Topic outline

  • TOPIC AREA 1:  COLLECTING  AND ANALYSING HISTORICAL SOURCES

     Sub-topic area 1:  Concepts of History and Historical Research 

    Unit 1Collecting and analysing historical sources 

    Key unit competence 

    To be able to examine the complementarities of material, immaterial and electronic sources of History.

    1.1 Complementarities of historical sources

    Activity 1.1 

    Read the following narration from Rubiggira’s grandfather: Long time ago, my father took me to Ryamurari. I was still a young boy at that time. We visited an old man who lived next to the archaeological site in that area. He told us about some white people who had visited the place. He said that those people did some excavation. “At the end of it, they found some human remains. They also found other things which I did not know. One year ago, somebody told me that a book has been written about the place. He even said that a video was shot to tell the world about Ryamurari.” He said. 

    1. Write down the different historical sources mentioned in the above narration. 

    2. Explain how the different historical sources highlighted in the narration relate to each other.

    From the above activity, you must have realised that sources of historical information depend on each other. They support each other. That is to say that they complement each other. Let us now study the following sources of historical information. Remember that our aim is to find out how they complement each other.

    1. Oral traditional source

    Oral tradition is defined as any information passed by word of mouth (verbally) from one generation to another. This is done through socialisation, especially between the young and the old. The complementarities of oral traditional sources with other historical sources include: 

    (a) Linguistic sources – Linguistics involves studying and analysing languages, their sound, formation and relationship with other languages. The findings are then narrated to other generations. Through that, it complements the oral traditional sources. 

    (b) Archaeological sources – Archaeology is about the study of dug up materials and remains of mans past. It complements oral traditional source whereby the findings are narrated to other generations. This makes the two sources complementary to each other.


                Fig 1.1: An old woman narrating stories to children

    2. Written sources

    These are basically written down materials where information can be read from. Examples include magazines, textbooks, newspapers and diaries. Written records are also complementary with other sources of historical information. For example, information that is written down is sometimes gathered from other sources such as oral tradition. Consider the following examples: 

    a)  Oral traditional sources - Narratives from eye witnesses and testimonies are usually written down in diaries or books. The books later form written sources of historical information.

    b)  Archaeology - The digging of the remains and materials of man’s past is another source of information to written records. It complements written sources whereby, after carbon dating, the results and findings made are written down. The written record is then presented to the public  either in textbooks, internet or magazines for reading.

      

              Fig 1.2: Newspapers are examples of written sources of History 

    3. Anthropology

    Anthropology involves the study of existing social institutions and relationship of people’s culture, tradition, norms, values and attitudes. The study cannot be done without the support of other sources of historical information. Among other sources which are complementary to anthropology are:

    a)  Written sources - After studying and analysing values, norms and attitudes of people, such findings and conclusions are written down. The written records are intended to help the current and future generation and researchers get information. It is therefore clear that  both written sources of History and anthropology complement one another. For example, anthropologists study the social, economic and political organisations of African communities and later document it in books.

    b)  Oral traditional sources - The narratives of past events further support anthropology. This is because through these narratives, anthropologists acquire relevant information about people’s cultures. They also learn about traditions and norms of different people.
    4. Archaeology

    This is the study of dug up materials or material remains of people’s past. Archaeology as a source of history is complementary with other sources of History such as:

    a)  Oral traditional sources - Here, narratives and stories can help in the location of places where fossils can be found.

    b)  Written sources - In this case, a person can study about fossils  from books and articles on archaeology. Written sources provide a  more permanent way of keeping archaeological records. Therefore,  information about the dug up materials and remains of man is not  forgotten.

    c)  Audio-visual sources - Activities of archaeologists can be watched on television and video. Special programmes (documentaries) on archaeology are always aired on television. This enables interested  people see some of the dugout materials. Learners also get to see  the tools and equipment used during excavation.

        
            Fig 1.3:  A person shooting a video at an archaeological site

    5. Linguistics
    Linguistics deals with the study and analysis of languages, their sound structure and formation. Linguistics as a source of historical information is well complemented by other historical sources such as:

    a)  Written sources - These sources complement linguistic sources on  the information about language analysis, sound and structure.
    Some textbooks provide information on how some words should be pronounced. They also enable a person to learn about sentence structures of different languages.

    b)  Anthropology - Anthropology is another complementary source of linguistic sources. The study of the existing social institutions and cultures involves people’s languages. Linguists can apply anthropology as their source of historical information. This makes the  two sources complementary. 

    c)  Oral traditional source - This is another complementary source to linguistic sources. Oral traditional source gives a practical support to linguistic sources by providing the pronunciation of certain words in a given language. This facilitates linguistic sources. Linguistics also helps to explain the origin of some languages that are used in oral traditional sources of History. Through finding the origin of some of the languages, the original meaning of some words, phrases, songs as well as sayings are conveyed correctly, avoiding loss of meaning that may arise from transliteration. The study of Linguistics is a major source of information about the origin and migration of various communities living in a place. The meaning of the language used as it evolved as people interacted over time is best captured under the study of Linguistics. Words tend to get meaning depending on the context with which they are being used. This significantly depends on those who use this language and those they interact with. Linguistics is therefore an important part of passing information as used in oral tradition sources.
    Activity 1.2

    For this activity, you need the following items:

    i. An old copy of newspaper

    ii.A story book

    iii.A Biology book

    iv.A Geography book Let each of you pick one of the three books or the newspaper.

