zitonera abantu.” Abantu bamwe babona ko atari ngombwa kubera ingaruka mbi zarwo, abandi bakabona rwarakemuye byinshi. Tanga ibitekerezo byawe bigaragaza uruhande ubogamiyeho.

    Ikeshamvugo

    Musubize ibi bibazo bikurikira

    - Aho inyoni ziba bahita ngo iki?

    - Impyisi zitaha he?

    - Kuvuga kw’intare babyita ngo iki?

    - Kuvuga kw’impongo babyita ngo iki?

    Bitewe n’igihe cyangwa ahantu uri, amagambo akoreshwa ku bintu cyangwa imvugo ashobora guhinduka. Rimwe na rimwe hagakoreshwa amagambo yabugenewe, aribyo bita “ikeshamvugo”.

    Intaho z’inyamaswa

    Inyoni zitaha mu cyari

    Imbeba zigataha mu muheno

    Inyana zikarara mu ruhongore,

    Inka zirara mu kiraro

    Inkoko, inkwavu zitaha mu kibuti

    Impyisi zitaha mu isenga

    Intozi zitaha mu mwobo

    Inzuki ziba mu mutiba (umuzinga)

    Amatsinda/ikirundo

    Ikiguri ni ik’intozi

    Irumbo ry’inzuki

    Ishyo ni iry’inka

    Umukumbi ni uw’intama n’ ihene

    Umugana w’imbwa

    Umugana w’ingurube.

    Uruhuri rw’inyoni

    Umukeri w’ibikeri

    Urusaku

    Inyoni ziraririmba

    Intama iratama

    Ihene irahebeba

    Impongo irakorora

    Igikeri kiragonga

    Impyisi irahuma

    Inuma iraguguza

    Umusambi urahiga

    Imbwa iramoka

    Inkokokazi irateteza

    Inkoko irakurakuza iyo irarira

    Inkoko ihamagara imishwi,

    Intare iratontoma

    Isake irabika

    Imbeba irajwigira

    Ijeri rirajerera

    Imfizi irivuga

    Imbyeyi iravumera

    Ingwe irahara

    Injangwe iranyawuza

    Imyitozo ku ikeshamvugo

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoreshe neza, amagambo yabugenewe avuga ku rusaku no ku ntaho z’inyamaswa, mu nteruro ziboneye, hanyuma asubize n’ibindi bibazo by’ikeshamvugo.

    1. Koresha aya magambo yabugenewe mu nteruro imwimwe ngufi kandi iboneye.

    a) Irakorora

    b) Ziratontoma

    c) Ikibuti

    d) Ishyo

    e) Irivuga

    f ) Irahirita

    g) Iramoka

    h) Iravumera

    2. Rondora ibintu nibura bibiribibiri waba uzi bikora ibi bikurikira:

    a) Kurangira

    b) Guhamagara

    c) Kurarira

    d) Gukorora

    Zimwe muri kariyeri ziboneka mu Rwanda


    Mu butaka bw’u Rwanda hari ahantu henshi hari umutungo kamere wagirira Abanyarwanda n’abatuye isi yose akamaro. Hamwe hatangiye kubyazwa umusaruro ariko ahandi usanga bikiri inyuma ndetse hari n’aho usanga abantu batanazi ko hari ikihibereye. Ahatangiye gucukurwa rero ni ho hitwa “kariyeri” cyangwa “Ibirombe”. Dore kariyeri zimaze kugaragara ko zitaweho zazatanga umusaruro urengeje uwo zitanga muri iki gihe.

    Nyiramugengeri yo mu Kanyaru, Akagera, Rugezi, Gishoma n’ahandi, ikoreshwa nk’amakara acanwa, kandi iteganywa kuzavamo inganda ntoya zateza abaturarwanda benshi imbere. Urugero ni nk’uruganda rwegeranya nyiramugengeri yazajya ikoreshwa mu gusudira ibyuma. Iyi nyiramugengeri icukurwa ni nke kandi iramutse ikoreshejwe yagira uruhare mu kugabanya umuvuduko w’itemwa ry’amashyamba maze bigatuma amashyamba abungabungwa.

    Hari amashwagara yo mu masangano, Mpatse na Mashyuza avamo sima ikoreshwa mu Gihugu; aha twakwibukiranya ko Leta y’u Rwanda yubatse urundi ruganda rwa sima rwunganira isima itunganywa n’uruganda rwa CIMERWA rwo mu Bugarama. Ni gahunda nziza kuko bizongera umubare w’abakozi bahembwa kandi sima ikaziyongera mu Gihugu. Ubwo n’imyubakire izoroha maze haboneke amazu aciririce.Nanone amabumba yo mu bishanga avamo inkono, amatafari amategura n’ibindi. Ayo mabumba yakorwamo ibindi bintu bikenewe kandi bigateza imbere ubukungu bw’icyaro. Twavuga nk’amakaro asaswa mu mazu, amasahane y’amadongo, utwungo n’udusahane duto two gutegura no kunyweramo amasupu no kuriramo imbuto. Ibi byasimbura ibikoresho byinshi byatumizwaga mu mahanga bitaduhendukiye na gato, maze bikagabanya amafaranga akoreshwa mu gutumiza ibintu hanze.

    Ubu ishwagara imaze kugaragara ko igira umumaro munini haba mu bwubatsi ndetse no mu rwego rw’ubuhinzi tutibagiwe n’isuku y’amazi. Ahenshi ishwagara ivangwa n’umucanga bigasigwa ku mazu agasa neza cyane. Mu buhinzi ho, ishwagara yongera umusaruro ku buryo butangaje. Ubu mu turere twinshi two mu Rwanda barayirahira; yatumye henshi mu hagiraga ubutaka busharira bahinga bakeza. Ngo igabanya ubusharire bw’ubutaka mu buryo butangaje. Ishwagara ubu ni imwe mu by’ingenzi byifashishwa mu nganda zisukura amazi. Burya iri mu bituma amazi akwirakwizwa mu Rwanda asa n’urubogobogo.

    Imicanga n’imisenyi iboneka mu migezi yacu no mu nkengero zayo na yo ifite akamaro. Ikoreshwa mu bwubatsi bunyuranye, ariko ishobora gukoreshwa mu nganda zinyuranye nk’iz’ibirahure bikoreshwa mu bwubatsi. Hari n’iyakoreshwa mu gukora ibirahure byo kunyweramo ibinyobwa binyuranye.

    Byongeye kandi amabuye aboneka mu bwubatsi bw’ibintu binyuranye. Ayo ni nk’ibisyogogo by’urutare, urugarika, amakoro, ubutare, amasarabwayi n’ayandi yose muzi yandagaye ku misozi. Ayo mabuye yose ashobora gukoreshwa mu bwubatsi bw’amazu n’imihanda, amateme n’ibindi. Hamwe na hamwe amabuye yasimbura kaburimbo kuko zihenda cyane. Hari kandi n’amabuye n’ingwa bitunganyirizwa mu nganda maze bikavamo amafu n’ibikoma bikenerwa cyane. Aha twavuga mu bwubatsi nk’amarangi, mu mirimbo y’imibiri yacu nka za verini zo gusiga ku nzara, umwura dusiga ku bitsike byo ku maso n’ahandi.

    Ikiza cyane kirenze ibi tuvuga ni uko afasha Abanyarwanda mu kwikenura no kwikemurira ibibazo kuko amenshi aboneka mu masambu yabo. Murumva ko hakwiye ingamba zihamye zo kwita kuri izo kariyeri zifite akamaro gahebuje.

    Ikoreshwa ry’amabuye ya Kariyeri ni urwego rwinjiza amafaranga menshi ariko iyo bukozwe nabi bwangiza ibidukikije ku buryo bugaragara. Henshi amashyamba yarangijwe imisozi iracukurwa ubu ni ibinogo n’imikokwe. Imigezi yarangiritse ku buryo amazi y’urubogobogo asigaye hake cyane mu Rwanda. Hari n’aho ibirombe byagiye biriduka bikagwira abantu bakahasiga ubuzima. Ubuyobozi bw’inzego z’ibanze buba bwegereye aho amarorerwa aba yabereye, buvuga ko abahapfira ari abajya gucukura amabuye rwihishwa mu masaha y’ijoro. Uturere twangiritse cyane ni uducukurwamo amabuye y’agaciro ahenze cyane nka Koruta, Gasegereti na Worufuramu. Ayo mabuye ngo arahenda cyane. Hari aho ubucukuzi bwayo bukorwa mu buryo bwa magendu ntihabeho kwita ku bidukikije.

    Abanyarwanda nibamara guhugukirwa n’ubukungu bwihishe mu mabuye ya kariyeri, uruhare rwayo mu bukungu no mu mibereho y’abaturage rushobora kuzikuba inshuro nyinshi mu myaka mike iri imbere. Abanyarwanda ariko bakwiriye kwibuka gutera amashyamba aho bamaze gucukura. Ducukure ariko twibuke ko ibidukikije bikwiriye kubungabungwa.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Rondora nibura amazina ane y’amabuye aboneka mu Rwanda yavuzwe mu mwandiko.

    2. Vuga gusa amazina ya za kariyeri eshatu zivugwa mu mwandiko?

    3. Ni ibiki bivugwa ko bicukurwa mu bishanga bya Rugezi, Gishoma mu kanyaru n’ahandi?

    4. Rondora imimaro itatu y’ishwagara uko yavuzwe mu mwandiko.

    5. Ni he havuzwe ko hacukurwa ishwagara?

    6. Ni gute icukurwa ry’amabuye y’agaciro ryakwangiza ibidukikije?

    7. Ni izihe ngaruka zaba ku gihugu igihe icukurwa ry’amabuye ryakorwa mu kajagari?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura aya magambo yakoreshwejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Kariyeri

    b) Kwikenura

    c) Amakoro

    d) Utwungo

    e) Amasangano

    f ) Imikokwe

    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye asubize n’ibindi bibazo byabajijwe.

    1. Kora interuro ngufi kandi ziboneye wifashishije amagambo akurikira:

    a) Kwikenura

    b) Amakoro

    c) Utwungo

    d) Amasangano

    e) Umwura

    2. Uzuza interuro zikurikira ukoresheje rimwerimwe muri aya magambo wungutse mu mwandiko (ingamba, verini, urubogobogo, umwura)

    a) Hari amabuye akorwamo....dusiga ku nzara hakaba n’andi avamo....dusiga ku bitsike.

    b) Hakwiye gufatwa ........ zihamye zo kwita kuri uwo mutungo kamere.

    c) Amazi meza ba asa n’.....

    3. Tahura amazina y’amabuye n’ibindi bicukurwa muri kariyeri waba uzi byose biboneka muri kino kinyatuzu. Usome umanuka, uzamuka cyangwa utambika.

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane, nimusubize ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Garagaza ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigaragara muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. “Hari amabuye menshi yandagaye mu mirima aho mutuye” ni iki mwakora ngo muyabyaze umusaruro?

    V. Umwitozo w'ubumenyi ngiro

    Umukoro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akore neza umukoro ahanga umwandiko ku nsanganyamatsiko ikurikira.

    Hanga umwandiko utarengeje interuro makumyabiri n'eshanu, uvuge uko icukurwa ry'amabuye ryakorwa ritangije ibidukikije.

    Ikiganiro ku icukurwa ry’amabuye ritangiza ibidukikije

    - Hakurya iyo muraho?

    - Yewe Kamageza we, nta kigenda pe!

    - Ngo nta kigenda kandi ngo mwaravumbuye zahabu mu butaka?

    - Aha! Iyo zahabu ni yo igiye kuzaturimburana n’imizi.

    - Yego ko! Ibyo uvuga ni impamo?

    - Bitaba impamo se ko amashyamba yose bayarimbaguye, imisozi yose ikaba yarabaye imikokwe, urumva akacu katashobotse?

    - Niba namwe ifaranga riba ryabonetse izuba mukaryikinga mu kabari!

    - Yewe, wakwirirwa mu kabari amaherezo akaba ayahe?

    - Rwari urwenya nivugiraga da. Nyobewe se ahubwo ko hari benshi batanahikoza. Ariko rero hari icyo mwakora mwese mufatanyirije hamwe.

    - Twakora iki se ko byarenze ihaniro?

    - Oya! Nta rirarenga. Mwese mwishyize hamwe nk’abaturage, mwazamura ijwi rikumvikana.

    - Gute se?

    Mwasaba Leta igahagarika icukurwa rikozwe mu kajagari byaba ngombwa kandi namwe mukabyikorera.

    - Hanyuma ryahagarara tukarya iki ko nta muntu uheruka no gufata isuka ngo anarime munsi y’urugo? Ubu twese nta n’iyonka isigaye twibera mu birombe ubundi tugatungwa no guhaha. Uwo wasanga mu rugo wenda ni uwo ikibuye kiba cyaragwiriye akaba atabasha gutambuka.

    - Iri si ishyano? None se muhahira he ko numva ntawe ukikoza isuka?

    - Amamodoka ava iyo hose akazana imyaka nuko akaduhenda uko yishakiye agataha.

    - Ibyo ntacyo ufite ake ntabura ak’undi. Ubwo se ayo manyagwa mucukura umunsi yashize mu butaka muzasuhukira he?

    - Si byo se natangiye nkubwira ko tugiye kuzarimbuka!

    - Umva rero, nguhe impanuro. Haguruka ubabwire uti: “Ibyo murimo si byiza” babanze basubiranye aho batengaguye bahatere ibyatsi n’amashyamba. Numvise ko uri n’umwe mu bavuga rikumvikana aho utuye. Ikindi kandi nimwiyambaze Leta ibashakire amahugurwa.

    - Amahugurwa yo arakenewe. Erega uko imisozi itenguka ni na ko itengukana ubuzima bwa bamwe mu bacukuzi.

    - Si uko! Nimwibumbire mu mashyirahamwe, mwifashishe inzobere zinabatize ibikoresho byabugenewe. Maze ari amabuye y’agaciro cyangwa aya asanzwe, acukurwe atagize ibyo yangiza

    - Ahubwo hari n’ikindi nibutse. Hari n’ibyuma bibanza gufotora ahari amabuye bityo abacukura bagacukura ahantu hato bazi aho aherereye badapfa gutengagura imisozi.

    - Ni za nzobere nyine navugaga. Ibyo bigerwaho ariko iyo abantu bumva ibibazo kimwe.

    - Yewe urakoze. Ningerayo nzabanza mbiganirize abaturanyi n’abayobozi tubana mu nzego z’ibanze. Nzanitabaza n’abahanga baduhe amahugurwa turebe ko imyumvire yahinduka.

    - Ihute ahubwo. Erega ntitugomba kwikururira ubutayu.- Yewe ni ah’ubutaha n’ubundi ngo ararekwa ntashira.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome ikiganiro bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Subiza ibi bibazo bikurikira:

    1. Aba bantu barimo kuganira ku yihe nsanganyamatsiko?

    2. Ni ikihe kibazo k’ingutu cyugarije abatuye kariya gace kavugwa mu mwandiko?

    3. Ni iyihe nama bagiriye uriya mugabo utuye muri kariya gace?

    4. Wowe ubona cyakemuka gite?

    5. Uyu mwandiko urabona ari bwoko ki?

    II. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro: Kungurana ibitekerezo

    Mu matsinda mwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    Insanganyamatsiko: “Ni gute amabuye y’agaciro yacukurwa, ibidukikije bitabangamiwe?” Mwifashishije ibyo muzi nimutange ibitekerezo byanyu ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe.

    Ibiganiro nyunguranabitekerezo

    Ibiganiro nyunguranabitekerezo ni ibiganiro bifite intego yo gukusanya ibitekerezo ku ngingo iyi n’iyi ihangayikishije abantu. Utegura ikiganiro nyunguranabitekerezo atumira inzobere n’inararibonye akaziha umurongo ku byo yifuza ko zimuhaho ibitekerezo. Iyo ibitekerezo bibonetse, bituma hafatwa ingamba n’umurongo wo gukemura icyo kibazo. Hari n’ubwo ibyo baganiraho aba atari ibyo kwiga ku bibazo ahubwo ari ugushakisha umurongo mwiza w’imikorere. Nk’ikiganiro nyunguranabitekerezo cyakorwa ku mikoreshereze myiza y’amabuye y’agaciro nticyaba ari icyo gukemura ikibazo cy’ayo mabuye ubwayo; ahubwo byaba ari ugushaka umurongo mwiza uhamye ibijyanye n’icukurwa ry’amabuye y’agaciro byakorwamo. Ibi byatuma kandi ubucukuzi bwayo butangiza ibidukikije n’icuruzwa ryayo rikinjiza inyungu zifatika ku buryo Igihugu gikungahara, kikiteza imbere mu buryo bw’intangarugero.

    Kuki habaho ibiganiro nyunguranabitekerezo?

    Impamvu y’ingenzi ishobora gutuma habaho ibiganiro nyunguranabitekerezo ni uko abantu bicara bakabona ibyariho bitabanogeye kandi bifuza ko byagenda neza kurushaho. Icyo gihe hateganywa kubinoza hakozwe ikusanya ry’ibitekerezo byaturutse ku nzobere n’inararibonye zinyuranye.

    Dore zimwe mu ngingo z’ingenzi zishobora kuganirwaho:

    Ku rwego rw’ishuri:

    a) Kwita ku isuku n’ibidukikije (ibiti n’indabo, ubusitani, aho kumena imyanda...)

    b) Uko gahunda y’imyitwarire mu kigo ikwiriye kunozwa.

    c) Ingamba zikwiriye gufatwa kugira ngo ikigo kigire imitsindire myiza.

    d) Uko abafite ubumuga bakwitabwaho.

    e) Uko twakwirinda ibiyobyabwenge cyangwa inda z’indaro mu rubyiruko.

    Ku rwego rw’Igihugu:

    a) Icukurwa ry’amabuye y’agaciro ritangiza ibidukikije.

    b) Uko umutungo kamere ukwiriye gukoreshwa.

    c) Kwamagana no kurwanya imirimo ivunanye ikoreshwa abana nko muri za kariyeri.

    d) Imiyoborere myizae) Kugabanya no gukumira impanuka zo mu muhanda

    f ) Kurwanya icuruzwa ry’abantu n’izindi.

    Abagize ibiganiro nyunguranabitekerezo

    1. Umuyobozi w’ibiganiro

    Mu biganiro nyunguranabitekerezo, umuhuza wabyo akwiye kuba afite ubunararibonye mu kuyobora ibiganiro. Akenshi bene ibyo biganiro iyo biri ku rwego rw’igihugu bikunze kuyoborwa n’abanyamakuru. Biyoborwa kandi n’abarimu iyo byabereye mu bigo by’amashuri. Uyobora ibiganiro kandi akwiriye kuba afite amakuru ahagije ku nsanganyamatsiko. Iyo ari imyitozo irimo kubera mu mashuri, abanyeshuri bashobora kwitoramo abayobora ibiganiro nyunguranabitekerezo.

    2. Abatumirwa baganira ku nsanganyamatsiko

    Mu biganiro nyunguranabitekerezo hatumirwamo inzobere ndetse n’inararibonye zungurana ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko. Ni abantu baba bizewe kandi bazwiho kugira ibitekerezo byubaka. Hari n’ubwo hatumirwa abagize uruhare mu guhangana n’ibibazo runaka bagatanga ubuhamya ku bibazo bagize, bakanavuga uko babyikuyemo.

    Urugero

    Nk’ubu haramutse hateguwe ikiganiro ku ikoranabuhanga, abize ibya mudasobwa baza ku isonga mu gutumirwa. Ariko rero n’abandi bose bakoresha ikoranabuhanga mu buzima bwabo bashobora gutanga ibitekerezo byabo. Hateguwe ikiganiro ku mashyamba, abaza ku isonga mu gutumirwa ni inzobere mu buhinzi n’abagoronome.

    3. Indorerezi

    Abandi bose baba bifuje gukurikira no gutanga ibitekerezo byabo ndetse no kubaza ibibazo ku nsanganyamatsiko yatanzwe. Iki kiciro kibarizwamo abantu bose nta vangura. Nk’iyo kuri radiyo cyangwa kuri tereviziyo hahise ikiganiro nyunguranabitekerezo, abantu b’ingeri zitandukanye na bo batanga ibitekerezo.

    Umwitozo ku biganiro nyunguranabitekerezo

    Mu matsinda mutegure ikiganiro nyunguranabitekerezo kuri imwe muri izi nsanganyamatsiko zikurikira mwubahiriza uko bikorwa.

    a) Amabuye y’agaciro ashobora gucukurwa hatangijwe ibidukikije.

    b) Kwamagana no kurwanya imirimo ivunanye ikoreshwa abana nko muri za kariyeri.

    Itondaguranshinga

    Ibihe bikuru by’inshinga

    Itegereze izi nteruro zikurikira n’aya magambo ari mu ibara ry’umukara tsiri maze ugaragaze niba ibivugwa byarabaye cyangwa bitaraba.

    - Hari amashwagara yo mu masangano ya Mpatse na Mashyuza azavamo isima izakoreshwa mu gihugu.

    - Amabumba yo mu bishanga byacu avamo inkono, amatafari....

    - Mu minsi izaza, ayo mabumba azatuma hubakwa inganda zikora ibindi bintu.

    - Ishyamba rya Nyungwe ryamenyekanye cyane kubera zahabu icukurwamo.

    - Diyama irakunzwe cyane ku isi hose.

    - U Rwanda rwabaye ikitegererezo ku miyoborere myiza.

    Subiza ibi bibazo bikurikira

    1. Ni izihe nteruro zigaragaramo ibikorwa byarangije kuba?

    2. Ni izihe nteruro zigaragaramo ibiteganyijwe kuba mu gihe kizaza?

    3. Ni izihe nteruro zigaragaramo ibikorwa biri kuba nonaha?

    Iyo witegereje izi nteruro ziri haruguru, usanga zimwe zitanga amakuru ku byabayekera, izindi zikavuga ibirimo kuba muri ikigihe. Hari n’izindi nteruro zivuga ibiteganyijwe kuba mu gihe kizaza. Ibyo rero bigaragaza ibihe bikuru inshinga z’ikinyarwanda zishobora gutondagurwamo.

    Ibihe bikuru by’inshinga itondaguye mu Kinyarwanda ni bitatu:

    1. Indagihe

    Inshinga iba itondaguye mu ndagihe iyo igikorwa kiba kibera rimwe n’igihe uvuga avugiye.

    Ingero

    - Amabumba yo mu bishanga byacu avamo inkono.

    - Diyama irakunzwe cyane ku isi yose.

    - Uyu munsi turiga Ikinyarwanda.

    Indagihe igaragaramo ibindi bihe bine bitewe n’ inkuru ibarwa igihe yabereye cyangwa uburyo igikorwa gikorwamo.

    a) Indagihe y’ako kanya: Ivuga ibihuriranye n’igihe umuntu avuga. Indagihe y’ako kanya ni indagihe y’ubu.

    Ingero:

    - Hari amabuye yandagaye aho iwacu ku misozi

    - Zahabu na Diyama ni amabuye y’agaciro. Arakunzwe cyane ku isi.

    b) Indagihe y’ubusanzwe: Ivuga ibintu biba buri gihe. Ibivugwa biba ari ukuri kutavuguruzwa cyangwa byarafashwe nk’ihame.

    Ingero:

    - Amabuye akoreshwa mu bwubatsi bw’amazu.

    - Amabuye acukuwe nabi yangiza ibidukikije.

    c) Indagihe ikomeza: Igikorwa kiba cyarabaye ariko kikaba kigikomeza. Ni ukuvuga ko igikorwa kiba gikomeje cyangwa cyarabaye ariko gishobora kongera.

    Ingero:

    - Kugeza n’ubu Nyiramugengeri ziri mu Rwanda ziracyatanga umusaruro udahagije.

    - Ibirombe biracyatanga umusaruro muke

    d) Indagihe mbarankuru: Indagihe mbarankuru ivuga ibyabaye kera nk’aho birimo kuba ubu.

    Ingero:

    - Nuko baragenda bagera aho bacukura amabuye.

    - Abantu bamwe bitwikira ijoro baracukura maze ikirombe kibagwa hejuru.

    2. Impitagihe

    Impitagihe igaragaramo ibikorwa byabaye cyangwa byari biteganyijwe kuba mu gihe cyashize.

    Ingero

    - Twacukuye amabuye y’agaciro none yashize ku gasozi k’iwacu.

    - Icukurwa ry’amabuye ryinjije amafaranga menshi mu myaka mike ishize.

    Impitagihe igaragaramo ibihe bindi bibiri bito ari byo Impitakare n’impitakera.

    a) Impitakare: Ivuga ibimaze kuba mu mwanya ushize cyangwa ibyabaye kare.

    Ingero

    - Bavuze ko hari imisenyi n’imicanga ishobora gukorwamo ibirahure.

    - Mu gitondo twinjiye tudatonze umurongo.

    b) Impitakera: Inkuru zivugwa mu mpitakera, ziba zarabaye hashize igihe kirekire.

    Ingero

    - U Rwanda rwagaragaje ko rukungahaye ku mabuye n’indi mitungo kamere.

    - Icukurwa ry’amabuye y’agaciro ryangije ibidukikije ku buryo bukabije

    3. Inzagihe

    Inzagihe ni igihe kigaragaramo ibikorwa biteganyijwe kuba mu gihe kizaza.

    Ingero

    - Amashanyarazi azunganira inkwi.

    - Umwaka utaha tuzacana nyiramugengeri.

    Inshamake y’ibyizwe mu mutwe wa mbere

    Imyandiko yose yibanze ku bidukikije. Ari amashyamba, ibyanya by’inyamaswa ndetse n’amabuye acukurwa mu Rwanda, byose byagarukaga ku kamaro no kubibyaza umusaruro ariko ku buryo bitangiza ibidukikije. Imwe mu mimaro y’ibidukikije twabonye harimo gutanga umwuka mwiza duhumeka, kwinjiza amafaranga, gukorwamo ibikoresho binyuranye n’ibindi. Ni muri kino gice twungutse byinshi mu ikeshamvugo. Hari imvugo n’amagambo amwe n’amwe akoreshwa ahantu no mu bihe runaka ku bijyanye n’inyamaswa.

    Ibyigwa byo muri uyu mutwe byagarukaga ku rurimi n’imyandikire. Twabonyemo bimwe mu bimenyetso by’utwatuzo n’imikoreshereze yabyo, ibihe bikuru by’inshinga bidufasha kubaka ubushobozi bwo gukora interuro ziboneye. Interuro iboneye ni ikoreshejwemo neza ibimenyetso by’utwatuzo, ibihe by'inshinga bikaba bikoreshejwe neza. Ndetse n’amagambo akoreshejwe mu nteruro akaba aboneye.

    Iby’ingenzi Nshoboye

    - Gushishikarira no gushishikariza abandi kubungabunga ibidukikije nita ku mashyamba, ibyanya by’inyamaswa no kudakora ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro mu kajagari.

    - Gusoma neza nubahiriza utwatuzo.

    - Gukoresha inshinga mu nteruro nubahiriza ibihe byayo.

    Isuzuma risoza umutwe wa mbere

    Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

    Umwandiko: Nutema kimwe uge utera bibiri

    Abanyafurika benshi bazi akamaro k’igiti. Tubona ibiti ahantu henshi kandi tunabikoresha mu mirimo itandukanye. Igiti ni ikimera kigira umugongo umeraho amashami n’amababi by’ingirakamaro cyane. Hari ibiti bimwe na bimwe bigira indabo zihumura neza, ibindi bikagira imbuto ziribwa. Habaho amoko menshi y’ibiti: ibigufi n’ibirebire, ibibyibushye n’ibyakonze kandi umumaro wabyo ntugira uko ungana.Nimwibaze nk’ubu umunsi umwe tubyutse tugasanga mu Rwanda hose nta giti na kimwe gihari! Byaba ari akaga gakomeye. Birumvikana ko nta biti byera imbuto byaba biriho, nta rubuto na rumwe rwazongera kuribwa. Abakunda imbuto ziribwa baba bagize ikibazo gikomeye cyane. Ipapayi yo yababaza abatari bake kubera ko benshi bayirahira ngo yabakijije impatwe, inzoka n’izindi ndwara.

    Ahatari ibiti, ibyanya by’inyamaswa nk’Akagera, Nyungwe, pariki y’ibirunga ntibyahaboneka. Wa mwuka mwiza duhumeka waba ugiye nka Nyomberi. Imvura yajyaga itosa ubutaka, abantu bagahinga, ikiherera iyo. Inyamaswa ziba mu byanya zaba zibuze intaho, ba mukerarugendo babura iyo berekeza, mbese isi yaba ibaye imburabuturo!

    Ibikorwa bya muntu bigira uruhare rukomeye mu kwangiza amashyamba. Umuntu ni we utema ibiti byo gucana, kubakisha, gukoramo ibikoresho bitandukanye ibindi akagurisha. Aratutira akabimaraho yirengagije ko n’ejo ari umunsi. Ntiyibuka gutera ibindi ngo bizamugoboke mu gihe kizaza. Umuntu ni we ucukura amabuye y’agaciro agatengura imisozi ubundi imvura yagwa inkangu zigacika. Ikindi gihangayikishije ni ubwiyongere bukabije bw’abatuye isi,bangiza ibidukikije bashaka aho gutura n’aho gushyira ibindi bikorwa byabo.

    Ubu mu Rwanda hatangijwe gahunda n’ubukangurambaga mu kubungabunga igiti. Ndetse hagenwe itariki yiswe “umunsi w’igiti”. Kuri iyo tariki igiti kiramamazwa, hakaratwa umumaro wacyo maze rubanda rugashishikarizwa gutera ibiti ku bwinshi. Abanyarwanda barashishikarizwa gutera ibiti bivangwa n’imyaka mu murima. Intero kandi ni imwe ngo “Nutema kimwe uge utera bibiri”. Ubu ni bumwe mu buryo bw’ingenzi Leta y’u Rwanda yashyizeho ngo irusheho kubungabunga ibidukikije.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

    1. Rondora imimaro itatu y’ibiti uko ivugwa mu mwandiko.

    2. Ni ibihe byanya by’inyamaswa bivugwa mu mwandiko biba mu Rwanda.

    3. Uyu mwanditsi hari urubuto yashatse gukundisha abantu cyane. Ni uruhe?

    4. Ni iki gituma ibidukikije bikomeje kwangirika? Garagaza nibura ibintu bitatu bivugwa mu mwandiko.

    5. Ukurikije ibivugwa mu mwandiko ni izihe ngaruka twagira ibidukikije bikomeje kwangizwa?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura aya magambo akurikira ari mu mwandiko wasomye

    a) Aratutira

    b) Imburabuturo

    c) Bizamugoboke

    2. Garagaza amagambo adahuje inyito n’aya amagambo akurikira:

    a) Akaga

    b) Kwangizwa

    c) Gutura

    3. Garagaza amagambo ari mu mwandiko ahuje inyito n’aya akurikira

    a) Kwita ku

    b) Byanejeje cyane

    III. Ikibonezamvugo

    1. Himba interuro iboneye iri mu mpitakera

    2. Shyira izi nshinga zagaragajwe mu gihe kizaza

    a) Amabuye amwe akorwamo ibikoresho bidufasha mu iterambere.

    3. Izi nshinga zitondaguwe mu bihe bihe?

    a) Kwangiza no gusesagura umutungo kamere bihanwa n’amategeko.

    b) Mu Rwanda hatangijwe gahunda n’ubukangurambaga mu kubungabunga igiti.

    IV. Ubuvanganzo, ubumenyi bw’ururimi n’ikeshamvugo

    1. Ni ku ki habaho ibiganiro nyunguranabitekerezo?

    2. Sobanura iyi mvugo “kugenda nka Nyomberi”

    3. Uzuza iyi migani migufi

    a) Isuri.....igasohoza bike.

    b) Igiti kimwe si....

    4. Kosora izi nteruro wubahiriza ikeshamvugo

    a) Mu cyanya cy’Akagera impyisi ziratontoma n’inyoni zikavugiriza.

    b) Inyana ziva mu kiraro hamaze gucya

    c) Ibyobo birebire bacukuramo zahabu n’andi mabuye byararidutse.

    5. Uzurisha amagambo yabugenewe

    a) Bavuga....ntibavuga umukumbi w’inka.

    b) Inzu y’inka yitwa.....

    6. (;) Iki kimenyetso cy’utwatuzo kiri mu dukubo kitwa ngo iki? Tanga urugero rw’interuro iboneye gikoreshejwemo.

    7. (“ ”) ibi bimenyetso biri mu dukubo byitwa ngo iki? Tanga urugero rw’interuro byakoreshejwemo?

    V. Ihimbamwandiko

    1. Himba umwandiko mu mirongo iri hagati ya makumyabiri na makumyabiri n’itanu kandi usobanure wifashishije nibura ingingo enye kuri imwe muri izi nsanganyamatsiko zikurikira:

    a) “Igiti ni ubuzima”

    b) “Ibidukikije byangizwa n’ibikorwa bya muntu”


  • UMUTWE WA 2: Kwidagadura

    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro
    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoreshe neza amagambo yahawe mu nteruro ziboneye.

    Ikipe itigererwa


    Ishuri ryacu ryarakataje mu mikino y’intoki. Umuyobozi w’ishuri ryacu yahoze akina mu ikipe y’igihugu ya basiketi. Akunda imikino kandi atubwira ko imikino y’amaboko ari myiza; ntigorana kuko ibibuga byayo bijya ahantu hato, ndetse ikibuga kimwe gishobora gukinirwaho imikino ibiri inyuranye. Iyo amashuri agitangira umuyobozi w’ishuri atuganiriza ku kamaro k’imikino. Gukina bituma abanyeshuri baruhuka mu mutwe bakananura ingingo, ari na ko ibyuya bibasohokamo. Umuntu ukina cyane ayaza ibinure biba mu mubiri agatandukana n’indwara zikururwa n’umubyibuho ukabije.

    Izi mpanuro zatumye abanyeshuri b’ikigo cyose dukunda gukina. Ubu ntiwabona abana bicaye baganira cyangwa biremye udutsiko mu gihe cy’amasaha y’imikino. Udakinnye umukino w’intoki akina uwa basiketi. Ku cyumweru cya nyuma cy’ukwezi, abanyeshuri n’abarezi turakina. Kubona umuyobozi wacu ari mu kibuga akina n’abana bato bo mu wa mbere byatumye natwe twumva kudakina ari igihombo. Na we kandi aba ashimishijwe no gukina n’abana. Kuri we nta mwana uba mu kibuga; mu kibuga habamo abakinnyi. Buri mukinnyi, yaba umwana yaba umukuru, aba agomba guharanira gutahana insinzi.

