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  • Key unit competence:

    To be able to communicate in the context of tourism and the environment in Rwanda.


    A Reading and comprehension

    Activity 1: Pre-reading

    Discuss the following questions;

    1. What is a national park?

    2. Mention the national parks found in Rwanda and what we find there.

    3. What is the importance of national parks to Rwandans?

    Activity 2: Fill in

    Fill in the gaps in the story with appropriate words in the box below.

    Parks all visit in which favorable natural on makes through helps highest a number inhabited place located covered when loved thing the source

    Activity 3:Comprehension

    1. What makes the features described in the passage beautiful?

    2. Compare and contrast Volcanoes, Akagera National parks and Nyungwe forest. Use the Venn diagram below:

    i. In each circle, put the characteristics not in others circle. In the intersections, show similarities between

    ii. Akagera and Volcanoes

    iii. Volcanoes and Nyungwe

    iv. Akagera and Nyungwe                   

    v. For all the three (Akagera, Nyungwe and Volcanoes)

    3. What do both humans and non-human creatures benefit from natural forests?

    4. List at least four countries that benefit from the River Nile and how they benefit from it.

    B. Improve your vocabulary

    Activity 4:Vocabulary

    Give the meaning of the following words used in the text.

    i. numerous

    ii. terrain

    iii. mountain range

    iv. grassland

    v. jungles

    vi. botanists

    vii. attractive

    Spelling rules for the past simple of regular verbs:

    a. If a regular verb ends in consonant + y change y to i and add -ed:

    Example: carry - carried, study - studied, fry - fried, try – tried

    b. If a one syllable regular verb ends in consonant + vowel + consonant double the final consonant and add -ed .

    c. Example: Stop - stopped, plan - planned, rob - robbed, beg – begged

    d. If a regular verb has more than one syllable and ends in consonant + vowel + consonant, we double the final consonant only if the final syllable is stressed.

    Example: preFER - preferred, regRET – regrettede. Exception: In British English verbs ending in -l have -ll before -ed whether the final syllable is stressed or not -travel – travelled

    Activity 5: Spelling

    Correct the spelling of the following past simple verbs

    1. Cutted                     2. Marryed                                3. Prefer                      4. Singed                     5. Caryied

    6. Leveled                  7. Playied                                 8. Prayied                     9. Cram                      10. Drum

    11. Trap                     12. Bringed                              13. Cryed                     14. Fryed                     15. Marvel

    16. Stage                  17. Unemployied                      18. Beleived                 19. Recieved               20. Transmited

    C. Listening and speaking:

    Pronunciation of final “-ed” (regular verbs):

    a. After an unvoiced consonant sound (sh/ s / ch / p / k / f ) we pronounce /t/: wash (/sh/) - washed (/t/); kiss (/s/) - kissed (/t/); work (/k/) - worked (/t/); hope (/p/) - hoped (/t/); laugh (/f/) - laughed (/t/)

    b. After a vowel and voiced consonant sounds we pronounce /d/: phone (/n/) - phoned (/d/); judge (/dg/) - judged (/d/); turn (/n/) - turned (/d/); play (/ei/) - played (/d/); fol-low (/ou/) - followed (/d/)

    c. After /t/ and /d/ sounds we pronounce /-id/: visit (/t/) - visited (/id/); start (/t/) - start-ed (/id/); need (/d/) - needed (/id/)

    Activity 6:Pronunciation of (-ed)

    Put the regular verbs below in the column which corresponds with their past tense sound in table B

    D. Writing Practice

    Activity 7:Writing a brochure

    Write a brochure advertising the beauty of national parks in Rwanda to tourists. Include the following:

    a. Main page with a title, pictures and introductory words.

    b. In other pages, show attractions like animals, birds, hotels etc

    c. Give a description of each picture in the brochure.

    d. Last page can include prices of products and services.


    When to use the simple past

    Activity 1: Context Exercise:

    Put the verbs in the past simple tense of the events which took place yesterday.


    Activity 1:Pre-reading

    Discuss with your partner the effects of climate change on wildlife

    A Reading comprehension

    If Earth’s climate continues to change as scientists predict it will, the national parks will be impact-ed like the rest of the planet. Glaciers may melt away, as indeed they are at Glacier National Park in Montana. Fire seasons may grow in length and severity, and the landscapes may affect parks’ wild residents. If nothing is done, the same calamity will befall other National Parks of many countries.