    In groups of four, let each person read from the book or newspaper he or she has picked.

    1. Discuss what you have read with your group members.

    2. Tell the whole class about what you have discovered.

    6. Electronic or audio-visual sources

       
         Fig 1.4: People accessing information using computers

    Audio-visual sources enable us to get historical information by listening and watching. We often get the information on electronic devices such as computer, television and smart phones. It is the most recent source of historical information. Audio-visual sources have got common complementarities with other sources of History such as:

    a)    Oral traditional sources – This is mostly appropriate in the cases of events that involve eye witnesses at the time of happening. For example, during a live football match, a journalist broadcasts news on television in a way of narration. He or she narrates to the viewers what is taking place in the stadium. At the same time, the play is shown live on television. Such narrative is equated to oral traditional source, thereby complementing audio-visual source of historical information.

    b)     Archaeological sources – Remains of man’s past or material he used may be discovered in an area. The discovery may complement audio-visual sources. This is because once a site is discovered, a video recording can be done. The recording may be posted on the  internet for people to watch and listen to. It may also be broadcasted on a television station. This way, archaeology shall have become a complementary source of audio-visual sources.

    c)    Written sources – Written sources of History complement Electronic or audio-visual sources through the various written documents that are required in aiding the recording and arrangement of information logically before being put in the electronic form. Photographs are part of the wider written sources of History that electronic sources require to aid the electronic sources. Remember! Just like all historical sources need each other, and depend on each other, we too need each other for a peaceful co-existence.

    1.2 Challenges faced when using material, immaterial and   electronic sources
    In traditional Africa, the type of education that existed was informal. In this case, children were told stories of the past by their elders. It was mostly during evening hours around fire places. This involved Interesting topics such as fighting with fierce animals and hunting. There was no record keeping because nobody knew how to read and write. As children grew up, some stories were forgotten because they were not recorded down. The elders who told such stories had long died. This was a challenge. The use of oral traditional source for stories can be forgotten when you have no chances of asking back because the eye witness died or lives far away.
    Activity 1.3 

    Use the internet to find out the challenges faced when using electronic, material and immaterial sources of collecting historical information. 

    Use the above passage to guide your discussion.

    a) Material sources
    These include the use of important historical sources that can be considered while collecting historical information.
    The following are challenges faced in using material sources:

    • Written records cannot be used by illiterate people. It is only limited to those who can read and write.
    • Some material sources such as archaeology and linguistics require skills. This explains why archaeologists and linguists are very rare in developing countries.
    • Material sources such as archaeology are expensive to invest in. This is because they require professionals to participate in the digging up and interpreting the findings. Special equipment may also be required in the entire process which may be costly to acquire.
    • Material sources are also time consuming. For example, archaeology may require a lot of time to identify the place where historical evidence can be dug up. It also requires time to correctly analyse the materials.
    • Material sources such as written records can be easily destroyed by fire or water.

    b) Immaterial sources
    These are historical sources that are less used today in a particular situation. They include oral traditional and anthropology sources. The use of immaterial sources is associated with the following challenges:

    • The use of oral traditional sources is not always accurate. Some information may be highly exaggerated to include few or no failures and weaknesses but more successes and achievements.
    • Immaterial sources such as oral traditional are affected by the death of an eye witness. Once he or she dies, information can never be recovered.
    • Anthropology requires skilled people and experts. These experts are very few. 
    • Immaterial sources are affected by language barrier. Information may be collected in a local language which might be not easy to translate into other languages.

    c) Electronic or audio-visual sources
    These include the use of modern technology such as mobile phones, radios, television, cinemas and the Internet. The challenges faced when using electronic sources include the following:

    • They require reliable power supply such as solar or electric power. Without power supply, they cannot be used.
    • In remote areas without network coverage, television, mobile phones and internet cannot be used. Therefore with such state of affairs, it is really challenging to use electronic sources.
    • They may be costly to acquire. Radios, mobile phones, television and cinemas require money to buy. This is a real challenge to low income earners, especially in developing countries.
    • Electronic sources such as radios cannot be used by people with hearing impairment. Television cannot be used by those with visual impairment.
    • The use of internet requires one to have knowledge about information and communication technology. He or she must know how to use the computer. A person who is not computer literate may not access information from it.

    Activity 1.4

    Discuss some of the challenges that a historian is likely to face when collecting historical information.
    Remember!
    We all face challenges. It does not matter whether you are male or female.
    NOTE: In general, all sources of History involve a cost in acquiring and using them. However, some are more expensive than others.

    1.3 Usefulness of different sources of History

    Activity 1.5

    In a certain school, a teacher of History asked Senior 2 students to explain the usefulness of different sources of History. Here is what Umuhoza, Umwali, Isaac, Kalisa and Iradukunda had to give as their answers:

    Role play

    Teacher: Let each of you suggest the usefulness of different sources of History.

    UmUhoza:  Oral traditional source can be used by both educated and  illiterates.
    Umwali:  I feel that, written records are so simple for those who can read and write. They can read a wide range of materials such as newspapers, magazines and books from where information can be got.

    isaac:  I think archaeology is much better for it helps us to come up with first-hand information. This is because since it involves scientific interpretation as well laboratory testing.