    Nge ndi umufana w’ikirangirire. Aho ikipe yacu ya basiketi isohokeye, umwanya wange uba uteganyijwe kuko mba nyoboye itsinda ry’abafana. Nitegereje umukino wa basiketi nsanga umuntu yawigiramo byinshi. Ubamo ishyaka n’ubufatanye, ukabamo n’ubwenge bwinshi. Nasanze ari umukino usaba imbaraga no kumenya guhanahana umupira na bagenzi bawe utabaye nyamwigendaho. Nkiwubona bwa mbere nahise ngira ishyaka ryo kuzaba umukinnyi w’ikirangirire. Naje kubona benshi mu banyeshuri twakinanaga bandusha, mpitamo kwibera umufana. Ntawutanzi mu makipe y’ibigo by’amashuri tujya dukina.

    Ikipe yacu y’umukino wa basiketi iratsinda cyane, ni mu gihe kandi kuko ifite abakinnyi b’abahanga bazi no kwitendeka ku cyuma kiba kinaganaho urucundura, bikanezeza abafana. Uko itwaye igikombe, igitura umuyobozi wacu, akagitaka mu biro bye, maze bikaba umutako unezeza abagenderera ishuri. Buri mwaka twegukana igikombe. Duherutse kujya mu marushanwa yabereye i Kampala mu gihugu cya Uganda. Ikipe yacu yatashye iri ku mwanya wa kabiri mu marushanwa yari yahuje abanyeshuri bo mu bihugu bigize umuryango w’ibihugu by’Afurika y’iburasirazuba ndetse kapiteni w’ikipe yacu yatahanye umudari w’umukinnyi witwaye neza.

    Ibyo byose byagezweho kubera ubufatanye bw’abayobozi n’abanyeshuri bitanga batizigamye. Hiyongeraho ariko n’umusanzu w’ababyeyi utangwa kugira ngo abana babo bidagadure bagire ibyishimo bishingiye ku magara mazima.

    Mu by’ukuri, imikino iduhuza na bagenzi bacu, tukidagadura, tugasabana na bo. Abenshi tuhakura n’inshuti. Iyo hari ikipe yaje kudusura, twirirwa tunezerewe. Uwo munsi n’utazi gukina aza gufana akumva aruhutse mu mutwe. Imikino yarangira agasubira mu masomo ye nta mihangayiko afite. Muri make, imikino y’amaboko idufasha kuruhuka tukiga neza.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Ni iki kigaragaza ko umuyobozi w’ikigo akunda imikino cyane?

    2. Ubwo iyi kipe iherutse i Kampala yahakuye umwanya wa kangahe?

    3. Rondora itatu mu mimaro y’imikino n’imyidagaduro.

    4. Ni iyihe mpamvu yatumye uyu munyenshuri ahitamo kuba umufana aho gukina?

    5. Vuga indi mikino ikinishwa intoki cyangwa amaboko waba uzi.

    6. Ni iyihe ndwara ishobora kuvurwa n’imikino ivugwa mu mwandiko?

    7. Ari ikipe y’umupira wa Basiketi n’iy’umupira w’intoki, itsinda cyane ni iyihe? Sobanura.

    8. Vuga unasobanure akandi kamaro k’imikino kaba katavuzwe mu mwandiko.

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Ntivogerwa

    b) Ikirangirire

    c) Impanuro

    d) Ibinure

    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

    Wifashishije rimwerimwe muri aya magambo, kora interuro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

    a) Ikirangirire

    b) Impanuro

    c) Ibinure

    d) Kuvogerwa

    2. Uzurisha interuro zikurikira amagambo wakuye mu mwandiko

    a) Abakora imyitozo ngororamubiri baba barimo....... ibinure

    b) Gutsinda igitego bakunze kubyita “kunyeganyeza........”

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Vuga ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka z’ibivugwa mu mwandiko

    2. Ushingiye ku bivugwa mu mwandiko, sobanura uko imikino ituma abanyeshuri bayikina bamenya ubwenge?

    3. Iyo witegereje imyitwarire n’imico y’abanyeshuri badakina n’iy’abakina ubona ihuye? Ni irihe tandukaniro ubona?

    V. Umwitozo w’ ubumenyi ngiro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akore umukoro wo guhanga umwandiko, hanyuma azageze ku bandi ibitekerezo bye.

    Hanga umwandiko mugufi ugaragaza kandi ugasobanura nibura ingaruka enye zo kudakora siporo n’indi myitozo ngororamubiri.

    Amoko y’inshinga

    Itegereze aya magambo ari mu ibara ry’umukara tsiri nurangiza usubize ibibazo bikurikira:

    - Mukamana akina umupira w’intoki.

    - Ikipe yacu iharanira iteka guhora iri imbere.

    - Umukino w’intoki ni umukino mwiza cyane.

    - Nta na rimwe dushobora gukina adahari.

    Ibibazo:

    a) Aya magambo yanditse mu ibara ry’umukara tsiri afite uwuhe mumaro mu nteruro?

    b) Afitanye iyihe sano n’amagambo ayabanjirije?

    c) Urabona iryo jambo riramutse rivuyemo interuro yaba igifite igisobanuro?

    Inshoza: Inshinga ni ijambo riranga igikorwa, imimerere cyangwa intego bya ruhamwa mu nteruro.

    Ingero:

    - Gukina(igikorwa)

    - Kuba(Imimerere cyangwa imiterere)

    - Iharanira (intego)

    Inshinga zisanzwe zirimo amoko abiri: Inshinga zidatondaguye n’inshinga zitondaguye.

    a) Inshinga zidatondaguye (inshinga ziri mu mbundo)

    Inshinga zidatondaguye cyangwa inshinga ziri mu mbundo ni uburyo bw’inshinga butagaragaza uwakoze cyangwa uwitirirwa igikorwa.

    Ingero: Gukina, kunanura, kuvogerwa, gukora, kuruhuka, kwiga...

    Uturango tw’inshinga iri mu mbundo

    Inshinga iri mu mbundo igaragaza igikorwa, imimerere, imiterere bitagira uwo byitirirwa. Ni ukuvuga ko ukora igikorwa atagaragara.

    Ingero:

    - Mu nshinga gukina ukina ntabwo azwi.ora igikorwa ntabwo azwi.

    - Mu nshinga kwiga ukora igikorwa cyo kwiga ntabwo agaragara.

    Inshinga iri mu mbundo iteka itangizwa na “ku” y’indanganshinga cyangwa “gu”. Iyo urebye ku rutonde rw’inteko z’amagambo “ku” iranga inteko ya 15. Ni ukuvuga ko imbundo ihora iteka mu nteko ya 15. Indanganshinga “Ku” niyo itangira imbundo buri gihe.

    b) Inshinga itondaguye

    Inshinga itondaguye ihinduranya ngenga, ikaba yemeza cyangwa ihakana, ikumvikanisha niba igikorwa cyararangiye cyangwa gikomeza, ikajya mu bihe by’inshinga bitandukanye, igahinduranya uburyo n’ibindi. Muri icyo gihe, ukora cyangwa uwo igikorwa kitirirwa ashobora kugaragara cyangwa hakagaragara ubwinshi bwabo.

    Ingero:

    - Ndi umufana w’ikirangirire.

    - Umuyobozi yakinaga mu ikipe y’igihugu.

    - Ikipe yacu ntigera mu mikino yo ku rwego rw’igihugu.

    - Ntidushobora gukina adahari

    - Nzaba umukinnyi w’ikirangirire

    Imyitozo ku nshinga

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe arasubiza ibibazo byabajijwe ku nshinga

    1. Imbundo ni iki?

    2. Kora interuro ngufi kandi iboneye itangijwe n’inshinga iri mu mbundo.

    3. Vuga ubwoko bw’aya magambo ari mu nteruro ikurikira, yagaragajwe mu ibara ry’umukara tsiri:

    Gutsinda kw’ikipe yacu bituruka ku bufatanye bw’abarezi, abayobozi n’abanyeshuri.

    Nzaba igihangange mu mukino w’intoki


    Nkigera mu mashuri yisumbuye, nk’umwana w’umukobwa, nari mfite amatsiko yo kumenya uko bakina umukino w’intoki. Aho nari narize amashuri abanza, twikiniraga tayari duhererekanya agapira gato. Umuhanga muri uwo mukino ni uwabaga azi guhamya cyangwa akamenya gukwepa. Umukobwa wacaga agahigo yashoboraga gukina n’abahungu umupira w’amaguru. Bari barambwiye ko hari umukino bakinisha intoki birantangaza cyane kuko nko mu mupira w’amaguru ntibakinisha intoki.

    Umunsi umwe, ikipe yacu y’abakobwa yari bukine n’iy’ikigo cya Karubamba. Wari umunsi udasanzwe kuri nge no ku bandi banyeshuri bashya cyanecyane abari baraturutse mu cyaro. Ikipe y’abakobwa ya Karubamba yahasesekaye saa tatu n’igice za mu gitondo tubona batangiye kwishyushya. Abakinnyi bacu na bo basohoka mu rwambariro bari ku murongo. Mu rusaku rwinshi numvaga abafana bakomeza kuvuga ngo “Munezero, Munezero, Munezero”. Mbajije bambwira ko ari we kapiteni w’ ikipe yacu y’abakobwa.

    Ntibyatinze abakinnyi n’abasifuzi baba bageze mu kibuga. Bazamura amaboko basuhuza abantu bose impande zombi natwe tubakomera amashyi. Ifirimbi yaravuze mbona abakinnyi bagiye mu bibuga byabo batangira kohererezanya imipira ariko nkabona nta shyaka ryinshi ririmo. Bamwe bagafata umupira bakawudunda hasi ugatumbagira mu kirere. Ubwo barimo kwishyushya umukino ugiye gutangira.Umusifuzi yuriye akego yicara ku gatebe kari hejuru hafi y’urucundura. Areba ku isaha, ako kanya ukuriye umukino amwereka urutoki rw’igikumwe mbona ko hari icyo bavuganye, umusifuzi arasifura ruba rurambikanye. Umukino watangiranye imbaduko. Abakinnyi batandatu batandatu ku makipe yombi. Umukinnyi agasimbuka yajya gukubita ikiro undi ku rundi ruhande na we agasimbuka akamupfukira mu kirere hejuru y’urucundura. Haba hari urobye, undi akaryama ku bw’amahirwe akawugarura. Byamunanira igitego kikaba kiranditswe.

    Wa mukinnyi Munezero nari nahoze numva baririmba, yatsinze igitego bihurirana n’ifirimbi ya nyuma. Abari aho batangira kumuririmba. Ibyo kumwogeza bivaho baramuterura. Nasanze mu mikino umuntu agira umunezero ndetse akunguka inshuti. Abifite bamupfundaga iza bitanu n’iza bibiri. Cyakora utazi kwifata no gucunga neza imbamutima ze, yanaharwarira umutima. Iyo ikipe wafanaga bayitsinze igitego, wumva ari nk’ikintu bakubise ku mutima.

    Uyu mukino kuwutsinda bisaba gutsinda ukageza kuri seti eshatu zose. Ubwo kandi seti imwe igira ibitego makumyabiri na bitanu. Umukino warangiye ikipe yacu ifite amaseti atatu kuri imwe. Kuva ubwo nasobanukiwe neza ko n’abakobwa bashoboye. Nahise ngambirira kuzaba umwe mu bakinnyi b’ikitegererezo nka Munezero.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Ni iyihe kipe yari yasuye?

    2. Ikipe y’umukino w’intoki iba igizwe n’abakinnyi bangahe?

    3. Vuga izina ry’umukinnyi w’ikirangirire uvugwa mu mwandiko. Ese ni umuhungu cyangwa ni umukobwa? Ni iki kibigaragaza?

    4. Vuga nibura bitatu mu byo umukinnyi ashobora kunguka bivugwa mu mwandiko.

    5. Vuga nibura itatu mu mikino waba uzi ikinishwa intoki.

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura aya magambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko

    a) Imbaduko

    b) Ishyaka

    c) Kugambirira

    d) Bamupfundaga

    e) Ruba rurambikanye

    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoreshe neza amagambo yahawe mu nteruro ziboneye.

    1. Koresha aya magambo wungutse mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye

    a) Imbaduko

    b) Kugambirira

    c) Bamupfundaga

    d) Rurambikanye

    2. Uzurisha izi nteruro amagambo wakuye mu mwandiko

    a) Iyo ikipe ifite abakinnyi beza bafite.....ntakabuza iratsinda.

    b) Umukinnyi yarasimbutse atera.... maze kukigarura biranga.

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Garagaza ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko

    2. Rondora ubwoko bw’imikino yose ishobora gukinirwa kuri kiriya kibuga kibanjirije umwandiko.

    3. Ni iyihe nyigisho ukuye mu mwandiko?

    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

    Mu matsinda mwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    Insanganyamatsiko: “Ni iki wakora kugira ngo imikino itere imbere kurushaho mu kigo mwigamo ndetse n’aho mutuye?” Mwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe mugaragaza icyakorwa kugira ngo imikino itere imbere mu kigo mwigamo n’aho mutuye.

    Uturemajambo tw’inshinga iri mu mbundo

    Kugaragaza uturemajambo tw’ijambo ni ukugaragaza intego zaryo. Inshinga iri mu mbundo igira uturemajambo tw’ingenzi dutatu. Utwo turemajambo ni indanganshinga (ku), igicumbi n’umusozo. Ni ukuvuga ko intego mbonera y’inshinga iri mu mbundo iteye itya mu mpine: Ku-C-Soz.

    Urugero:

    Gukina intego: ku kina

    ku: Ni indanganshinga (Ku)

    kin: Ni igicumbi (C)

    a: Ni umusozo (Soz)

    Indanganshinga

    Indanganshinga ni akaremajambo (Ku) karanga inshinga iri mu mbundo. Ni na ko karemajambo kagaragaza inteko y’imbundo. Ku nshinga zose ziri mu mbundo, indanganshinga ni yo ibimburira utundi turemajambo.

    Ingero:

    Gukina: ku –kin – a

    Gutsinda: ku – tsind – a

    Kuririmba: ku – ririmb – a

    Gupfuka: ku – pfuk – a

    Igicumbi

    Igicumbi cyangwa umuzi w’inshinga ni igice kidahinduka k’inshinga, inshinga ihuriraho n’andi magambo yose afitanye isano n’iyo nshinga.

    Uko bashaka igicumbi k’inshinga

    Uburyo bwihuse bwo gutahura igicumbi cyangwa umuzi w’inshinga ziri mu mbundo, zifite imigemo ibiri irimo ubutinde cyangwa imigemo itatu ndetse n’izifite imigemo irenze itatu, ni ugushyira izo inshinga mu ntegeko, muri ngenga ya kabiri y’ubumwe maze hagakurwaho umusoza “a”.

    Iyo inshinga ari ngufi, ni ukuvuga igizwe n’imigemo ibiri ibangutse, itarimo ubutinde. Icyo gihe ubona igicumbi cyangwa umuzi ari uko iyo nshinga ishyizwe mu mpitakare muri ngenga ya gatatu y’ubumwe maze hagakurwaho umugemo wa mbere n’umugemo wa gatatu, ariyo “ya” na “ye” umugemo usigaye hagati akaba ariwo gicumbi k’inshinga.

    Ikitonderwa: Imbundo ishobora kugira n’utundi turemajambo, twiyongera mu ntego mbonera. Utwo turemajambo ni nk’akaremajambo karanga igihe k’inzagihe, gashobora kwihagika hagati y’indanganshinga n’igicumbi. Ako karemajambo kitwa igenantego cyangwa indangagihe.

    Imbundo kandi ishobora kwiyongeramo uturemajambo tw’ ingereka ziza hagati y’igicumbi n’umusozo.

    Ingereka z’ibanze

    Ingereka zishobora kwihagika inyuma y’igicumbi k’inshinga y’ibanze, bityo tukagira inshinga zikomoka ku zindi bitewe n’izo ngereka ziza inyuma y’igicumbi. Muri izo ngereka harimo ingereka ngirana –an, ingereka ngirisha –ish/–sh, ingereka ngirira –ir, ingereka ngirwa –w, ingereka ngiza –y,ingereka ngirika –ik ingereka ngiruka –uk, ingereka ngirura –ur,...

    Utwo turemajambo twifashishwa mu iremwa ry’inshinga nshya.

    Ingero:



    Izindi ngero z’imbundo n’uturemajambo twazo:

    Iyo utwo turemajambo twiyongera ku ntego mbonera tutabonetse mu mbundo, ntidusimbuzwa ikimenyetso “φ” kuko atari uturemajambo tugize intego mbonera.

    Umusozo

    Umusozo w’inshinga iri mu mbundo ni “a”.

    Ingero:

    Gukora ku – kor – a

    Gutwarana ku – twar – an – a

    Gukoma ku – kom – a

    Imyitozo ku turemajambo tw'inshinga

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe asubize ibibazo byabajijwe ku nshinga iri mu mbundo, anagaragaze uturemajambo.

    1. Intego mbonera y’inshinga iri mu mbundo ni iyihe? Bigaragaze wifashishije ingero.

    2. Ni gute babona umuzi w’inshinga iri mu mbundo? Sobanura unatanga ingero.

    3. Garagaza uturemajambo tw’izi nshinga ziciyeho akarongo

    a) Gufasha no Kumva abandi byongera amahoro no kubahana

    b) Abakobwa ubu bagaragaza ko kubaka atari iby’abahungu gusa

    Ku ishuri turidagadura

    Ku ishuri ryacu tuguwe neza, kandi dufite ubuzima bwiza kubera imikino.Turidagadura, tugakina imikino inyuranye y’amaboko cyangwa imikino ngororamubiri. Imikino ngororamubiri ni myinshi; Hari ukwiruka n’amaguru cyangwa ku magare, gutera imihunda no kujugunya ingasire, gusimbuka urukiramende n’umurambararo. Hari abakinira ku mitambiko yitwa bare cyangwa bagakora imikino y’ubugenge izwi nk’akorobasi. Aho bamaze gutera imbere cyane bagira n’imikino yo kwizunguriza ku migozi mu kirere n’iyindi myinshi.

    Umwarimu wacu atubwira ko imikino ngororamubiri ari nk’ibyo kurya bituma umubiri wacu ukomera kandi ukirekura. Atubwira ko nitwimenyereza imikino ngororamubiri imibiri yacu izamererwa neza. Kandi koko ni ko bimeze. Tugitangira umwaka wa mbere, wasangaga abana benshi babyibushye bikabije. Twatekerezaga ko biterwa no kurya neza kuko ku ishuri abayobozi bacu bita cyane ku mirire yacu. Nyuma y’amasomo, wasangaga twiremye udutsiko tuganira, dutegereje ko isaha yo gusubira mu masomo igera cyangwa dutegereje kujya ku meza. Hari n’ubwo twabaga tutanafite ubushake bwo kurya.

    Iyo dusohotse mu ishuri, tuzenguruka ikibuga cy’umupira gahorogahoro inshuro eshanu. Twarangiza tukagorora ingingo zose z’umubiri. Duhera ku ijosi tukagera ku kirenge. Nta rugingo na rumwe dusiga tutarukoreye umwitozo wabugenewe. Umutoza we yabonye uko dusigaye dukina, arebye n’ingano yacu, atwizeza ko tuzajya dusohokera ikigo mu mikino ngororamubiri nitumara kumenyera neza. Umunsi wo ku wa gatatu no ku wa gatandatu, mwarimu wacu wa siporo, adukoresha imyitozo ngororamubiri twibyinira. Azana indirimbo yatoranyije, maze abanyeshuri b’ikigo cyose batagira ikipe bakinamo akabahuriza mu kibuga kimwe akatwerekera uko tubyina tujyana n’injyana y’umuziki. Usanga ari byiza kuko turabyina tugatutubikana kurusha abagiye mu kibuga k’imikino isanzwe.

    Imikino ifasha umubiri kuyungurura imyanda. Ni ikintu kiza ku mubiri wacu kuko imyanda isohokera muri bya byuya dututubikana iyo dukina. Iyo umuntu amaze gukina ni byiza ko aruhuka gato hanyuma akiyuhagira. Icyo gihe yumva umubiri uguwe neza. Abaganga bahamya ko iyo umuntu adakora imyitozo ngororamubiri, umubiri utabona uko ukoresha amavuta uba warahunitse. Ni bwo rero muzabona umuntu agenda akagira umubyibuho ukabije. Akenshi bene abo babyibuha inda naho mu mayunguyungu ari ibicece gusa.

    Ikindi kiza twabonye mu mukino ni umunezero no kutarakazwa n’ubusa. Kera twari ibifura. Iyo badusererezaga twararakaraga kandi wenda ibyo bavuga ari ukuri. Ubu uretse ko nta n’aho babihera, uwaduserereza twakwisekera cyangwa tukamusubiza ariko nta burakari burimo bikaza kurangira twasabanye. Burya hari n’ubwo baba bashaka gutebya.

    Muri make uwavuga akamaro k’imikino ngororamubiri bwakwira bugacya. Abahanga bo bemeza ko umubiri udakora imyitozo ngororamubiri uba umeze nk’imodoka batoza cyangwa ngo imenerwe amavuta ashaje; irakora ikananirwa ikagera aho igapfa ntive aho iri cyangwa yagenda ikagonga moteri.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Ni ubuhe bwoko bw’imikino ngororamubiri bakina aho ku ishuri? Rondora itanu.

    2. Abanyeshuri batagira umukino bakina, bo bananura ingingo zabo bate?

    3. Umwandiko uratubwira ko imyanda y’umubiri isohokera he?

    4. Umubiri udakora imyitozo ngororamubiri wagereranyijwe n’iki mu mwandiko?

    5. Kubira ibyuya bimariye iki umubiri wacu?

    6. Vuga imikino itatu uyu munyeshuri akina kandi akaza mu bambere.

    7. Ni iyihe mpamvu y’ingenzi ivugwa mu mwandiko itera abantu bamwe kubyibuha inda?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura aya magambo akurikira dusanga mu mwandiko :

    a) Ibifura

    b) Ibyuya 

    c) Gutebya

    d) Gusabana 

    e) Guhunika

    III. Imyitozo yo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

    1. Wifashishije rimwerimwe muri aya magambo, kora interuro ngufi kandi ziboney

    a) Ibyuya

    b) Gutebya

    c) Gusabana

    d) Guhunika

    e) Ingeragere

    2. Uzurisha izi nteruro zikurikira amagambo ukuye mu mwandiko

    a) Mu mikino umubiri wacu uyaza ibinure uba ...... igihe kirekire.

    b) Uwo bita ......ni umuntu urakazwa n’ubusa.

    c) Mu mikino umuntu agiriramo .......n’abandi akunguka n’inshuti.

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Garagaza ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. Ni gute imyitozo ngororamubiri ifasha umubiri wacu kutagira umubyibuho ukabije.

    3. Mu by’ukuri umwanditsi arashaka kumvikanisha iki mu gika cya nyuma?

    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

    Mu matsinda mwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    Insanganyamatsiko: “Imikino ngororamubiri ni nk’ibyo kurya umubiri ukeneye”.Mutange ibitekerezo musobanura mu buryo bwimbitse insanganyamatsiko mwahawe.

    Amategeko y’igenamajwi akoreshwa mu nshinga

    Amategeko y’igenamajwi akoreshwa mu mbundo amwe ni asanzwe akoreshwa mu yandi magambo nk’izina na ntera. Mu isesengura ry’imbundo, hagaragara amategeko ahuza indanganshinga n’imizi cyangwa agahuza imizi n’ingereka. Amategeko yandikwa mu mpine.


    Amategeko y’igenamajwi agaragaza impinduka zishobora kuba ku ijambo mu gihe k’isesengura ry’uturemajambo. Rimwe na rimwe amajwi amwe n’amwe arahinduka.

    Uko amwe n’amwe mu mategeko y’igenamajwi yandikwa mu mpine n’uko asomwa



    Imyitozo ku turemajambo n'amategeko y'igenamajwi

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe asubize ikibazo cyabajijwe ku nshinga iri mu mbundo, anagaragaze uturemajambo n’amategeko y’igenamajwi.

    1. Garagaza uturemajambo n’amategeko y’igenamajwi by’izi nshinga zikurikira:

    a) Kurya

    b) guha

    c) gupfa

    d) Guca

    e) Kugwa

    f ) Gusya

    Inshamake y’ibyizwe mu mutwe wa kabiri

    Imyandiko yasomwe ivuga ku mikino n’imyitozo ngororamubiri. Hagaragajwe imwe mu mimaro yayo nko kuruhura umuntu, kugorora ingingo, kongera ubusabane n’abandi ndetse no gutuma ingingo n’ibice by’umubiri bikora neza.Ibyigwa bihurira ku isesenguranshinga twabonye ko:

    a) Inshinga zisanzwe zirimo amoko abiri (Iziri mu mbundo n’inshinga zitondaguye)

    b) Inshinga iri mu mbundo igaragaza imiterere, igikorwa cyangwa imimerere bitagira uwo byitirirwa.

    c) Imbundo igira uturemajambo tw’ibanze dutatu (indanganshinga, igicumbi n’umusozo)

    d) Imbundo ihora iteka mu nteko ya 15

    Iby’ingenzi nshoboye

    a) Kugaragaza uturemajambo tw’inshinga iri mu mbundo n’amategeko y’igenamajwi.

    b) Gusobanurira abandi iby’imbundo n’imiterere yayo

    c) Kugira nibura umukino umwe nkina no gukundisha bagenzi bange imikino n’ imyitozo ngororamubiri buri munsi.

    d) Gushishikarira gukoresha ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda ntondeka neza amoko y’amagambo mu nteruro.

    Isuzuma risoza umutwe wa kabiri

    Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

    Umwandiko: Umubiri wacu ukeneye imyitozo ngororamubiri

    Nkiri umwana muto, nagiraga amatsiko yo kumenya impamvu abantu bamwe babyibuha abandi ntibabyibuhe. Ababyeyi bange bambwiraga ko impamvu ibitera ari imyaka y’ubukure. Ibyo ntibyanyuze kuko nabonye umwana ufite ibiro mirongo itanu, kandi afite imyaka icumi, arusha ubunini abantu bakuru benshi. Hari abahamya ko kubyibuha biterwa no kurya cyane ndetse no kudakora imyitozo ngororamubiri. Umwe mu nzobere mu bijyanye n’imirire yansobanuriye ko hari igipimo k’ibiribwa n’intungamubiri, umubiri wacu uba ukeneye.

    Yakomeje ambwira ko iyo bibuze cyangwa bikarenga urugero, umuntu ashobora guhura n’ingaruka zitandukanye. Iyo bibaye bike umuntu ashobora kunanuka bikabije ndetse akaba yanahura n’indwara zituruka ku mirire mibi. Gusa iyo bibaye byinshi byo ngo ni ishyano riba rigwiriye umuntu. Biramuyoboka bikaba bishobora kumutera umubyibuho ukabije, kwiterura ntibibe bigishobotse, yakora urugendo akababuka mu mayasha, bidatinze indwara z’umutima n’iz’ubuhumekero zikaziraho.

    Yaje kumara impungenge ambwira ko abafite ikibazo cyo kutabona indyo idahagije kandi ituzuye, iyo bayibonye ubuzima bwabo bwongera kuba bwiza. Naho ababifite ku bwinshi bakagira umubyibuho ukabije, bagomba kwitabira imikino n’imyitozo ngororamubiri. Imikino ngororamubiri ituma umuntu agubwa neza, umubiri ugakomera kandi akagira imbaraga. Si ibyo gusa kandi kuko bigabanya isukari n’imyunyu biba bitagikenewe mu mubiri, ndetse n’imyanda iri mu mubiri igasohoka inyuze mu byuya. Imyitozo ngororamubiri inatuma ibice bimwe na bimwe by’umubiri biba bisinziriye byongera gukora neza.

    Mu mikino umuntu yakungukiramo byinshi nk’umunezero n’ibyishimo. Imikino ihuruza imbaga y’abantu benshi banyuranye kandi bavuye imihanda yose. Kubera amategeko n’amabwiriza biba bigomba kubahirizwa mu mukino, abakinnyi bakurana umuco mwiza wo koroherana no kubabarirana, kubahana no kubana neza n’abandi. Ni muri urwo rwego imikino ifatwa nk’imwe mu mbarutso z’ubusabane, ubumwe n’ubwiyunge.

    Mbese imikino ngororamubiri ifasha cyane mu kugabanya indwara zituruka ku munaniro w’ubwonko. Muri zo twavuga nk’umutwe udakira, kurwara urukebu cyangwa kumugara ibice bimwe na bimwe by’umubiri. Imikino yinjiza akayabo k’amafaranga ku bakinnyi, ku bayitegura ndetse no ku bacuruzi baturiye aho ibera. Imikino n’imyitozo ngororamubiri rero bifitiye akamaro kanini cyane abatuye isi. Ni ibyo kurya nk’ibindi byose bitunga umubiri wacu. Iyo wariye neza ukanakora siporo, ibyo wafashe birakuyoboka ukagubwa neza kandi ntubure ubushake bwo kurya nk’uko biba kuri benshi mu barya bicaye. Ni byiza kwitabira imikino n’imyitozo ngororamubiri tukiri bato kugira ngo turusheho kugira ubuzima bwiza.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

    1. Kurya birengeje urugero bigira iyihe ngaruka ku mubiri wacu?

    2. Umubyibuho ukabije uhurira he no kudakora siporo?

    3. Ni iyihe mpamvu ivugwa mu mwandiko ituma abakinnyi bagira umuco mwiza?

    4. Ni gute imikino yakwifashishishwa mu kwimakaza ubumwe n’ubwiyunge?

    5. Kuki umwanditsi yagereranyije imyitozo ngororamubiri n’ibyo kurya?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura aya magambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko

    a) Amayasha

    b) Kugubwa neza

    c) Biramuyoboka

    d) kurya wicaye

    e) Akayabo

    2. Garagaza amagambo ari mu mwandiko anyuranyije inyito n’aya akurikira:

    a) Ubwigunge

    b) Umubabaro n’agahinda

    3. Garagaza amagambo ari mu mwandiko ahuye n’aya akurikira

    a) Kurya udakora siporo

    b) Amafaranga menshi

    III. Ikibonezamvugo

    1. Vuga ubwoko bw’amagambo yagaragajwe mu ibara ry’umukara tsiri

    a) Burya ibyuya tubira iyo turi muri siporo, na byo ni imyanda umubiri uba ukeneye gusohora.

    b) Turasabwa kubahiriza amategeko n’amabwiriza byubahirizwa mu mukino.

    2. Garagaza inteko z’amagambo yagaragajwe mu ibara ry’umukara tsiri.

    a) Isukari iyo ari nyinshi mu mubiri, gukina birayigabanya.

    b) Imyitozo itera umubiri wacu kugubwa neza.

    c) Kubahanana n’ abandi mu mukino ni ihame

    3. Garagaza uturemajambo n’amategeko y’igenamajwi yifashishijwe kuri aya magambo y’umukara tsiri.

    a) Amenya kubabarira no korohera bagenzi be kuko aba azi ko na we ashobora gukosa.

    b) Kwemera ibyo umusifuzi ategetse kuzana amahoro mu kibuga.

    c) Gukinisha intoki bitangiye kumenyerwa no mu mashuri yo mu byaro.

    IV. Ubuvanganzo, ubumenyi bw’ururimi n’ikeshamvugo

    1. Kosora izi nteruro wubahiriza ikeshamvugo:

    a) Abakinnyi bagenda bakubitagura umupira hasi bigashimisha.

    b) Abafana baba bari hanze y’ikibuga basakuza bashimagiza abakinnyi.

    2. (:) Iki kimenyetso cy’utwatuzo kiri mu dukubo kitwa ngo iki? Tanga urugero rw’interuro iboneye gikoreshejwemo.

    V. Ihimbamwandiko

    1. Hitamo imwe mu nsanganyamatsiko wahawe, uhimbe umwandiko mu mirongo iri hagati ya makumyabiri na makumyabiri n’itanu, ugaragaze nibura ingingo enye zisobanura ibitekerezo byawe:

    a) “Imyitozo ngororamubiri ni ibyo kurya bitunga umubiri w’umuntu”

    b) “Akamaro k’imikino ku ishuri.


  • UMUTWE WA 3: Uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye

    Ndabaramukije bari b’u Rwanda


    Ndabaramukije bari b’u Rwanda. Ndagira ngo tuganire ku mibereho yaranze umwari w’u Rwanda mu gihe cyo hambere, ndetse tunarebere hamwe uko muri iki gihe uburinganire bw’ibitsina byombi bwifashe mu mashuri.

    Hambere umwari na nyina bari barimwe agaciro bagombwa, ntawaserukaga ngo afate ijambo mu ruhame. Abagiraga amahirwe yo kujya ahabona boherezwaga mu mirima guhinga. Abantu bose bumvaga umugore ari uwo guharirwa imirimo yo mu rugo no mu gikoni. N’aho amashuri aziye, umukobwa yoherezwaga kuragira inka ngo ishuri ni iry’abahungu. Abagore n’abakobwa bari barabyakiriye gutyo, bakumva ko ntacyahinduka, mbese ko ari uko Imana yabigennye. Bigumiraga mu rugo ibyo kugenda ngo bamenye iyo bweze bakabiharira basaza babo.

    Abakurambere bacu bahaga agaciro umwana w’umuhungu. Ni we waragwaga umutungo, akazungura ababyeyi be iyo babaga bitabye Imana. Ndetse umubyeyi ubyaye abana b’igitsina gore gusa, yashoboraga gufatwa nabi mu muryango azira kutabyara igitsina hungu. Nyamara ntawihitiramo urubyaro, ni impano itangwa n’Imana. Kudaha agaciro umwari na nyina, byamaze igihe kirekire cyane haba mu Rwanda no mu mahanga. Ndetse n’ubu hari benshi batari bumva ko abantu b’ibitsina byombi ari magirirane.

    Ibihe biha ibindi! Abagore bageze igihe barahaguruka, baharanira uburenganzira bwabo. Ubu mu Rwanda no mu mahanga ikibazo cy’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye bw’ibitsina byombi, cyarahagurukiwe. Byaragaragaye ko umwana w’umukobwa afite ubushobozi nk’ubw’umuhungu mu mirimo inyuranye nk’ubwubatsi bw’amazu n’imihanda, mu buhinzi n’ubworozi, mu gutwara abantu n’ibintu n’ibindi. Umugore ageze ku ntera ishimishije, bamwe ubu ni abarezi, abandi bafite imyanya ikomeye mu buyobozi bw’igihugu, haba mu buyobozi bwite bwa Leta cyangwa mu nzego z’umutekano, kandi bubahiriza inshingano zabo.