    Changes in temperature and rainfall can push species away from their previous natural habitats. When they move, they end up heading to places that are not protected and face the risk of being killed for various purposes.

    Some parks are already feeling drier these days, due to increasing human demand for water supply on which aquatic species depend. Animals lack sufficient supply of water and migrate to neighboring places with water.

    Pollution of both air and water are another danger to our national parks. When human beings pol-lute the environment, animals end up becoming victims. The water drunk by animals will be contaminated hence causing diseases to animals.

    Finally, human activities like cultivating, hunting, mining and road construction greatly affect National Parks. All these activities mean destroying part of the natural habitat for animals inhabiting them causing some to die and others to migrate.

    Activity 2: Comprehension

    1. Outline the problems faced by National Parks.

    2. Give two examples of National Parks in Rwanda already affected by these problems.

    3. In your own words explain how human actions have affected the climate and National Parks?

    4. How will Rwanda be affected in case animals like Gorillas migrate to neighboring countries?

    5. What should be done to stop the problems faced by national parks?

    B. Improve your vocabulary

    Activity 3: Matching

    Match words with their synonyms

    C. Listening and speaking

    Reciting a poem about nature

    Activity 4:Discussing poetry

    Read the poem and discuss the characteristics about nature you have liked in the poem.

    Poem: God the Artist

    D. Writing practice:

    Activity 5: Formal letter writing

    Imagine you have received a letter from Kabatesi, an English teacher at GS Gahini, in Kayonza, Eastern province. In the letter, she explains that she and a group of her students are planning to visit the national museum in Butare, southern province. Because they want to see a variety of historical, cultural, natural, and recreational sites, they have decided to continue to Nyungwe forest. She and her students want to know what they should see and do in the different sites. Write a response to her letter giving her and her students a clear description of what to see and do in one of the sites.


    • Introduce yourself and write a little about yourself.

    • Give a detailed description of what she and her students should see and do in the site you choose.

    • Answer the students’ questions.

    • Write at least 225 words or 25 sentences.

    • You may want to mention your personal experiences if you have visited the place you choose to describe.

    • You might also want to mention what the students should bring on their trip.


    Modal verbs are used for various purposes. In this lesson, modal verbs are used for deductions and predictions of people’s visit to the national park. The structure of modal verbs differs depending on the tense.


    Activity 1: Matching

    Match the halves of sentences on the left with those on the right:

    Activity 2: Gap fill

    Fill in the correct form of the modal from the list below. There may be more than one correct answer.

    Activity 3: Function of modal verbs

    Read the paragraph below, then answer the questions that follow.

    I borrowed a video game from a friend last week. He told me I needn’t give it back right away. I started playing it immediately, and I just couldn’t stop! I’m still playing it now, although I really should be doing other things. I can’t stop playing. My friends tell me that I must stop and study for a chemistry exam. I’m not so good at chemistry and I might fail the exam if I don’t study. Would somebody please give me some advice? I mustn’t fail my exam, or I will fail the course entirely, but I don’t know how to control myself !


    A Reading comprehension

    Activity 1: Pre-reading

    Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:

    When the buffalo herd first started crossing the road in front of him, Moses couldn’t believe his good luck. They looked charming and peaceful. Moses was on his vacation with his friend and his teacher Juliet. They were taking a long road trip through Akagera national park, eastern province. The trip had frankly been feeling boring and monotonous lately. Moses thought that getting the opportunity to observe wild buffaloes up close might be just what was needed to rescue today’s drive from the unhappiness.

    Watching the herd wander slowly across the road was breath-taking and a lot of fun for Moses and his company. None of them had ever seen a hairy, majestic beast up close before. They’d seen a few sad, moping specimens in a zoo once, but they’d been forced to observe those awkward animals from the far side of a massive paddock. There was more of a sense of immediacy today, more of a feeling of excitement.

    After a few minutes, however, Moses had had enough. He was ready to get going once again. Unfortunately, the buffalo had other plans. They continued to walk across the road as slowly as snails. By the time the last of them had moved away from the road an hour later, Moses had seen enough buffaloes to last him a lifetime.