    Kalisa:    Linguistic sources can be more efficient for studying languages of the past and best understanding of African languages.

    iradUKUnda: Audio-visual is more interesting and gives information backed  by images of live coverage. It can be used by many people in rural as well as urban areas.

    Dramatise the role play above.

    In reference to the above play, it is so evident that each source of History is useful in one way or another. Each source depends on the nature of the users, location and accessibility.

    Oral traditional source

    •  Other sources rely on it. For example, written sources use information from oral traditional sources. Such information include narratives from eye witnesses. Most of other sources originated from oral traditional source. 
    • Some historical events may be witnessed first hand by people who later pass the information on to generations to come.
    • Sometimes information can be verified whereby there is room for asking questions and getting feedback. This allows one to understand the content and context better.
    • It can be used by all classes of people except those with hearing impairment. This is because it does not involve writing and reading.
    •  It can be interesting and easy to spread over a wide range of people. The information can be spread through narration of stories, tales and proverbs.
    • In some cases, it is cheaper compared to all other sources of History such as archaeology and written sources. The speaker may not require a lot of of money for payment for the information.

    Written sources

    • In some cases, they are more accurate and reliable than oral traditional sources. People can trust them. This is especially if adequate research is done before being documented.
    • Written records can spread faster among people who can read and write. For example, books can be distributed to different people in all parts of the country.
    • They can be translated into different languages for different kinds of people. For example, the information can be translated to Kinyarwanda, English, Kiswahili and French. This makes the information to reach more people.
    • They are fairly cheaper than archaeology. Written sources are affordable hence many people can buy them. 
    • Written records can be stored for a long period time, even more than 100 years. They ensure a relatively permanent storage of historical events for future reference.

    Archaeology

    • It gives information about the past where we have no records.
    •  It tells us about life and culture of the ancient people.
    • Archaeology assists historians to understand the past in relation to the present life.

    Anthropology

    • Anthropologists help to trace historical facts.
    • Anthropology helps to explain the settlement and growth of different people.
    • An anthropologist interprets the past especially when there is reason to compare societies in certain areas. The anthropologist therefore studies the present in order to understand the past. Linguistics
    • It makes it possible to understand how the present languages came into existence.
    • Linguistics helps in identifying languages of Africa such as Kinyarwanda for Rwandans.
    • Linguistic sources help to determine the migration, origin, and patterns of people.
    • It is a cheap source of historical information as compared to other sources such as archaeology and anthropology.

    Electronic or audio–visual sources

    • The information can be well understood since it is backed by images.
    • Audio-visual sources can spread information to a wide range of people.
    • The source provides first hand information where it involves live broadcasts.
    • The information is generally accessible to people with mobile phones, television and computers.

    Activity 1.6

    Use the information in the S1 History and Citizenship book and the internet to research on the advantages of various sources of history. Present your findings to the class.
    Revision questions
    1. Write down the meaning of the word ‘complementary’.

    2. Explain how the following historical sources complement each other:

    (a)  Oral tradition and linguistics

    (b)  Anthropology and written sources

    3. Explain five challenges that are associated with the use material sources of historical information. 

    4. Written records are very useful in History. Give reasons.

    5. Explain some disadvantages of electronic sources of historical information.




    • Key unit competence To be able to explain the causes and impact of German and Belgian colonisation.

      Activity 2.1

      1. Find out the meaning of the word ‘colonisation’ from the Internet and the dictionary. Write the meaning in your notebook.

      2. Copy the following map in your notebook then answer the following questions:

            

      i) Identify the current names of the countries on the map.

      ii) Write down the countries that colonised the ones you identified in question (i) above.

      iii) Estimate the period under which colonial administration in each of the shown country ended. Present your findings in class for further discussion.

      Introduction

      German colonisation of Rwanda began with the coming of European explorers to Africa. This was around 1880, when Africa experienced an increase in  European explorers. History has it that the desire to discover unknown facts like the source of the Nile could have been one of the factors that drove explorers to Africa. From 1856, the Geographical Society of London had started to organise regular exploration missions to discover the source of that river. Some of the explorers who visited Rwanda  include Sir Henry Morton Stanley, Dr Oscar Baumann and Comte Gustav Adolf Von Götzen. Sir Henry Morton Stanley reached Akagera River in 1875. He named the river “Alexandrine Nile”. He traveled along the river and finally camped on an  island in Lake Ihema.  He later attempted to enter Rwanda  only to be stopped by Rwandan warriors. This forced him to abandon his plans.

            

      Another attempt to enter Rwanda was made by Dr Oscar Baumann in 1892. Baumann was a German explorer. On his way from Burundi, he arrived in southern Rwanda on the 11th of September 1892. He left on 15th September 1892. His mission was, just like Morton Stanley, to find the source of the Nile.

      His attempt to enter Rwanda was also unsuccessful as he was attacked and repulsed by Rwandese warriors at Nyarutega (Bwanamukali).

                           

                                 Fig. 2.2: Dr Oscar Baumann

      Comte Gustav Adolf Von Götzen was the only  successful explorer to enter  Rwanda. He was a German administrator and an explorer. He led a caravan of 362 people and 17 soldiers. He entered Rwanda after crossing Akagera River above Rusumo Falls.