    Leta igenda igerageza gukuraho inzitizi zose zasubiza irudubi uburenganzira bw’ umukobwa. Ubu mu Rwanda uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye bw’ibitsina byombi, buhabwa agaciro. Abakobwa n’abahungu bahabwa amahirwe angana, haba mu mashuri, mu mirimo inyuranye, mu kazi gatandukanye ndetse no mu nzego zifata ibyemezo ntabwo igitsina gore gihezwa. Ibyo byatumye u Rwanda ruba ikitegererezo n’intangarugero ku isi, kandi amahanga akora ingendo shuri aje kurwigiraho ibijyanye n’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye bw’ibitsina byombi.

    Reka dusoze twisabira umwana w’umukobwa aho ava akagera kudacika intege. Ntimugacibwe intege n’abakomeje kubasuzugura ngo ntacyo mushoboye uretse kubyara. Na byo ubwabyo ni inshingano ikomeye iyo ubyaye ukabasha no kurera. Nimwige mushyizeho umwete mwereke abantu ko mushoboye. Isi yose ntizatinda kumenya ko iterambere ry’umuryango burya rishingiye ku mugore. Abareba kure bagira bati : “Uwigishije umugore aba yigishije igihugu.” Banongeraho kandi ngo: “ukurusha umugore aba akurusha urugo”.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Uyu mwandiko uranenga iki muri rusange?

    2. Haba hari icyo uyu mwandiko ushima mu myumvire y’abo hambere? Niba gihari ni ikihe?

    3. Vuga imigani migufi ibiri iri mu mwandiko ishyigikira iterambere ry’umugore.

    4. Vuga ibintu bibiri gusa bigaragara mu mwandiko bigaragaza ikandamizwa ry’umugore mu gihe cyashize?

    5. Ni iki kigaragaza ko ubu umugore mu Rwanda yitaweho kurusha mbere? Ifashishe ingero ziri mu mwandiko.

    6. Garagaza ahantu havuzwe abana b’abakobwa n’abahungu bahabwa amahirwe angana?

    7. Umwandiko usoza usaba abana b’abakobwa iki?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko

    a) Ntiyaserukaga

    b) Yabigennye

    c) Gusubira irudubi

    d) Inshingano

    2. Tanga amagambo adahuje inyito n’aya akurikira:

    a) Gushaka

    b) Kugawa

    3. Garagaza amagambo ari mu mwandiko asobanura kimwe n’aya:

    a) Kujugunya

    b) Agendeye ubusa

    c) Imbogamizi

    4. Huza aya magambo ari mu mpushya ebyiri (ijambo n’igisobanuro)

    III. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Garagaza ingingo z’ingenzi z’ibivugwa muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. Ni ikihe kintu wumva cyaba cyaratumaga umwari na nyina badahabwa agaciro bakwiye?

    3. Ubu wumva ari he hakwiye gushyirwa imbaraga kugira ngo uburinganire burusheho gutera imbere mu Rwanda?

    Umugabo n’umugore baba banganya ubwenge?


    Hari ikibazo cyakuruye impaka kuva kera, abantu bibaza ku byerekeranye n’ubwenge bw’umuhungu n’ubw’umukobwa. Bamwe bibaza niba umuhungu yaba arusha umukobwa ubwenge cyangwa se babunganya nk’uko bivugwa mu ihame ry’uburinganire. Inzobere mu by’imitekerereze y’abantu, zabikozeho ubushakashatsi kuva mu kinyejana cya 19 kugeza ubu.

    Ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko nta tandukaniro rinini riri hagati y’ubwenge bw’umukobwa n’ubw’umuhungu. Ahubwo ngo mu gutinyuka no gushyira mu ngiro ibyo umuntu azi, ni ho abagabo bigaragaza cyane. Ngo abagabo barusha abagore gutinyuka mu mirimo inyuranye. Ibyo byagiye bigaragarira nko mu kazi gasaba gucokoza no guterateranya ibikoresho, aho abagabo bigaragaza cyane. Gusa impamvu yabyo ngo ntabwo izwi neza.

    Kuva kera na kare abagabo bakundaga kugenda imihanda yose, ari abahigi abandi bajya guhahira ingo zabo mu gihe k’inzara n’akanda. Bakoraga imitego abandi bakagira ubukorikori bwashoboraga kubahesha amaronko. Ibyo byaba byarakomeje kuba uruhererekane abahungu bakamenya utuntu twinshi tw’ubukorikori dutuma ubwenge bwabo bwaguka. Hari n’abagaragaje ko ubusumbane bwagiye buturuka ku myumvire ya benshi mu babyeyi. Ababyeyi batoza abana b’abahungu imirimo y’ubumenyi ngiro kurusha uko bayitoza abana b’abakobwa n’ubwo imyumvire igenda ihinduka. Iyo bageze ku mirimo isaba ingufu bayiharira abahungu kandi n’abakobwa bayishobora.

    Ubushakashatsi bwakorewe muri Amerika ahagana mu 1900 bwagaragaje ko abana b’abakobwa n’abahungu bafite ubushobozi bungana bwo kumva imibare n’andi masomo. Ikibabaje ariko banganya bakiri mu mashuri abanza bigahinduka uko bigira hejuru. Mu bihugu byinshi cyanecyane ibiri mu nzira y’amajyambere, banganya bakiri mu mashuri abanza, bagera mu yisumbuye n’amakuru ugasanga abakobwa bagenda basigara inyuma. Intandaro ni uko hari abakobwa bashaka bakiri bato maze inshingano z’urugo zigatuma badakomeza ngo barangize amashuri yabo. Abandi bakitinya bakumva batsinda gusa amasomo atarimo imibare.

    Itandukaniro ry’imitsindire hagati y’abahungu n’abakobwa si kamere. Hamwe na hamwe Itandukaniro rituruka ahanini ku mibereho n’imibanire y’abana mu muryango. Abahungu bakunze kureba amatereviziyo cyane kandi bafata umwanya munini wo gutembera no gukinira hanze bitegereza utuntu n’utundi. Ibyo bituma ubwenge bwabo bushobora kwaguka. Mu gihe abakobwa bo bakunze gufasha ba nyina imirimo yo mu rugo. Abenshi ntibanakunze gutemberezwa nk’abahungu. Ibyo rero usanga bigira uruhare mu mitandukanire ikiboneka.

    Aho uburinganire bwatejwe imbere abagore n’abakobwa basigaye bakora imirimo yari yarahariwe abagabo n’abahungu kandi ibyiza by’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye ntibitinda kwigaragaza. Byagaragaye ko iterambere riheza bamwe ridashoboka. Aho uburinganire bwimakajwe, nta kibazo cyo kubura abakozi kiboneka kandi n’iterambere ry’umuryango ririhuta. Ubu umukobwa n’umuhungu bafatanyiriza hamwe bagahugurana umwe yacika intege undi akamuzamura. Nta masomo cyangwa imirimo igomba guharirwa abantu aba n’aba.

    Muri make rero, abakobwa n’abahungu bashobora kwiga no gukora imirimo imwe baramutse bayitojwe hakiri kare kandi mu buryo bumwe. Ikindi kandi nta terambere ryabaho mu gihe hari uruhande rugikomeje guhezwa. Guheza umugore n’umukobwa kandi bafite ubwenge nk’ubw’umugabo n’umuhungu ni ugutatanya imbaraga, ntibikwiye.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Umwanditsi avuga ko ubu bushakashatsi bwari bugamije iki?

    2. Ubwo bushakashatsi batubwirako bwabereye he?

    3. Ni iyihe myumvire itari yo ariko abantu bakomeje gufata nk’ukuri igihe kirekire?

    4. Ni iyihe mpamvu ivugwa mu mwandiko ituma abana b’abahungu n’abakobwa batangira bari ku kigero kimwe, bagera hejuru abahungu bagatangira gutsinda kurusha abakobwa?

    5. Ni akahe kamaro k’uburinganire kavugwa mu mwandiko?

    6. Vuga ingaruka zishobora kuvuka aho ihame ry’uburinganire ritubahirizwa?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko

    a) Intandaro

    b) Ubukorikori

    c) Amaronko

    d) Kwaguka

    e) Inzobere

    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe arakoresha neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

    1. Koresha amagambo umaze gusobanura hejuru mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye.

    2. Huza aya magambo ari mu nziga ebyiri zikurikira wubahiriza inyito zayo.

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Garagaza ingingo z’ingenzi ziri mu mwandiko.

    2. Wowe ukurikije ibyo ubona ku ishuri, haba hari isomo abakobwa n’abahungu badatsinda kimwe? Niba rihari ni irihe? Ese usanga impamvu ari iyihe?

    3. Garagaza uburyo urugo rutarimo uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye, rutagira iterambere.

    Ihangamwandiko: “umwandiko ntekerezo”

    Inshoza y’umwandiko ntekerezo

    Umwandiko ntekerezo ni umwandiko mpimbano akenshi uvuga ibintu bisanzwe mu buzima. Uwandika umwandiko ntekerezo akenshi ahera ku nsanganyamatsiko runaka akayihuza n’ibyo abona, yumva cyangwa atekereza ko byabaho akabyandika ku buryo uzabisoma yiyungura ubumenyi.

    Imyandiko ntekerezo bayita kandi “imyandiko isanzwe”. Yitwa ityo mu rwego rwo kuyitandukanya n’indi myandiko y’ubuvanganzo nk’inkuru, ibiganiro, imivugo n’iyindi. Mu mwandiko ntekerezo umuntu atanga ibitekerezo bye ku nsanganyamatsiko yahawe cyangwa yihitiyemo, maze usoma akaba yabifata nk’ukuri cyangwa akabihakana. Nta minozanganzo myinshi ikunze kubamo.

    Imbata y’umwandiko ntekerezo

    Umwandiko ntekerezo ndetse n’indi myandiko, bijya gukorwa byabanje gutekerezwaho bigakorerwa imbata. Umwandiko ntekerezo ugomba kuba ufite umutwe kandi ukandikwa mu buryo bugaragara, ugira kandi ibice bitatu by’ingenzi biwuranga ari byo: intangiriro, igihimba n’umusozo.

    1. Umutwe w’umwandiko

    Umutwe w’umwandiko ntekerezo ni nk’ipfundo riba riri bupfungurwe mu mwandiko nyiri izina. Dore ibiranga umutwe w’umwandiko:

    a) Umutwe w’umwandiko ugomba kuba witaruye gato ibindi bice by’umwandiko bisigaye.

    b) Umutwe w’umwandiko ushobora kwandikwa mu nyuguti nkuru.

    c) Umutwe w’umwandiko ucibwaho umurongo

    d) Biba byiza cyane iyo umutwe ubaye mugufi. Ni ukuvuga ko uba wanditse mu murongo umwe cyangwa ibiri. Iyo irenze ishobora kwitiranywa n’igika cy’umwandiko.

    2. IntangiriroNi igice kibanziriza umwandiko.

    Muri iki gice umwanditsi avuga muri make ibyo agiye kwandikaho, agasobanura umutwe mu magambo make cyane. Mu ntangiriro kandi umwanditsi atera amatsiko abasomyi, yibaza ibibazo aba ari busubirize mu gihimba. Akenshi aba ari igika kimwe. Intangiriro igaragaramo ibintu bitatu by’ingenzi ari byo:

    a) Gusobanura insanganyamatsiko

    b) Kuvuga ikigamijwe mu buryo bushobora kuba ikibazo kiziguye

    c) Kugaragaza ingingo nkuru uri buvugeho.

    3. Igihimba

    Ni cyo gice kinini cy’umwandiko kigaragaramo ibika. Bitewe n’ingingo umwanditsi ari butange, mu gika uwandika asobanura ku buryo burambuye ingingo runaka, akanatanga ingero zifatika zifasha mu gusobanurira no kumara amatsiko umusomyi. Mu gihimba uwandika asobanura ibitekerezo bye mu buryo bunoze kandi akabikurikiranya ku buryo bidatera urujijo. Uwandika ashobora kwifashisha ibyo yasomye, ibyavuzwe n’abahanga cyangwa inararibonye mu byo avugaho. Ibyo bifasha mu kwemeza abasomyi.

    4. Umusozo

    Umusozo ni igice gisoza. Icyo gice kigaragaramo inshamake y’ibyavuzwe mu mwandiko. Iyo insanganyamatsiko isaba kugaragaza uruhande umwanditsi abogamiyeho ni ho bigaragarira. Mu musozo ni ho umwanditsi ashobora kugira inama yatanga afatiye ku bivuzwe mu mwandiko.

    Ibyitabwaho mu guhanga umwandiko ntekerezo

    Kugira ngo umwandiko ugire isura nziza, ni ngombwa ko uwandika yita kuri ibi bikurikira:

    a) Isuku n’imigaragarire

    b) Umwanya iburyo n’ibumoso

    c) Gutangira neza ibika no kubahiriza amabwiriza agenga imyandikire

    d) Kugena umwanya ukwiye hagati y’umutwe, intangiriro, igihimba n’umusozo.

    Intambwe z’ingenzi zikwiriye guterwa mu guhimba umwandiko ntekerezo

    a) Gutekereza ku nsanganyamatsiko no kuyisobanukirwa neza

    b) Gutekereza no kwandika ku ruhande ibitekerezo ku ngingo nkuru uri buvugeho

    c) Gukora imbata y’umwandiko

    d) Kwandika umwandiko wita ku isuku no ku mabwiriza agenga imyandikire.

    e) Gusoma ibyo wanditse ukareba ko hari ibyo waba washyizemo bitari ngombwa cyangwa se ko hari ibyo waba wibagiwe byari ngombwa.

    f ) Gukuramo ibitari ngombwa no kongeramo ibibuze

    g) Kwandukura ibyo wanditse ku rupapuro mu buryo bufite isuku wita no ku mabwiriza agenga imyandikire.

    Umwitozo

    Mu matsinda ya babiribabiri mugaragaze imbata y’umwandiko ntekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe.

    1. Rondora ingingo zose ushobora kuvuga kuri izi nsanganyamatsiko mu mwandiko ntekerezo:

    a) Imyigire y’umwana w’umukobwa yitaweho mu Rwanda

    b) Uwigishije umugore aba yigishije igihugu.

    Inshamake y’ibyizwe mu mutwe wa gatatu

    Imyandiko yose igaruka ku ngingo y’uburinganire. Uburinganire mu mashuri no mu myigire. Havuzwemo imwe mu myumvire ya bamwe, idindiza abagore n’abakobwa ikabasigaza inyuma. Hagaragajwe impamvu hari amasomo abakobwa batinya n’amasomo abahungu bigaragazamo cyane kurusha abakobwa. Impamvu ikomeye yagaragajwe ni imyumvire n’imitekerereze bya bamwe. Benshi bagira imirimo batoza abana b’abahungu n’iyo batoza ab’abakobwa. Hari n’aho akazi aka n’aka gaharirwa bamwe bikagira ingaruka yo kudindiza iterambere. Abana b’abakobwa n’abahungu barashoboye iyo batojwe kimwe.

    Mu byingwa bifatiye kuri iyi nsanganyamatsiko, twabonyemo ubuhanga bujyanye no guhanga imyandiko ntekerezo. Umwandiko ugira ibice bitatu by’ingenzi ari byo intangiriro, igihimba n’umusozo.

    Iby’ingenzi nshoboye

    - Kwimakaza ihame ry’uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye mu rungano.

    - Kwamagana ubusumbane aho bukiboneka hose no gushishikariza abana b’abakobwa kutitinya bakamenya bashoboye nka basaza babo.

    - Guhanga umwandiko ntekerezo nubahiriza imbata yawo.

    Isuzuma risoza umutwe wa gatatu

    Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

    Umwandiko: Ishuri ryangiriye umumaro

    Nge na musaza wange Rukundo twagize amahirwe angana. Aho gusigara mu rugo mpetse murumuna wange Nyirarugwiro, mukarabya, mugaburira, ntashya inkwi, mvoma amazi cyangwa mperekeza mama mu murima guhinga. Ababyeyi batwohereje mu ishuri twembi ndetse bakajya batuganiriza ku byerekeye amasomo yacu, ibyo dukunda n’ibyo tuzakora. Ntitwavunwe n’imirimo y’imbaraga tudashoboye, ahubwo twafashaga ababyeyi bacu imirimo yoroheje twishimye.

    Twize amashuri y’inshuke tukiri bato cyane, dutozwa kandi twigishwa byinshi birimo nko gusuhuzanya, kwihanganirana, gukina na bagenzi bacu, kujya ku karasisi no kwiyereka, kuririmba no gushushanya, kutarizwa n’ubusa n’ibindi. Mu byo badutozaga byose, batumenyerezaga kubahiriza igihe mu byo dukora byose cyanecyane kurangiza imikoro ku gihe, kudakererwa ku ishuri, kudatinda mu nzira dutashye n’ibindi.

    Ntibyatinze, nasanze Rukundo mu mashuri abanza. Nari maze gukerebuka, nzi kwandika imibare yose kuva kuri zeru kugera ku ikenda. Bambwiraga ko nzamenya gusoma vuba kuko nk’inyuguti zigize izina ryange nari narazimenye kera. Abumvaga uko mvuga, banavugaga ko nzanadidibuza indimi z’amahanga nk’Igifaransa n’Icyongereza. Kuva mu wa kabiri w’amashuri abanza, nabaye intyoza maze mara no gusoma ibihekane cyangwa kuvuga imivugo mbigira ubufindo. Abarimu banyigishije mu umwaka wa gatandatu bamfashije guhitamo ishuri ryiza nzigamo mu yisumbuye.Ndashimira abanyitangiye bakampa uburere bwiza, abantoje kurangwa n’isuku n’ikinyabupfura, kugira umwete no kwanga umugayo, kubaha bagenzi bange ndetse n’ibyabo. Ubwo bambwiraga ko gukorakora ari ingeso idakwiriye kuranga umunyarwandakazi. Bagiye kenshi bansaba guharanira kujijuka no gukunda Imana yaturemye kuko ari byo shingiro ry’iterambere ku muntu wese aho ava akagera.

    Ubu ndi mu mwaka wa kabiri w’amashuri yisumbuye kandi nsinda neza bitangoye. Ikigo nigamo buri gihembwe gihemba abana baje mu myanya ya mbere. Ibihembo mbifata buri gihembwe mbese ntinze kugera mu wa gatatu maze ngahitamo ishami nifuza. Nyampinga, nizeye ejo hazaza heza; nitangira cyanecyane guharanira uburenganzira bw’umwana, ubw’umwari n’umutegarugori. Nzaharanira ko bubahwa, bakajijuka kandi bakagira imyifatire ibereye u Rwanda.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

    1. Ni nde uvugwa cyane muri uno mwandiko. Yaba ageze mu mwaka wa kangahe?

    2. Hariho abana bakoreshwa imirimo ivunanye. Vugamo ibiri waba uzi mu mirimo ivunanye.

    3. Umunyeshuri Rukundo uvugwa mu mwandiko apfana iki n’uyu mwana uvugwa mu mwandiko?

    4. Ni iyihe nteruro igaragaza ko uyu mwana atari indashima.

    5. Kuki uvugwa mu mwandiko ashyize imbere uburere

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko

    a) Umwari

    b) Gukerebuka

    c) Kudidibuza

    d) intyoza

    e) Nyampinga

    III. Ubumenyi rusange bw’ururimi

    1. Umwandiko mwiza ugira ibice bingahe? Bivuge?

    2. Vuga nibura bibiri mu biranga umutwe w’umwandiko

    3. Vuga nibura ibintu bibiri mu by’ingenzi bidakwiriye kubura mu ntangiriro.

    IV. Ihimbamwandiko

    1. Hitamo imwe mu nsanganyamatsiko zikurikira, uyiramburemo umwandiko utarengeje imirongo makumyabiri n’itanu, wubahiriza ibiranga umwandiko ntekerezo.

    a) Imyigire y’umwana w’umukobwa yitaweho mu Rwanda

    b) Uwigishije umugore aba yigishije igihugu.

    c) Akamaro k’uburinganire mu iterambere ry’igihugu


  • UMUTWE WA 4: Ubuzima

    Ubuzima buzira umuze


    Imibereho y’umuntu ikwiye gutekerezwaho hakiri kare kuko uko yitaweho mu bihe bye byo mu bwana bigira uruhare rukomeye mu mibereho ye igihe amaze kuba mukuru. Umugabo n’umugore bagomba gutekerereza hamwe uko abana bavukana ubuzima bwiza, bakanabukurana.

    Leta y’u Rwanda yahagurukiye guteza imbere gahunda yo kwita ku buzima bw’umwana mu minsi igihumbi ibanza y’ubuzima bwe; ni ukuvuga kuva umwana agisamwa kugera agejeje imyaka ibiri. Umubyeyi ukimara kumenya ko yasamye yihata indyo yuzuye, akitabira gahunda zose zireba umugore utwite zirimo kwisuzumisha no gukurikiza inama n’amabwiriza ahabwa n’abaganga ndetse n’abajyanama b’ubuzima.

    Igihe cyo kubyara iyo kigeze umugore utwite agomba kwitabira kubyarira kwa muganga kugira ngo akurikiranwe n’abaganga kandi agezweho ibikenewe byose bituma umwana avuka neza. Umwana uvutse agomba gukurikiranwa, agahabwa kandi agakorerwa ibishoboka byose bimufasha gukura neza. Agomba konswa nibura amezi atandatu, nyuma y’icyo gihe agatangira guhabwa imfashabere kuzageza acutse. Agomba gukingizwa uko biteganyijwe, nta rukingo asimbutse cyangwa ngo aruhabwe igihe cyararenze. Umwana agombwa guhabwa indyo yuzuye igizwe n’ibyubaka umubiri, ibiwurinda indwara n’ibitera imbaraga.

    Umwana rero agomba kugirirwa urukundo no kumenyerwa isuku yaba iy’umubiri, iy’ibiribwa n’ibinyobwa ndetse n’iy’imyambaro. Uburenganzira bw’umwana bugomba kubahirizwa, akishyurirwa amashuri n’ibigendanye na yo byose nta vangura iryo ari ryo ryose. Agomba kurindwa ihungabana n’ihohoterwa iryo ari ryo ryose, nk’irishingiye ku gitsina, ntakoreshwe imirimo imurenze n’ibindi bituma umuruho utangira kumwokama akiri muto. Agomba guteganyirizwa, agatozwa umuco wo kuzigama, akigishwa inyigisho zijyanye no kurwanya jenoside n’ingengabitekerezo yayo n’izijyanye n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere hakiri kare.

    Umuntu mukuru na we agomba guharanira kugira ubuzima buzira umuze, yita ku mirire ye na we agafata indyo yuzuye irimo ibikomoka ku matungo, ibikomoka ku bihingwa birimo ibinyamafu, ibinyampeke imboga n’imbuto. Agomba kwita ku isuku mu buryo bwose. Umuntu ufututse ufite ubuzima bwiza kandi, akora siporo n’imyitozo ngororamubiri ku buryo buhagije kugira ngo ayaze ibinure, agatutubikana maze imyanda iri mu mubiri igasohoka.

    Ntitwasoza tutavuze ko umuntu agira ubuzima bwiza iyo aruhuka. Gukora ubutaruhuka bitera umuntu guhora ananiwe, umubiri ntukore neza akarwara kamufashe kakamuzahaza. Umuntu urwara akivuza neza kandi kare usanga ameze neza. N’abantu bakuru babungabunga ubuzima bitabira gahunda y’inkingo ziteganywa na minisiteri ifite ubuzima mu nshingano zayo. Nk’ubu abana b’abakobwa bahabwa urukingo rwa kanseri y’inkondo y’umura. Umuntu nyamuntu agomba kandi kwirinda ibyamuhungabanya nk’ibiyobyabwenge, ingeso z’ubusambanyi yakwanduriramo indwara zitandukanye n’ibindi.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Gahunda yo kwita ku buzima bw’umwana Leta yitayeho cyane ireba umwana wo mu kihe kigero?

    2. Vuga ibintu bine biranga umuntu ufite ubuzima buzira umuze.

    3. Garagaza ibintu nibura bitanu umuntu akeneye byamufasha kugira ubuzima buzira umuze.

    4. Ku bwawe kuki umugore utwite agomba kwipimisha kandi igihe cyo kubyara cyagera akabyarira kwa muganga?

    5. Uhereye no ku bivugwa mu mwandiko vuga ibintu bine bishobora gutuma umuntu akurana ihungabana.

    6. Ni ibihe bintu bivugwa mu mwandiko umuntu akwiye gutozwa kuva akiri muto?

    7. Sobanura ihuriro riri hagati y’ubuzima buzira umuze n’ishuri ugendeye ku bivugwa mu mwandiko.

    8. Sobanura uburyo bwo kubungabunga ubuzima bwagaragajwe mu mwandiko.

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko

    a) Umuze

    b) Imfashabere

    c) Inkingo,

    d) Ihungabana

    e) Nyamuntu.

    2. Shaka amagambo ahuje igisobanuro n’aya akurikira

    a) Kwibaruka

    b) Abavuzi

    c) Imyambaro

    3. Shaka amagambo abusanyije igisobanuro n’aya akurikira

    a) Ibanza

    b) Amahirwe

    c) Neza

    III. Imyitozo yo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe arakoresha neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

    1.Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye

    a) Kwisuzumisha

    b) Gukurikiranwa

    c) Ubumuga

    d) Afututse

    e) Kokama

    2. Mu byerekezo byose bishoboka, shaka amagambo avuga ku buzima ari muri iki kinyatuzu.

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Erekana ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. Vuga insanganyamatsiko ikubiye muri uyu mwandiko unayihuze n’ubuzima busanzwe bwa buri munsi.

    3. Ku bwawe wumva ute ubuzima buzira umuze? Ese umuntu atabuharaniye byamutwara iki?

    Impuzanyito, imvugwakimwe, impuzashusho, ingwizanyito n’imbusane

    Mwitegereze interuro zikurikira maze mutahure imiterere y’amagambo atsindagiye mu rwego rw’inyito.

    a) Iyo inkoko yanitseho amasaka inkoko ishobora kuyatora

    b) Umwana wa Kamana yashyingiwe umwaka ushize none yabyaye umwana uyu munsi.

    c) Kugira ngo umuntu agire ubuzima bwiza agomba gufata amafunguro cyangwa indyo yuzuye.

    d) Mu buzima habamo ibyishimo n’ibyago.

    e) Gutera intabire si kimwe no gutera ipasi

    Murabona amagambo atsindagiye ahuriye he mu nyito zayo?

    1. Impuzanyito

    Inshoza y’impuzanyito

    Nk’uko izina ribivuga impuzanyito ni amagambo ahuje inyito. Ni ukuvuga ko ayo magambo aba atavugitse kimwe, atanandikwa kimwe ariko ahuje igisobanuro ku buryo rimwe ryasimbura irindi mu nteruro igitekerezo ntigihinduke.

    Ingero:

    a) - Umugabo n’umugore we bagomba gutekereza uko abana babo bazagira ubuzima bwiza.

    - Umugabo n’umufasha we bagomba gutekereza uko urubyaro rwabo ruzagira ubuzima bwiza.

    b) - Umubyeyi ukimara kumenya ko yasamye yihata indyo yuzuye.

    - Umubyeyi ukimara kumenya ko yasamye yihata igaburo ryuzuye.

    - Umubyeyi ukimara kumenya ko yasamye yihata ifunguro ryuzuye.

    Amagambo akurikira, ukurikije uko yagiye akoreshwa mu nteruro zinyuranye, ni impuzanyito:

    - umugore, umufasha

    - abana, urubyaro

    - indyo, igaburo, ifunguro

    Izindi ngero:

    - Umugore utwite: Umugore ufite inda.

    - Umwanya wo gukora siporo: Igihe cyo gukora siporo.

    - Umwana: Ikibondo- Ibyago: Amakuba, ibibazo

    - Gufutuka: Gusobanuka, gukosoka

    - Kuzahaza: Kurembya, kunegekaza

    - Umuhanzi: Umuhimbyi

    2. Imvugwakimwe

    Inshoza y’imvugwakimwe

    Nk’uko izina ribivuga imvugwakimwe ni amagambo yandikwa kimwe kandi agasomwa kimwe ariko nta ho ahuriye mu bijyanye n’inyito cyangwa igisobanuro. Ni ukuvuga ko ayo magambo aba asa mu rwego rw’imyandikire ariko adafitanye igisobanuro kimwe. Iyo uyarebye ugira ngo ni ijambo rimwe risobanuye kimwe; ariko si ko biri.

    Ingero:

    a) - Umugabo n’umugore bafatanya guteganyiriza ababakomokaho.

    - Iyo bakuba imibare batanga umugabo w’ikenda ngo barebe ko bakubye neza.

    - Ubwo uvuga ko nagukubise uzatange umugabo wabibonye.

    b) - Mu bigize umubiri w’umuntu habamo ibiyaga nk’ibinure n’ibindi.

    - Mu byiza bitatse u Rwanda habamo imisozi, ibyanya by’inyamaswa, ibiyaga, imigezi n’ibindi.

    c) - Ni byiza ko iyo igihe cyo kubyara kigeze, umugore utwite abyarira kwa muganga.

    - Icyo gisabo utagikuye mu nzira abana bashobora kukigwira bakagiteza kubyara.

    Amagambo akurikira, ukurikije uko yagiye akoreshwa mu nteruro zinyuranye, ni imvugwakimwe:

    - umugabo, umugabo, umugabo

    - ibiyaga, ibiyaga

    - kubyara, kubyara

    Izindi ngero:

    Inka

    - Itungo ryo mu rugo

    - Amasaro bakinisha igisoro

    - Izo bakoresha mu mukino w’ikibariko

    Gukarabya

    - Umuntu ugiye kurya

    - Kwima burundu umuntu ibyo yari agenewe

    3. Impuzashusho

    Inshoza y’impuzashusho

    Nk’uko izina ribivuga impuzashusho ni amagambo yandikwa kimwe ariko adasomwa kimwe kandi nta ho ahuriye mu bijyanye n’inyito cyangwa igisobanuro. Ni ukuvuga ko ayo magambo aba asa

    Ingero:

    a) - Mu bikenerwa mu mirire bikomoka ku matungo habamo n’inyama y’inkoko.

    - Inkoko ni igikoresho bafashaho imyaka cyanecyane mu cyaro.

    b) - Umuntu wese akwiye kugirira isuku umubiri n’imyenda yambara.

    - Imyenda myinshi yaba iya banki yaba iy’abandi bantu irahangayikisha.

    c) - Abantu batagira isuku barwara inda ziza mu myambaro cyangwa mu mutwe.

    - Kugira inda nini si indangagaciro y’Abanyarwanda.

    Amagambo akurikira, ukurikije uko yagiye akoreshwa mu nteruro zinyuranye, ni impuzashusho:

    - inkoko (itungo ryo mu rugo), inkoko (igikoresho cyo mu rugo)

    - imyenda (bambara), imyenda (amadeni)

    - inda (agakoko gaterwa n’umwanda), inda (igice cy’umubiri)

    Izindi ngero:

    Gutara:

    - Gutara: Gushyira ibitoki mu rwina

    - Gutara: Gushakashaka cyangwa gukusanya ibintu bitatanye cyane

    Ikiraro

    - Ikiraro: Iteme bambukiraho

    - Ikiraro: Inzu y’inka cyangwa andi matungo

    Gutaka

    - Gutaka: Kuvuga ko ubabaye

    - Gutaka: Gushyira amabara ku kintu

    Guhuma

    - Guhuma: Kurwara amaso

    - Guhuma: Kuvuga kw’impyisi

    4. Ingwizanyito

    Inshoza y’ingwizanyito:

    Nk’uko izina ribivuga ingwizanyito ni ijambo riba rifite inyito zitandukanye. Ni ukuvuga ko inyito z’iryo jambo ziba zifite aho zihurira, ariko zikagenda zitandukanaho gato bitewe n’uko ijambo ryakoreshejwe. Hashobora kuba mu nyito mbonera cyangwa se mu nyito shusho.

    Ingero:

    a) - Abana bakeneye indyo yuzuye kugira ngo bakure neza.

    - Abana b’uriya musaza bose barashatse.

    b) - Inka iri mu matungo Abanyarwanda bakunda korora.

    - Iyo banegura umuntu w’umuswa cyane mu Kinyarwanda bavuga ko ari inka.

    c) - Abagabo bose bagomba kujya inama n’abagore babo ku cyateza imbere urugo rwabo.

    - Abantu bose bakora ibikorwa by’indashyikirwa bitwa abagabo.

    Amagambo akurikira, ukurikije uko yagiye akoreshwa mu nteruro zinyuranye, ni ingwizanyito:

    - abana (abakiri bato), abana (ababyawe na runaka n’ubwo baba bakuze)

    - Inka (itungo ryo mu rugo), inka (umuntu w’umuswa cyane)

    - abagabo (abashatse abagore), abagabo (abakoze neza kabone n’aho yaba ari umugore)

    Izindi ngero

    Gusoma

    - Gusoma inyandiko

    - Gusoma ikinyobwa

    - Gusoma umuntu

    Intama

    - Itungo ryo mu rugo

    - Umuntu ucecetse

    Umukobwa

    - Umuntu w’igitsina gore utarashaka

    - Umuntu w’igitsina gore bamugereranya n’umubyeyi we kabone n’iyo yaba yarashatse

    Umuhungu

    - Umuntu w’igitsina gabo ukiri muto (utarashaka)

    - Umuntu w’igitsina gabo bamugereranya n’umubyeyi we kabone n’iyo yaba yarashatse

    5. Imbusane

    Inshoza y’imbusane

    Nk’uko izina ribivuga imbusane ni amagambo afite inyito zinyuranye ari byo byitwa kubusana. Ni ukuvuga ko inyito zayo zivuguruzanya mu ngingo abumbatiye. Mu Kinyarwanda bakunda gukoresha iki kimenyetso ≠ bagaragaza amagamboy’imbusane.

    Ingero:

    a) - Buri mugabo akunde umugore we.

    b) - Umuntu wese akwiriye kurangwa n’isuku akirinda umwanda.