    Activity 2:Comprehension questions

    1. Moses and his friends see the buffalo while

    a. Driving to visit Moses’ grand parents

    b. On a road tripc. Driving to the zoo

    2. Why is Moses sick of the buffalo by the end of the story?

    a. He has been forced to watch them for too long

    b. He decides that they aren’t so majestic after all.

    c. He realizes that buffalo don’t smell very good.

    3. If something is monotonous, it is

    a. Exciting and fast-paced

    b. Tedious and boring

    c. Overly long.

    4. The first time Moses saw a buffalo he was

    a. On a road trip with his family

    b. At a buffalo farm

    c. At a zoo

    5. Based on the story, Moses seems to be the type of person who

    a. Likes excitement

    b. Prefers calm and relaxing activities.

    c. Does not like animals.

    6. Discuss how the encounter with buffaloes made Moses’ journey bad.

    7. Why do you think Moses and the friends were bored before meeting the buffaloes?

    B. Improve your vocabulary

    Activity 3:Matching exercise

    Using a dictionary, match the words with their synonyms

    C. Listening and speaking

    Activity 4:Discussion

    1. What is the importance of Akagera National Park to the development of the country?

    2. Do you think the government should spend a lot of money on the National Park or use the land for industries?

    3. What should be done to stop people from killing animals?

    D. Writing practice

    Activity 5:Writing a leaflet

    Make an information leaflet for people wanting to visit an area in the countryside.

    You should include:

    • Where it is located.

    • What the local attractions are and information about them.

    • What activities you can do there.


    General points

    There are two common ways to tell somebody (report) people’s words, thoughts etc. These are direct speech and reported speech. Direct speech is when we use the exact words that were said. Indirect speech is used when restating what another person said using one’s own words.

    Form of indirect speech

    Activity 1 Board game

    Make reported speech of the questions in the board game below. You should be fast enough to complete the whole cycle. The group which finishes first and has all the answers correct is the winner.

    When changing sentences from direct to reported speech, tenses are usually back-shifted. Answer the complete sentences in the table.

    Activity 2.

    Change the sentences below from direct to indirect speech without changing the meaning.

    1. They said, “It will be hot tomorrow.”They said (that)...

    2. Mother said, “I am busy.”Mother said (that)...

    3. She told the police: “I have heard strange noises during the night.”She told the police (that)...

    4. Mbabazi said, “I go to school by train.”Mbabazi said (that)...

    5. Mushikiwabo said, “My father likes sweets.”Mushikiwabo said (that)...

    6. She told me, “I have been on the phone with my friend for two hours.”She told me (that)...

    7. Kabatesi said, “I have known the telephone number of my friend Mugisha but I can’t remem-ber it now.”Kabatesi said (that)...

    8. Mugisha told me, “I will spend my holidays in Paris next year.”Mugisha told me (that)...

    9. Bagabo told me, “I went to a birthday party last night.”Bagabo told me (that)...

    10. Tom said, “I am revising for the history test.”Tom said (that)...

    Place, demonstratives and time expressions

    Activity 3

    1. He told me, “We have been dancing all the time during the camp.”He told me (that)...

    2. Mum asked me, “Have you seen my daughter anywhere near the hotel?”Mum asked me...

    3. He asked me, “Who has cleaned the swimming pool?”He asked me...

    4. Manirakoze said, “I always eat wild fruits in the morning when I visit Kinigi.”Manirakoze said (that)...

    5. He told her, “Give up smoking!”He told her...

    6. Father said, “Mum is tired now. She has climbed a high mountain.”Father said (that)...

    7. Nyiramukwaya asked me, “Were you at the party, too?”Nyiramukwaya asked me...

    8. He said to me, “I have been waiting for you for an hour.”He said (that)...

    9. Akariza asked Kate, “Did you really write this story?”Akariza asked Kate...

    10. Kayezu asked, “Who has taken my ruler?”Kayezu asked...

    Unit summary

    This unit talks about the environment and tourism in Rwanda. The lessons in this unit are intended to help you appreciate the beauty of your country and how you can protect its environment. The effects of environmental damage are becoming a major concern in the world and require the effort of all of us. This unit also handled language expressions that will help you in subjects like geography and in the world of work related to tourism and environment.