                               

                                   Fig. 2.3: Comte Gustav Adolf Von Götzen

      Von Götzen was guided by Prince Sharangabo, the son of King Rwabugiri. He was later received by King Kigeli IV Rwabugiri on May 25th 1894 at Kageyo in Kingogo. Von Götzen stayed there up to 2nd June 1894 before leaving in the direction of the volcanoes.

      He did not only succeed to enter Rwanda, but also went on to become the first Governor General of German East Africa and Rwanda.

      German occupation of Rwanda

      Von Götzen was followed by a second German mission led by Captain Ramsay who arrived in Rwanda on March 20th 1897 during the reign of King Yuhi V Musinga. Ramsay was the regional military chief of Tanganyika-Kivu whose capital was at Ujiji in Tanganyika. During this vist, Captain Ramsay gave King Musinga the Germany flag as a symbol of German authority. From then, the German occupation of Rwanda became a reality. This was followed by the German regional territory of Tanganyika-Kivu being divided into small regions. Rwanda-Urundi became a region with the capital in Usumbura (Bujumbura). This region was placed under the control of Captain Bethe. The captain had arrived in Rwanda in March 1898 at the royal residence of Gitwiko in the present day Kamonyi District. Von Götzen had a mission of signing an agreement with King Musinga in which Rwanda would effectively become a German Protectorate. This agreement eventually was concluded on 5th March, 1898 and Rwanda was to be the 20th province in East Africa. The Musinga-Bethe agreement involved political, administrative and military protection which the German Government was to effect.

                            

                                       Fig. 2.4: King Musinga

      2.1  Causes of German and Belgian colonisation

      Activity 2.2

      The following are some of the factors that made Belgians and Germans move into Rwanda:

      • Industrial revolution in Europe

      • Investment of surplus capital

      • Rwanda as a source of raw materials

      • Need for market

      In groups, discuss how each factor led to colonisation of Rwanda. Make notes for presentation in a class discussion.

      a)      Industrial revolution in Europe

       Industrial Revolution begun in Britain in the second half of the 18th Century. It led to an increase in demand for raw materials needed by the industries for further production. As production increased, so was the need for an expanded market for the manufactured products. To ensure that production and subsequent consumption of the manufactured goods continued, European countries had to look up to Africa to provide the much needed raw materials and market.

      b)      Rivalry among European countries

      Rivalry between European countries also contributed to colonisation of African countries. For instance, Britain and France had hated each other for centuries due to the infamous hundred years war, and they both wanted to out-do the other in Africa. However, the race for power was not limited to Britain and France. Other nations wanted to benefit as well, like Germany, Italy and Spain. Nationalism was quite popular in many Western European countries where everyone wanted their country to be the strongest.  Competition to produce more and supply more also contributed to the rivalry among European powers such as Britain and Germany. Both had to protect their overseas territories because the territories supported the entire industrialisation process. Continued occupation and exploitation of these territories subsequently led to the European countries in charge to lay a claim on them as their colonies in years that followed.

      c)       Investment of surplus capital

      Continued production and supply of manufactured goods led to massive profits to bourgeoisies who owned the factories. These wealthy people wanted to invest their surplus income outside their countries because of competition and reduced investment opportunities their countries offered. This factor pushed them to look for opportunities as far as into Africa.

      d)      A source of raw materials and cheap labour

      European colonies were able to acquire raw materials and cheap labour for use in their home industries. The labour was also used in neighbouring colonies to the benefit of the colonisers. For example, Belgians acquired cheaper labour from Rwanda for use in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Africans helped in the collection of ivory and rubber and extraction of minerals in the upper Congo basin for sale elsewhere in world. In addition, a number of major Belgian investment companies pushed the Belgian government to take over the Congo and develop the mining sector. This sector required local labour which was regionally acquired.

      e)      Prestige and geostrategic interest

      Some European nations competed to assert themselves as major super powers. For example, the newly formed nations of Germany and Italy wanted to catch up with England, France and other established colonial powers. Thus, they felt that they had to acquire colonies in African countries for national prestige. More colonies for these countries was a sign of a nation’s strength.     In addition, European countries which had already established themselves in some African countries felt that it was necessary for them to acquire more countries for geostrategic reasons. Due to this reason, countries often conquered a country to hinder the expansion of a rival power or to facilitate communication between different regions of the empire. For example, Germany had already acquired Tanganyika, and therefore wanted Rwanda and Burundi in addition for effective control of the region. They also wanted to outdo Belgians who already had Congo Free State.

      f)       Need to spread Christianity

      The colonisation of Rwanda was a way to spread Christianity by European missionaries. The missionaries were mainly Roman Catholics and Anglicans. They later established their churches and missions in Rwanda.

      g)      Stopping slave trade and slavery in Rwanda

       Germany and Belgium colonised Rwanda to stop slave trade. They also wanted to stop inhuman labour that had already taken course in Rwanda.

      h)      Need to settle their excess population

      The colonisation of Rwanda by Germany and Belgium was for a reason. Their main target was to settle their excess population and at the same time provide them with employment opportunities. Unemployment was growing at a high rate amongst European countries. Therefore, colonising Rwanda was seen to provide a solution to the problem.

      i)        Need to promote western civilisation

      The Germans and Belgians considered Rwanda to be backward and therefore had a strong desire to civilise it socially, economically and politically.

      j)        The role of the 1884–1885 Berlin Conference

      During this time, African countries were distributed among European countries where Rwanda was given to Germany. This accelerated and contributed to the colonisation of Rwanda.