    - Umuntu agomba kubaho neza yirinda kubaho nabi kugira ngo agire ubuzima bwiza; bitaba ibyo akagira bubi.

    Amagambo akurikira, ukurikije uko yagiye akoreshwa mu nteruro zinyuranye, ni imbusane:

    - umugabo ≠ umugore

    - isuku ≠ umwanda

    - neza ≠ nabi

    - bwiza ≠ bubi

    Izindi ngero:

    Ubuzima bworoshye ≠ ubuzima bugoye

    Indyo nziza ≠ indyo mbi

    Igihe kirekire ≠ igihe kigufi

    Umuhungu ≠ umukobwa

    Kugaya ≠ gushima

    Ubukire ≠ ubukene

    Amanywa ≠ ijoro

    Agakoko gatera SIDA n’izindi ndwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina


    Agakoko gatera SIDA kazwi cyane ku izina rya “virusi” ni gato ntikaboneshwa ijisho, kinjira mu mubiri, kakororoka kikuba inshuro nyinshi, kakamunga abasirikare bawurinda. Gatangira gaca intege ubwirinzi bwose bw’umubiri bityo indwara zikawubonerana. Ako gakoko kagaragaye bwa mbere mu mwaka wa 1981, nyuma y’aho abaganga bari basigaye bavura indwara zisanzwe zikanga gukira, twavuga nk’inkorora, ibisebe, igituntu n’izindi; bahise bihutira gushakisha impamvu ibitera, basanga agakoko gatera SIDA ari ko gatuma zivurwa ntizikire.

    Ijambo SIDA rituruka mu rurimi rw’Igifaransa; tugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda ni uruhererekane n’uruhurirane rw’indwara zituruka ku kuba umubiri waramaze gucika intege bitewe n’agakoko gatera iyo ndwara ya SIDA. Iyi ndwara rero irandura kandi ikagaragazwa n’ibyuririzi. SIDA ntipimishwa ijisho. Kwa muganga ni ho honyine bafite ubushobozi bwo gupima amaraso bakamenya ko umuntu yanduye cyangwa atanduye. Iyo rero ibizamini by’amaraso bigaragaje ko umuntu afite ako gakoko, bavuga ko abana n’ubwandu bwa SIDA.

    Bavuga ko umuntu arwaye SIDA iyo atangiye kugaragaza ibimenyetso no kwibasirwa n’indwara z’ibyuririzi. Mu buryo bunyuranye yanduriramo harimo gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina idakingiye hagati y’uwanduye n’utanduye, gukoresha ibikoresho bikomeretsa hagati y’uwanduye n’utanduye cyanecyane ku bivuriza kwa magendu ariko byaba ari agahomamunwa habaye hari abakivurizayo, guhanahana amaraso arimo ubwandu kwa muganga, igihe umubyeyi abyara afite ubwandu atarabanje kwipimisha ngo kwa muganga babyiteho bakize umwana kuvukana ubwandu ndetse n’igihe umubyeyi ufite ubwandu yonsa. Gusa mu mibonano mpuzabitsina ni ho SIDA ikunda kwandurira kimwe n’izindi ndwara nka mburugu, imitezi, uburagaza n’izindi.

    Agakoko gatera SIDA gakunda kwibera cyane mu maraso, mu matembabuzi no mu rurenda biba mu gitsina, ahandi hakaba mu mashereka. Aho hantu havuzwe, ni yo ndiri yako. Ahandi hose hasigaye mu mubiri w’umuntu, udukoko tuba ari duke cyane ku buryo tudashobora kwanduza. Twavuga nko mu macandwe n’ahandi. Usibye SIDA, n’izindi ndwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina zigira ingaruka ku buzima bw’imyororokere. Zangiza bikabije imyanya myibarukiro ku buryo zishobora gusigira ubumuga bwo kutabyara umuntu wazirwaye tutibagiwe n’ubundi busembwa ku mubiri.

    Indwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina, zigaragara vuba ku bantu b’igitsina gabo naho ku bagore, zihisha igihe kirekire nyamara ari ko bazikongeza igihe k’imibonano mpuzabitsina idakingiye. Izo ndwara ziravurwa zigakira, iyo zivujwe hakiri kare, naho iyo uwazanduye atinze kuzivuza zanamuhitana. SIDA yo nta muti nta n’urukingo irabonerwa. Gusa hari uburyo bwo kwirinda SIDA kimwe n’izindi ndwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina.

    Uburyo bwa mbere ni ukwifata buri wese akumva ko imibonano mpuzabitsina igira igihe nyacyo cyo kuyikora, urubyiruko rugomba guha agaciro ubusugi n’ubumanzi bwarwo, abashakanye bakirinda irari bimakaza ubudahemuka basezeranye, ntibacane inyuma. Igihe kwifata byananiranye hagakoreshwa agakingirizo. Gusa ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko agakingirizo katizewe ijana ku ijana kuko hari n’igihe kaba katujuje ubuziranenge. Ndetse amadini amwe n’amwe ntagashyigikiye, yigisha abayoboke bayo kubaha Imana, bakirinda icyaha cy’ubusambanyi. Ikindi ni ukurwanya ibitera umwuga w’uburaya no gushakira ababwishoyemo uburyo babuvamo, bakababumbira mu mashyirahamwe bakabatoza indi mirimo ibyara inyungu ndetse bakanabajijura.

    Nk’uko byavuzwe rero, kugeza ubu nta muti cyangwa urukingo by’agakoko gatera SIDA byari byashyirwa ku mugaragaro. Icyakora imiti igabanya ubukana bwayo yo yarabonetse. Ubu ku mavuriro yose yo mu Rwanda iyo miti iratangwa. Nyamara ariko kandi ikiruta byose ni uko twese tugomba kubigira intego bityo tukirinda kandi tugakumira indwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Agakoko gatera SIDA kangana iki ukurikije uko kagaragara? Ako gakoko iyo kageze mu mubiri w’umuntu gakoramo iki?

    2. Garagaza nibura butatu mu buryo umuntu ashobora kwanduramo agakoko gatera SIDA bwavuzwe mu mwandiko.

    3. Rondora izindi ndwara zandurira mu guhuza ibitsina zavuzwe mu mwandiko.

    4. Umuntu akubajije icyo SIDA ari cyo wamusubiza iki?

    5. Garagaza impamvu ari ngombwa kwipimisha kwa muganga cyangwa mu kindi kigo kibishinzwe ngo umuntu amenye ko yanduye SIDA?

    6. Ni gute umuntu yakwirinda kwandura agakoko gatera SIDA n’izindi ndwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina?

    7. Gereranya izindi ndwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina na SIDA ku bijyanye no gukira ndetse no ku myitwarire yazo ku bagabo n’abagore.

    II. Inyunguramagambo:

    1. Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Ubwirinzi

    b) Ibyuririzi

    c) Magendu

    d) Agahomamunwa

    e) Ubusembwa

    III. Imyitozo yo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

    1. Koresha aya magambo dusanga mu mwandiko mu nteruro wihimbiye:

    a) Indiri

    b) Ubudahemuka

    c) Kwifata

    d) Ubusembwa

    e) Ubuziranenge

    2. Uzuza interuro zikurikira ukoresheje amagambo wungutse:

    a) Indwara zandurira mu ..... iyo zivujwe zitinze zishobora gusigira umuntu ubusembwa.

    b) Naho ..... yo nta muti nta n’.....

    c) Abashyingiranywe bakwiye kwirinda ..... inyuma abo bashakanye.

    d) Agakingirizo gashobora gutuma umuntu yandura agakoko gatera ... iyo katujuje ...

    e) Irinde gukora ... mpuzabitsina utarashinga urugo.

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Shaka ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. Umuntu wanduye SIDA n’umuntu urwaye SIDA baba batandukaniye hehe?

    3. Indwara ya SIDA yagira izihe ngaruka ku iterambere ry’umuryango?

    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro:

    Mu matsinda mwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda. Buri munyeshuri kandi akore umukoro wo guhanga umwandiko.

    Kugirana ikiganiro ku ngingo ikurikira:

    Ni izihe mpungenge ubona cyangwa wumvana abandi ku bijyanye na SIDA n’izindi ndwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina cyanecyane mu rubyiruko?

    Umukoro wo guhanga umwandiko

    Hanga umwandiko muto uvuga ku ngaruka mbi za SIDA n’izindi ndwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina.

    Ikomorazina mvazina

    Soma interuro zikurikira nurangiza uzitegereze hanyuma ugire icyo uvuga ku nkomoko y’amagambo yanditse mu nyuguti z’umukara tsiri.

    - Umuntu akwiye kwisuzumisha SIDA ku bantu bize iby’ubuganga.

    - Kwisuzumisha agakoko gatera SIDA bifasha umuntu kumenya uko yitwara.

    - Mu bashinzwe kubungabunga imibereho y’Abanyarwanda habamo n’abanyabuzima.

    - Buri muntu akwiye gufata indyo yuzuye.

    - Avuye kwisuzumisha SIDA Mahirwe yishimiye ko atanduye.

    - Ahantu h’igitakazi hera ibijumba bigirira umubiri akamaro.

    - N’amahenehene burya na yo abamo intungamubiri.Urabona aya mazina akomoka ku ki?

    Inshoza y’ikomorazina mvazina

    Mu kinyarwanda, amazina ashobora kuba ari amazina y’ “umwimerere” cyangwa akaba akomoka ku yandi moko y’amagambo. Ikomorazina mvazina ni uburyo bwo kurema amazina bafatiye cyangwa bahereye ku yandi mazina. Izina risanzwe rigira intego igizwe n’indomo, indanganteko n’igicumbi (D- RT-C )

    Itegereze amagambo y’umukara tsiri mu nteruro zikurikira maze utahure inzira y’ikomorazina mvazina yishashishijwe kugira ngo aboneke.

    Igisembesembe k’intama kigira amavuta menshi.

    Ibicumucumu ni ibyatsi bimera mu rutoki.

    Igitenetene kivura indwara nyishi.

    Umukobwa ufite uburanga bavuga ko ari ikizubazuba.

    Kwisuzumisha agakoko gatera SIDA bifasha umuntu kumenya uko yitwara.

    Umurwayi urangije imiti ashakirwa uturyo twiza ngo agarure agatege.

    Abarimukazi ni benshi muri ki Gihugu.

    Iyo baserereza umugabo bavuga ko nta cyo amaze bamwita ikigabazi.

    Ahantu h’itaka riseseka bahita igitakazi.

    Umunyeshuri mwiza arangwa n’isuku n’ikinyabupfura.

    Semana akunda kuvugana n’abanyamakuru.

    Mahame ni umukinnyi w’umuhanga.

    Mugisha avuye kwiga.

    Uwamahoro yakirana abashyitsi urugwiro.

    Inzira z'ikomorazina mvazina

    Habaho inzira zitandukanye zo gukomora amazina ku yandi. Ikigaragara ni uko izina rikomotse ku rindi mu buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose inyito yaryo igira uko ihindukaho ugereranyije n’iy’iryo zina ryakomotseho, ariko ugasanga izo nyito zombi zikomeza kugirana isano. Muri izo nzira twavuga:

    a) Ikomorazina mvazina rishingiye ku nteko z’amazina.

    Mu Kinyarwanda tugira inteko cumi n’esheshatu z’amazina. Mu kurema amazina bishingiye ku nteko, bikorwa izina rihindurirwa inteko ryari ririmo, rigahabwa indi nteko, ibyo biba ahanini bishingiye ku gupfobya, gutubya cyangwa gukuza.

    b) Ikomorazina mvazina rishingiye ku ndomo

    Mu kurema amagambo bishingiye ku ndomo z’amazina; izina rusange rishobora gutakaza indomo rigatanga izina bwite. Mu Kinyarwanda amazina bwite menshi akomoka ku mazika rusange.

    c) Ikomorazina mvazina rishingiye ku kwisubiramo kw’igicumbi

    Mu kurema aya mazina usanga aba ashingiye ku kwisubiramo kw’igicumbi k’izina, bityo izina rikagira indi nyito nshya ariko ifitanye isano n’izina rya mbere.

    d) Ikomorazina mvazina rishingiye ku kongera umusuma inyuma y’ijambo

    Mu Kurema amazina bongera umusuma inyuma y’ijambo, usanga ayo mazina ahita ahindura inyito ahanini bitewe n’ubwoko bw’umusuma wakoreshejwe. Mu misuma ishobora gukoreshwa harimo: - kazi, -azi.


    e) Ikomorazina mvazina rishingiye ku kongera akabimbura mu izina

    Mu kurema amazina hakoreshejwe akabimbura, bikorwa hongerwa utubimbura mu mazina asanzwe, bityo hagahangwa andi bifitanye isano. Amazina aremwa hakoreshejwe utubimbura usanga amenshi ari amazina rusange yitirirwa abantu ndetse n’amazina bwite y’abantu. Mu tubimbura dukoreshwa harimo: nya, sa, se, nyiri, ka,...


    Gusesengura amazina akomoka ku ikomorazina mvazina

    Amazina abyawe n’ikomorazina mvazina ( kubaka amazina uhereye ku yandi mazina) akenshi aba afite intego isanzwe ( D-RT-C ) bityo uturemajambo tw’amazina akomoka ku yandi usanga twitwara nk’utw’izina nyakimwe cyangwa turenze tugasa nk’utw’izina ry’urusobe bitewe n’imiterere yaryo.



    Imyitozo ku ikomorazina mvazina

    1. Tahura amazina akomoka ku yandi mazina ari muri izi nteruro uyaceho akarongo:

    a) Abanyabuzima bafite uruhare rukomeye mu gutabara abantu.

    b) Ibyibo byinshi bigira utubara twiza.

    c) Serugendo ni umuganga w’umuhanga.

    d) Inka yariye ibigorigori igira umukamo utubutse.

    e) Umwami n’umwamikazi barubahwaga cyane.

    2. Sesengura (erekana intego) aya mazina akomoka ku yandi ugaragaze n’amategeko y’igenamajwi yakoreshejwe mu mpine.

    a) Igitaka            b) Ubugabo

    c) Ibiganogano       d) Umunyakarambi         e) Samusure

    Inshamake y’ibyizwe mu mutwe wa kane

    Muri uyu mutwe twasesenguye imyandiko ivuga ku nsanganyamatsiko y’ubuzima. Twabonye ko ubuzima buzira umuze ari isoko y’amajyambere; bityo bukaba bugomba kwitabwaho guhera umuntu agisamwa kugeza igihe azavira mu mubiri. Mu kubungabunga ubuzima kandi harimo kwirinda icyabuhungabanya nk’ingeso z’uburaya, ibiyobyabwenge no kwirinda SIDA n’izindi ndwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina.

    Twasesenguye ubumenyi bw’ururimi bujyanye n’inshoza, ingero by’impuzanyito, imvugwakimwe, impuzashusho, ingwizanyito n’imbusane. Twabonye kandi ikibonezamvugo kijyanye n’ikomorazina mvazina aho twarebye inshoza n’inzira z’ikomorazina mvazina ndetse n’isesengura ry’amazina akomoka ku yandi mazina.

    Iby’ingenzi nshoboye

    - Gusesengura imyandiko ku buzima n’indwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina

    - Gukangurira abantu kwirinda SIDA n’izindi ndwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina idakingiye.

    - Gukoresha impuzanyito, imvugwakimwe, impuzashusho, ingwizanyito n’ imbusane mu nteruro

    - Gusesengura amazina akomoka ku yandi no kuyakoresha mu nteruro.

    Isuzuma risoza umutwe wa kane

    Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

    Umwandiko: Amagara araseseka ntayorwa

    Mu buzima bwa muntu, hari abagira amahirwe yo kwitabwaho kuva bakiri bato, abandi ayo mahirwe ntabasekere. Ibyo nta buryo buhari bwo kubirwanya. Nyamara ariko iyo umuntu amaze guca akenge agomba kumenya uko agenda aharanira kugira imibereho myiza ndetse n’ubuzima buzira umuze. Icyo umuntu azaba cyo aba agomba no kugiharanira. Ni yo mpamvu umuntu agomba kwitabira ishuri akajijuka, kuko ku ishuri ahigira kubungabunga ubuzima bwe kugira ngo butamuca mu myanya y’intoki, kandi akumva ko ari we wa mbere bizagirira akamaro.

    Mu kubungabunga ubuzima hari byinshi umuntu agomba kwitaho nko kurya indyo yuzuye, ni ukuvuga igizwe n’ibyubaka umubiri, ibiwutera imbaraga ndetse n’ibiwurinda indwara, gukora siporo ku buryo buhagije kandi buhoraho; kutinaniza, kugira isuku, kugira ubwishingizi bw’ubuzima n’ubw’indwara; kwivuza hakiri kare igihe yarwaye no kwikingiza igihe cyose bibaye ngombwa; kubaho mu mutekano no kwirinda ihohoterwa iryo ari ryo ryose. Hari ibintu byinshi byateye bishaka gusumira ubuzima bwa muntu ngo bibunyuze mu ryoya! Umuntu yavuga indwara zinyuranye zirimo nka marariya, iziterwa n’imirire mibi ndetse n’isuku nke, izandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina nka SIDA ivuza ubuhuha, mburugu, imitezi n’uburagaza.

    Umuntu agomba kwirinda n’izindi mpanuka yakwitera nko kwiyahura mu businzi no mu biyobyabwenge. Kuko igihugu kigira inyungu ikomeye mu gihe abagituye bafite amagara mazima, bafite imbaraga zo kugikorera mu nzego zinyuranye z’ubuzima bwacyo, nko mu bikorwa biteza imbere ubukungu, mu kugicungira umutekano no kukibungabungira ubusugire, mu bikorwa by’uburezi, iby’imibereho myiza n’ibindi. Uwavuga igihombo igihugu kigira mu rwego rwo guhangana n’ibibazo bikururwa n’indwara zinyuranye wasanga biteye ubwoba! Umutungo utagira ingano ugendera mu gutumiza imiti hanze, mu guhemba abakozi bashinzwe ibyo bikorwa! Umubare w’abo izo ndwara zihitana abandi zikabasiga ari ibisenzegeri n’ibindi.

    Igihe cyose umuntu agomba guharanira gushaka icyatuma agira ubuzima buzira umuze, ntiyibere “Ntibindeba” ngo ibibonetse byose bize bimwitura hejuru nk’aho atagira ubwenge. Umuntu nyamuntu akwiye kandi kwirinda ibintu byose bishobora gushyira ubuzima bwe mu kaga, ntiyishore mu bikorwa bimwangiriza ubuzima nk’ubusinzi, ibiyobyabwenge, ubusambanyi n’ibindi. Naho ubundi “umwana utazi koga uruzi ruramujyanye.”

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

    1. Erekana uko umuntu yagira uruhare mu gutegura ubuzima bwe bw’ejo hazaza n’ibyo yakora mu rwego rwo kubungabunga ubuzima.

    2. Uhereye no ku mwandiko garagaza impanuka zishobora kwangiza ubuzima bw’umuntu yabigizemo uruhare.

    3. Gira icyo uvuga kuri aya magambo dusanga mu mwandiko: “Icyo umuntu azaba cyo hari igihe agomba kugiharanira”.

    4. Gereranya ibivugwa muri uyu mwandiko n’umutwe wahawe.

    5. Garagaza inyungu igihugu kigira mu kuba gituwe n’abantu bafite ubuzima buzira umuze.

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Ntabasekere                     b) Guca akenge

    c) Gusumira                          d) Guca ibintu

    e) Bibunyuze mu ryoya          f ) Ivuza ubuhuha.

    2. Shaka impuzanyito z’aya magambo akurikira:

    a) Imibereho                    b) Kugiharanira                   c) Butamuca

    3. Shaka imbusane z’aya magambo akurikira:

    a) Nyuma                      b) Kubirwanya                        c) Byinshi

    III. Ikibonezamvugo n’ubumenyi bw’ururimi

    1. Mu magambo make ashoboka sobanura amagambo akurikira utange n’ingero ebyiri zayo nuragiza uzikoreshe mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

    a) Impuzanyito

    b) Imvugwakimwe

    c) Impuzashusho

    d) Ingwizanyito

    e) Imbusane

    2. Tanga inshoza y’ikomorazina mvazina, unatange nibura inzira ebyiri mu nzira z’ikomorazina mvazina utanga n’ingero ebyiri kuri buri nzira muri izo watanze.

    3. Sesengura amazina yanditse mu nyuguti z’umukara tsiri mu nteruro zikurikira werekane n’amategeko y’igenamajwi yubahirijwe mu mpine:

    a) Umuntu umaze guca akenge yita ku kubungabunga ubuzima bwe.

    b) Uwakwigira indangare ubuzima bwe bwamuca mu myanya y’intoki.

    c) SIDA n’izindi ndwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina ziraca ibintu.

    d) Mu nyigisho y’Ikinyarwanda twigamo n’indangagaciro harimo no kwirinda ingeso mbi nk’ubusinzi, ubusambanyi, ibiyobyabwenge.

    IV. Ihangamwandiko

    1. Mu mirongo itarenze maakumyabiri n’itanu, hanga umwandiko uvuga ku nsanganyamatsiko y’ubuzima buzira umuze.


  • UMUTWE WA 5: Umuco nyarwanda

    Ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda


    Mu buvanganzo nyarwanda, habamo ubuvanganzo nyabami n’ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda. Ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda bugenewe rubanda, nta kiciro runaka cy’abantu bihariye bugenewe nk’ubuvanganzo nyabami bwabaga bugenewe ab’ibwami. Ubu buvanganzo usanga tubukoresha hatitawe ku kumenya uwabuhimbye, cyane ko muri rusange aba atanazwi. Ubwinshi muri ubu buvanganzo usanga ari nyemvugo, ni ukuvuga ko abantu bagiye babugeza ku bandi hakoreshejwe imvugo (uruhererekane munwa-gutwi). Icyakora muri iki gihe usanga hari abagiye babukusanyiriza mu bitabo, bityo abazi gusoma bakabubonamo ariko ababwanditse atari bo babuhimbye.

    Twavuga ibitekerezo byo muri rubanda aho umuntu yatanga urugero nk’igitekerezo cya Binego bya Kajumba wabaye intwari agahorera se imbogo yari imaze kwivugana, icya Semuhanuka wari umubeshyi cyane ariko tugakuramo n’isomo ko indangagaciro z’umuco nyarwanda zitubuza kubeshya. Igitekerezo cya Ngunda wari igisambo kandi ubusambo Si bwiza. Umuntu ntiyakwibagirwa n’icya Nyirarunyonga wari igisambo cyane akagira n’ingeso y’uburaya , n’icya Serugarukiramfizi wakundaga ibirunge byahebuje n’ibindi.

    Habonekamo kandi insigamigani nka Ntabyera ngo de, Habe na mba, Utazi akaraye i Fumbwe araza ifu n’izindi zikaba zikubiyemo amateka y’Igihugu cyacu mu buryo bukomeye cyanecyane ayagiye yerekeza by’umwihariko kuri abo bantu zirenguriraho. Muri iki kiciro cy’ubuvanganzo dusangamo nanone imigani miremire nk’uwa Nyanshya na Baba, uw’impara n’imparage uzwi cyane ku izina rya Rugoyigoyi, uwa Rujonjori n’iyindi kandi yose itwereka indangagaciro zo gukurikiza tutibagiwe na kirazira mu muco nyarwanda; cyangwa se imigani migufi nk’iyi ikurikira: Igiti kigororwa kikiri gito, Uwiba ahetse aba abwiriza uwo mu mugongo, Nta mugabo umwe, Abagiye inama Imana irabasanga n’iyindi. Iki kiciro kikaba kibumbatiye umuco n’imitekerereze by’Abanyarwanda ku buryo bwimbitse kuko ari ho bakosoranaga , bagahugurana, bakagirana n’inama mu mvugo ishushanya kandi itatse inganzo. Aha ni na ho bagiraga bati: “Abwirwa benshi akumva beneyo”.

    Muri ubu buvanganzo bwo muri rubanda dusangamo n’ibisakuzo aho umwe agira ati : “Sakwe sakwe” undi ati: “Soma”. Ati: “Nagutera icyo utazi utabonye”, undi akakica agira ati: “Ubukumi bwa so na nyoko”; undi na we ati: “Cya mutimbutimbu cya mutimburandwanyi” na we akakica agira ati: “Ikirungurira” bagakomeza muri uwo mukino wo gufindura. Habamo kandi n’indirimbo, ibihozo, n’ibindi bitandukanye.Ikindi gice cy’ubu buvanganzo kuri ubu tugisanga mu buvanganzo nyandiko aho benebwo babuhimba banabwandika, ariko bukaba bugenewe umuryango muri rusange w’abantu by’umwihariko Abanyarwanda, butari umwihariko w’ikiciro runaka cyonyine. Ubu buvanganzo bwo ababuhimbye akenshi baramenyekana. Aha twavuga nk’imivugo n’indirimbo binyuranye, amakinamico yaba ahita ku maradiyo, ku matereviziyo, ndetse n’akinirwa ku rubuga abantu bihera ijisho imbonankubone.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Vuga abo ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda bugenewe.

    2. Rondora zimwe mu ngeri z’ubuvangazo bwo muri rubanda zavuzwe mu mwandiko utange n’ingero nibura ebyiri kuri buri yose.

    3. Garagaza uburyo ubu buvanganzo bwifashisha ngo bugere ku bo bugenewe.

    4. Erekana nibura ingeso eshatu zavuzwe mu mwandiko zigaragara mu bitekerezo byo muri rubanda uvuge n’abo zivugwaho.

    5. Vuga insigamigani eshatu zavuzwe mu mwandiko utange n’izindi eshatu waba uzi zitavuzwemo.

    6. Ni iki cyavuzwe ku ndangagaciro na kirazira by’umuco nyarwanda muri uyu mwandiko?

    7. Ni iyihe ngeri y’ubuvanganzo yavuzwe ko ibumbatiye imitekerereze y’Abanyarwanda. Tanga ingero eshatu zayo ziri mu mwandiko n’izindi eshatu zitari mu mwandiko.

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Ubuvanganzo

    b) uruhererekane munwa-gutwi

    c) gukusanyad) rubanda

    e) zirenguriraho

    f ) ikirungurira.

    III. Imyitozo yo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe arakoresha neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

    1. Koresha aya magambo dusanga mu mwandiko mu nteruro wihimbiye:

    a) Ishushanya

    b) Itatse inganzo

    c) Rusange

    d) Zitubuza

    e) Bwimbitse.

    2. Huza amagambo yo mu ruhushya A n’ibisobanuro byatanzwe bijyanye no yo mu ruhushya B

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Erekana ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. Garagaza ingingo ndangamuco n’ingingo ndangamateka zigaragara muri uyu mwandiko?

    3. Uyu mwandiko uhuriye he n’ubuzima busanzwe bw’Abanyarwanda?

    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe arabwira abandi ibyo yungutse n’ibyo azi ku muco nyarwanda, ku bukwe no ku buvanganzo nyarwanda.

    Geza kuri bagenzi bawe ibyo wungutse ndetse n’ibyo uzi ku buvanganzo nyarwanda.

    Igitekerezo: Binego bya Kajumba


    Binego bya Kajumba mwene Ryangombe rya Babinga mwene Nyundo yabaye aho akura ari umwana w’igihangange cyane. Ubwo buhangange bwe ntibwagombaga kwihishira. Uyu Binego bya Kajumba yakomeje kwibera aho iwabo ariko akomeza no kugenda agaragaza amatwara adasanzwe. Ayo matwara n’ubuhangange bitihishiriye cyangwa ngo bihere yabigaragarije mu bintu bitandukanye.

    Reka se umubyara Ryangombe rya Babinga mwene Nyundo azabyukane umuhigo. Yari asanzwe azobereye muri uwo mwuga, yambika impigi ze zarimo iyitwa “Uruciye munsi ntamenya ikiruri imbere”, “Bakosha badahannye”, n’izindi. Akora no ku muhigi we Nyarwambari ngo bage guhiga. Nyiraryangombe, nyina wa Ryangombe, akaba yari yarose inyamaswa z’amayobera muri uwo muhigo, zirimo urukwavu rutagira ishyira ku murizo n’impongo y’impenebere, by’umwihariko zigasozerezwa n’imbogo y’ihembe rimwe yigize ingunge mu ishyamba. Ngo yari yanarose umukobwa wari warohewe mu ishyamba kubera gutwara inda y’indaro. Uwo mukecuru kandi ngo yari karosi, agakabya inzozi byahebuje kuko ibyo yarotaga ntakitarasohoraga.

    Icyo gitondo yinginga umuhungu we ngo asubike umuhigo, ariko undi aramurahira. Agera nubwo atambika umweko we mu bikingi by’amarembo ngo ataharenga kuko cyaziraga, biranga biba iby’ubusa asimbuka urugo aragenda yanga kumva impanuro. Nyiraryangombe muri bwa buhanuzi bwe n’agahinda kenshi ati: “Mwana wange ururenze ururenze.” Na Nyarwambari umuhigi we ashyiraho ake undi aranga agera naho yenda kumutera icumu undi aramuhunga.

    Burya ngo: “Amatwi arimo urupfu ntiyumva” kandi ngo: “Nyamwanga kumva ntiyanze no kubona”. Yarahuruye arahutera no mu ishyamba rya Rurengamiganyiro arahiga arahiga; yajya kuvumbura akivumburira za nyamaswa z’amayobera nyina yamubwiye. Birumvikana ko no kuzica bitashobokaga kuko ari impiri, icumu n’ibindi bikoresho byose bageragezaga kuzicisha ngo byifungiraga mu biganza. Yaje kuyobera kuri wa mugore wari warohewe muri iryo shyamba abonye akotsi gacumba, agezeyo bigira mu by’urukundo, dore ko ngo uwayobye atayoba rimwe, asize umuhigi we mu muhigo ngo navumbura inyamaswa y’inkazi amubwire.

    Ntibyatinze umuhigi we Nyarwambari yavumbuye imbogo y’ihembe rimwe, ayishumuriza za mpigi zose, iyo yoherejeyo yose akabona inzogera irirenga, abonye ko bikomeye imbogo imaze kuzitsemba ajya gutabaza shebuja. Mu kuza n’igihunga kinshi na za ngeso abyutsemo, agize ngo ariyahura kuri ya mbogo afora umuheto ngo ayikubite umwambi ya mbogo irawugarama, agize ngo ayitere icumu imbogo irarigarama, iramusimbukira imutera ihembe mu nyonga y’itako maze iramukunkumura, imurahira aho bavoma nk’uko nyina yakabivuze imutendeka mu giti cy’umuko ari wo murinzi. Irya mukuru riratinda ntirihera kandi irya mukuru urishima uribonye. Nyarwambari nta kindi yari gukora, yahagaze ku ka rubanda aratabaza abika Ryangombe.

    Umuhungu we Binego bya Kajumba ngo arite mu gutwi, nibwo abwiye nyirakuru kumushakira imishandiko ikenda y’itabi ayitekerera icyarimwe, atumura umwotsi umwe amena umuyonga, afata icumu n’umuheto bya se, afata n’inkota yiruka ajya guhorera se mu rya Rurengamiganyiro. Agezeyo asanga imbogo yivuze yivovose yahindurije! Arayisimbukira ayifata ku gakanu ayishinga icumu mu rwano arayigusha, ayikata igihanga akibambisha ku ka rubanda, yurira wa murinzi amanura umurambo wa se aragenda awuhamba iruhande rw’aho yabambye igihanga cya ya mbogo, ageze mu rugo arivuga arivovota kuko ahoreye se Ryangombe ati: “Ni nge Binego bya Kajumba mwene Ryangombe rya Babinga mwene Nyundo”, arangije yicara ku ntebe ya se aratwara. Kandi ngo: “Imfura nzima isubira ku izina rya se”.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Binego bya Kajumba yari mwene nde? Umwuga wa se wari uwuhe?

    2. Vuga izina ry’umuhigi wa Ryangombe ugaragaze n’ibitekerezo bye ku muhigo wa shebuja uvugwa muri uyu mwandiko.

    3. Umuhigo wa Ryangombe ntiwavugwagaho rumwe n’abantu batandukanye. Abo bantu ni ba nde? Ibitekerezo byabo byabusanaga bitewe n’iki?

    4. Sobanura ukuntu inyamaswa Nyiraryangombe yarose zari zidasanzwe. Ese uko kuba zidasanzwe byasuraga iki?

    5. Sobanura isano Binego bya Kajumba yari afitanye na Nyiraryangombe. Ese uyu mukecuru hari icyo yamufashije mu rugamba rwo kujya guhorera se? Bisobanure.

    6. Mbese uyu mwandiko hari aho ugaragaza amakabyankuru? Byerekanishe ingero.

    7. Sobanura uko Binego bya Kajumba yagaragaje ubuhangange ahorera se ku mbogo yari yamwivuganye.

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Impigi

    b) Impenebere

    c) Gukabya inzozi

    d) Impanuro

    e) Ururenze ururenze

    f ) Yahindurije

    g) Iramukunkumura

    III. Imyitozo yo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye.

    1. Koresha aya magambo mu nteruro wihimbiye kandi ziboneye

    a) Karosi

    b) Inzogera irirenga

    c) Imurahira aho bavoma

    d) Arivovota

    e) Umuyonga

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Vuga ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. Erekana ingingo z’umuco n’iz’amateka zigaragara muri uyu mwandiko.

    3. Uyu mwandiko hari ibikorwa bigaragaza ubutwari waba ugaragaza?

    4. Wishyize mu mwanya wa Ryangombe wumva wari gukora iki nyuma y’impanuro z’umubyeyi wavugaga ko yamuroteye nabi?

    Igitekerezo

    Soma interuro zikurikira nurangiza ugire icyo uzivugaho ugendeye cyanecyane ku magambo yanditse mu nyuguti z’umukara tsiri uyagereranya n’ibibaho mu buzima.

    - Mu byo Nyiraryangombe yarotaga ntakitarasohoraga.

    - Ari impiri, icumu n’ibindi bikoresho byose bageragezaga kuzicisha ngo byifungiraga mu biganza.

    - Imutendeka mu giti cy’umuko ari wo murinzi.

    - Imishandiko kenda y’itabi ayitekerera icyarimwe, atumura umwotsi umwe amena umuyonga.

    - Arayisimbukira ayifata ku gakanu ayishinga icumu mu rwano arayigusha.

    Izi nteruro urazibona ute ugereranyije n’ibintu bibaho mu buzima?