    Unit test

    Earth Day is a day that is intended to inspire awareness and appreciation for the Earth’s natural environment. On April 22, 1970, people all over the country made promises to help the environment and the tradition continues. April 22, 2012 marked the 42nd anniversary of the first Earth Day. Earth Day is now coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network, and is celebrated in more than 175 countries every year.

    There are so many ways to celebrate the Earth every day, but many like to take that extra step and do a little something more for the Earth on April 22 by planting a tree or participating in a community clean-up event. Planting trees helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce pollution, secure the soil in place to prevent erosion, and provides homes for a lot of biodiversity. The San Die-go County chapter of the Surf rider Foundation coordinates beach clean-ups three times a month, including a North County beach, Moonlight Beach and a beach in South County.

    Appreciate the Earth everyday by recycling, starting a compost pile, take public transportation, carpool, replace light bulbs with energy efficient bulbs, donate old electronics instead of throwing them away, recycle as much as possible.


    1. What is the aim of celebrating the Earth Day?

    2. When did people start celebrating it?

    3. How many countries celebrate it?

    4. What can people do to protect the Earth?

    5. What is the importance of planting trees?

    Find the equivalent words/expressions among the underlined ones in the text.

    1. Arrangement to share cars to and from work _________________________________

    2. Gradual destruction and removal of rock or soil by rivers, sea or weather ______________

    3. Act of making something clean __________

    4. Heap of decayed plant materials used as organic fertilizer _____________________

    5. Making something new from used materials _______________________________

    6. Gaseous compound that absorbs infrared radiation, and traps heat in the atmosphere ________

    Fill in the gaps with given words to complete the story about an African Elephant.

    Improve your vocabulary

    Word search

    Search for at least five words related to national parks or the environment from the table below:

    Word search

    Label: 1
  • Key unit competence:

    To use language learnt in the context of the internet and the media


    A Reading comprehension

    Activity 1: Pre-reading

    Answer the questions below:

    1. What is the internet?
    2. What is the importance of the internet to a student?
    3. Sometimes, the internet has negative effects on the community.Explain at least five effects of the internet.

    Internet at school

    Twenty years ago, students in school had never even heard of the internet. Now, I’ll bet you can’t find a single person in your school who hasn’t at least heard of it. In fact, many of us use it on a regular basis and even have access to it from our homes! The ‘net’ in internet really stands for network. A network is two or more computers connected together so that information can be shared, or sent from one computer to another. The internet is a vast resource for all types of information. You may enjoy using it to do research for a school project, downloading your favorite songs or communicating with friends and family.


    Information is accessed through web pages that companies, organizations, and individuals create and post.It’s like a place where the whole world meets! But since anyone can put anything on the internet, you also have to be careful and use your best judgment and a little common sense. Just because you read something on a piece of paper someone sticks on a notice board doesn’t mean it is good information, or even correct, for that matter. So you have to be sure that whoever posted the information knows what they’re talking about, especially if you’re doing research! But what if you’re just emailing people? You still have to be very careful.
    If you’ve never met the person that you’re communicating with online, you could be on dangerous ground! You should never give out any personal information to someone you don’t know, not even your name!
    And just as you can’t believe the information on every website out there, you can’t rely on what strangers you ‘meet’ on the internet tell you either. Just like, you could make up things about yourself to tell someone else could do the same to you!

    Activity 2: Comprehension

    1. What does the term ‘net’ in the word internet stand for?
    2. What is a network according to the passage?
    3. What can students use the internet for?
    4. What can music lovers use the internet for?
    5. How is information accessed on the internet?
    6. Why should you not trust everything you find on the internet?
    7. How can you decide if the information on the internet can be trusted?
    8. What is ONE thing you should not do when communicating with someone you don’t know online?

    B. Improve your vocabulary

    Activity 3: Matching

    Match the words on the left with the ones on the right.

    C. Listening and speaking

    Activity 4: Discussion

    1. “Students should be allowed to use mobile phones in the classroom in order to use the internet to do research.” Do you agree or disagree with the policy? Give reasons.

    D. Writing practice

    Activity 5: Writing a poster

    Write a poster to be put on the notice board sensitizing the school community on the use of the internet.

    Include the following:
    • The title of the notice.
    • The key points about use of the internet.
    • A picture showing the effects of misuse of the internet.