      German administration in Rwanda

      Activity 2.3

      1. Draw a sketch map of Rwanda and show its boarders by 1910.

      2. Explain the causes of revolts against Musinga during the German rule.

      3. Discuss the impacts of those revolts on Rwanda.

      In Rwanda, Germans used indirect rule. This form of administration used traditional leaders to administer on behalf of the Germans. It also respected and maintained local culture. The implementation of the German rule was to be attained through the Military Phase and Civil Administration Phase.

      a)      Military Phase (1897-1907)

      This phase was characterised by occupation of Rwanda between 1897 and 1907. At the same time, the German government gave support to the local leaders to stop several revolts. Therefore, the military post at Shangi and Gisenyi were only meant to bring people in those areas under German rule and under the local Rwandan regime headed by King Musinga.

      b)      Civil Administration Phase (1907-1916)

      This started at a time when Rwanda became a Residence Administrative. The administrative services were transferred from Usumbura to Kigali and Richard Kandt was made the head. Kandt was given the responsibility of establishing the civilian rule, conducting census, collecting taxes and creating a police force. Kigali was founded as the imperial residence. In addition to that, the German government provided military support to the local authorities to stop several uprisings like those staged by Ndungutse and his assistants, Rukara and Basebya. The Ndungutse rebellion started in the north of Kabare in 1911. Ndungutse, whose real name was Birasisenge, wanted to declare himself a legitmate king after claiming to be the descendant of Mibambwe IV Rutarindwa and Muserekande nicknamed “Nyiragahumuza.’’

      The following were the causes of the Ndungutse rebellion in northern Rwanda:

      1. There was need to recover lost glory by the people which had been taken over by the royal court of Rwanda.

      2. They were also subjected to forced labour introduced by the Germans during the fixing of frontiers in 1910. To them, this was unfair, and therefore made them to revolt.

      3. The Germans forced people to supply them with food. This annoyed them, causing a revolt not only against the German rule, but also to the central authority headed by the king. Basebya was one of  the rebellion leaders. He was a son to Nyirantwari of Rugezi and a member of the Abashakamba militias of Kigeli IV Rwabugiri. With his group of warriors known as Ibijabura, Basebya conquered Buberuka, Kibali and the whole of Bukonya. With three conquered regions, Musinga’s power was seriously challenged. Following the expedition of Ndungutse in Bumbogo and Buberuka, the acting Resident representative Lieutenant Godivius, nicknamed Bwana Lazima, decided to fight against the opposition. Ndungutse and Rukara were killed a few days later. Rukara was hanged. Basebya, who was arrested by chief  Rwabukwisi, suffered the same fate on May 5th 1912. Another major event that  took place during this phase was the demarcation of Rwanda’s borders. This was done on 8th February 1910 during a conference held in Brussels between Belgium, Germany and Britain. Rwanda was limited in the northern and western frontiers. The redrawing of the borders was done on a map. In this exercise of re-fixing its borders, Rwanda lost one half of its actual size as follows: Ijwi Island, Bwishya and Gishari were annexed to Belgian Congo while Bufumbira was given to Uganda.  Unfortunately, the fixations did not put into account the structure of the local population.

      Activity 2.4

      Write an essay on the importance of religions in Rwanda. Present your findings in class.

      The coming of missionaries

      Christian missionaries came just after the coming of German administrators to Rwanda. The first religious groups to emerge during the German rule

      was the Catholic Church, Islam and Lutheran Protestantism. More religious groups came in during the Belgian rule, for example, the Adventists in 1919, Anglicans in 1918, Pentecosts in 1941 and Methodists in 1943.

      i) Roman Catholic missionaries

      The White Fathers introduced Roman Catholicism in Rwanda. They were led by the Apostolic Vicar of Southern Nyanza (Tanzania), Bishop Joseph Hirth. They were part of the Société des Missionaires d’Afrique,” founded in 1868 by Archbishop of Algiers, Cardinal Charles Lavigerie. He came to Rwanda from Shangi where Captain Bethe was putting up. Later, he arrived at the royal court in Nyanza on February 2nd 1900, accompanied by Father Brard and Father Paul Bartholomew, and Brother Anselme. They were received by the regent Mpamarugamba as the king, because Musinga was still a teenager. Later, in July, the Europeans would see King Musinga for the first time. At the royal court, the missionaries requested for land to settle and their request was accepted. The land given to them was at Save in Bwanamukali where they founded their first mission on February 8th 1900.

      In the following years, they established the following missions:

      There was also the White Sisters who arrived in Rwanda in 1909. In 1912, Rwanda became an independent Vicariate under Bishop Joseph Hirth. The first Rwandan priests were ordained on the 7th October 1917. Among those ordained were Donat Reberaho and Balthazar Gafuku.

      The first Rwandan bishop was called Aloys Bigirumwami, who was ordained on the 1st  June 1952 at Kabgayi by Bishop Laurent Deprimoz.