    Inshoza y’igitekerezo

    Igitekerezo ni ingeri y’ubuvanganzo yubakiye ku mwibariro w’ibitangaza bigaragaramo amakabyankuru. Igitekerezo kijya kumera nk’umugani muremure kuko na wo ubamo amakabyankuru n’ibitangaza, ariko mu mugani ibivugwa bibera mu isi y’umugani igizwe n’ibitangaza gusagusa. Mu gihe mu gitekerezo dushobora gusangamo uturango tw’amateka n’ahantu hasanzwe hazwi.

    Uturango tw’igitekerezo

    Igitekerezo cyo muri rubanda ni ubwoko bw’umwandiko w’ubuvanganzo uteye ku buryo bw’ibarankuru, uvuga ku bantu batabayeho cyangwa bashobora kuba barabayeho mu muryango rusange w’abantu. Uvuga ibyababayeho ariko ukagenda wongeramo n’amakabyankuru menshi. Umutekereza agerageza kunoza no kuryoshya imvugo akoresha kugira ngo abo agezaho igitekerezo bamutege amatwi bashishikaye. Amakabyankuru yo mu gitekerezo agaragarira mu bikorwa bivugwamo, mu bantu ndetse n’aho ibyo bikorwa byabereye, hashobora kuba hazwi muri uwo muryango uvugwamo iyo nkuru.

    Ingero z’ibitekerezo byo muri rubanda:

    - Igitekerezo cya Ndabaga

    - Igitekerezo cya Ngunda

    - Igitekerezo cya Semuhanuka

    - Igitekerezo cya Nyirarunyonga

    Imyitozo

    1. Shaka mu mwandiko izindi nteruro zigaragaza ko umwandiko ari igitekerezo.

    2. Tanga ibindi bitekerezo byo muri rubanda uzi unavuge gato ku bivugwa ku mukinankuru mukuru uvugwamo.

    Imigani migufi

    Soma interuro zikurikira nurangiza uvuge imiterere yazo ugendeye ku butumwa bukubiyemo.

    - “Uwitonze akama ishashi”

    - “Ntawuvuma iritararenga”

    - “Nyamwanga kumva ntiyanze kubona”.

    - “Irya mukuru riratinda ntirihera”.

    - “Igiti kigororwa kikiri gito”.

    - “Abagiye inama Imana irabasanga”.

    Urabona izi nteruro zibumbatiye ubuhe butumwa?

    Inshoza y’umugani mugufiUmugani mugufi bakunze kuwita kandi umugenurano. Umugani mugufi ni imvugo ikoresha amagambo make, nyamara igisobanuro ari kirekire kandi kirimo ubutumwa ku buryo bw’amarenga, impanuro n’inyigisho zitandukanye. Umugenurano ugizwe n’imvugo izimije kandi ishushanya, ku buryo kugira ngo uwumve; uburyo bwa mbere bisaba kubanza kumva neza amagambo yose awugize, uburyo bwa kabiri bikaba kumva imvugo shusho iba yakoreshejwe. Ngo umugani ungana akariho. Ni ukuvuga ko abaca umugani babiterwa n’ibyo babona cyangwa babamo umunsi ku wundi.

    Ubutumwa bukubiye mu mugenurano, buba bugamije kugira inama uwo bugenewe mu rwego rwo kumwereka ibyamugirira nabi ngo abyirinde, ibyo yakoshejemo ngo yikosore cyangwa se ibikwiye gukorwa bakamuhanura, bamukangurira kubyitabira. Iyi ngeri y’ubuvanganzo ikubiyemo ubuhanga buhanitse bw’imikoreshereze y’ururimi, bugaragaza gukeneka ururimi ndetse n’umuco wa ba nyirarwo.

    Muri uyu mugenurano: “Usuzugura agafu kakakujyana ku mugezi” uwashaka kuwumva neza agomba kubanza kwiyumvisha icyo ariya magambo ane (gusuzugura, ifu, kujya, ku mugezi) awugize asobanuye. Hanyuma kumva icyo bagenuriraho ni ukugerageza kumva imvugo ishushanya yakoreshejwe, kuko niba ugomba kuvuga umutsima, naho agafu kaba gake, adafite amazi wabigenza ute? Kabe gake cyangwa kenshi ni ngombwa ngo uge kuvoma amazi. Uyu mugani wawucira umuntu ubona ko ashaka kugira ibintu adaha agaciro bikwiye mu buzima.

    Uturango tw’umugani mugufi:

    - Umugani mugufi ukoresha amagambo make atarenze interuro imwe.

    - Umugani mugufi ukoresha imvugo igenura, ikosora, ihanura, yigisha, iburira.

    - Umugani mugufi ugira igisobanuro shusho ukanagira igisobanuro gishingiye ku magambo awugize.

    - Umugani mugufi ukoresha imvugo yuje ikeshamvugo

    Ingero z’imigani migufi:

    - Uwitonze akama ishashi.

    - Amatwi arimo urupfu ntiyumva.

    - Nyamwanga kumva ntiyanze kubona.

    - Irya mukuru riratinda ntirihera.

    - Abwirwa benshi akumva beneyo.

    Ingero z’imigani migufi isobanuye:

    1. Umwanzi agucira icyobo Imana igucira icyanzu (Umwanzi agucira akobo Imana igucira akanzu): birumvikana ko umuntu anyuze hejuru y’icyobo yagwamo akaba yapfa. Bishatse kuvuga ko kuba umwanzi akwifuriza ibibi ari byo bigereranywa na cya cyobo. Mu gihe icyanzu cyo ari akayira kaba kinjira mu rugo ariko atari mu buryo bwa rusange. Ni akayira gakunze no kuba ari gato kaba kagenewe bene urugo bonyine. Imana rero igafatwa nk’umutabazi utabura uko agenza, ku buryo igihe wa mwanzi uguhiga yaguteze imitego igereranywa na cya cyobo Imana yo igushakira inzira yo kugutabariramo igereranywa na cya cyanzu.

    2. Igiti kigororwa kikiri gito: ubusanzwe abamenyere iby’ubuhinzi babona ko iyo ushaka kugira isura runaka uha igiti ugomba kubikora kikiri gito kitarakomera ngo kigagare; iyo bitabaye ibyo kikamara gukomera cyane iyo bakigoroye kiravunika. Iyo baca uyu mugani rero baba bagereranya igiti n’umwana bakaba bashaka kuvuga ko umwana ahabwa uburere akiri muto atararengerana. Ibyo bituma akurira muri wa murongo mwiza yatojwe hakiri kare; bitaba ibyo rero ukaba utamukosora yararangije kwangirika. Aha akaba ari na ho bahera bagira bati: “Ntawuhana uwahanutse”.

    Imigani migufi y’Ikinyarwanda ifatiye ku ngigo zinyuranye zo mu buzima: umuntu yavuga nk’ubupfura, ubuzima n’urupfu, uburezi n’uburere, ubucuti n’ubufatanye, imico n’imyifatire, inkomoko, inka, ibidukikije n’izindi. Hari n’imigani imwe n’imwe usanga ihuza ingingo zirenze imwe.

    Imigani migufi y’Ikinyarwanda ifatiye ku ngingo zinyuranye zo mu buzima busanzwe: umuntu yavuga nk’ ubupfura, ubuzima n’urupfu, uburezi n’uburere, ubucuti n’ubufatanye, imico n’imyifatire, inkomoko, inka, ibidukikije n’izindi. Hari n’imigani imwe n’imwe usanga ihuza ingingo zirenze imwe.

    Dore ingero z’imigani migufi y’Ikinyarwanda ifatiye kuri zimwe muri izo ngingo

    Ubupfura

    Aho imfura zisezeraniye ni ho zihurira.

    Imfura ishinjagira ishira.

    Imfura igwa mu mfuruka.

    Ubukungu ntibukura ubukuru.

    Ubuzima n’urupfu

    Amagara araseseka ntayorwa.

    Ubwenge si ubugingo umupfumu ntiyapfuye.

    Indishyi y’urupfu ni ukubyara.

    Ntarutamburira imfusha.

    Urucira mukaso rugatwara nyoko.

    Inkware y’inyabugingo itora mu itongo ry’uwayihigaga.

    Aho umwana ashishiye ni ho atetera.

    Uburezi n’uburere

    Uburere buruta ubuvuke.Ubwenge burarahurwa.

    Igiti kigororwa kikiri gito.Umwana apfa mu iterura.

    Utaganiriye na se ntameya icyo sekuru yasize avuze.

    Ubucuti n’ubufatanye

    Inshuti iruta inshuro.

    Abagiye inama Imana irabasanga.

    Ababiri bishyize hamwe baruta umunani urasana.

    Agasaza kamwera akandi kuzakamwa.

    Ifuni ibagara ubucuti ni akarenge.

    Gira so yiturwa indi.

    Imico n’imyifatire

    Izina ni ryo muntu.

    Kora ndebe iruta vuga numve.

    Umwana murizi ntakurwa urutozi.

    Ihene mbi ntuyizirikaho iyawe.

    Hanyurwa umutima inda ni igisambo.

    Inkomoko

    Inyana ni iya mweru.

    Ntayima nyina akabara.

    Amata asabwa aho ari.

    Nta rutundo rubura indamu.

    Mwene samusure avukana isunzu.

    Inka

    Inka utanze iruta iyo utunze.

    Iyanze kuzimira irabira.

    Iya babiri ntikobwa.

    Agasozi kamanutse inka kazamuka umugeni.

    Inka imwe itashye iruta ijana riragurwa.

    Ibidukikije

    Akarenze impinga karushya ihamagara.

    Isuri isambira byinshi igasohoza bike.

    Inkunguzi y’inkware ishoka agaca kayireba.

    Nta nkuba ikubita umunyabugingo.

    Akagozi kaziritse ku nkuru bijyana mu nkono

    Ntawutinya ishyamba atinya icyo bahuriyemo.

    Inyamaswa idakenga yishwe n’umututizi.

    Igiti kimwe si ishyamba.Inkware yicwa n’abarebyi.

    Igikoba kikururiye ikara.

    Ikoranabuhanga cyangwa itangazamakuru.

    Akanyoni katagurutse ntikamenya iyo uburo bweze.

    Inkuru mbarirano iratuba.Uruvuga undi ntirugorama.

    Imburagihana yabuze gihamba.

    Wanga kumvira so na nyoko, ukumvira ijeri.

    Nyamwangakumva ntiyanze no kubona.

    Imburagihana yabuze gihamba.

    Wanga kumvira so na nyoko, ukumvira ijeri.

    Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muhange umwandiko, ku nsanganyamatsiko mwihitiyemo, wiganjemo imigani migufi hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    Hanga umwandiko ku nsanganyamatsiko wihitiyemo, wiganjemo imigani migufi y’Ikinyarwanda.

    Ubukwe bwa Kinyarwanda


    Umuhango wabimburiraga iyindi mu bukwe bwa kinyarwanda ni uwo gufata irembo. Intumwa z’iwabo w’umuhungu zajyaga iwabo w’umukobwa bakavuga ko baje gusaba irembo ry’umugeni. Ibi ariko bikaba byarabanjirijwe n’umurimo w’umuranga wabaga yaratanze amakuru yose ku mukobwa ukwiye kubaka urugo, ushimwa mu mico no mu myifatire. Imisango bayishyiraga mu kiganiro kinogeye amatwi, bakajya mu mateka y’uko imiryango isanzwe ibanye neza. Bakavuga ko basanzwe bahana inka n’abageni n’ibindi. Irembo bamara kuryemererwa umushyitsi mukuru agashima, agatanga ikimenyetso k’ifata rembo. Hambere yabaga ari isando yasubizwaga nyuma yo kwakira inkwano, akongeraho ko irembo barikinze kandi ko umusore wabo yiteguye.

    Nuko bakanywa bagasabana ndetse n’ibiribwa bikaza. Hambere byari ikizira kikaziririzwa ko umushyitsi mukuru agira icyo arya ataravuga ikimugenza. Nuko bagasezera bagataha hagakurikiraho umunsi w’isaba. Muri kino gihe hari aho gusaba no gukwa bikorwa umunsi umwe. Ni umunsi uba wahuje imiryango yombi noneho umukobwa agatangwa ku mugaragaro. Mu isaba bitwaza isuka, igicuba n’igikoresho cyo kwahira ubwatsi kuko inka zisigaye zororerwa mu kiraro.

    Umuhango wo gusaba uryoshywa n’ibiganiro. Mu gusaba no gukwa, ibiganiro byose byabaga byibanda ku muco gakondo w’amahoro warangaga Abanyarwanda n’indangagaciro zawo. Bavugagamo ubusabane bwarangwaga no gusurana, gufashanya no gutabarana mu gihe cy’akaga, bagashyira imbere cyane guhana inka n’abageni. Haba ubwo banyuzamo bagacyocyorana ariko bimwe by’ineza, utabimenyereye akagira ngo umugeni bari bumwimane. Nyamara uhagarariye umuryango w’umukobwa akagera ubwo amutanga ariko akongeraho ko atamutanganye inkwano.

    Ubwo rero umuhango ukurikiyeho uba ari uwo gukwa. Umushyitsi mukuru akagira ati: “Nimudukoshe”. Kuva kera rero kugeza n’ubu aho umuco utaracuya, inka ni yo nkwano. Ibyo ntibibuza ko n’amafaranga atangwa aho inzuri zimariye kuba nke mu Gihugu. Iyo uganiriye n’abakuru ariko bakubwira ko n’abageni b’ubuntu bataburaga gutangwa. Bene abo bitwaga abageni b’ineza. Byabaga hake cyane kuko umugabo utarakoye atagiraga ijambo kwa sebukwe. Abana abyaye bakabita ba “nkuri” ntibabaga ari abe kuko iyo umugore yahukanaga ubutazagaruka, yashoboraga kubajyana. Bagakwa rero uko babisabwe n’umuryango maze umukobwa agakunda agaseruka. Iyo yamaraga gushyika mu byicaro, inka batangiraga kuzivuga amazina. Ubundi umugeni akazahekwa agataha k’uwamukunze.

    Kera iterambere ritaraza, umunsi w’ubukwe wabanzirizwaga no gutebutsa. Uwo munsi ukaba uwo kuvugana umunsi wo kwitegura umugeni. Ubu amaterefoni yaraje asigaye yihutisha ibintu. Umugeni yararikwaga, maze abakobwa b’inshuti ze na ba nyirasenge bakaza bakajya bamutaramira. Ba nyirasenge babaga ari abo kumuhanura, bakamwigisha uko azita ku mugabo we. Abakobwa bamuririmbiraga zimwe mu ndirimbo z’abageni, yarira bagatera ibihozo.

    Ku munsi w’ubukwe nyiri izina, ni ho abantu banywaga bakabyina bakizihirwa. Byabaga ari ibirori bihambaye, abantu bose banezerewe. Muri ibyo birori ni ho bagabiraga urugo rushya. Mu bifite urugo rushya ruhabwa inka, impano zindi na zo zigatangwa hakaba n’ababaha abana babo ho impano bakabaterura akanya gato. Biba ari ikimenyetso cyo kubifuriza kubyara. Ibyo kwambikana umwishywa ubu byasimbuwe no kwambikana impeta.

    Umugeni amaze guhekwa agataha ku mukunzi we ibirori by’umunsi byasozwaga no kumutwikurura, ibi bikagenda bitandukana bitewe n’umuco w’agace aka n’aka. Hose ariko mu biherekeza umugeni n’ibimutwikurura habagamo inzoga n’amarwa umubare wabyo ugaterwa n’uko bifite, ngo byashoboraga no kugera kuri mirongo itatu. Bigaherekezwa n’ibiseke n’inkangara by’amafu atandukanye n’ibindi by’imyaka n’imbuto binyuranye. Hari n’ababyitaga ibihembo by’umukwe. Habagamo n’umuhango wo kogosha umugeni amasunzu, umuhungu warongoye akabanza, nyuma nyirabukwe n’abandi bagakomeza amasunzu bakayamaraho barangiza bakanywa bakabyina igitaramo kikarimbanya. Aha ariko na sebukwe w’umugeni akamugabira yaba inka bitaga iy’amasunzu, yaba intama cyangwa ikindi akabona kumukura muri icyo gitaramo.

    Ntawakwibagirwa ko nijoro habagaho umuhango wo gukirana no kumara amavuta; uwo wari umukino w’umusore n’umugeni we biherereye. Nyuma y’iminsi mike habagaho umuhango wo gutekesha urugo rushya. Hagati aho ubwo ntibatekaga, bagemurirwaga na baramukazi b’umugeni. Uwo muhango wabagamo kubaterera amashyiga bakazana inkono n’ikibindi cyo kuvomesha ndetse n’uruho rwo kudaha amazi, bakarika umutsima, ahenshi wabaga ari uw’uburo. Umugabo na nyirabukwe w’umugeni bakamufasha kuvuga umutsima, bakawurisha ibishyimbo by’umubaga. Abari aho bose bakaryaho, barangiza buri wese ufite icyo atekesha akagitanga, yaba amatungo cyangwa ibikoresho.

    Kuri ubu twavugako imihango y’ubukwe kwa Kinyarwanda, ikorwa ariko ugasanga igenda itandukana n’uko hambere yakorwaga. Impamvu ni nyinshi, zirimo ahanini gushaka kujyana n’igihe, ubundi ugasanga umukwe n’umugeni barihuje nta muranga, amikoro nayo rimwe na rimwe ugasanga aratera bamwe gukora ubukwe bya nyirarureshwa, tutibagiwe n’amadini cyangwa amatorero y’inzaduka nayo yadukana ibyayo n’ibindi. Gusa ubukwe ni bwiza buhuza imiryango ikungana amaboko igashyigikirana ikagira ubumwe.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Umuranga yari muntu ki?

    2. Vuga akamaro k’umuranga mu gihe cyashize no muri iki gihe tugezemo.

    3. Ufatiye ku mwandiko, vuga nibura imihango itatu ya ngombwa yo mu bukwe bwa kinyarwanda.

    4. Ufatiye ku mwandiko n’ibyo ubona muri iki gihe, ni uwuhe muhango utagikorwa muri iki gihe?

    5. Vuga imihango y’ubukwe bwa kinyarwanda ishobora kubera umunsi umwe.

    6. Mu bukwe nyarwanda bw’iki gihe ni iyihe mihango ubona idashobora kubera umunsi umwe? Sobanura impamvu.

    7. Garagaza ababaga hafi y’umugeni mu gitaramo cy’ubukwe n’inshingano zabo muri icyo gihe.

    8. Sobanura mu buryo bwimbitse ibijyanye n’umuhango w’itekesha

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo cyangwa amatsinda y’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Gufata irembo

    b) Gucyocyorana

    c) Utaracuya

    d) Amarwa

    e) Guheka umugeni

    2. Shaka impuzanyito z’aya magambo akurikira:

    a) Wabimburiraga

    b) By’ineza

    c) Gusurana

    3. Shaka imbusane z’aya magambo akurikira:

    a) Kuryemererwa

    b) Kudaha

    c) Akaga

    III. Imyitozo yo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

    1. Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

    a) Igicuba,

    b) Kwarika umugeni

    c) Kumuhanura

    d) Abantu bifite

    2. Uzurisha interuro zikurikira amagambo cyangwa itsinda ry’amagambo dusanga mu mwandiko:

    a) Mu misango y’ubukwe bavuga ko baje gusaba irembo rya.......

    b) Iyo basaba umugeni bakoresha ikiganiro....... amatwi.

    c) Byari ikizira....... ko usaba umugeni arya ataravuga ikimugenza.

    d) Mu muhango w’itekesha ahenshi bagabura umutsima w’.......

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Erekana ingingo z’ingenzi ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. Vuga ingingo z’umuco w’Abanyarwanda usanze muri uyu mwandiko.

    3. Ku bwawe wumva imihango y’ubukwe ifite akahe gaciro ku mukwe n’umugeni ndetse no ku babyeyi?

    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro:

    Mu matsinda mwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    Kungurana ibitekerezo ku ngingo zikurikira:

    – Hari ubukwe waba waragiyemo bagacyocyorana? Muri icyo gihe wumvaga umeze ute? Kuri ubu ubona hari icyo bikimaze?

    – Mu bukwe bwa kinyarwanda hari igihe umugeni yatangirwa ubuntu. Wunganiranye na bagenzi bawe ibi wabivugaho iki?

    Ikinyazina nyereka n’ikinyazina mbanziriza

    Ikinyazina Nyereka

    Soma interuro zikurikira nurangiza uzitegereze neza hanyuma uvuge icyo ubona amagambo yanditse mu nyuguti z’umukara tsiri akoramo.

    - Muri iki gihe n’ibiribwa biraza.

    - Muri kino gihe hari aho gusaba no gukwa bigendera hamwe.

    - Bene abo bitwaga abageni b’ineza.

    - Nyuma y’ibyo iyo imihango itabereye rimwe, haba hatahiwe gusezerana mu butegetsi.

    - Uwo munsi ukaba uwo kuvugana umunsi wo kwitegura umugeni.

    - Akabona kumukura muri icyo gitaramo.

    - Urya muhigo wahangayikishije Nyiraryangombe.

    - Igihanga cya ya mbogo Binego yarakibambye.

    - Buriya buryo bwo kurambagirizwa n’umuranga bugenda bucika.

    Aya magambo iki, kino, abo, ibyo, uwo, icyo, urya, ya, buriya ni amagambo akora ikihe gikorwa mu nteruro?

    Inshoza y’ikinyazina nyereka

    Ikinyazina ni ijambo rihinduka, ricibwamo uturemajambo. Kijyana n’izina cyangwa kikarisimbura kandi iyo kirisimbuye kikaba gifite umumaro umwe nk’uw’iryo zina. Ikinyazina gishobora kugira indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi, ariko hari n’ikigira indangakinyazina n’igicumbi.

    Ikinyazina nyereka ni ikinyazina kerekana izina giherekeje cyangwa kikaryibutsa iyo cyarisimbuye. Ibinyazina nyereka bishobora kwerekana ibintu biri ahantu hatandukanye akaba ari yo mpamvu bigabanyijemo ibyiciro bitandatu bitewe n’aho icyo byerekana giherereye. Hari ibifite ibicumbi ( - no,- o,- riya ,- rya, -âa. Hari n’ikindi gifite igicumbi - φ cyo ku rwego rwa uyu, aba, iki,...)

    Uturango tw’ikinyazina nyereka

    a) Ikiciro cya mbere Kigizwe n’ibinyazina byerekana ikintu kiri hafi cyane y’abavugana. Ibi binyazina ntibigira igicumbi mu mwanya w’igicumbi bakoreshwa ikimenyetso “φ”. Intego mbonera zacyo ni indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi(φ). Mu mpine byandikwa muri ubu buryo: D – RkZ – φ.

    Ingero:

    - Ubu bukwe burashyushye.

    - Butwiriyeho tukiri muri iri twikurura.

    - Aba bageni baraberewe.

    - Sindabona ibirori byiza nk’ibi.

    b) Ikiciro cya kabiri Kigizwe n’ibinyazina byerekana ikintu kiri hafi y’uvuga. Ibi binyazina bigira igicumbi –no. Intego mbonera zacyo ni indangakinyazina n’igicumbi (-no). Mu mpine byandikwa muri ubu buryo: Rkz – C

    Ingero:

    - Kino gihe turimo imisango y’ubukwe yarahindutse.

    - Nimukora ubukwe muzazinduke nka bano bageni.

    - Hano hantu hatatse neza.

    c) Ikiciro cya gatatu Kigizwe n’ibinyazina byerekana ikintu kiri hafi y’uwo babwira. Ibi binyazina bigira igicumb – o. Intego mbonera zacyo ni indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi (-o). Mu mpine byandikwa muri ubu buryo: D – Rkz – C

    Ingero:

    - Uzanyengere ikigage nk’icyo.

    - Aho hantu muhategure neza ubukwe butungane.

    - Abanyarwanda ba kera bashimishwaga n’izo ndirimbo.

    d) Ikiciro cya kane Kigizwe n’ibinyazina byerekana ikintu kitaruye abavugana bombi. Ibi binyazina bigira igicumbi – riya. Intego mbonera zacyo ni indangakinyazina n’igicumbi (- riya). Mu mpine byandikwa muri ubu buryo: Rkz – C.

    Ingero:

    - Iriya migani migufi ikwiye kwigishwa urubyiruko.

    - Urabona kuriya kuntu abaherekeza b’abageni bambaye!

    - Uriya mwana agira umuco mwiza.

    e) Ikiciro cya gatanu Kigizwe n’ibinyazina byibutsa ikintu abavugana baba basanzwe baziranyeho cyangwa se nanone baba barigeze kuvuganaho. Ibi binyazina bigira igicumbi –rya. Intego mbonera zacyo ni indangakinyazina n’igicumbi (- rya). Mu mpine byandikwa muri ubu buryo: Rkz – C

    Ingero:

    - Urya murima nabonye wera nibawugurisha uzawugure.

    - Irya mbogo yishe Ryangombe yashoboraga kuyirinda.

    - Uzanyigishe ikivugo nka kirya cyawe.

    f ) Ikiciro cya gatandatu Kigizwe n’ibinyazina byibutsa ikintu abavugana baba barigeze kuganiraho cyangwa kubonera hamwe. Ibi binyazina bigira igicumbi –âa. Intego mbonera zacyo ni indangakinyazina n’igicumbi (-âa). Mu mpine byandikwa muri ubu buryo: Rkz – C

    Ingero:

    - Bya binyobwa batwakirije byari bifutse.

    - Tuzasubukura gahunda ya bwa bukwe ryari?

    - Sinzibagirwa cya gitekerezo twize ubushize.

    Intego y’ikinyazina nyereka

    Intego y’ikinyazina nyereka muri rusange igizwe n’uturemajambo tubiri ari two indangakinyazina n’igicumbi; icyakora ibinyazina byo mu kiciro cya mbere bigira indomo n’indangakinyazina n’igicumbi -φ naho ibyo mu kiciro cya gatatu bikagira uturemajambo dutatu ari two indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi.

    Dore zimwe mu ngero z’ibinyazina nyereka zisesenguye mu nteko zimwe na zimwe:

    Imbonerahamwe y’ibinyazina nyereka



    Umwitozo ku binyazina nyereka:

    Mu matsinda ya babiribabiri, mutahure mu mwandiko ibinyazina nyereka mubiceho akarongo, mugaragaze uturemajambo n’amategeko y’igenamajwi, munakoreshe ibinyazina nyereka mu nteruro ziboneye.

    Umwandiko: Buzataha

    Uyu ni umwaka wa gatatu tubaye inshuti izi z’amagara. Uriya mwaka washize twari twifuje kwereka ababyeyi bacu iyi myiteguro yo kurushinga. Amahirwe ariko ntiyadusekeye kubera iriya nkenya y’impanuka yampungabanyirije umukunzi. Nyamara urya munsi twari twaraye tuvuganye ko aba yihanganye ntagire aho ajya kuko impanuka zarimo zica ibintu. Uwo munsi w’inkuru y’inshamugongo nari naraye nabi ibi rwose biteye ubwoba.

    Icyakora ubwo yakize ngiye kumubwira twihutishe ubukwe bwacu iriya minsi mikuru yegereje ntizaducike. Ko mukunda se kandi n’ababyeyi bacu bakabishima; Imana yacu yo izabura ite kudushyigikira kandi twarayubahishije ntitwiyandarike nk’ab’iki gihe bamwe bajya bashaka guta umuco wacu?

    Ibibazo ku mwandiko

    1. Erekana ibinyazina nyereka muri uyu mwandiko ubicaho akarongo unagaragaze intego yabyo n’amategeko y’igenamajwi.

    2. Mukoreshe ibi binyazina nyereka mu nteruro ziboneye:

    a) Abo        b) Buriya

    c) Zirya      d) Harya

    e) Runo      f ) ba

    Ikinyazina mbanziriza

    Soma uzi nteruro nurangiza witegereze neza amagambo yanditse mu nyuguti z’umukara tsiri uvuge uko ubona yitwaye mu nteruro:

    - Byari ikizira ko umushyitsi mukuru agira icyô arya ataravuga ikimugenza.

    - Hari ahô basaba bakanakwera rimwe.

    - Buri wese ufite icyô atekesha akagitanga.

    - Nguko ukô bigenda naho ukô byagenze ibara umupfu.

    Aya magambo: icyô, ahô, ukô urabona yitwaye ate mu nteruro?

    Inshoza y'ikinyazina mbanziriza

    Ikinyazina mbanziriza gihagararira izina ryagombye kuba icyuzuzo k’inshinga. Mu mikoreshereze yacyo gifata buri gihe umwanya wacyo imbere y’inshinga ari nayo mpamvu kitwa gutyo.

    Uturango tw’ikinyazina mbanziriza

    Ikinyazina mbanziriza gisimbura ijambo ribanjirije inshinga. Ibyo bituma rero buri gihe kibanziriza inshinga. Intego yacyo igizwe n’uturemajambo dutatu ari two indomo indangakinyazina n’igicumbi. Iki kinyazina gisa n’ikinyazina nyereka gifite igicumbi-o bigatandukanywa n’uko igicumbi cyacyo gihorana isaku nyejuru (-ô) mu gihe icya nyereka cyo gihorana isaku nyesi (-o).

    Urugero:

    - Uwo mwana nkunda ararwaye (hano “uwo” ni ikinyazina nyereka kibanjirije izina)

    - Uwô nkunda ararwaye ( hano “uwô” ni ikinyazina mbanziriza kibanjirije inshinga)

    Ingero z’ikinyazina mbanziriza:

    - Uwô nkunda ararwaye.

    - Umubwire ko izô yakoye zabyaye.

    - Abô mwatahiye ubukwe barakeye.

    - Ubwô twatashye burahumuje.

    Intego y’ikinyazina mbanziriza

    Intego y’ikinyazina mbanziriza igizwe n’uturemajambo dutatu ari two indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi - ô. Mu mpine byandikwa muri ubu buryo D – Rkz – C

    Dore imbonerahamwe y’ikinyazina mbanziriza n’intego yacyo mu nteko zose.



    Umwitozo ku kinyazina mbanziriza:

    Mu matsinda ya babiribabiri mutahure mu mwandiko ibinyazina mbanziriza, mugaragaze uturemajambo n’amategeko y’igenamajwi, munakoreshe ibinyazina mbanziriza mu nteruro ziboneye.

    1. Tahura ibinyazina mbanziriza biri mu mwandiko “Binego bya Kajumba” nurangiza ubishakire intego ugaragaza n’amategeko y’igenamajwi.

    2. Ishakire interuro zawe umunani zikoreshejwemo ibinyazina mbanziriza mu nteko zinyuranye unagaragaze intego yabyo n’amategeko y’igenamajwi.

    Ikeshamvugo ku mata, ku nka, ku cyansi no ku gisabo

    Nimwitegereze izi nteruro maze muvuge uko amagambo yanditse mu nyuguti z’umukara tsiri yakoreshejwe:

    - Ubwo rero umuhango ukurikiyeho uba ari uwo gukwa.

    - Kuva kera rero kugeza n’ubu aho umuco utaracuya, inka ni yo nkwano.

    - Ibyo ntibibuza ko n’amafaranga atangwa aho inzuri zimariye kuba nke mu Gihugu

    - Bene abo bitwaga abageni b’ineza.

    - Mu mitako yo mu nzu hari aho usanga bajishamo n’igisabo.

    - Ya nka yakowe mushiki wange yarabyaye none turacyanywa umuhondo.

    - Abagikurikiza umuco wa kera bakosha ibyansi akaba ari byo bakamisha amata.

    Mubonye aya magambo: gukwa, inkwano, inzuri, abageni b’ineza, bajishamo, umuhondo, bakosha yakoreshejwe ate muri izi nteruro?

    Inshoza y’ikeshamvugo

    Ikeshamvugo nkuko ijambo ubwaryo ribivuga ni ugukesha imvugo bisobanuye kunoza imvugo. Ikeshamvugo rero ni uburyo bwo gukoresha amagambo yabugenewe ku bintu cyangwa ibikoresho runaka mu buryo bwo kunoza imvugo. Ni ha handi bagira bati: “Ntibavuga..., bavuga...”. Abanyarwanda bakunze gukoresha ubu buhanga ku buryo utabimenyereye ashobora gusigara asiganuza.

    Dore ingero z’amagambo y’ikeshamvugo akoreshwa mu Kinyarwanda ku mata, ku nka, ku cyansi no ku gisabo.

    Umwitozo ku ikeshamvugo

    Mu matsinda ya banebane mutahure mu nteruro no mu mwandiko, amagambo yabugenewe avuga ku mata, ku nka, ku cyansi no ku gisabo. Mukorere mu matsinda kandi mushake andi magambo yabugenewe maze muhurize hamwe amagambo yavuye mu matsinda, munayakoreshe mu nteruro.

    1. Erekana amagambo y’ikeshamvugo akoreshwa ku magambo akurikira nurangiza uyakoreshe mu nteruro ziboneye:

    a) Ku nka:

    - Guha inka akanyana yonsa atari akayo

    - Kuba yenda kubyara imeze nk’iri ku nda

    - Utwatsi bahanaguza inka- Gusubira kurisha ku gasozi kw’inyana

    - Amase y’umutavu.

    b) ku mata:

    - Kuvangura amata n’amavuta bamaze gucunda

    - Amata bakuyemo amavuta

    - Amata inka ikamwe ubwa kabiri bashubijeho inyana.

    2. Nimukorere mu matsinda maze mushake andi magambo y’ikeshamvugo atanu ku mata no ku gisabo n’andi icumi ku nka tutavuze maze muyakoreshe mu nteruro ziboneye.

    3. Soma umwandiko ukurikira hanyuma utahuremo amagambo yabugenewe akoreshwa ku mata, ku nka no ku cyansi cyangwa ku gisabo unavuge icyo asobanura.

    Umwandiko: Iwacu zirakamwa

    Tumaze iminsi twifashe neza twinywera umuhondo. Ndavuga uwo dukama mu ishyo ririmo n’indongoranyo y’iyakowe mushiki wange. Iyo umwungeri wazo yinikije ni nge uba hafi ngo nimire inyanya itamukoma akayabogora, nkaba nyihanaguza inkuyo nayishakiye. Mu gukora uwo murimo ariko mba nitegereza uko avuruganya, yarangiza akampereza iyo nshyushyu mu cyansi gikeye kuko kiba cyogeshejwe imonyi nziza. Ubwo ngakuraho menshi mu gikombe andi nkayabuganiza mu gicuba. Ubwo nkarekura inyana ikonka akanya gato agakama amarindira. Ni intyoza cyane mu gukama; sindabona na rimwe akama amatembankokora cyangwa ngo mbone igitotsi mu yo yakamye. Iyo ahumuje inyana nyijyana mu ruhongore. Birumvikana ko ayo duteretse dutegereza kuyanywa yabaye ikivuguto kuko amirire n’umubanji tutayakunda. Iyo tumaze guhumuza cyangwa gusobanura amata, ibyansi n’ibisabo birozwa, bikoswa bikajishwa cyangwa bigaterekwa ku ruhimbi. Iyo bikuze bakosha ibindi bikazana n’injishi zabyo kuko umwuga w’ubworozi tuwukunda cyane.