    A Reading comprehension

    Activity 1: Gap fill

    Activity 2: Comprehension

    1. List the social media listed in this passage.
    2. Which social media has the biggest number of subscribers?
    3. What is the difference between how males and females manage their privacy?
    4. Why do you think women are more cautious of those they send messages to?
    5. Which social networks are commonly used in Rwanda? List them in order
    .6. What are the problems caused by social networks like Facebook and Whats App in Rwanda?
    7. Why do you think few women are on social networks in your community?
    8. What are the advantages of belonging to social networks?
    9. Suggest ways that social media can be used to benefit the society.

    Activity 3: True/False

    Answer true or false for the statements below:

    1. A new report says women are more reluctant to join social media sites.
    2. A research center questioned over 2,200 people about social media.
    3. Facebook is experiencing opposite success to MySpace.
    4. Eleven per cent of those questioned said they use Twitter.
    5. It is more probable for a man to delete friends on social media sites than a woman.
    6. Men are more likely to have posted something they now regret.
    7. The report says women share information more freely than men.
    8. The report says men use more privacy settings than women.

    B: Improve your vocabulary

    Activity 4: Matching

    Match the words with their synonyms below:

    C: Listening and speaking

    Activity 5

    Write five good questions about the internet in the table. Each student must write the questions in his/her own book and ask classmates to give answers.

    Remember the correct formats of questions:

    • Auxiliary + subject + (main verb) + predicate. E.g. Do you call friends every day?
    • “Wh” word +auxiliary +subject/ predicate. E.g. What is a network?

    Now return to your original group and share and talk about what you found out.

    D: Writing Practice

    Activity 6:Writing a survey report

    Study the pie chart below and write a report on the use of the internet.

    Follow the tips below:

    a. Write a title (what the pie chart shows).

    b. First paragraph, summarize the most important information.

    c. Paragraph two, compare in detail showing lowest and highest, differences etc. use expressions like “while....”, “whereas.....”, “however...”

    d. Conclude by giving predictions, opinions or suggestions based on the data.



    A Reading comprehension

    Activity 1: Pre-reading

    Read the story below and answer the questions about it

    Mukandayisenga Peace is a journalist. She works for The New times, a daily newspaper. It has inter-net and print versions in Rwanda published locally and is one of the most widely read newspaper in the country.

    Peace writes on the gender page of the newspaper. She is studying her master’s degree, so she doesn’t work in the newspaper office every day. She works at home using her computer. Every morning she checks her e-mail messages. She switches on her computer and her modem and opens her Gmail. This is the e-mail program that Peace uses.

    She downloads her e-mail messages. She usually receives about twenty messages every day. Most of the messages come from the ministry of Gender office, but she also gets messages from friends and colleagues around the world. They send messages to her e-mail address. Sometimes they send messages with attachments.

    Peace can open these attachments and see the texts, pictures or listen to the recordings. Peace’s e-mail address is If you have a good story on gender, which you want to publish, or anything you want to know, you can use her email address.

    Activity 2:Comprehension

    1. What are the things one can do with the internet according to the passage?
    2. In your opinion, how is the internet contributing to Peace’s personal development?
    3. Which problems would Peace face if she didn’t know how to use the internet?
    4. What are the social benefits of using the internet according to the text?
    5. Many mothers are affected during maternity; how can the internet solve some of their problems?

    B: Improve your vocabulary

    Activity 3.Matching

    Match the words with their meanings

    C: Listening and speaking

    Activity 4: Role of the internet

    A member of your class believes the internet promotes immorality while another believes it does not. Take a few minutes talking about this with your partner one supporting the idea while another opposing that the internet promotes immorality and share your ideas with the class.

    D: Writing practice

    Activity 5: Formal letters

    Use the words below to write a formal letter to the ministry of education advising them on how to promote the use of the internet among women in your community.


    Exercise:Change the direct question into an indirect question. Use ‘Could you tell me’:

    1. Can she use the phone at school?
    2. When can they come to see us?
    3. Ought I go to work tomorrow yet it is public holiday?
    4. Why must she be punished for using a mobile phone?
    5. Must James call you whenever he wants to come?
    6. Why should I give you my phone number?
    7. How can one call an international number?
    8. Will you help me and call my parents using your phone?
    9. Can I use MTN or TIGO to call your parents?
    10. Could you speak slowly when calling?