      Activity 2.5

      Find out from textbooks the impact of religion in the social-cultural setup of Africa. Share your findings with the rest of the class.

      ii) Protestant missionaries

      Protestantism was introduced in Rwanda by the missionaries of the Bethel Society. The first  pastor to arrive in Rwanda was Emmanuel Johanssen who came from Bukoba in Tanzania. As for German Protestant missionaries, they  were received at the royal court in Nyanza on 29th July 1907. They founded their first missions at Remera-Rukoma in 1912, Kilinda in 1907 and  Rubengera in 1909 among others. Protestants later left Rwanda after the defeat of Germany by the Belgians during the First World War in 1916. Their former missionary stations were occupied by Société Missionaire Belge.

      There was also the  first Seventh Adventist Church that  was established at Gitwe by Pastor Meunier in 1919. In the years that followed, other missions were established at Murambi in Buganza and Rwankeri in Buhoma.

      The First World War in Rwanda

      The First World War  that occured between 1914 and 1918 was mainly fought among European nations. However, its impact was indirectly felt in other continents including America, Asia and Africa. In Rwanda, the Germans fought with Belgians who had colonised Congo (DRC). The war was intense in Bugoyi in the north west region and Cyangugu in the south west region. It was the Germans who began the war by attacking Belgian Congo’s Ijwi Island in September 1914. This made the Belgians to respond by fighting back. Belgians were supported by British troops. The troops were deployed in two directions. On the side of Gisenyi, Colonel Molitor (a Belgian) crossed the volcanoes through Uganda and proceeded from Gasabo to Kigali which was finally captured on 6th May 1916. Nyanza collapsed on 19th May 1916. Later, the Belgians moved on with the war through the Rwandan territory towards Burundi. During the war, Rwanda did all she could to support Germany. This support ranged from providing armed warriors called Indugaruga as well as supplying food. For that reason therefore, there was an agreement and collaboration between King Musinga and on the side of Dr Kandt and Captain Max Wingtens. Bwana Tembasi commanded German troops in Rwanda between 1914 and 1916.

      2.2 Impact of German colonisation

      Activity 2.6

      Make a research in addition to the following text and summarise the achievements of German colonial masters in Rwanda. Thereafter, submit your findings to the teacher for assessment. 

      In the beginning, Germans had little control in the region. They were completely dependent on the indigenous government. They did not encourage modernisation and centralisation of the regime. Their reign was short-lived, from 1897 to 1916. This was hampered by their defeat in the First World War in Europe and Rwanda respectively in 1916. They made a little impact as discussed below:

      a)      Demarcation of Rwandan border

      On 14th May 1910, the European Convention of Brussels fixed the borders of Uganda, Congo and East Africa. This included Tanganyika and Rwanda-Urundi. It is until 1918, under the Treaty of Versailles, that the former German colony of Rwanda-Urundi was made a League of Nations protectorate. This led to demarcation of Rwanda’s borders by cutting off some parts. The fixing was done using a map. Rwanda lost parts equal to one and half of its actual size.

              

                Fig 2.5: Map of Rwanda during demarcation of boarders by 1918

      Activity 2.7

      1. Use a dictionary to find out the meaning of demarcation.

      2. Copy the map shown in Fig 2.5. On it, draw the boundaries separating countries that presently exist. 3. Name each country on the map.

      b)      Support to King Musinga (Mwami)

      The Germans settled and helped the Mwami (King Musinga) gain greater nominal control over Rwandan affairs. They fought rebellions and defended his rule. The Germans used indirect rule in Rwanda that gave power to the king and local authorities.

              

                         Fig 2.6: King Musinga

      c)       Opening of the country to outside world

      Dr Oscar Baumann came to Rwanda in September 1892. He was followed by Von Götzen in 1894. The latter led an expedition to claim the interior of Tanganyika colony. In 1897, German colonialists and missionaries arrived in Rwanda. Therefore, the initial visits of Baumann and Von Götzen is seen as the beginning of the opening up of Rwanda to the outside world.

      d)      Integration of Rwanda in world economy

      German colonisation of Rwanda led to the export of large quantities of hides and skins and livestock. The exportation was mainly to European countries. This initiated a market economy in Rwanda.

      e)      Introduction of money Money

      was introduced in Rwanda during the German colonisation of Rwanda. People used coin money, heller and rupees. Many Rwandans saw money as a replacement for barter trade in terms of economic prosperity and social standing.

      f)       Introduction of head tax

      German colonisation of Rwanda led to the introduction of the head tax on male adult Rwandans.    

      g)      Coming of European missionaries

      The German colonisation of Rwanda led to the coming of European missionaries in Rwanda. Roman Catholic missionaries, led by the White Fathers, came to Rwanda in 1900. They were followed by the Presbyterian  missionaries in 1907. This promoted Christianity in Rwanda.

      2.3 Reforms introduced by Belgians

      During the First World War I, Germans fought with Belgians in Rwanda. This led to the defeat of Germans in May 1916. Belgians then officially took over control of Rwanda from Germans. The Belgian administration in Rwanda led to a total change in Rwanda’s political, social, economic, cultural and religious sectors. It is important to distinguish the reforms introduced by Belgians in Rwanda into three stages of the entire Belgian rule. These are:

               I. Reforms introduced during the Military Administration (1916-1924)

             ii. Reforms introduced during the Belgian Mandate (1926-1946)

            iii. Reforms introduced during the Trusteeship (1946-1962)

           iv. Reforms introduced during the Military Administration (1916 - 1924)

      Activity 2.8

      Assess the transformations introduced by Germans then present your results to the class.