    Inshamake y’ibyizwe mu mutwe wa gatanu

    Muri uyu mutwe twasesenguye imyandiko ivuga ku nsanganyamatsiko y’umuco nyarwanda. Twabonye ko umuco nyarwanda ukwiye gukomeza gusigasirwa. Twabonye ko Abanyarwanda bisanzuriraga mu buvanganzo bwo muri rubanda kandi bakanyuzamo ubutumwa bwo guhugurana no kugirana inama. Mu bijyanye n’umuco kandi twarebye n’uko ubukwe bwa kinyarwanda bwagendaga.

    Twasesenguye ibijyanye n’ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda tubona ko igitekerezo cyo muri rubanda ari ubwoko bw’umwandiko w’ubuvanganzo uteye ku buryo bw’ibarankuru, uvuga ku bantu batabayeho cyangwa bashobora kuba barabayeho mu muryango rusange w’abantu, ukabavugaho ibyababayeho ariko ukagenda wongeramo n’amakabyankuru menshi. Twabonye kandi ko imigani migufi ari interuro zigizwe ahanini n’amagambo make ariko akubiyemo ubutumwa bwinshi mu buryo bw’amarenga ari na yo mpamvu bamwe bayita imigenurano.

    Si ibyo gusa, mu kibonezamvugo twabonye ko ikinyazina nyereka ari ikinyazina kerekana izina giherekeje cyangwa kikaryibutsa iyo cyarisimbuye. Intego yacyo muri rusange igizwe n’uturemajambo tubiri ari two indangakinyazina n’igicumbi; icyakora hari n’ibigira indomo n’indangakinyazina naho ibindi bikagira uturemajambo dutatu ari two indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi. Ikindi twabonyemo ni ikinyazina mbanziriza gisimbura ijambo ribanjirije inshinga. Intego yacyo igizwe n’uturemajambo dutatu ari two indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi.

    Twabonye ko ikeshamvugo ari uburyo bwo gukoresha amagambo yabugenewe ku bintu cyangwa ibikoresho runaka mu buryo bwo kunoza imvugo aho bagira bati: “Ntibavuga..., bavuga...”. Ikeshamvugo ryibanze ku mata,ku nka, ku cyansi no ku gisabo.

    Iby’ingenzi nshoboye:

    - Gusesengura igitekerezo cyo muri rubanda no kuvuga nkoresha neza imigani migufi n’amagambo yabugenewe avuga ku mata, ku nka, ku cyansi no ku gisabo.

    - Gusesengura ibinyazina nyereka n’ibinyazina mbanziriza no kubikoresha mu nteruro.

    Isuzuma risoza umutwe wa gatanu

    Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

    Umwandiko: Bimwe mu biranga umuco nyarwanda

    Umuco nyarwanda ugizwe n’urusobe rw’ibintu byinshi. Twavuga nk’ururimi ari na rwo ngobyi yawo, imigenzo n’imihango, imitekerereze n’imyemerere tutibagiwe n’imibereho y’Abanyarwanda ya buri munsi. Mu bigize ururimi, ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda ni bwo bisanzuriramo ku buryo busesuye, mu ngeri zabwo zinyuranye nk’imigani migufi, imigani miremire, ibisakuzo, insigamigani, indirimbo, imbyino, ibihozo, ibitekerezo byo muri rubanda n’ahandi.

    Mu mihango inyuranye, usanga bazobereye mu gukesha imvugo nko mu misango y’ubukwe aho usanga basa n’abacyocyorana; nk’umusaza usabwa umugeni akihorera ati: “Umukobwa wacu yagiye mu kibikira”, ubundi ati: “Mu bo mwazanye harimo uwaduhemukiye” n’ibindi. Usaba iyo atari inararibonye akahasebera kuhikura bikagomba abunganizi. Usaba iyo ari umuhanga hari ubwo agira ati: “Biri amahire n’ubundi n’umusore wacu akubutse mu gifurere”, akungamo ati: “Ubwo rero ‘ibisa birasabirana’, n’ubundi naje nzi ko ari ukwisanga.”

    Iyo bajya kwemera bazana agakobwa k’inshuke bati: “Umugeni wadusabye ni uyu”. Undi na we akaba yagira ati: “Nshimye ko muri ba maboko atanga ataziganya”, agashima ko ari uje gutinyisha. Hari n’ubwo bazana agakecuru kashizemo amenyo bati: “Ni uyu”. Barakomeza bakagoragoza ariko amaherezo bakemera. Gusa akagira ati: “Umwana wacu ni Mutumwinka cyangwa Mukobwajana n’ayandi mazina menshi agusha ku nka. Abashyitsi bose bari aho amashyi ngo: “kacikaci”!

    Inka yagiraga uruhare mu gukwa no mu buzima bw’Abanyarwanda igahabwa agaciro kurusha andi matungo. Umuco wo guhana abageni wajyanaga no guhana inka. Umuntu yahaga undi inka bakaba inshuti zikomeye ndetse uwagabiwe akajya yirahira shebuja. Uwavuga ku nka rero ntiyabura kwibutsa ko Abanyarwanda ari intyoza mu gukoresha ikeshamvugo ku nka n’amata yayo tutibagiwe n’ibikoresho bikoreshwa nk’igisabo, icyansi n’ibindi. Mu kuvuga ibyerekeye ku nka agakoresha imvugo ya gihanga ikoresha amagambo arobanuye atari aya rubanda rwa giseseka.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

    1. Vuga ibintu nibura bine mu bigize umuco nyarwanda bivugwa mu mwandiko.

    2. Sobanura ukuntu ururimi ari ingobyi y’umuco.

    3. Vuga igice cy’ururimi Abanyarwanda bisanzuriramo cyane cyavuzwe mu mwandiko usobanure n’impamvu.

    4. Tanga urugero rwo gucyocyorana mu zavuzwe mu mwandiko.

    5. Rondora ingero enye z’ubuvanganzo bwo muri rubanda zavuzwe mu mwandiko wongereho n’izindi waba uzi.

    6. Erekana amazina ari mu mwandiko aganisha ku nka utage n’andi waba uzi mu muco nyarwanda.

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Urusobe

    b) Inararibonye

    c) Ukwisanga

    d) Ataziganya

    e) mukobwajana.

    2. Shaka impuzanyito z’aya magambo:

    a) Ntawasiga

    b) Gukesha

    c) Abunganizi

    3. Shaka imbusane z’aya magambo:

    a) Umusore

    b) Migufi

    c) Umuhanga

    III. Ubuvanganzo n’ ikibonezamvugo

    1. a) Vuga ibintu bitatu biranga igitekerezo cyo muri rubanda utange n’ingero ebyiriz’ibitekerezo.

    b) Tanga inshoza y’umugani mugufi nurangiza utange ingero eshanu z’imigani migufi unavuge muri make ubutumwa bukubiyemo.

    2. Garagaza ibinyazina nyereka biri muri izi nteruro unabishakire intego ugaragaza n’amategeko y’igenamajwi.

    a) Aha ariko na sebukwe w’umugeni akamugabira.

    b) Akabona kumukura muri icyo gitaramo.

    c) Uwo wari umukino w’umusore n’umugeni we biherereye.

    d) Muri ibyo birori ni ho bagabiraga urugo rushya.Uwo muhango wabagamo kubaterera amashyiga.

    e) Ibi bikagenda bitandukana bitewe n’umuco w’agace aka n’aka.

    IV. Ihangamwandiko

    1. Hanga umwandiko utarengeje imirongo mirongo itatu, uvuga ku muco nyarwanda wibande ku gukoresha ikeshamvugo.


  • UMUTWE WA 6: Ikoranabuhanga

    Mudasobwa mu iterambere


    Ikiganiro kuri mudasobwa

    Munyawera:Yewe Mwumvane, iyi si iravuduka mba nkuroga.

    Mwumvaneza: Kagire inkuru!

    Munyawera:Vuga uti: “Kagire abo kuzibarira na ho inkuru zo nzifite ku bwinshi.” Isi n’umuvuduko nyibonana, Mwumvaneza we! Niturangara ni ukuri iradusiga dusigare dusiganuza abandi batwanikiye.

    Mwumvaneza:Ibyo byo rero ntubeshya.

    Munyawera:Uheruka mu mugi ryari? Si cya gihe ubwo wajyaga kwa nyokorome mu mugi ugasanga barimutse? Ntiwari ugiye kubwerabwera iyo utambona mvuye ku ishuri ngo guhe amafaranga agucyura?

    Mwumvaneza:N’incyuro se zari zirimo? Bahungu mwe! Ubundi se tugeze mu rugo ntibayagusubije? Baranakugaburiye kandi wariye ibikoro utari ubizi!

    Munyawera:Nagira ngo nkubwire icyo bita ikoranabuhanga sha! Mu mahugurwa dukubutsemo twahuguwe ku iterambere risobanutse ureke bimwe twigaga kera ngo turandikisha imashini.

    Mwumvaneza:Ahaa! Ubwo urarenzwe. Imashini ni yo yatumye ubona akazi, ikurerera abana none ngo...

    Munyawera:Ubu twahuguwe kuri mudasobwa birenze uko twari tuyizi. Si ya yindi yo kwandika no kubika amakuru gusa. Ibyo se si byo twigaga gusa kera mudasobwa zicyaduka?

    Mwumvaneza:Aho ho ntubeshye. Nge shahu nta mahugurwa mperukamo. Basigaye bohereza ba basore bakubutse muri za kaminuza.

    Munyawera:Mwumvaneza we, ubu ushobora kwicara kuri mudasobwa yawe ukaba wamenya ibiciro by’ibiribwa biri ku masoko atandukanye.

    Mwumvaneza:Oya, wivunika. Nabonye ka gahungu gashinzwe gusana za mudasobwa karimo kuganira n’umukunzi wako barebana sha! Ubwo kandi aba yibereye i Burayi.

    Munyawera:Nge uwanyereka uwakoze mudasobwa namukurira ubwatsi. Uyu munsi batweretse uko ushobora kwandika izina ry’ahantu hose ushaka ku isi ugahita uhabona. Ubwo se urumva atari ikoranabuhanga mu iterambere?

    Mwumvaneza:Iterambere? Vuga uti: “Ngako akaga ahubwo”! Ubwo se abajura tuzabakira! Umuntu azajya yivira muri banki guhembwa udufaranga tw’intica ntikize, uko atambuka bamureba. Urumva bizacura iki?

    Munyawera:Umva rero nkubwire mugenzi wange. Bene iyo myumvire ntikigezweho. Wowe urabona ibyiza biraza bidusanga ukirebera ingaruka mbi gusa? Ibyiza ni byo byinshi.

    Mwumvaneza:Ngaho mbwira ikiza ubona muri iryo koranabuhanga. Ibyo wikoreye byose bazajya bakurebuza. Wari uzi ko n’amabanga yawe yose buriya uvugira kuri terefoni baba bayumva?

    Munyawera:Biramaze. Nyine ikoranabuhanga ni iritugeza ku majyambere. Tugomba kurikoresha mu bintu byubaka kandi biteza imbere Igihugu. Ubwo wiyibagije igihombo wigeze kugira kubera ko utari wakamenya mudasobwa? Ubika amakuru ku mpapuro, mwakwimura ibintu ukayoberwa aho urupapuro umukiriya yari yarabasinyiye aguza miriyoni yose rwagiye! Ntiwayishyuye se da!

    Mwumvaneza: Yego di! No kohererezanya amafaranga ubu bisigaye ari nk’ubufindo?

    Munyawera: Unteye kwibuka n’ikindi. Uzi ko wa mubyara wange uba i Bwotamasimbi nange yanyoherereje ku madorari?

    Mwumvaneza: Barayankase ariko!

    Munyawera:Yego ariko ikibazo kigakemuka. Wowe uracyakinisha ikoranabuhanga! Uzansure ariko nkwereke ya nzu nshaka kubaka uko imeze.

    Mwumvaneza: Nawe noneho uri umuti w’amenyo! Urayinyereka utari wanasiza ikibanza?Munyawera: Ni rya koranabuhanga nakubwiraga nyine rya mudasobwa! Igishushanyo cyayo kiri muri mudasobwa nyine!

    Mwumvaneza: Yewe, ngo ararekwa ntashira ni aho mu kanya; ubwo ndaza kwihera ijisho ibyiza by’ikoranabuhanga. Ariko rero abantu bage bita no ku buziranenge bwaryo! Kuko muri iyi minsi hajya habonekamo na ba “rusahuriramunduru” baryihisha inyuma bagapfunyikira abantu ikibiribiri!

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome ikiganiro bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Mu mwandiko baravugamo ko isi ivuduka. Iravuduka mu biki?

    2. Vuga ingaruka zaba ku warangara muri uyu muvuduko w’isi.

    3. Amahugurwa ba Munyawera bakubutsemo yavugaga ku biki?

    4. Gereranya ibyo abantu bigaga kuri mudasobwa zicyaduka n’aho bigeze kuri ubu wifashishije umwandiko.

    5. Tanga nibura ingero enye z’ibyiza by’ikoranabuhanga rikoresha mudasobwa byagaragajwe mu mwandiko.

    6. Tanga izindi ngero eshatu z’ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga uzi unasobanure umumaro wabyo

    II. Inyunguramagambo:

    1. Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Batwanikiye

    b) Kubwerabwera

    c) Gukura ubwatsi

    d) I Bwotamasimbi

    e) Intica ntikize

    III. Imyitozo yo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

    1. Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

    a) Ibikoro

    b) Dukubutsemo

    c) Zicyaduka

    d) Bizacura iki?

    e) Bagapfunyikira abantu ikibiribiri

    2. Huza amagambo yo mu ruziga A n’ibisobanuro byatanzwe mu ruziga B

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Erekana ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. Garagaza uko ubona izo ngingo zihura n’ubuzima bwa buri munsi tubamo.

    3. Ubona ikoranabuhanga rikoresha mudasobwa ryamara iki mu myigire yawe?

    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro:

    Mu matsinda mwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    Insanganyamatsiko: “Gukoresha ikoranabuhanga rya mudasobwa ntibyagira ingaruka mbi

    Mugaragaze uko mubibona ku banyeshuri no ku iterambere ry’igihugu muri rusange, mwibanda ku mikoreshereze y’ikoranabuhanga .

    Imimaro y’amagambo: ruhamwa, inshinga, icyuzuzo

    Ruhamwa

    Soma izi nteruro zikurikira nurangiza witegereze amagambo yanditse mu nyuguti z’umukara tsiri hanyuma uvuge icyo yerekana mu nteruro.

    - Incyuro se na zo ziteganyijwe mu kiganiro cyacu

    - Nituba maso ikoranabuhanga rizadufasha ibintu byinshi.

    - Gukoresha ikoranabuhanga ni ingenzi.

    - Imashini ikoresha uwabyize.

    Ubonye aya magambo agaragaza iki mu nteruro?

    Inshoza ya ruhamwa

    Ruhamwa ni ijambo rigaragaza ukora igikorwa cyangwa uwo berekezaho imimerere cyangwa imiterere bikubiye mu nshinga. Muri rusange ruhamwa iba igizwe n’izina ryonyine cyangwa ikaba ari itsinda ry’izina n’andi magambo arisobanura nka ntera, igisantera, n’ayandi. Ruhamwa ishobora no kuba izina ntera, ikinyazina, imbundo, umugereka,...

    Ingero:

    - Ababyeyi bita ku bana babo.

    - Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa agira imirimo myinshi.

    - Urubyiruko mwese nimutozwe ikoranabuhanga.

    - Umunyeshuri mwiza yubaha abarezi n’ababyeyi.

    - Iyo ikamwa menshi

    - Kwiga biteza imbere.

    - Ejo hazaza hazaba heza.

    - Niturangara buzacya abandi badusize kubera ikoranabuhanga.

    - None se urumva ari ikoranabuhanga rizana ibibi?

    - Hazabaho guhuguka kugira ngo ikoranabuhanga ritadusiga.

    Amoko ya ruhamwa

    Ruhamwa ibamo amoko atatu: Ruhamwa mboneranteruro, ruhamwa nyurabwenge na ruhamwa mburabuzi.

    a) Ruhamwa mboneranteruro

    Ruhamwa mbonerantururo ni yo igenga interuro mbonezamvugo, ikanashingirwaho isanisha ry’amagambo yose agize interuro. Ni yo ivugwaho igikorwa cyangwa imimerere bikubiye mu nshinga hakurikijwe isanisha risanzwe.

    Ingero:

    - Ababyeyi bita ku bana babo.

    - Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa agira imirimo myinshi.

    - Umunyeshuri mwiza yubaha abarezi n’ababyeyi

    b) Ruhamwa nyurabwenge

    Ruhamwa nyurabwenge yerekezwaho igikorwa cyangwa imimerere bikubiye mu nshinga ariko ntigenga isanisha risanzwe.

    Ingero:

    - Imboga zibona abana (hano imboga si zo zibona ahubwo abana nibo babona)

    - Iki kizamini kizatsinda umuhanga rwose (umuhanga niwe uzatsinda si ikizamini)

    c) Ruhamwa mburabuzi

    Ruhamwa mburabuzi mu nteruro igaragara igihe hakoreshejwe inshinga itagaragaza ijambo yisanisha na ryo. Icyo gihe ruhamwa igaragazwa n’indanganshinga. Cyane ku nshinga nkene ifite igicumbi – ri n'nshinga zakoreshejwe mu nteko ya 12, 14 na 16 ku buryo budasanzwe.

    Ingero:

    - Niturangara buzacya abandi badusize kubera ikoranabuhanga.

    - None se urumva ari ikoranabuhanga rizana ibibi?

    - Hazabaho guhuguka kugira ngo ikoranabuhanga ritadusiga.

    Umwitozo

    Mu matsinda ya babiribabiri mutahure mu nteruro amoko ya ruhamwa yakoreshejwe.

    Erekana ruhamwa mu nteruro zikurikira:

    a) Ikoranabuhanga rizatugeza kuri byinshi.

    b) Ibi biryo byatetse umuhanga.

    c) Aka kanya burakeye.

    d) Harakabaho ikoranabuhanga.

    Inshinga

    Soma izi nteruro zikurikira nurangiza witegereze amagambo yanditse mu nyuguti z’umukara tsiri hanyuma uvuge icyo yerekana mu nteruro:

    - Iwacu bakugaburiye ibikoro utari ubizi.

    - Ikoranabuhanga rifite akamaro.

    - Imashini yatumye ubona akazi.

    - Ntituzarangare.

    Ubonye aya magambo agaragaza iki mu nteruro?

    Inshoza y’inshinga

    Inshinga mu nteruro ni ijambo ribumbatiye cyangwa rigaragaza igikorwa, imico,imiterere cyangwa imimerere bya ruhamwa. Ni yo zingiro ry’ubutumwa bukubiye mu nteruro. Inshinga ishobora kurema interuro yonyine kandi igatanga ubutumwa bwuzuye. Ishobora no kuzuzwa n’indi nshinga nta bundi bwoko bw’ijambo bukoreshejwe.

    Ingero z’inshinga zikoresheje muri ubwo buryo bwose tubonye:

    - Uzitabire inama. (igikorwa)

    - Abanyeshuri barabyibushye. (imimerere)

    - Kagenzi na Gatesi barakubagana. ( imico)

    - Ntuzibe.

    - Mugende mwihuta.

    Umwitozo

    Mu matsinda ya babiribabiri mutahure mu nteruro icyo inshinga igaragaza kuri ruhamwa.

    1. Erekana inshinga ziri muri izi nteruro unavuge icyo zigaragaza kuri ruhamwa.

    a) Ba bana banyu baritonda.

    b) Ikoranabuhanga ririhuta cyane.

    c) Uwo ukunda ararwaye.

    Icyuzuzo

    Soma izi nteruro zikurikira nurangiza witegereze amagambo yanditse mu nyuguti z’umukara tsiri hanyuma uvuge icyo yerekana mu nteruro:

    - Uwakoze mudasobwa akwiye ibihembo.

    - Mudasobwa si iyo kwandika no kubika amakuru gusa.

    - Abantu bage bagenzura ubuziranenge bwaryo.

    - Ndaharanira kujijuka ni yo mpamvu ngomba kujya mu ishuri.

    Ubonye aya magambo agaragaza iki mu nteruro?

    Inshoza y’icyuzuzo

    Icyuzuzo ni ijambo cyangwa urwunge rw’amagambo biherekeza inshinga birushaho gusobanura neza ubutumwa buyikubiyemo. Ibyuzuzo bishobora kugira amoko atandukanye ariko ay’ingenzi ni: icyuzuzo ruhamya, icyuzuzo mbonera, icyuzuzo nziguro n’icyuzuzo k’ingereka.

    a) Icyuzuzo ruhamya

    Ruhamya ni ijambo rivuga isano y’imiterere cyangwa isano y’imico icyuzuzo gifitanye na ruhamwa. Ruhamya ihuzwa na ruhamwa n’inshinga z’imimerere cyangwa imiterere hamwe n’inshinga “kuba” cyangwa imvugaruhamwa “ni”.

    Ingero:

    - Umwana ni umutware

    - Amazi ni meza ku buzima

    - Arimo umunyeshuri mwiza

    b) Icyuzuzo mbonera

    Icyuzuzo mbonera kigizwe n’ijambo cyangwa amagambo aherekeza inshinga akuzuza igitekerezo cyayo. Icyuzuzo mbonera giherekeza inshinga kitanyuze ku rindi jambo cyangwa ngo kigire ibindi bisobanuro by’umwihariko cyongeraho. Ni ukuvuga ko hagati y’inshinga n’icyuzuzo mbonera nta rindi jambo rizamo. Gishobora kuba kigizwe n’ijambo rimwe cyangwa menshi. Muri rusange gisubiza ibi bibazo: nde?, iki?

    Ingero:

    - Tuzitabira ikoranabuhanga. (Tuzitabira iki? Ikoranabuhanga)

    - Iterambere turikesha abayobozi beza. (Turikesha nde? Abayobozi beza)

    - Muzatsinda ikizamini k’Ikinyarwanda. (Muzatsinda iki? Ikizamini k’Ikinyarwanda)

    Ikitonderwa: Ibyuzuzo mbonera bishobora gukoreshwa icyarimwe ari bibiri. Icyo gihe tugira icyuzuzo mbonera ntega n’icyuzuzo mbonera ntegesha.

    Icyuzuzo mbonera ntega usanga gisubiza ibibazo nka nde? Iki? Zingahe? Gukora iki?

    Ingero:

    - Nkunda mwarimu. Nkunda nde? Mwarimu

    - Tuzatsinda ikizamini. Tuzatsinda iki? Ikizamini

    - Data atunze inka ijana. Atunze inka zingahe? Inka ijana

    - Bagiye kuryama. Bagiye gukora iki? Kuryama

    Icyuzuzo mbonera ntegesha usanga kivuga ikigenewe icyuzuzo ntega, icyo bifashisha mu gukorera igikorwa icyuzuzo ntega, icyo icyuzuzo ntega kivamo, ikibereye umutungo icyuzuzo ntega, ikiri ku cyuzuzo ntega, icyo icyuzuzo ntega giteganyirijwe, n’ibindi.

    Ingero:

    - Umubyeyi agurira umwana umugati (ikigenewe icyuzuzo ntega)

    - Umushumba yakubise inka inkoni (icyo bifashisha)

    - Uruganda rukora amavuta mu bihwagari (icyo icyuzuzo ntega kivamo)

    - Umujura yibye umuturanyi intama (umutungo w’icyuzuzo ntega)

    - Umubyeyi yahanaguye umwana amarira (ikiri ku cyuzuzo ntega)

    - Ikoranabuhanga ryorohereza abantu imirimo (igiteganyirijwe icyuzuzo ntega)

    c) Icyuzuzo nziguro

    Icyuzuzo nziguro cyuzuza inshinga akenshi kibanje guca ku rindi jambo nk’icyungo cyangwa indangahantu, kigasobanura uburyo igikorwa gikorwa, igihe gikorerwa, ahantu gikorerwa, impamvu gikorwa, inshuro gikorwa n’ibindi.

    Ingero:

    - U Rwanda rurakataje mu ikoranabuhanga (icyuzuzo nziguro cy’ahantu)

    - Abakinnyi bagenda bushuhe (icyuzuzo nziguro cy’uburyo)

    - Ubukwe buzaba ejo mu gitondo. (icyuzuzo nziguro k’igihe)

    - Abanyarwanda benshi ku munsi barya inshuro eshatu. (icyuzuzo nziguro k’inshuro)

    - Bavuye ku ishuri. (icyuzuzo nziguro cy’ahantu)

    - Arayura kuko ashonje. (icyuzuzo nziguro k’impamvu)

    - Ahora ameze nk’umurwayi (icyuzuzo nziguro kigereranya)

    - Abanyeshuri bagomba guca ukubiri no gutukana (icyuzuzo nziguro cyunga)

    Ikitonderwa: Aya moko yombi y’ibyuzuzo (icyuzuzo mbonera n’icyuzuzo nziguro) ashobora gukoreshwa icyarimwe mu nteruro.

    Ingero:

    - Ikigo cyacu cyaguze mudasobwa mu mugi. ( “mudasobwa” ni icyuzuzo mbonera; “mu mugi” ni icyuzuzo nziguro).

    - Umpere umwana imiti nimugoroba. (“umwana, imiti” ni ibyuzuzo mbonera; “nimugoroba” ni icyuzuzo nziguro).

    d) Icyuzuzo k’ingereka

    Icyuzuzo k’ingereka ni icyuzuzo kizanwa n’uko ingereka yongerewe ku nshinga cyangwa se icyuzuzo k’inshinga kigatuma igira ingereka. Hari n’ingereka zituma inshinga igira icyuzuzo kibanjirijwe n’icyungo.

    Ingero:

    - Umwana arakinana inkweto

    - Iyi nzu yubakwa n’umufundi

    - Gatera yigana na Mwiza

    Umwitozo

    Mu matsinda ya babiribabiri mutahure mu nteruro amoko y’ibyuzuzo byakoreshejwe, munakoreshe neza ibyuzuzo mu nteruro ziboneye.

    1. Tahura ibyuzuzo biri mu nteruro zikurikira hanyuma uvuge n’ubwoko bwabyo.

    a) Imyanya y’icyubahiro yicayemo abayobozi.

    b) Abashyitsi bariye kabiri.

    c) Abanyeshuri bacu babonye amanota meza mu bizamini bya Leta.

    d) Muhe uwo mutetsi umuceri n’amavuta.

    2. Shaka interuro zawe bwite ebyiri zikoreshejemo ibyuzuzo mbonera n’ebyiri zikoreshejemo ibyuzuzo nziguro unabigaragaze.

    Itangazamakuru mu iterambere


    Mu mibereho y’abantu, hari uburyo butandukanye bw’itumanaho no kugezanyaho amakuru n’ibyo batekereza. Ibyo biriho kuva mu ntangiriro, umuntu ageze ku isi. Bashobora gukoresha imvugo cyangwa inyandiko, ibimenyetso by’umubiri cyangwa ibikoresho gakondo. Nko mu Rwanda bakoreshaga ingoma ibwami basakaza amakuru amwe n’amwe. Bakoreshaga kandi ihembe mu kumenyesha umuhigo, bagakoresha umwirongi wamenyesha ahabaye igitaramo, kandi byose bikubahiriza imvugiro bahuriyeho cyangwa bumvikanyeho.

    Uko iminsi yagiye ihita indi igataha, uburyo bwo gusakaza amakuru bwagiye butera imbere. Mbere y’umwaduko w’abazungu, abantu baragendereranaga kugira ngo bahane amakuru yo kunoza umubano. Hakaba n’ubwo banyuranye mu nzira. Habagaho kandi amakuru y’ibibera mu gihugu nk’intambara, yatangwaga n’intasi, ubundi agatangwa n’abavuzi b’amacumu bagiraga ijwi ritomoye,... Ushaka kumenya amakuru y’ibikorwa n’ibyabaye ku ngoma izi n’izi yategaga amatwi ibisigo by’abasizi birimo nk’impakanizi. Iri tara n’itangazamakuru gakondo ryatumaga abantu bamenya aho ibihe bigeze, bityo rubanda igakora ibikwiye mu rwego rwo kwiteza imbere.

    Aho abazungu bagereye mu Gihugu badukanye gahunda nshya yo gutangaza amakuru, hakoreshejwe ibinyamakuru byanditse na radiyo. Radiyo yatumye habaho abiyemeza kujya batara ayo makuru, mu buryo bw’urucuruzo, bakayageza ku bantu binyuze mu nyakiramajwi zabo. Byakomeje bityo kugeza n’ubwo habonetse ababigize umwuga, batara amakuru bakayegeranya, bakanayatangaza bagahembwa amafaranga. Havutse ibigo by’itangazamakuru, ryakorwaga mu buryo buciriritse, amaradiyo ntagaragaze amashusho n’amajwi icyarimwe cyangwa ibinyamakuru byanditswe bigasohoka bifite inyandiko n’amafoto byakoreshejwe mu buryo butanoze.

    Ubu, uburyo bw’itara n’itangazamakuru bwarakataje kubera ikoranabuhanga. Bwihutisha amakuru cyane kandi bukoresha amajwi n’amashusho ameze neza. Hari ibyuma kabuhariwe bifata amajwi n’amashusho, za terefone, mudasobwa, ibyogajuru n’ibindi bikoresha ikoranabuhanga. Mu itangazamakuru ubu hakoreshwa amaradiyo, amatereviziyo, ibyogajuru, interineti, imbuga nkoranyambaga n’ibindi, tutibagiwe n’ibinyamakuru bikoresha inyandiko ku mpapuro ariko ku buryo bunoze. Abanyamakuru bamenyekanisha gahunda za Leta, iz’ikerekezo k’igihugu, ibyabaye hirya no hino n’ibindi.

    Usibye iri tangazamakuru rikorwa n’abanyamakuru b’umwuga kandi babihemberwa, hari ubundi buryo bw’itangazamakuru bugenda bwaguka kandi bwisanzurwamo na buri wese. Abaturage bafite terefoni cyangwa mudasobwa zikoresha interineti bahanahana amakuru ndetse agasakara ku isi yose. Mu rwego rwo guteza imbere ubucuruzi cyangwa ishoramari, abantu b’imihanda yose basomera icyarimwe amakuru kuri terefoni cyangwa mudasobwa zabo bakamenya aho barangurira cyangwa bashora imari zabo biyicariye iwabo mu ruganiriro.

    Mu Rwanda itangazamakuru rikorerwa kuri terefoni rimaze gutera imbere. Abanyarwanda baganirira kuri terefoni bagapanga imishinga ibafitiye inyungu. Amabanki akoresha ubutumwa bugufi, amenyesha abantu bayazigamamo uko umutungo wabo uhagaze, umuturage uhuye n’ikibazo mu rugendo, cyangwa abonye ibintu bidasanzwe nk’ubucuruzi bw’ibiyobyabwenge, magendu, ubujura se, ihohoterwa iryo ari ryo ryose, na we abimenyesha porisi akoresheje terefoni igendanwa. N’ubwo iri tangazamakuru rikorwa n’ubonetse wese, ntawemerewe kuvugira ibyo abonye byose kuri terefoni cyangwa ngo yandike ibintu by’urukozasoni kuri interineti, mu gihe nta kamaro bifite.

    Uko ikoranabuhanga ritera imbere ni na ko itangazamakuru ritera imbere, maze ryakoreshwa neza rikageza abaturage ku iterambere. Mu gutangaza amakuru umuntu akwiriye gutangaza amakuru afitiye Igihugu n’abagituye akamaro. Ndetse abanyamakuru na bo bage bibuka gukora umwuga wabo bubahiriza umuco w’amahoro n’indangagaciro nyarwanda. Mu mwuga wabo bakumire ibitekerezo bibi biganisha kuri jenoside kuko iterambere rirambye tuzarigezwaho no guhora twunze ubumwe kandi turi mu mudendezo usesuye. Itangazamakuru rikoreshwe neza kuko rikoreshejwe nabi ryakwangiza byinshi.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Rondora ibikoresho byakoreshwaga mu gutangaza amakuru mu Rwanda rwo hambere bigaragara mu mwandiko uvuge n’icyo byamenyeshaga.

    2. Erekana inshoza cyangwa intero y’ijambo amakuru ukurikije uko yavuzweho mu mwandiko.

    3. Tanga ingero enye z’ibitangazamakuru biriho muri iki gihe?

    4. Vuga ibikoresho bine byifashishwa mu gufata amakuru no kuyatangaza.

    5. Tandukanya itangazamakuru ryo mu buryo bwa kera n’iryo mu buryo bw’iki gihe tugezemo.

    6. Garagaza uruhare rw’itangazamakuru mu iterambere ry’Igihugu.

    7. Ugendeye ku mwandiko erekana isano iri hagati y’ikoranabuhanga n’itangazamakuru.

    8. Sobanura ukuntu itangazamakuru rigezweho rishobora kugira uruhare mu kubungabunga umutekano w’Igihugu.

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Bwarakataje

    b) Ritomoye

    c) Imvugiro

    d) Bwaguka

    e) Kwisanzura

    2. Shaka impuzanyito z’aya magambo akurikira:

    a) Gusakaza

    b) Igataha

    c) Bunoze

    3. Shaka imbusane z’aya magambo akurikira:

    a) Intangiriro

    b) Hasi

    c) Bwihutisha

    III. Imyitozo yo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

    Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro ngufi kandi ziboneye:

    a) Bya gakondo

    b) Ihembe

    c) Urucuruzo

    d) Bunoze

    e) Butangaje.

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Erekana ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. Ikoranabuhanga mu itumanaho ritumariye iki mu buzima bwacu bwa buri munsi?

    3. Ese hari ingaruka umuntu ashobora kugira bitewe no kutamenya amakuru?

    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akore umukoro wo kwandika inkuru ku ikoranabuhanga rikoreshwa mu itangazamakuru.