    A: Reading comprehension

    Activity 1: Pre-reading

    How could students increase their academic performance? Complete this table with your partner(s) by giving two points each. Change partners often and share what you wrote.

    Read the article from “The Newtimes” and answer the questions that follow:

    Dear Dennis,
    Since cell phones have come into widespread use in the past two decades or so, many studies have been conducted on possible health hazards. Mobile phones work through radio waves. Thus keeping mobile phones over the body or holding them close to the body for a long time while talking for a long time, carries a potential risk of radio waves being absorbed by body and causing health hazards. The SAR is Specific Absorption Rates of electromagnetic radiation absorbed by the body while using a cell phone is a measurement of how safe a cell phone is. The safety limit as set by SAR measurements is said to be 1.5 Watts/Kg as in the US. This translates to talking for 6 minutes at one time and about 20 minutes a day. Mobile companies have been asked to display SAR on their phones but not all are complying with it.

    The principle risk of using mobile phones is said to be an increase in cancers, particularly brain tumors. However, some studies disprove it. Mobile phones can also cause muscular pains, cancers, dry eyes, glaucoma (increased pressure within the eyes) and damage to brain. Children are more prone to health hazards because of the developing immature body. Researchers also claim that it may cause infertility after long term use. The danger is not only with the mobile phones but towers as well. People living within 50-200 meters vicinity of a mobile tower are said to have greater risk of developing cancer, due to greater exposure to radiation.

    Mobile phones add to noise pollution, which in turn can cause many health problems like tinnitus dizziness, reduced hearing, irritability, early fatigue. A mobile phone may pass through many hands and thus become a source of spread of infections like flu, respiratory tract infections including TB and even skin diseases which are contagious.

    The best way is to use the mobile phone discretely, i.e, only when necessary and not to carry it on your body if possible. It can be put in a bag or purse to be retrieved when needed.

    Activity 2: Comprehension

    1. Give a suitable title to this article.
    2. What makes mobile phones dangerous to human life?
    3. Give one danger of mobile phones to the environment as mentioned in the article.
    4. How do mobile phones cause cancer?
    5. Which solution is suggested in this article?

    B: Improve you vocabulary

    Activity 3: Vocabulary

    What do the following words mean as used in the article?

    i. widespread
    ii. decades
    iii. health hazards
    iv. muscular pains
    v. vicinity
    vi. respiratory tract infections
    vii. discretely

    C: Listening and speaking

    Activity 4: A survey about mobile and internet use

    A survey is a list of questions aimed at getting specific data for a particular group of people. Surveys can be conducted by phone, internet or face-to-face. Surveys help us to have deeper understanding of what we are analyzing. E.g one can count the number of cars on the street per hour to know the causes of traffic.

    Choose questions from below or write five of your own survey questions. Then talk to five students and write their responses.

    1. How many text messages do you send per day?
    2. Do you like Facebook?
    3. What do you use your mobile phone for mainly?
    a. make phone calls                              b. send text messages
    c. connect to the Internet                      d. other
    4. What program or application do you like now?
    5. Where do you upload photos (ie. Facebook, email etc)

    Write a short report after you have talked to five people.

    For example:

    Most students send about 5 text messages per day. Some students said they love Facebook and use it every day. A few students said Facebook is a waste of time. One student said____, etc.


    Activity 1: Context

    Fill in the gaps with conditional type two of the words in brackets and present to the class.Two tramps, Eugene and Sergio, were lying in the sun

    Activity 2 IF2 context

    Using the words in brackets, complete the text below with the appropriate conditional form of the verbs

    Unit summary

    In this unit you have seen the use of information technology such as mobile phones and the internet for various purposes such as studying and doing business. The language used will help you have basic vocabulary used with ICT in everyday situations. In this unit you have also been cautioned on how to use the internet to avoid hackers and other bad things.

    Unit test

    Reading comprehension

    The digital landscape has put increased pressure on teenagers today, and we feel it. There are so many social media channels: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, Tumblr, you name it. I made a conscious decision to avoid Snapchat and Instagram because of the social pressure I saw them putting on my 14-year-old little sister. If my mum turned off the WiFi at 11pm, my sister would beg me to turn my phone into a hotspot. She always needed to load her Snapchat stories one more time, or to reply to a message that had come in two minutes ago because she didn’t want her friend to feel ignored. If I refused, saying she could respond in the morning, I’d get the “You’re ruining my social life” speech. Even as a teenager as well, I sometimes find this craze a little baffling.