      After the conquest of Ruanda-Urundi in 1916, German colonialists were replaced by the Belgian occupational troops. The troops were responsible for managing the country. The Belgian Military High Commander in charge was J. P Malfeyt. He was the first Belgian Royal High Commissioner in Rwanda. His residence was at Kigoma. He was tasked to maintain order and public safety over all the territoires in Ruanda-Urundi. He was in charge of Belgian troops in the occupation of Rwanda. He played this role until the end of the First World War. After the War, Rwanda once again fell under military regime, and was divided into military sectors. These were Gisenyi, Ruhengeri, Cyangugu and Nyanza. The military sectors were later transformed into territoires, namely: 

      • The western territory (Rubengera territory capital)

      • Northern territory (Ruhengeri territory capital)

      • The territory of Nyanza (Nyanza territory capital)

      • The Eastern territory (Kigali territory capital) Major De Clerk later was named as Resident in 1917. Later, he was replaced by F. Van De Eede in 1919.

      The following are some of the reforms introduced in Rwanda during the military administration:

      a) Systematic disintegration of the monarchy

      b) Undermining the Mwami’s (king’s) legal power

      c) Reduction of the Mwami’s (king’s) political power

      d) Abolition of Ubwiru and Umuganura

      e) Declaration of religious freedom

      f) Abolition of imponoke and indabukirano

      Each of these reforms has been explained below in detail:

      a)      Systematic disintegration of the monarchy

      The relationships of the occupying authorities with the court of the king were very bad. For example, on 25th March 1917, the General Auditor of Kigoma was ordered to arrest the king. It is at this time that the Royal Commissioner, General Malfeyt, decided to send De Clerk as the Resident. Under De Clerk, the residence of Rwanda was divided into Northern, Nyanza, Western and Eastern territories. The division was to facilitate implementation of military orders, food requisition and recruitment of carriers for the Belgian colonialists. Furthermore, in 1922, the decision by Belgians that the Resident at Nyanza would assist the Mwami (King Musinga) in his legal prerogatives was meant to undermine the king’s legal power.

      b)      Undermining the Mwami’s (king’s) legal power

      The king, before the Belgian occupation, had authority to pass ‘life or death’ sentence over his subjects. The king was stripped off this right to determine whether a person would live or be killed because of a crime committed. Crimes that warranted the death sentence from the king included murder, fighting with fellow subjects or treason. Without such authority, the king’s title was reduced to being just but honorary. This, among other reasons, humiliated the king greatly.

      c)       Reduction of the Mwami’s (king’s) political power

      King Musinga was stopped from appointing and dismissing any of his subordinates without permission of the Belgian High Commissioner or Resident. Chiefs and Governors of provinces too did not have the right to dismiss those who worked under them. With time, the final source of authority became the Belgian administration. Chiefs and their deputies therefore were required to report to the Belgian administration and not King Musinga as was the case initially. Traditional authorities were charged with the following responsibilities:

      a) Collecting taxes

      b) Mobilising porters and workers on local roads and tracks

       d)      Abolition of ubwiru and umuganura

      Abiru were officials in Rwandan Kingdom who were in charge of ubwiru. The traditional institution of ubwiru played very important roles in the Rwandan Kingdom and to the mwami (king). Among others, abiru played the following roles:

      • The abiru were guardians of tradition.

      • They kept royal secrets of the kingdom.

      • They also advised and counselled the king.

      • They named the next successor by Umwiru Mukuru, the chief of abiru.

      • Abiru played an important role in the kingdom of Rwanda by coronating the new king.

      • They also conducted rites of the kingdom like imihigo y’umuganura.

      Umuganura was meant to thank God for the harvest. It was also to strategise for the next season, so as to ensure that the harvest is good. It was celebrated by Rwandans after harvest of sorghum. It was a very big event in the kingdom as Rwandans celebrated their achievements in terms of harvest both at the kingdom and family level. Belgians abolished both the ubwiru and umuganura in a systematic way to curtail the king’s powers. Eventually, in 1925, the chief of ubwiru who was called Gashamura was exiled in Burundi. The Resident communicated to King Musinga that umuganura had been abolished.

      e)      Declaration of religious freedom

       In traditional Rwanda, the king was not only an administrative leader but also a religious leader who was an intermediate between God (Imana) and Rwandans. This made Rwandans to consider their King as God and would refer to him as Nyagasani (meaning God). However, with the influence of the Catholic Church and the administration of the Belgians in 1917, King Musinga was forced to sign a law accepting freedom of worship. From then, the King had no option but to allow religious freedom that would favour the Catholics. Therefore, the royal power was separated with religion because the King had just been forced to forego his religious powers.

      f)       Abolition of imponoke and indabukirano

      Indabukirano were gifts given to the chief after being nominated and coronated to the position. The gifts included items like cows and beer (indabukirano). Such was meant to show loyalty to him by his subjects. It was also to enable the new chief cope with the new lifestyle, to show happiness and to congratulate the new chief. Imponoke was a sign of compensation to the chief usually after a heavy loss of cows, especially due to diseases or being struck by lightening. This was a sign of active bystandership to the chief by his subjects. Generally, to the chief, it was a way of compensating him for the loss of cows and to enable him continue living within the lifestyle he was used to before the loss. It was one of the ways Rwandans used to show concern for others in the society. Both imponoke and indabukirano were important because:

       • They were ways of demonstrating loyalty and humility to the chief.