    Andika inkuru wihimbiye ushishikariza abantu kwitabira ikoranabuhanga rikoreshwa mu itangazamakuru.

    Ikinyazina ndafutura

    Soma uzi nteruro nurangiza witegereze neza amagambo yanditse mu nyuguti z’umukara tsiri uvuge uko ubona yitwaye mu nteruro:

    - Hari ibindi bintu ikoranabuhanga ryatuzaniye.

    - Ahandi bafite itumanaho ryateye imbere.

    - umuntu ahamagara undi kuri terefoni bakavugana.

    - Ejo naguze indi tereviziyo nyuma y'uko iyindi yanze gukora neza.

    Aya magambo: ibindi, ahandi, undi, indi, iyindi, urabona yitwaye ate mu nteruro?

    Inshoza y’ikinyazina ndafutura

    Ikinyazina ndafutura ni ikinyazina kidasobanura neza ijambo kigaragiye cyangwa gisimbuye ari nayo mpamvu kitwa ikinyazina ndafutura cyangwa ndasigura.

    Uturango tw’ikinyazina ndafutura

    Ikinyazina ndafutura giherekeza izina cyangwa kikarisimbura kirishyira mu kiciro runaka, ariko icyo kiciro kidasobanuye neza. Ikinyazina ndafutura kigira amoko abiri y’ibicumbi ari yo – ndi ibanguka (itarimo ubutinde) na – ndi itinda ( irimo ubutinde)

    a) Igicumbi – ndi kibanguka, gikorana n’indangakinyazina zigizwe n’inyajwi kandi nta ndomo kigira.

    Ingero:

    - Mu nteko ya mbere: Undi muntu

    - Mu nteko ya gatatu: Undi musozi

    - Mu nteko ya kane: Indi mirima

    - Mu nteko ya gatandatu: Andi masaka

    - Mu nteko ya kenda: Indi nzu

    b) Igicumbi – ndi gitinda cyandikwa hifashishijwe utudomo tubiri: –:ndi , gikorana n’indangakinyazina zo mu nteko ya mbere kugera ku ya cumi na karindwi.

    Ingero:

    - Mu nteko ya mbere: Uwundi muntu

    - Mu nteko ya kabiri: Abandi bantu

    - Mu nteko ya karindwi: Ikindi kibindi

    - Mu nteko ya cumi: Izindi nka

    Intego y’ikinyazina ndafutura

    Ikinyazina ndafutura kigira intego zitandukanye bitewe n’ubwoko bw’igicumbi cyakoreshejwe. Intego y’ikinyazina ndafutura gifite igicumbi – ndi ibanguka, igizwe n’uturemajambo tubiri aritwo indangakinyazina (z’inyajwi) n’igicumbi –ndi. Nta ndomo kigira. Mu mpine byandikwa muri ubu buryo Rkz – C.


    Intego y’ikinyazina ndafutura gifite igicumbi – ndi itinda, igizwe n’uturemajambo dutatu aritwo indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi – :ndi . Mu mpine byandikwa muri ubu buryo D –Rkz –C.

    Ku kinyazina ndafutura gifite igicumbi gitinda indangakinyazina zigizwe n'inyajwi zishobora kwitwereza inyerera, bityo inyajwi y'inyuma igafata inyerera "w" na ho inyajwi y'imbere n'iyo hagati zigafata inyerera "y".

    Ikitonderwa:

    a) Ikinyazina ndafutura gishobora kwisubiramo ku buryo mu ntego usanga igice cya mbere kigizwe n’igicumbi kibanguka kigira intego igizwe n’indangakinyazina n’igicumbi, na ho igice cya kabiri kigizwe n’igicumbi gitinda kigira intego igizwe n’indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi, icyo gihe mu ntego igice cya kabiri gitakaza indomo.

    b) Ikinyazina ndafutura gishobora kwisubiramo ku buryo mu ntego usanga igice cya mbere kigizwe n’igicumbi gitinda kigira intego igizwe n’indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi, igice cya kabiri na cyo kigizwe n’igicumbi gitinda kigira intego igizwe n’indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi ariko indomo yacyo igatakara.

    c) Ikinyazina ndafutura gifite igicumbi gitinda gitakaza indomo iyo gikurikiye ijambo kigaragiye cyangwa gikurikiwe n’irindi jambo mu mvugo zimwe na zimwe.

    Imbonerahamwe y’ikinyazina ndafutura



    Umwitozo

    Mu matsinda ya babiribabiri mutahure ibinyazina ndafutura mu nteruro, mubisesengure mugaragaza intego n’amategeko y’igenamajwi, munakoreshe ibinyazina ndafutura mu nteruro ziboneye.

    1. Erekana ibinyazina ndafutura biri muri izi nteruro unabishakire intego werekana n’amategeko y’igenamajwi yubahirijwe.

    a) Itangazamakuru rikoresha amajwi yonyine irindi rigakoresha amajwi n’amashusho.

    b) Amateka y’itangazamakuru arazwi andi ntazwi.

    c) Imashini irashaje mu gihe ebyiri zikiri nshya; tuzagura iyindi yo kuyisimbura.

    d) Ubundi si byiza gutangaza ibinyoma kuko bibangamira abandi bantu.

    2. Tanga interuro eshanu zikoreshejemo ibinyazina ndafutura kandi uvange ibibanguka n’ibitinda hanyuma ubishakire intego werekana n’amategeko y’igenamajwi.

    3. Koresha ibi binyazina ndafutura mu nteruro ziboneye.

    a) Ukundi

    b) Andi

    c) Indi

    d) Izindi

    e) Abandi

    Inshamake y’ibyizwe mu mutwe wa gatandatu

    Muri uyu mutwe twasesenguye imyandiko ivuga ku nsanganyamatsiko y’ikoranabuhanga. Twabonye ko gukoresha mudasobwa n’ubundi buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga bifite akamaro gakomeye bikaba bidusaba kuryitabira. Twabonyemo kandi ko itangazamakuru ry’igihe tugezemo rigomba gukoresha ikoranabuhanga rigezweho kugira ngo rirusheho kunoga.

    Mu kibonezamvugo twabonye imimaro y’amagambo aho twabonye ko ruhamwa ari ijambo rigaragaza ukora igikorwa cyangwa uwo berekezaho imimerere cyangwa imiterere bikubiye mu nshinga. Ruhamwa ishobora kuba “mboneranteruro, nyurabwenge cyangwa mburabuzi.” Inshinga ni ijambo rigaragaza igikorwa, imimerere cyangwa imiterere bacira ruhamwa, akaba ari yo zingiro ry’interuro.

    Icyuzuzo cyo ni ijambo cyangwa urwunge rw’amagambo biherekeza inshinga birushaho gusobanura neza ubutumwa buyikubiyemo. Ibyuzuzo bishobora kugira amoko atandukanye ari yo: Ruhamya, icyuzuzo mbonera, icyuzuzo nziguro n’icyuzuzo k’ingereka.

    Twabonye ko ikinyazina ndafutura giherekeza izina cyangwa kikarisimbura ariko ntikirisobanure neza; ari na yo mpamvu kitwa “ndafutura” cyangwa “ndasigura”. Kigira ibicumbi by’ubwoko bubiri aribyo –ndi ibanguka na –:ndi itinda bityo n’ intego zacyo ugasanga hamwe kigira indangakinyazina n’igicumbi ( Rkz – C) ku gicumbi –ndi kibanguka, na ho ku gicumbi gitinda intego ikaba igizwe n’indomo, indangakinyazina n’igicumbi (D – Rkz – C ). Twabonye kandi ko ikinyazina ndafutura gishobora kwisubiramo.

    Iby’ingenzi nshoboye

    - Gusesengura no guhanga umwandiko uvuga ku ikoranabuhanga.

    - Kwitabira gukoresha ikoranabuhanga no kubikangurira abandi.

    - Gusesengura interuro ngaragaza ruhamwa, inshinga n’icyuzuzo.

    - Gutahura mu nteruro ibinyazina ndafutura, kubisesengura no kubikoresha neza mu nteruro

    Isuzuma risoza umutwe wa gatandatu

    Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

    Umwandiko: Ikoranabuhanga ni ingenzi

    Imyaka yatambutse ari myinshi Abanyarwanda birwanaho mu buryo bwa gakondo, bagakora imirimo itandukanye. Aha twavuga byinshi mu bijyanye n’ibyo Abanyarwanda bageragezaga kwikorera, bifashishije ibikoresho gakondo, umuntu yavuga ko ryari ryo koranabuhanga ryabo. Abanyarwanda bacuraga kandi bakibumbira ibikoresho byo mu rugo, bikoreraga intwaro zo kwirwanaho nk’imiheto, imyambi n’amacumu, birwanagaho mu kwishakira imyambaro, mu kubaka amazu, mu kwihamurira imiti yo kuvura indwara zinyuranye n’ibindi.

    Ibyo tuvuze, bwari bwo buzima bw’Abanyarwanda kandi babubayemo igihe kirekire, mbere na nyuma gato y’umwaduko w’abazungu. Ubwo buryo bwa gakondo Abanyarwanda bakoreshaga birwanaho, twavuga ko budashinga, wasangaga ari ugupfundikanya. None uko ikoranabuhanga ryagiye ritera imbere, aho tugeze ubu harashamaje kuko ryakemuye byinshi. Mu mirimo itandukanye hakoreshwa mudasobwa. Mu kwandika, kubara, kubika no gutwara inyandiko zitandukanye, gutegura ibishushanyo mbonera by’amazu, iby’imihanda n’ibiraro, iby’imigi itandukanye n’ibindi.

    Ntitwakomoza kuri mudasobwa gusa n’ubwo ahanini iyo bavuze ikoranabuhanga, abenshi bahita bakoma agatima kuri mudasobwa kuko yifashishwa muri byinshi. Urugero nko mu itangazamakuru amaradiyo ntiyatanzwe, ibyogajuru sinakubwira birajagajaga ikirere bitara amakuru hirya no hino, mu buvuzi n’ahandi ubu ni ryo gusagusa,... mbese ntawarondora ngo abirangize. Muri iki gihe k’ikoranabuhanga nka terefoni zoroheje imirimo itari mikeya. Zifashishwa mu kohererezanya ubutumwa bugufi n’andi makuru, mu gutara no mu gutangaza amakuru. Ndetse hari n’izijyanye n’igihe tugezemo, zifata amafoto zikohereza ku mbuga nkoranyambaga zitandukanye.

    Ikoranabuhanga nirikomeze ritere imbere kuko rifasha cyane kandi imirimo rikoranwe ugasanga irushijeho gutungana. Gusa twibuke ko ubundi ikoranabuhanga atari irishingiye kuri mudasobwa gusa. Ahubwo ko ari irishingiye ku kerekezo kizima kiganisha ku iterambere; nk’iyo tuvuze ikoranabuhanga mu buhinzi n’ubworozi, bishatse kuvuga ubuhinzi n’ubworozi bukozwe mu buryo bujyanye n’igihe kandi buzanira iterambere ababukora ndetse n’abagerwaho n’ibivuyemo nk’umusaruro.

    Ntitwabura kuvuga ko n’ubwo ikoranabuhanga rifasha muri byinshi, iyo rikoreshejwe nabi ryangiza byinshi. Hari abakoresha ikoranabuhanga mu buryo butari bwo; twavuga nko gukoresha ibikoresho by’itumanaho mu gutanga ruswa, mu bugambanyi, mu kunyereza umutungo, gukora no gucuruza ibiyobyabwenge, inganda zikoresha ikoranabuhanga mu gukora imiti yica ubuzima n’ibitwaro bya kirimbuzi n’ibindi. Imikoreshereze y’ikoranabuhanga muri ubwo buryo ntikwiye.

    Mucyo rero dukanguke twitabire ikoranabuhanga, twiteze imbere muri byinshi. Nidukoreshe ikoranabuhanga mu mirimo yacu ya buri munsi kuko ryihutisha iterambere kandi rikarushaho kunoza ibyo dukora. Ntawakwishimira gusigara inyuma y’abandi. Ibyo ikoranabuhanga rimaze kutugezaho ni byinshi kandi birafatika. Ikoranabuhanga ni ingenzi nta kabuza nituryitabira tuzagera kuri byinshi.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

    1. Mu mwandiko bavuga ko uburyo imirimo yakorwaga mbere y’uko ikoranabuhanga riza bwari bumeze bute?

    2. Rondora imirimo ikoreshwa mudasobwa yavuzwe mu mwandiko.

    3. Ni iyihe mirimo Abanyarwanda bikoreraga mu buryo bwa gakondo?

    4. Garagaza uruhare rwa terefoni zigezweho mu ikoranabuhanga ukurikije ibivugwa mu mwandiko.

    5. Ni ubuhe buryo budakwiye ikoranabuhanga rishobora gukoreshwamo?

    II. Inyunguramagambo:

    1. Shaka ibisobanuro by’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Harashamaje

    b) Ntiyatanzwe

    c) birafatika.

    2. Shaka impuzanyito z’aya magambo:

    a) Ibiraro

    b) Ntawakwishimira

    c) Gutara

    3. Shaka imbusane z’aya magambo:

    a) Umugi

    b) Yica

    c) Abanyarwanda

    III. Ikibonezamvugo

    1. Tahura ruhamwa mu nteruro zikurikira nurangiza uvuge ubwoko bwazo.

    a) Isuzuma rye ritsinda umuhanga.

    b) Harakabaho u Rwanda n’Abanyarwanda.

    c) Abanyeshuri bariga ikoranabuhanga mu itangazamakuru.

    2. Mu nteruro zikurikira erekana ruhamwa, inshinga n’ibyuzuzo.

    a) Abanyarwanda birwanagaho mu buryo bwa gakondo.

    b) Terefoni zoroheje imirimo.c) Ikoranabuhanga ni ingenzi

    3. Soma neza umwandiko ushakemo ibinyazina ndafutura unabisesengure ugaragaza intego n’amategeko y’igenamajwi.

    4. Koresha ibi binyazina ndafutura mu nteruro zubatse neza.

    a) Andi

    b) Ikindi

    c) Irindi

    d) indi

    IV. Ihangamwandiko

    Hanga umwandiko utarengeje imirongo mirongo itatu ugaragaza ibyiza by’ikoranabuhanga.



  • UMUTWE WA 7: Umuco w’amahoro

    Nta murage w’ubwigunge


    Nitwa Mudahunga. Navutse ndi umwana umwe nkura mbana na data gusa. Maze guca akenge, nabajije data impamvu ntabona mama, ambwira ko yatabarutse nkiri mutoya. Mubajije impamvu nta muturanyi ugera iwacu, ambwira ko hari inzigo iri hagati yacu n’abaturanyi kandi ko idashobora gukira. Yambwiye ko urupfu rwa mama rufitanye isano n’iyo nzigo. Data yaje guhitanwa n’uburwayi, asiga nkuze mfite imyaka makumyabiri n’itatu. Nari ndangije amashuri yisumbuye, nkumva ntananirwa kwirwanaho ngo mbone ikintunga. Naje gushaka akazi kampemba umushahara w’ukwezi, gusa nkabona utankemurira ibibazo uko nifuza. Nize umushinga w’ubucuruzi nywushoramo amafaranga ngurijwe na banki, sinahomba ariko inyungu ikaza biguru ntege.

    Umunsi umwe iwacu haje umuryango ushishikariza abantu gukorera mu makoperative. Bangejejeho icyo gitekerezo ngisamira hejuru, ariko nibutse ko nturanye n’inzigo nsanga tutacana uwaka n’abaturanyi turamutse duhuriye muri koperative imwe. Byatumye nsubiza amerwe mu isaho, nkomeza kuba nyamwigendaho mu bucuruzi bwange, nafatanyaga n’akazi k’umushahara. Abaturanyi bashinze koperative y’ubucuruzi maze bava hasi barakora, bagabana imirimo baruzuzanya, barunguka karahava, ingo zabo zigatera imbere umunsi ku wundi. Ntibyatinze umwe mu baturanyi tungana aza kundeba. Yambajije impamvu ntaza muri koperative, mbanza kumurimanganya ariko bigeze aho mubwiza ukuri. Namubwiye uburyo nzi ko ababyeyi be bagize uruhare mu rupfu rwa mama nkaba ntashobora gukorana na bo. Uwo mwana w’umukobwa yababajwe n’ayo makuru, ariko ambwira ko nkwiye kubirenga nkaza muri koperative.

    Urugwiro Kayitesi yangaragarije rwatumye mva ku izima njya kwiyandikisha muri Koperative Duterane inkunga. Cyakora sinagiye genyine, najyanye na Kayitesi, aba ari we umvunyishiriza. Ngihinguka muri koperative nabonaga ibice bibiri mu banyamuryango: Abanyibonamo banyisanzuraho n’abadashaka kunyegera no kumvugisha, abo nkabakeka amababa. Gusa nkababazwa n’uko ababyeyi ba Kayitesi na bo bari mu gice cya kabiri. Kubera kubana igihe no kubona icyo tumariranye muri koperative, twagiye turushaho gusabana no gutinyukana.

    Umunsi umwe, umuyobozi wo ku Karere kacu ufite amakoperative mu nshingano ze yaradusuye. Mu ijambo rye yashimye Koperative yacu, avuga ko iri mu za mbere zikora neza mu Karere. Yatuganirije kuri gahunda za Leta, asoreza kuri gahunda ya “Ndi Umunyarwanda”. Yatubwiye ko Abakoroni babibye imbuto y’inzangano mu Banyarwanda kugira ngo babone uko babayobora kuko ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda bwari inzitizi ya gahunda yabo ya gikoroni. Kubera ubujiji, Abanyarwanda benshi iyo mbuto barayikwirakwije, bemera kandi banemeza abantu ko batava inda imwe, maze ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda burasenyuka, busimburwa n’amacakubiri yagejeje Abanyarwanda kuri jenoside. Yatubwiye ko ubu Abanyarwanda twajijutse, dushyigikiye ubumwe bwacu kandi twasobanukiwe ko amacakubiri twabibwemo nta shingiro yari afite. Yatubwiye ko “Ndi Umunyarwanda” ari gahunda igomba gukemura ikibazo gisigaye cy’urwikekwe n’ipfunwe bitera kutisanzuranaho hagati y’imiryango yahemutse n’iyahemukiwe.

    Uwo muyobozi yatubwiye ko dukwiye kunezezwa n’isano dufitanye nk’Abanyarwanda kandi tukakira kimwe amateka y’igihugu cyacu. Ameza n’amabi yose tukumva ko ari ayacu twese kandi n’impamvu yayo tukayumva kimwe. Yatubwiye ko gahunda ya “Ndi umunyarwanda” idufasha gusasa inzobe, tukaganira ku byatubayeho imitima ikaruhuka, umuryango wahemutse ugasaba imbabazi kandi uwahemukiwe ukazitanga. Bityo, tugasigasira ubumwe bwacu nk’Abanyarwanda. Yahise atubaza niba mu ishyirahamwe ryacu nta bantu bumva bagira icyo bavuga kuri iyo gahunda, aba yorosoye ababyukaga.

    Uwo munsi twaraganiriye bishyira kera, tuvuga ku nzangano zari hagati y’umuryango wange n’uwa Kayitesi. Bansabye imbabazi z’ubuhemu bagiye bagirira iwacu, ariko urupfu rwa mama rwo dusanga nta ruhare barugizemo. Ngo urupfu mama yapfuye n’urwo data yapfuye usanga zisa, kandi data bamusanzemo SIDA, atabaruka imiti igabanya ubukana itaravumburwa. Bambwiye ko mama yakundaga kujya kwirasagisha. Nta shiti rero yanduriyemo SIDA araza ayikongeza data. Mama apfa, SIDA yari itaramenyekana; icyari kizwi ni uko ababyeyi ba Kayitesi banganaga n’iwacu, ni ko kubakekera uburozi gutyo. Uwavuga ko ababyeyi bange banduriye mu busambanyi yaba abeshye. Na data ubwe, ubuzima bwe bwa gipfakazi bwaranzwe no guhurwa igitsina gore. Ntiyongeye gushaka kandi nta n’umugore nigeze mbona arara iwacu.

    Koperative Duterane inkunga na gahunda ya “Ndi Umunyarwanda” nta cyo nabinganya. Byombi byatumye ncya ku mutima. Ubu ndatuje kandi ndatunze, Kayitesi ni umutima w’urugo rwange, abana bacu baratuneje, kandi n’ababyeyi baradusura. Inzigo iyo inzirika mba nigunze, ntagira shinge na rugero.Ibikorwa ku mwandiko:

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Mudahunga yumvaga ashobora kwirwanaho nyuma y’urupfu rwa se.Yashingiraga ku ki?

    2. Ni iki cyatumye Mudahunga adahita yitabira amakoperative?

    3. Koperative duterane inkunga yamariye iki abanyamuryango bayo?

    4. Inyigisho y’uko Abanyarwanda batava inda imwe yakomotse he? Abayadukanye bari bagamije iki?

    5. Ese Mudahunga na Kayitesi bakomeje kwishishanya? Sobanura igisubizo cyawe.

    6. Kuki nta muturanyi wageraga iwabo wa Mudahunga?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura amagamo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Inzigo

    b) Kuza biguru ntege

    c) Barunguka karahava

    d) Gukeka amababa

    e) Gusasa inzobe

    2. Tanga impuzanyito z’amagambo akurikira:

    a) Isaho

    b) Umushahara

    c) Umugore

    3. Tanga imbusane z’amagambo akurikira:

    a) Urupfu

    b) Inzangano

    c) Inzigo

    III. Imyitozo yo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoreshe neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

    1. Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro yumvikana neza:

    a) Inzigo

    b) Biguru ntege

    c) Kurimanganya

    d) gukeka amababa.

    2. Uzuza interuro zikurikira ukoresheje aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko: (ntibacana uwaka, bishyira kera, umutima w’urugo, bagasasa inzobe, inzigo)

    a) Maze imyaka ibiri mfite ................ ni yo mpamvu mbyibushye ntya.

    b) Barataramye ................ barasangira, barasabana.

    c) Kayihura na Bagirubwira ................iyo bagiye guhura, umwe ahindura inzira, agaca mu yindi.

    d) Iyo abantu bafitanye ikibazo, batumira inshuti ................ ugaragaweho kuba impamvu y’ikibazo agacibwa ikiru.

    e) Kuba ababyeyi baragiranye ................ ntibivuga ko abana na bo bagomba kwangana.

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Shaka ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri mu mwandiko.

    2. Ese urumva gufata mugenzi wawe nk’inzigo hari icyo byakungura mu buzima bwawe?

    3. Sobanura uburyo gukorera hamwe mu mashyirahamwe n’amakoperative kimwe na gahunda ya « Ndi Umunyarwanda » byakwimakaza ubumwe n’ubwiyunge mu Banyarwanda.

    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyingiro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akore umukoro wo kwandika inkuru ku nsanganyamatsiko yo kwimakaza umuco w’amahoro.

    Andika inkuru irimo insanganyamatsiko yo “kwimakaza umuco w’amahoro” ugaragaza ko nta kintu na kimwe kigomba gutanya abanyarwanda.

    Inshoberamahanga

    Soma interuro zikurikira maze witegereze amagambo yanditse atsindangiye, nurangiza uvuge uko wumva yumvikana.

    - Maze guca akenge nabajije data impamvu nta mama mbona.

    - Inyungu ikaza biguru ntege.

    - Bangejejeho icyo gitekerezo ngisamira hejuru.

    - Nsanga tutacana uwaka n'abaturanyi.

    - Byatumye nsubiza amerwe mu isaho.

    - Urugwira Kayitesi yangaragarije rwatumye mva ku izima.

    Aya magambo yanditswe atsindagiwe arumvikanisha igisobanuro cyayo mu buryo bwihuse?

    Inshoza y’inshoberamahanga

    Nk’uko izina ubwaryo ribivuga inshoberamahanga ni ikintu cyashobeye cyangwa cyayobeye amahanga. Inshoberamahanga rero ni imvugo ikoreshwa n’abenerurimi runaka ku buryo umuntu utarakenetse urwo rurimi nk’umunyamahanga, ayumva ntahite amenya icyo bashatse kuvuga. Bigasaba ko asobanurirwa icyo bashatse kuvuga bakoresheje iyo mvugo mu by’ukuri idasobanura icyo amagambo ayigize ubwayo avuze, ahubwo ari imvugo shusho.

    Urugero tuvuze tuti: “Kanaka agenda atera isekuru.” Umuntu utazi neza ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda yumvise iyi mvugo yamubera urujijo kuko gutera isekuru atahita yiyumvisha icyo bishatse kuvuga. Ubundi mu Kinyarwanda batera ibiti, bagatera imbuto y’imyaka nk’ibishyimbo, ibirayi n’ibindi. Kugira ngo amenye ko bashatse kuvuga ko kanaka agenda acumbagira, byasaba ko asobanurirwa icyo bashatse kuvuga.

    Imiterere y’inshoberamahanga

    Inshoberamahanga ni imvugo igizwe n’inshinga n’icyuzuzo cyayo. Inshoberamahanga kandi iba ifite igisobanuro shusho kihariye, kidahuye n’igisobanuro gisanzwe cy’amagambo aba ayigize.

    Ingero:

    - Gutera isekuru

    - Kugwa mu kantu

    - Kugenda biguru ntege

    - Gusamira hejuru

    - Kugenda runono

    - Kurya akara

    - Gukura inzira ku murima

    - Gukura ubwatsi

    - Gupfa agasoni

    - Kurara rubunda

    - Kurara rwantambi

    - Kurimba uw’inkoko

    - Ducurangira abahetsi

    - Guhata inzira ibirenge

    - Kuvoma hafi

    - Kutamenya ururo n’icyatsi,...

    Umwitozo:

    Mu matsinda ya babiribabiri mutahure inshoberamahanga mu mwandiko, hanyuma muzikoreshe mu nteruro ziboneye.

    Soma umwandiko ukurikira ushakamo inshoberamahanga, buri nshoberamahanga uyikoreshe mu nteruro yawe bwite.

    Yihaye rubanda

    Habayeho umugabo akitwa Rudaseswa agakunda gutera inogo umutsima. Umunsi umwe uwo mugabo yahuye n’uruvagusenya ndetse n’umugore we agwa mu kantu. Yagufatiye irobe ry’umutsima aryohereza mu kanwa agira ngo ararimira bunguri uko bisanzwe maze riramuniga, umugabo si ugusepfura yimarayo. Umugabo yarakanuye, abana bati: “Data agiye kwitaba Imana”, nyina na we abura icyo akora. Hashize umwanya, umugore akora iyo bwabaga, arega igipfunsi no munsi y’ingoto y’umugabo we ngo: piii! Rya robe uko ryakabaye riraturumbuka. Rudasewa yaguye hasi avunika akaguru ku buryo yamaze igihe atera isekuru, inkuru yabaye kimomo umubonye wese ati: “Dore ingaruka z’ubusambo.” Ubusambo si bwiza, kwitwararika ku meza bihesha agaciro.

    Menya uburenganzira bwawe


    Abantu muri kamere yacu turikunda. Umuntu yumva ibyiza byose ari we byabanza gusanga, abandi bikabageraho nyuma; ngo ujya gutera uburezi arabwibaza. Nk’uko amateka abigaragaza, uko kwikunda kwagiye gutuma abantu bamwe na bamwe baryamira abandi, bakabahohotera, bakabaheza ku byo na bo bagenewe nk’abantu. Mu nama y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, ikibazo k’ihohoterwa rikorerwa abantu cyavuzweho, hafatwa imyanzuro yo gutangaza ingingo zigaragaza uburenganzira umuntu afite kandi zikaba zikwiye kumenywa no kubahirizwa na buri wese.

    Umuntu, mbere na mbere, afite uburenganzira bwo kubaho mu bwisanzure kandi afite umutekano. Ibi bishatse kuvuga ko nta muntu ufite uburenganzira bwo kwambura mugenzi we ubuzima. Dufite inshingano zo kwirindira umutekano no kuwurindira abandi, abo tubana, abo duturanye n’abo tugendana. Kutubaha ubuzima, bwaba ari ubwawe, bwaba ari ubwa mugenzi wawe, ni icyaha gihanwa n’amategeko.

    Umuntu afite uburenganzira bwo kujya aho ashaka no guhitamo aho atura mu gihugu ke, gusohoka no kukigarukamo igihe ashatse. Nta muntu ufite uburenganzira bwo kwambura umuntu umutungo we. Abantu barasabwa gushakisha umutungo bakora akazi kabyara inyungu, bakabikora bizeye ko umutungo wabo ntawuzawubavutsa kandi ko hari amategeko abarengera igihe hari ushaka kubahuguza umutungo wabo. Umuntu rero afite uburenganzira bwo guhitamo akazi akora. Iyo akorera abandi, agira uburenganzira ku mushahara uhagije kugira ngo we n’umuryango we babashe kubaho.

    Ubundi burenganzira umuntu afite ni ubwo kugira ibitekerezo n’imyemerere ye bwite. Afite uburenganzira bwo guhitamo idini asengeramo no kwamamaza imyemerere ye ku mugaragaro. Nta muntu ukwiye rero kubuzwa gusenga cyangwa kuzira aho asengera. Umuntu afite uburenganzira bwo kugaragaza ibitekerezo bye mu bwisanzure. Nta muntu ukwiye kubuzwa kuvuga uko yumva ibintu cyangwa kuzira ibitekerezo yatanze.

    Umuntu afite uburenganzira bwo kugira imibereho myiza we n’umuryango we. Akwiye kubona icyo arya, icyo yambara n’aho aba. Afite uburenganzira bwo kwivuza igihe arwaye no guhabwa serivise nkenerwa zose. Umuntu afite uburenganzira bwo kwitabwaho no kubungabungirwa umutekano igihe ashaje, igihe yapfakaye cyangwa se kubera impamvu runaka atakibashije kugira umurimo akora. Umubyeyi uri kunda n’umwana bagomba kwitabwaho ku buryo bw’umwihariko. Umwana wavutse ku babyeyi bashakanye ku buryo bwemewe n’amategeko n’uwavutse ku bundi buryo barengerwa n’amategeko kimwe.

    Buri muntu kandi afite uburenganzira bwo guhabwa uburezi bukwiye, kandi uburezi bw’ibanze agomba kubuhererwa ubuntu. Buri muntu afite uburenganzira bwo gukomeza amashuri ye hashingiwe ku bushobozi agaragaza kandi ababyeyi bafite uburenganzira bwo guhitiramo abana babo amashami bazigamo.Ngizo zimwe mu ngingo zigize uburenganzira bwa muntu. Ni ngombwa ko tumenya uburenganzira bwacu kugira ngo hatazagira uwo twemerera ko atubangamira kandi natwe ntitugire uwo tuvutsa uburenganzira bwe kubera ubujiji.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Rondora uburengazira bwa muntu bugaragara mu mwandiko.

    2. Kuba umuntu afite uburenganzira bwo kubaho bikubwira iki nk’umunyeshuri?

    3. Ni abahe bantu bagomba kubungabungirwa umutekano ku buryo bw’umwihariko? Wumva ari iyihe mpamvu bagomba kwitabwaho cyane?

    4. Wumva ute kuba umwana wavutse ku babyeyi babana ku buryo bwemewe n’amategeko n’uwavutse ku bundi buryo barengerwa n’amategeko kimwe?

    5. Vuga ubundi burenganzira bwa muntu butavuzwe mu mwandiko.

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura amagamo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Uburezi

    b) Uburenganzira

    c) Guhuguza

    d) Kuvutsa

    e) Kubangamira

    2. Tanga impuzanyito z’amagambo akurikira:

    a) Ubujiji

    b) Kubugabunga

    3. Tanga imbusane z’amagambo akurikira:

    a) Kuvutsa

    b) Kubasha

    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akoresha neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

    1. Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro zumvikana:

    a) Kwitabwaho

    b) Guhuguza

    c) Kuvutsa

    d) Uburenganzira

    e) kubungabunga

    2. Uzuza interuro zikurikira ukoresheje aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko kandi uyasanishe uko bikwiye aho ari ngombwa:(kuvutsa, guhuguza, uburezi, kubangamira, uburenganzira)

    a) Umuntu uterekera ajugunya .................. mu ziko akaba asangiye n’abakurambere.

    b) Ni nde .................. umuntu umugisha Imana yamugeneye?

    c) Buri muntu agira .................. n’inshingano ze; ni ngombwa kubimenya byombi.

    d) Karibwende arashaka .................. nyirakuru umurima, ariko abunzi baritaye mu gutwi, ntibazamukundira.

    e) Nihagira .................. mu mushinga wawe, uzambwire nkurenganure.

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Shaka ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka ziri mu mwandiko.

    2. Mu gihe hari umuntu uvukijwe uburenganzira bwe hakorwa iki ngo bwimakazwe?

    3. Wumva hakorwa iki kugira ngo abantu bamenye uburenganzira bwabo?

    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

    Mu matsinda mwungurane ibitekerezo ku burenganzira bwa muntu butavugwa mu mwandiko, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    Mungurane ibitekerezo ku byo mubona aho mutuye bigaragaza ukutubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu, n’icyo mwumva cyakorwa ngo iyo migirire ihinduke.

    Ubunyarwanda burambera


    Mumpe umwanya nge mu ngazo,

    Mvuge uko niyumva mu ngingo

    No mu bitekerezo n’ingendo,

    Mvuge ibitera Abanyamahanga

    Kumpa umwanya nkavuga ijambo.


    Nge narazengurutse amahanga,

    Ndeba abandi uko bitwara,

    Nsanga nta muco uruta uwacu

    Kuko ubuvandimwe n’urukundoTubikomora ku batubyara.


    Nkunda cyane igihugu cyange

    Numva nta pfunwe bintera,

    Kwitwa umwana w’Umunyarwanda

    N’umunyarwanda wundi kandi

    Mfitanye isano na we burundu.


    Nzi ko guhangana no gushwanaTwabitojwe na Ruhurwera,

    We wadukekagaho ubugwari,

    Aje ubumwe asanga turabuhuje

    Abura aho akandira ngo adutware.


    Yacuze amoko ubwo aradutanya

    Ubujiji bwacu burabitora ,

    Ubumwe dusangiye burasongwa

    Ubwo tuba abanzi dufite isano

    Igisebo kinjira mu mateka.


    Twararindagijwe bitavugwa

    Urwango rwima imitima yacu

    Icuraburindi ryima Igihugu,

    Ariko kandi hirya yaho

    Cyarakijijwe tubona urumuri.