    A new study has found that teenagers who engage with social media during the night could be damaging their sleep and increasing their risk of anxiety and depression. Teenagers spoke about the pressure they felt to make themselves available 24/7 and the resulting anxiety if they did not respond immediately to texts or posts. Teens are so emotionally invested in social media that a fifth of secondary school pupils will wake up at night and log on just to make sure they don’t miss out. Perhaps the worst thing about this is that teenagers need more sleep than adults do, so night-time social media use could be harmful to their health. A lack of sleep can make teenagers tired, bad-tempered, and depressed.

    During the summer holidays, I lost my phone. And for the week that I was phoneless, it felt like a disaster. I love my phone. It gives me quick access to information and allows me to be constantly connected with my friends, to know exactly what is going on in their lives. So when I didn’t have my phone for a week, I felt a slight sense of boredom. By the end of the week, I’d got used to not having a phone and I quite enjoyed the break from social media. But there was still a remaining sense of sadness at the back of my mind that there would be conversations I had missed, messages that had been sent, funny videos shared and night-time chats that I would probably never get to see.

    By June Eric Udorie

    QUESTIONS:Read the text and write down

    1. a. What teens usually use social media for?
        b. The effects of night-time social media use on teens.

    2. True or False? Quote from the text to justify your answers.
    a. June doesn’t understand her sister’s obsession with social media at times.
    b. Teenagers feel pressured to be constantly online.
    c. June simply hated it when she was unable to log on for a week.
    3. What effect has social media had on the girl mentioned in the text?
    4. Why does the writer love his/her phone?
    5. How did losing his/her phone help him or her?

    Improve your vocabulary

    Complete the crossword puzzle below:


    1. A set of computers communicating using internet protocol.
    2. Socio cultural division of people as male or female.
    3. A device that encodes digital computer signals into analog telephone signals and vice versa.
    4. Someone who writes for the press, both print and online.
    5. To write in a publication like a newspaper.
    6. Disk.

    7. Software.


    1. Reproductions of sound or video stored in permanent medium.

    2. A system of transferring messages from one computer to another.

    3. Writing composed of characters, symbols and sentences.

    4. A file transfer to the local computer, especially one in progress.

    5. Files sent along with an e-mail.

    6. Hint.


    Rewrite the following sentences in the passive voice. Make any necessary changes.

    a) A friend of mine has just sent you a friend’s request.
    b) Social websites are causing some potential harm to society.
    c) Students often use slang words on social networking sites.
    d) Parents should check on their children when they use the Internet.

    Complete the gaps to give it a future meaning.

    Writing practice

    Using about 200-300 words, write an opinion text on the following.

    Do social networking sites play an important role in your life?

    • Key unit competence:

      To use language learnt in the context of traditional beliefs and practices.


      A Reading comprehension

      Activity 1: Pre-reading

      Activity 2: Comprehension

      1. What is the similarity between African traditional creation stories and the Christian creation story?

      2. How do the names given to God in many African communities relate to the creation?

      3. Explain three things God created in different communities and how he created them?

      4. Do you agree with the Zulu people that the creator was the first man and is in everything that he created?

      5. Mention three things which make the creation stories above from different communities hard to believe.

      B: Improve your vocabulary

      Activity 3: Crossword puzzle

      Use the words below to match them with statements and complete the puzzle. (use a dictionary to guide you)

      Belief, civilisation, culture, folktale, icon, law, norm, religion, tradition, technology, value


      1. A story or legend that is passed down orally or through artwork.

      3. Written or spoken standard norms that regulate a group’s conduct.

      4. The methods, tools, and machinery that humans have developed.

      6. Beliefs and practices regarding supernatural beings, powers, and forces.

      7. A practice from the past that people continue to observe.

      8. Ideas about the natural or supernatural world that are not supported by facts.

      9. A rule or practice that defines what people should or should not do, think, or feel in any given social situation.


      2. An urbanised society with a large very complex social organisation.

      5. A ritual, belief or object that began in the past that is passed down to the next generation.

      7. The total way of life of a group of people.

      10. A name, face, picture, or person readily recognised as having some well-known significance.

      11. An idea about what is good, right, wise or can benefit someone.

      C: Listening and speaking

      Activity 4: Interview

      Interview two or more students in the class about their beliefs in traditional religion and Christianity. Use the following questions to conduct the interview:

      1. Do you believe in traditional religion or Christianity?

      2. Why do you believe in it?

      3. How many people in your family believe in traditional religion?

      4. Are witch doctors needed in society? Why?

      5. Why do you think people belong to different religions?

      D: Writing practice

      Activity 5: Speech writing

      In your class, some students don’t believe in the African traditional creation stories. You are asked to give a speech to persuade them to believe them. Write your speech.


      Activity 1: Gap fill


      A: Reading comprehension

      Activity 1: Pre-reading

      One student doesn’t believe spirits and demons exist and another strongly believes they exist. Write a short dialogue imagining you are one of the two students. Consider the following:

      a. Where spirits of the dead go.

      b. People’s testimonies of spirits.

      c. Christian belief in the Holy Spirit.

      d. Sacrifices carried out in old traditional families.

      Read the story below and answer the questions below it

      Spirits and hero spirits

      When most people hear the word “spirit” their minds immediately think of evil spirits. However, spirits can be evil or holy. In traditional Rwandan religion, spirits were always evil and people never wanted to be associated with them.

      In Rwanda there are evil spirits. Evil spirits keep the name and personality of the person who has died, and live near where they lived when they were alive. It is believed that bad people left behind very bad spirits. In some families, a hut could be found behind their houses, for sacrificing to the spirits.

      As earlier said, spirits are considered to be bad and can bring illness, poor harvests, and poverty, because they cannot enjoy the pleasures of life. They can only exercise this power over family members; therefore family members worship the evil spirits in order to please them.

      Worship of evil spirits consists of offering gifts or sacrifices. These gifts could be small, such as a few drops of milk, beer, or beans. For more important times sacrifices are more serious, such as a goat or a bull. These larger sacrifices were accompanied with singing because evil spirits can hear but not see. Sacrifices were made by the head of the family unless the spirit would not go away. In those cases a diviner was called.

      In addition to evil spirits, there are also spirits of dead heroes called hero spirits. Hero spirits are very powerful and require special worship. The chief hero spirits is Ryangombe. More about this spirit is in unit 3 sub unit 1.

      Another famous hero spirit is Nyabingi. Nyabingi was an unmarried woman who was murdered and made immortal by god. She is a rebellious spirit worshiped primarily by people in the north and north-western areas of Rwanda and Uganda. Nyabingi is served by priests, as opposed to god who has no rites performed for him, who act as intermediaries between her and her worshippers. The priest and priestesses receive sacrifices on behalf of Nyabingi.

      Activity 2: Comprehension

      1. How are evil spirits named in Rwanda?

      2. Which problems would be caused by evil spirits?

      3. Describe in your own words how evil spirits were worshipped in traditional Rwanda.

      4. What is the difference between hero spirits and evil spirits? Give at least three.

      5. Describe the character of Nyabingi and how she was worshipped.

      Activity 3: True or false questions

      1. Rwandan evil spirits were both good and bad.

      2. Evil spirits can be both living and dead people who are generally bad.

      3. Evil spirits were worshipped because of fear of family members from being attacked.

      4. Sacrifices were offered according to seriousness of the matter.

      5. Only the family heads would make sacrifices in order for the spirits to go.

      B: Improve your vocabulary

      Activity 4: Vocabulary

      Directions: Write the vocabulary terms in the ‘new words’ column you found in the text. Next, brainstorm what you already know about the word in the ‘my previous knowledge column’. Finally, after you have read the text, complete the ‘after reading’ column with new information you obtained from the reading.

      C: Listening and speaking

      Activity 5:

      i. Take turns to talk to your partner about what you know or have ever heard about spirits.

      ii. Make a list of the items of information you have got.

      iii. Consult your History or Kinyarwanda books for any information to help you.

      D: Writing practice

      Activity 6:

      Write a report about spirits and ancestors

      • You should have an introduction, body and conclusion.

      • Use direct and reported speech. E.g. Musa said, “………” most of them said that……….. etc.