    Hari icyo nshimagiza uyu munsi

    Ubu Abanyarwanda turajijutse,

    Turimo kwigira ku mateka

    Turaca iteka ryo kudatana

    No kwiyunga bikaba intego.


    Uwaka imbabazi ubu arazihabwa

    Ipfunwe rikimukira urugwiro

    Abadutanyije bakamwara

    Twe twibereye mu mishinga

    Yo guha u Rwanda isura nziza.


    Harashamaje aho turi none,

    Haraharenze aho tujya kandi,

    Mureke twimike ubunyarwanda

    Duhe urukundo igihugu cyacu

    Tunakirwanirire gitore.


    Ubujiji ntacyo bukidutwaye Kandi twifitiye amashuri,

    Ubukene ntabwo bukitubase

    Kandi banki zituri hafi,

    Hehe n’imbuto y’ubugwari.


    Ubu amavuriro aturi hafi

    Mu kwivuza turisungana

    Tukanavuza abatibasha.

    Ntawukizirikira iwabo

    Yumva indwara imugera ijanja.


    Ubunyarwanda burambera

    Kandi namwe nibubabere,

    Niyo gakondo isumba izindi

    Abatubyaye baduhaye

    Ntitugatatire icyo gihango.


    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Ni iki umusizi asanga gitandukanya abanyarwanda n’abanyamahanga?

    2. Inzangano hagati y'Abanyarwanda zakomotse hehe?

    3. Ni iki cyatumye Ruhurwera acura amoko?

    4. Ni ibihe bibazo by’Abanyarwanda byakemutse?

    5. Umusizi arahamagarira Abanyarwanda kwitwara gute? Kuki?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Ipfunwe

    b) Gushwana

    c) Ubugwari

    d) Abatibasha

    e) Urugwiro

    III. Umwitozo wo gukoresha amagambo mu nteruro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe arakoresha neza amagambo mu nteruro ziboneye

    1. Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro ziboneye:

    a) Gushwana

    b) Ubugwari

    c) Ipfunwe

    d) Igihango

    e) Gakondo.

    2. Uzurisha interuro zikurikira aya magambo yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko: (arashamaje, aberwa, yatoye, imbuto, gakondo)a) Kamari yabibye ................. y’ubufatanye mu bana be, none gushyira hamwe byatumye biteza imbere.b) Uyu munyamahanga yakuriye mu Rwanda none ................... umuco wacu.c) Iyi sambu ni ................. twasigiwe na ba sogokuruza.d) Uyu mugore ................ no gufata ijambo imbere y’abantu agatanga ibitekerezo bye.e) Uyu mwana ................. kuko aba uwambere muri byose.

    IV. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Shaka ingingo z’ingenzi ziri muri uyu mwandiko.

    2. Ukurikije uko indi myandiko iba yanditswe uyu urabona wanditswe ute?

    3. Uyu mwandiko urumva uvugitse nk’indi myandiko twize mu buryo bw’injyana? Sobanura igisubizo cyawe.

    V. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe akore umukoro wo gufata mu mutwe umuvugo, hanyuma azawuvugire imbere y’abandi yubahiriza uturango twawo.

    Umukoro wo gufata mu mutwe umuvugo “Ubunyarwanda burambera” hanyuma ukazawuvugira imbere ya bagenzi bawe.

    UmuvugoInshoza y'umuvugo

    Umuvugo ni igihangano cy’umwimerere, kigusha ku ngingo cyangwa insanganyamatsiko runaka, cyuje amagambo y’indezi (arata) n’ikeshamvugo. Umuvugo kandi ni igihangano gihimbirwa kuvugirwa imbere y’abantu. Kubera iyo mpamvu umuvugo ugomba kuba unyuze amatwi y’abawumva.

    Uturango tw’umuvugo

    Umuvugo ni umwandiko uvuga ku ngingo runaka nk’indi myandiko yose ariko bigakorwa ku buryo bwa gihanga bushingiye ku kuryoshya imvugo. N’ubwo umuntu ashobora gusoma umuvugo mu gitabo, ubundi umuvugo uhimbirwa kuvugirwa imbere y’abantu; ni na yo mpamvu kuwufata mu mutwe ari ingenzi. Dore ibiranga umuvugo:

    a) Imikarago

    Uko umuvugo wandikwa bitandukanye n’uko bandika indi myandiko isanzwe.Umuvugo wandikwa mu buryo bw’intondeke hakoreshejwe uturongo tugufi twitwa “ imikarago”. Umukarago ushobora kuba ari interuro yuzuye cyangwa ari igice k’interuro.

    Ingero:

    - Ubunyarwanda burambera. (interuro)

    - Kuko ubuvandimwe n’urukundo (igice k’interuro)

    b) Injyana y’itonde ripimye

    Umuvugo unoze ugomba kuba ufite injyana ipimye, ni ukuvuga ko imikarago igomba kuba ireshya kandi ifite injyana inogeye amatwi. Mu busizi injyana ishingira ku tubangutso cyangwa utubeshuro. Abasizi bakora ku buryo imikarago igira umubare ungana w’utubangutso cyangwa utubeshuro, bashingiye ku migemo igize umukarago. Dore uko injyanya ikorwa:

    - Akabangutso gashingira ku mugemo kandi umugemo ushobora kuba ari inyajwi, ingombajwi iyafanye n’inyajwi cyangwa igihekane gifatanye n’inyajwi.

    - Akabangutso kamwe kaba gafite uburebure bungana n’umugemo umwe.

    - Umugemo utinda wo ubarwamo utubangutso tubiri.

    - Inyajwi itangira umukarago ntibarwa

    - Inyajwi ebyiri zikurikiranye mu mukarago, imwe isoza ijambo indi ikaritangira zibarwa nk’inyajwi imwe.

    Urugero:

    Muump(e) umwaanya nge muu ngaazo, =12

    Mvug(e) uko niiyumva muu ngiingo=12

    No mu biteekerezo n’ingeendo,=12M

    vug(e) ibiteer(a)Abanyamahaanga=12

    Kuump(a) umwaanya nkavug(a) ijaambo.=12

    Uyu muvugo ugizwe n’injyana y’utubangutso cumi na tubiri.

    c) Ikeshamvugo n’iminozanganzo

    Mu muvugo umuhanzi akoresha amagambo y’indobanure agambiriye gukesha cyangwa kunoza imvugo. Amagambo yose ntanganya agaciro, ni yo mpamvu umuhanzi atoranya amagambo yabugenewe agusha ku ngingo. Mu muvugo kandi umuhanzi yubaka ingingo ku buryo bugamije kunoza inganzo ari byo bita iminozanganzo. Mu minozanganzo habamo isubirajwi, imizimizo, ishushanya, igereranya n’ibindi

    Ingero:

    - Ruhurwera: Umuzungu (umuzimizo)

    - Yumva indwara imugera ijanja: Yumva indwara imwototera, ishaka kumufata(ishushanya)

    - Harashamaje aho turi none,Haraharenze aho tujya kandi ( isubirajwi rishingiye kuri “ h”)

    Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro:

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe asubize ibibazo byabajijwe ku muvugo.

    1. Bara utubangutso tw’imikarago icumi ya nyuma y’uyu muvugo.

    2. Hanga umuvugo wawe bwite ku nsanganyamatsiko y’umuco w’amahoro, nturenze imikarago mirongo ine.

    Inshamake y’ibyizwe mu mutwe wa karindwi

    Muri uyu mutwe twasesenguye imyandiko ivuga ku nsanganyamatsiko y’umuco w’amahoro. Twabonye uburyo gahunda zo gukorera hamwe nka « Ndi Umunyarwanda, Amashyirahamwe n’amakoperative » byimakaza ubumwe n’ubwiyunge, abagiranye ibibazo bakiyunga kuko baba bashyize hamwe. Twanabonye kandi ibijyanye n’uburenganzira bwa muntu, ubwo burenganzira bugomba kubahirizwa, nta muntu ukwiye kuvutswa uburenganzira bwe.

    Twabonye icyo inshoberamahanga ari cyo ndetse n’umuvugo, uturango tw’umuvugo n’uburyo babara utubangutso tw’umuvugo ndetse dukomoza ku ikeshamvugo rikoreshwa mu muvugo.

    Iby’ingenzi nshoboye

    - Gushishikarira kuvugisha ukuri, gusaba imbabazi no kubabarira abazinsabye mu rwego rwo gusakaza umuco w’amahoro.

    - Kwitabira gukoresha inshoberamahanga mu kunoza imvugo n’inyandiko byange.- Guhanga umuvugo no kuwutondagura mu ruhame ngendeye ku turango tw’umuvugo.

    Isuzuma risoza umutwe wa karindwi

    Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

    Umuvugo: Mucyo dutere amahoro


    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Umusizi arahamagarira nde gutera amahoro?

    2. Ese ku mwanditsi ni ubuhe bufatanye bukwiye ngo abantu birindire umutekano?

    3. Ukurikije uko bigaragara mu mwandiko, inzangano hagati y’Abanyarwanda zikomoka he? Ese wowe ubona izo nzangano umuntu yazirinda gute?

    4. Usibye abaturage, abandi bantu bagira uruhare mu kubumbatira amahoro ni bande? Babikora gute?

    5. Ese wowe ubaye umuyobozi, urumva wakora iki ngo amahoro asagambe?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu muvugo:

    a) Bura bw’u Rwanda

    b) Kugoboka

    c) Kuganya

    d) Gutuza

    e) kwimika

    2. Tanga impuzanyito z’aya magambo:

    a) Gushuka

    b) Kugoboka

    3. Shaka imbusane z’amagambo akurikira:

    a) Gutuza

    b) Guha (amahoro)

    4. Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro zawe bwite:

    a) Amahoro

    b) Kugoboka

    c) Kuganya

    d) Gutuza

    e) Kwimika

    III. Ubumenyi bw’ururimi

    1. Koresha izi nshoberamahanga mu nteruro yawe bwite.

    a) Guca mu rihumye

    b) Guca akenge

    c) Gusubiza amerwe mu isaho

    d) Kuva ku izima

    e) Korosora uwabyukaga

    IV. Guhanga umuvugo

    1. Hanga umuvugo wubahiriza uturango tw’umuvugo kandi uvuga ku nsanganyamatsiko y’umuco w’amahoro


  • UMUTWE WA 8: Ibiyobyabwenge mu mashuri

    Ikiganiro Gahongayire yagiranye n’umunyamakuru


    Umunyamakuru: Muri iyi minsi hari icyorezo mu rubyiruko, kandi tutarebye neza cyahekura u Rwanda. Icyo cyorezo ni ibiyobyabwenge. Abanyeshuri bamwe babaswe n’ingeso yo kubyiyahuza. Ariko se ibiyobyabwenge abanyeshuri bakoresha ni ibihe? Babibona bate? Babifata ryari? Ni izihe mpamvu zituma babinywa? Hafatwa izihe ngamba kugira ngo bicike? Reka twumve ubuhamya bwa Gahongayire, umunyeshuri mu ishuri ryisumbuye. Aratangira atubwira ibiyobyabwenge biboneka ku mashuri n’uburyo bihagera.

    Gahongayire: Ukurikije ibivugwa n’abanyeshuri bagenzi bange n’ibyo nzi ngewe ubwange, usanga mu mashuri hakunze kugaragara urumogi n’utuyoga tuba mu dushashi ndetse no mu ducupa dutoya bita “suruduwiri”. Ibyo biyobyabwenge abanyeshuri babyinjiza mu kigo k’ishuri bavuye mu biruhuko, babiguze ku babicuruza hanze y’ikigo. Hari n’abatoroka ikigo bakajya kubishaka mu nsoresore bazi ko zibinywa cyangwa zibicuruza. Abanywi b’ibiyobyabwenge barakundirana bakamenyana mu buryo bworoshye kandi bakabikirana ibanga. Iyo hari umunywi wabyo wiga ataha, ababa mu kigo baramutuma akabagurira hanze. Hanyuma yaza ku ishuri agafogeka urumogi na suruduwiri mu gikapu ke. Iyo ageze ku ishuri asiga ibyo bitindi bangezi be na bo bagashaka aho babitsimba.

    Umunyamakuru: None se Gahongayi, abanyeshuri bakura he umwanya wo kunywa ibiyobyabwenge?

    Gahongayire: Uko nabibonye, abanyeshuri bakunze kunywa urumogi nyuma y’amasomo, mu gihe cyo gukina, cyangwa nijoro mbere yo kuryama. Bikabya mu minsi y’ikiruhuko k’impera y’icyumweru aho babinywa ku manywa y’ihangu ariko bihishe. Iyo bageze mu ishuri turabamenya kuko ubona bazezengeye kandi nta cyo batinya gukora.

    Umunyamakuru: Ese ubona ibiyobyabwenge bifite izihe ngaruka ku buzima bw’umunyeshuri, ku myigire ye no ku iterambere ry’igihugu muri rusange?

    Gahongayire: Ubuzima bw’umunyeshuri unywa ibiyobyabwenge burahungabana cyane. Nko kunywa urumogi byica imyanya y’ubuhumekero, bikaba byamuviramo kurwara igituntu. Ibiyobyabwenge kandi byangiza ubwonko bw’umunyeshuri ntiyongere kugira ibitekerezo by’abantu bazima. Abanyeshuri babinywa ni bo usanga bagira imyitwarire mibi ku ishuri, basuzugura abarezi, barwana na bagenzi babo, bakiba, bakanishora mu busambanyi. Umunyeshuri unywa ibiyobyabwenge ntashobora kwiga neza. Ubwenge bwe buba bwarayobye, ntafata mu mutwe, ibintu bye bihora mu kavuyo ntashobora kubishyira ku murongo. Akenshi asiba ibizami uko yishakiye, n’iyo abikoze, aratsindwa bikabije. Abanywi b’ibiyobyabwenge mu biganiro byabo usanga ari abantu bakoresha imvugo z’urukozasoni. Urumva rero ko baba baritakarije ikizere n’igihugu kiba kitakibatezeho kuzaba abaturage beza bazagiteza imbere. Baba ahubwo bagiye kuzaba umusaraba ku gihugu.

    Umunyamakuru: Ese ubona ari izihe ngamba zafatwa kugira ngo ibiyobyabwenge bicike mu mashuri?

    Gahongayire: Ingamba ya mbere ni ukuganiriza abana bakiri batoya, bakamenya ububi bw’ibiyobyabwenge batarahura n’ababibashoramo. Ubashuka ababwira ko ari byiza, mu mvugo yabo ngo bituma baswingarara, bakagira kime ntihagire uwongera kubasubuta. Ubwo baba bashaka kuvuga ko bibatera umunezero, bakagira n’imbaraga bityo bakaba ibyihazi nyamara umuntu abiterwa no guta ubwenge, yabaye igishushungwe. Kuganiriza abana birareba ababyeyi, ubuyobozi bw’ishuri n’abayobozi b’inzego z’ibanze. Ni ngombwa ko hashakwa umwanya wo kuganiriza abana kuri iki kibazo. Abashinzwe imyitwarire y’abana ku mashuri bakwiye gukurikirana abana, kugira ngo hatagira ugura cyangwa ngo anywe ibiyobyabwenge. Umwana ugaragaweho ko afata ibiyobyabwenge, bagenzi be bakwiye kumugeza ku buyobozi bw’ishuri kugira ngo bumufashe kubireka. Ubuyobozi bw’ishuri bukwiye gushyiraho gahunda y’imikino n’imyidagaduro ku bana, kugira ngo babone ko hari ubundi buryo bwo kwishimisha butari ukujya mu ngeso mbi.

    Umunyamakuru: Turimo dusoza iki kiganiro, ni iki wabwira urubyiruko ruri mu mashuri?

    Gahongayire: Rubyiruko bavandimwe, igihugu cyacu kidutezeho byinshi, ni na yo mpamvu kidutangaho byinshi kugira ngo twige. Twirinde rero kwishora mu biyobyabwenge bitwicira ubuzima. Ibiyobyabwenge bitubuza gukora icyatuzanye ku ishuri. Ibiyobyabwenge bituma ahazaza hacu hangirika. Mureke twirinde ibyo bitindi, ahubwo dushyire umwete mu kwiga kugira ngo tuzabe ingirakamaro, turi ababyeyi beza n’abakozi beza b’igihugu cyacu.

    Umunyamakuru: Urakoze cyane Gahongayi!

    Gahongayire: Nawe urakoze cyane.

    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    • Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome ikiganiro bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko, munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko, hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Ni ikihe cyorezo cyugarije urubyiruko muri iki gihe?

    2. Ni ibihe biyobyabwenge biboneka mu mashuri bivugwa mu mwandiko?

    3. Ni izihe ngaruka zo kunywa ibiyobyabwenge ziboneka mu mwandiko?

    4. Umwanya wo kunywa ibiyobyabwenge abanyeshuri bawubona bate?

    5. Wumva hakorwa iki kugira ngo ibiyobyabwenge bicike mu banyeshuri?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu kiganiro:

    a) Cyahekura

    b) Babaswe

    c) Babitsimba

    d) Bazezengeye

    2. Tanga impuzanyito y’amagambo akurikira:

    a) Kwishora

    b) Umunezero

    c) Yerekeza

    3. Tanga imbusane z’aya magambo:

    a) bakabikirana

    b) aratangira

    c) burahungabana

    4. Koresha buri jambo wahawe mu nteruro wihimbiye:

    a) Kubatwa

    b) Guhekura

    c) Kwishora

    d) Gufogeka

    5. Huza amagambo yo mu ruhushya A n’ibisobanuro byayo biri mu ruhushya B.

    III. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Vuga ingingo z’ingenzi ziboneka mu mwandiko wizwe.

    2. Ukurikije ibivugwa mu mwandiko ni iki wumva wungutse, utari uzi ku biyobyabwenge?

    IV. Umwitozo w’ubumenyi ngiro

    Mu matsinda mwungurane ibitekerezo ku nsanganyamatsiko mwahawe, mwubahiriza uko bikorwa, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Hamwe na bagenzi bawe mwungurane ibitekerezo ku ngaruka zo kunywa ibiyobyabwenge .

    2. Nimushake izindi ngaruka zo kunywa ibiyobyabwenge zitavuzwe mu mwandiko.

    Imvugo z’Ikinyarwanda: Imvugo nyandagazi n’imvugo iboneye

    Soma interuro zikurikira maze uzigereranye ukurikije imvugo yakoreshejwe.

    1 Ubashuka ababwira ko ari sawa, ko bituma baswingarara, ko ubikubiseho agira kime ntihagire uwongera kumumenyera.

    2. Ubashuka ababwira ko ari byiza, ko bituma banezerwa, ko uwabinyoye agira ingufu ntihagire uwongera kumuhangara.

    Murumva izi nteruro zitandukaniye he ukurikije imvugo yakoreshejwe?

    Ururimi ni urusobe rw’amajwi abenegihugu baba barumvikanyeho, bakayakoresha kugira ngo babashe kumvikana. Iyo abantu babiri bavuga ntibumvikane icyo gihe baba bavuga indimi zitandukanye, bityo ubwumvane ntibube bugishobotse. abantu bavuga cyangwa bandika, hari uburyo bakoresha ururimi rimwe na rimwe bakarupfobya ubundi rukaba ruboneye. Ni yo mpamvu mu mvugo abantu bakoresha dushobora gusangamo imvugo nyandagazi n’imvugo iboneye.

    a) Imvugo nyandagazi

    Imvugo nyandagazi ni imvugo ikocamye, iba itubahiriza amategeko y’ikibonezamvugo, imikoreshereze y’amagambo n’inzego z’ubusumbane bw’abavugana kandi ugasanga itubahisha nyiri ukuyikoresha. Umuntu ukoresha imvugo nyandagazi, ushobora gukeka ko nta burere bukwiye yahawe ndetse ko nta muco wo kwiyubaha no kubaha abandi agira.

    Ingero:

    - Umunyeshuri aza yafogetse urumogi mu gikapu ke, yagera ku ishuri akarusiga bagenzi be, na bo bakareba aho barutsimba.

    b) Imvugo iboneye

    Imvugo iboneye ni imvugo yubahiriza amategeko y’ikibonezamvugo. Mu mvugo iboneye dusangamo amagambo aboneye, kandi yubahiriza ubusumbane bw’abavugana ndetse ugasanga yubahisha nyiri ukuyikoresha. Ukoresha imvugo iboneye, wumva yiyubashye, yararezwe kandi afite umuco ndetse ukumva yubashye n’uwo bavugana.

    Urugero:

    - Umunyeshuri aza ku ishuri yahishe urumogi mu gikapu ke, yagera ku ishuri akaruha bagenzi be, na bo bakareba aho baba baruhishe.

    Umwitozo ku mvugo z’Ikinyarwanda

    Mu matsinda ya babiribabiri mukosore mu nteruro imvugo nyandagazi, muzisimbuze imvugo ziboneye.

    1. Kosora izi nteruro ku buryo imvugo nyandagazi zisimbuzwa imvugo iboneye y’Ikinyarwanda.a) Ko uri ku myako ni nde wagusize kashi?b) Amashumi yange yose ntiyakwitera imere nk’iyi ngo abashe gutigita.

    Imyandikire y’Ikinyarwanda: Amagambo akatwa

    Mu Kinyarwanda tugira amoko atandukanye y’amagambo. Ayo magambo iyo yandikwa hari ayandikwa uko yakabaye, hari n’amagambo yandikwa akaswe, ariko nabyo bikagira amabwiriza agomba gukurikizwa igihe hari agomba gukatwa.

    Urugero:

    - Kuganiriza abana birareba ababyeyi, ubuyobozi bw’ishuri n’abayobozi b’inzego z’ibanze. Ibi Gahongayire yabivuze nk’umwana ushaka ko ababyeyi n’abayobozi bita ku bana b’igihugu bari mu mashuri.

    - Ingamba ya mbere ni ukuga-niriza abana bakiri batoya

    Ikata ry’amagambo

    Mu kinyarwanda hari amabwiriza agenga ikata ry’inyajwi zisoza ibinyazina ngenera n’ibyungo “na” na “nka”. Inyajwi zisoza ikinyazina ngenera n’ibyungo “na” na “nka” zirakatwa iyo zikurikiwe n’ijambo ritangiwe n’inyajwi, zigatakaza inyajwi “a” isoza igasimbuzwa agakato (’); ariko inyajwi isoza ikinyazina ngenera gikurikiwe n’umubare wanditswe mu mibarwa ntikatwa.

    Mu Kinyarwanda kandi iyo ijambo ritarangiranye n’impera y’umurongo rirakatwa; bigakorwa hakurikijwe imiterere y’umugemo.

    Ingero:

    - Wakomerekejwe n’iki?

    - Ntakibyara nk’intare n’ingwe.

    - Umwaka w’ibihumbi bibiri na cumi n’itandatu

    - Umwaka wa 2016

    - Ni ngombwa ko hashakwa umwanya wo kuganiriza aba-na kuri iki kibazo.

    Umwitozo ku ikatwa ry’amagambo

    Umunyeshuri umwumwe atege amatwi umwarimu, akore icyandikwa yubahiriza imyandikire yemewe y’Ikinyarwanda.

    Tega amatwi umwarimu hanyuma wandike interuro akubwira wubahiriza amategeko y’imyandikire y’ikinyarwanda.

    Inshamake y’ibyizwe mu mutwe wa munani

    Muri uyu mutwe twasesenguye imyandiko ivuga ku nsanganyamatsiko y’ibiyobyabwenge, dusanga ko ubuzima bw’abanyeshuri banywa ibiyobyabwenge buhungabana cyane ntibashobore kwiga neza aho kugira ikinyabupfura bakarangwa n’imyitwarire mibi ku ishuri, basuzugura abarezi, barwana na bagenzi babo, bakiba ndetse bakanishora mu busambanyi. Ibiyobyabwenge byangiza ubwonko bw’umunyeshuri ntiyongere kugira ibitekerezo by’abantu bazima, ubwenge bwe bukayoba, ntabashe gufata mu mutwe.

    Twavuze ku ngamba zafatwa mu rwego rwo kurwanya ibyo biyobyabwenge, zirimo kuganiriza abakiri bato bakamenya ububi bw’ibiyobyabwenge batari bahura n’ababibashoramo. Ababyeyi, abarezi n’ubuyobozi bw’ishuri bagomba gukurikiranira hafi abanyeshuri kandi n’abanyeshuri ubwabo bagashyira imbere gusa amasomo bagatera umugongo ingeso zibashora mu biyobyabwenge. Twavuze ku mvugo z’ikinyarwanda dusanga imvugo nyandagazi ari imvugo itubahiriza amategeko y’ikibonezamvugo kandi ntiyubahishe nyiri ukuyikoresha; mu gihe imvugo iboneye ari imvugo yubahiriza amategeko y’ikibonezamvugo kandi ikubahisha uyikoresha, inagaragaza ko uyikoresha yiyubashye kandi akubaha uwo avugisha.

    Mu rwego rwo kunoza imyandikire, twabonye ko inyajwi zisoza ikinyazina ngenera n’ibyungo “na” na “nka” zikatwa, iyo zikurikiwe n’ijambo ritangiwe n’inyajwi. Iyo kandi ijambo ritarangiranye n’impera y’umurongo rikatwa hubahirijwe umugemo.

    Iby’ingenzi nshoboye

    - Gushishikarira kwamaganira kure ibiyobyabwenge no kumenyekanisha ababikoresha n’ababicuruza mu rwego rwo kubikumira.

    - Kunenga no kujora imvugo n’inyandiko nyandagazi.

    - Kunoza imyandikire nkata amagambo neza nubahirije amabwiriza agenga ikata ry’amagambo.

    Isuzuma risoza umutwe wa munani

    Isuzumwa rikorwa n’abanyeshuri bose kandi buri munyeshuri agakora ku giti ke yubahiriza amabwiriza yahawe.

    Umwandiko: Ingaruka z’ibiyobyabwenge

    Abantu bakoresha ibiyobyabwenge usanga abenshi biganje mu rubyiruko. Ndetse ibiyobyabwenge nk’ikintu gishobora gutuma ubwenge bw’umuntu buyoba bigomba kwirindwa. Hari abakoresha ibiyobyabwenge bidahanirwa nk’inzoga zinyuranye n’itabi, abandi bagafata ibitemewe bihanirwa n’amategeko nka kokayine, heroyine, urumogi, kanyanga, nyirantare, muriture, yewemuntu, kore, lisansi, n’ibindi. Gusa twakwibaza niba bose bazi ingaruka zabyo?

    Mu ngaruka zo kunywa ibiyobyabwenge iya mbere ni uko byigarurira umuntu ku buryo umubiri we ubimenyera ubwonko bwe bukiyoborerwa na byo. Umuntu ugeze kuri uru rwego aba agenda asatira urupfu, kuko gukomeza kubinywa bishobora kumwica ariko kandi no guhita abireka bishobora kumwica. Ni yo mpamvu kwitoza kunywa ibiyobyabwenge ari ukwirahuriraho umuriro. Cyakora bene uwo muntu inama agirwa niba ashaka kureka ibiyobyabwenge yagenda abireka buhorobuhoro kugeza igihe abiviriyeho burundu. Kutitoza gufata ibiyobyabwenge ni yo nama yagirwa abakiri bazima kugira ngo birinde kubatwa na byo.

    Izindi ngaruka zigaragarira mu bikorwa by’abanywa ibiyobyabwenge cyanecyane iyo bamaze kubyiyahuza. Muri izo ngaruka twavugamo ingo zitabarika zimaze gusenyuka kubera ko umwe mu bashakanye yokamwe n’ibiyobyabwenge. Abantu bicwa cyangwa bamugazwa n’abanywi b’ibiyobyabwenge na bo nibenshi, impanuka zo mu mihanda zikorwa n’ababa banyoye ibiyobyabwenge nazo ntizigira ingano. Hari izibasira ubuzima bw’abantu, ibiti by’amashanyarazi, ibiti by’umurimbo biteye ku nkengero z’imihanda, inzu zisenyuka, byose ahanini ni ingaruka z’ibiyobyabwenge.

    Ingaruka iteye agahinda ni igaragara mu rubyiruko kandi ari rwo Rwanda rw’ejo. Hari abana batiga neza cyangwa bagata ishuri kubera ko iwabo batabitaho, ntibababonere ibyangombwa nyamara bakamarira ubutunzi bwabo mu biyobyabwenge. Hari abandi barita kubera ko bo ubwabo bandujwe n’umuryango babamo na bo bagahinduka abanywi b’ibiyobyabwenge. Ahazaza ha bene abo bana ntihashobora kuba heza na mba. Niba nta kizere cy’ahazaza h’urubyiruko rero, ahazaza h’igihugu haba hari kure nk’ukwezi.

    Ntitwabura kuvuga kandi ko ibiyobyabwenge bigira ingaruka ku buzima bw’ababikoresha. Ibiyobyabwenge bitera indwara zidakira ababikoresha, bishobora gutuma udutsi two mu bwonko duturika bigatera indwara yo guta umutwe izwi nk’ibisazi, indwara zinyuranye za kanseri, indwara zifata imyanya y’ubuhumekero n’izindi. Ibiyobyabwenge kandi biza ku isonga kuri bimwe mu bitera kwishora mu mibonano mpuzabitsina, bityo uwabinyoye akaba yakwandura indwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina.

    Nk’uko bigaragara rero, ibiyobyabwenge bigira ingaruka zinyuranye, haba mu mibanire y’abantu, mu bukungu no mu mibereho y’abantu ku giti cyabo. Twese nk’abitsamuye duhagurukire kubirwanya cyanecyane mu rubyiruko rwo mizero y’ejo hazaza. Ndetse dushishikarire kuba intumwa zitangaza ingaruka z’ibiyobyabwenge aho biva bikagera.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko

    1. Rondora ibiyobyabwenge bivugwa mu mwandiko.

    2. Vuga ingaruka zo kunywa ibiyobyabwenge zigaragara mu mwandiko.

    3. Shaka mu mwandiko ingingo umwanditsi ahuriraho n’abacuze ijambo “ibiyobyabwenge.

    4. Ni ubuhe buryo bwo kurwanya ibiyobyabwenge buvugwa mu mwandiko?

    5. Ese wowe wumva hakorwa iki ngo ibiyobyabwenge bicike burundu?

    6. Ese nta zindi uzi wavuga?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura aya magambo ukurikije uko yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Gusatira

    b) Kumugaza

    c) Kwirahuriraho

    d) Ahazaza.

    2. Tanga impuzanyito z’aya magambo:

    a) Kugera (ahantu)

    b) Kugushac) ingaruka

    3. Tanga imbusane z’aya magambo:

    a) Zasenyutse

    b) Kureka

    c) Kugusha

    III. Ubumenyi bw’ururimi

    1. Kosora imyandikire mu nteruro zikurikira:

    a) Uno mugabo na umuhungu we ni abanyarwenya pe!

    b) Inyamaswa zinkazi nka intare ningwe ziba mu ishyamba

    c) Urubyiruko rugomba kwirinda ingeso mbi nibiyibyabwenge.

    2. Tandukanya imvugo nyandagazi n’imvugo iboneye, unatange ingero ebyiri kuri buri mvugo

    IV. Ihangamwandiko

    1. Hanga umwandiko uvuga ku nsanganyamatsiko y’ingaruka z’ibiyobyabwenge mu rubyiruko, wirinde gukoresha imvugo nyandagazi.


  • UMUTWE WA 9: Iterambere



    Ibishyimbo


    Reka ndate izina igishyimbo

    Nkivuge cyane kiradutunze

    Ni cyo kiribwa kitajya kibuza

    Gutegurwa n’Abanyarwanda.

    Ameza atariho Rumaragishyika

    Mutiki cyangwa se Munteri

    Ntajya atera ipfa abayasanga.

    Ni ikiribwa gihatse ibindi

    Ntibyamanuka bitakiruzi

    N’aho byajya ntibyatuza.


    Inzara iyo iteye ufite ibishyimbo

    Inzira ijya iwawe iba Rudacibwa

    Abawe bakayibona ibebera

    Na yo ibarebera kure cyane

    Isoni ziyishe, ifite ikimwaro.


    Burya ibishyimbo tubona iwacu

    Hamwe n’izindi ngandurarugo

    Ni byo birwanya inzara mu bantu.

    Nitubihinga bihimbaje

    Inzara ntizatugerera mu ngo.


    Ibikorwa ku mwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane, musome umwandiko bucece mugerageza gusubiza ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko,munashake ibisobanuro by’amagambo mashya mubona mu mwandiko,hanyuma muze guhuriza hamwe ibyo mwagezeho.

    • Umwumwe soma umwandiko uranguruye, usimburana na mugenzi wawe igika ku gika kandi abanyeshuri bose basome.

    I. Ibibazo byo kumva umwandiko

    1. Vuga amoko y’ibishyimbo avugwa mu mwandiko.

    2. Ni iki kigaragara mu mwandiko kerekana ko Abanyarwanda barya ibishyimbo cyane?

    3. Mu kurwanya inzara, abantu bifashisha iki?

    4. Ni iki umusizi asaba abantu gukora? Ese wowe wumva ari ngombwa koko? Sobanura impamvu.

    5. Hari aho umusizi yavuze ati: “N’izindi ngandurarugo.” Bisobanuye iki?

    II. Inyunguramagambo

    1. Sobanura amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:

    a) Ipfa

    b) Gihatse

    c) Ntibyamanuka

    d) Ibebera

    2. Tanga impuzanyito z’aya magambo:

    a) Bitakiruzi

    b) Inzara

    c) Birwanya

    3. Tanga imbusane z’aya magambo:

    a) Atera

    b) Isoni

    c) Iwacu

    4. Shaka amazina icumi y’ibihingwa ngandurarugo mu kinyatuzu gikurikira, usoma mu butambike, mu buhagarike cyangwa uberamisha:

    III. Ibibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko

    Mu matsinda ya banebane muvumbure ingingo z’ingenzi n’iz’ingereka zigize umwandiko, musubize n’ibindi bibazo byo gusesengura umwandiko, hanyuma muhurize hamwe ibyo mwagezeho mu matsinda.

    1. Uyu mwandiko ni bwoko ki? Sobanura impamvu uwise utyo.

    2. Ibihingwa babishyira mu matsinda abiri iyo bitaye ku mumaro wabyo. Iyo usomye uyu mwandiko usanga umusizi avuga ku buhe bwoko bw’ibihingwa?Kuki babyise gutyo.

    3. Ni iki ubona umuhinzi w’ibishyimbo yakora kugira ngo agire umusaruro utubutse

    Ibihingwa ngandurarugo