      • They were meant to show love and respect for the chieftaincy.

      • They enabled the chief to rule his subjects happily.

      • They helped to improve the status of the chief (to make him different from ordinary people).

      • They enabled the chief to solve some of the problems that befell his subjects such as famine.

      • They were ways of ensuring sufficient food supply to him and his family.

      • They were ways of showing happiness and congratulating the king.

      The practice of imponoke and indabukirano were abolished by the Belgians when they took over the administration of Rwanda. This was aimed at weakening the influence of the king over his subjects. It was also to help the Belgians remain with monopoly of power. The expected end result was  to reduce the belief in traditional practices where Rwandese had deep attachment.

      Gisaka affairs and the Orts-Milner Convention of 1919

      Activity 2.9

      Carry out a research to find out what could have been the impact of the Orts-Milner Convention of 1919 on Rwanda.

      Share the findings with the rest of the class in a discussion.

      Towards the signing of the 1919 Versailles Peace Treaty, Belgium accepted to have negotiations with Britain over the distribution of former German colonies in East Africa. This enabled Belgium to sign an agreement known as the Orts-Milner Convetion on 30th May 1919.

      With this agreement, Belgium accepted to advance to Britain the territories of Gisaka, a part of Ndorwa, a part of Buganza and a part of Mutara from Rwanda. They also gave out Bugufi  from Burundi unwillingly. In return, Great Britain accepted to support the Belgian demand for an agreement of the tracing of frontiers of its colonies all the way to the mouth of Congo River. With the receiving of Gisaka and other territories, it gave Britain a position to realise its project of building a railway line from Cape to Cairo. This, according to their wish, would pass entirely in an area joining together the whole of its colonial empire in Africa.

      However, with the abandoning of the British ambitious project of building this railway, Gisaka Convention lost its economic and political value. The dual abolished the Orts-Milner Convention and informed the League of Nations. The League of Nations took note of this and on 31st August 1923, it confirmed the repossession of the colony by Rwanda. Britain was later evacuated on 31st December 1923. 

      ii. Reforms introduced during the Belgian Mandate (1926-1946)

      A mandated territory is a country or territory that is governed by another country based on the authority given by the League of Nations. The mandate may imply different forms of government varying from direct administration by the other country to being self governing.

      Rwanda under the Belgian Mandate 1926-1946

      Activity 2.10

       Explain the administrative reforms made by the Belgians since 1926 to 1932. Compile your findings for discussion in class.

      Reforms in administration 1926-1931

      Mandated territories were introduced in 1919 . In 1922, the League of Nations gave Belgium a mandate over the territory of Ruanda-Urundi. Belgium was to administer and control the territory while respecting the freedom of religion and stopping slavery. The mandates were divided into three classes, A, B and C, according to the presumed development of their population. Rwanda was put under the mandate B with Belgium as a mandatory power. This mandate was approved on 20th October 1924 by the Belgian parliament. For this reason, from 1916 – 1924, Rwanda was called “a territory under occupation.” However, it was officially known as a “territory under mandate B.” Other countries in this category were Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Togo and Cameroon.

      The administrative reforms initiated by Belgian authorities started in 1926 and brought with it a number of changes where Rwanda-Burundi was joined to Belgian Congo in terms of administration. This meant that Congolese colonial laws were applied to both countries.

      The following were the other reforms in administration:

      1. Political reforms

      In the ancient Rwanda Kingdom, the day-to-day administration was done by the mwami (king), umugabekazi (the queen mother), abatware (chiefs) and abiru (officials in the kingdom).

      The mwami (king)

      He was the head of political, social and political units of the kingdom. He also acted as a spiritual leader who mediated between God and his subjects. This made his subjects to love and respect him so much. It was for this reason that he was referred to as Nyagasani. His word was final. He also had powers over life and death. He could appoint and dismiss his officials without question.

      The umugabekazi (queen mother)

      The queen mother was the mother of the king. She was the advisor to the king. In fact, the queen mother was an influential person to the king. The queen mother advised the king on administrative issues of the kingdom.

      Abatware b’Intebe

      These were mostly chiefs to the king (ibisonga). They lived at the king’s  palace. Before the coming of the colonialists, Rwanda was divided into districts known as ibiti. The districts were divided into ibikingi. The administration at igikingi level was done by three chiefs. These were the land chief (umutware w’ubutaka), cattle chief (umutware w’umukenke) and the army chief (umutware w’ingabo). The land chief (umutware w’ubutaka) ruled over farmers and received tributes (ikoro) in form of foodstuffs. Umutware w’ubutaka collected millet, peas, bananas, sorghum among others and sent them to the palace. He also distributed land to the landless and solved land disputes. Umutware w’umukenke was concerned with cattle issues (ubworozi). He was also responsible for giving grazing land (inzuri) to the farmers as well as solving conflicts arising between people concerned with pastoralism. Umutware w’ingabo worked along the above two chiefs. He was responsible for offering defence and promoting peace in the kingdom, recruiting and training the army, ensuring expansion of the kingdom frontiers as well as protecting the kingdom. Army chiefs also worked to preserve cultural values of the society. The army chief was the most important of all chief mentioned above in Rwanda kingdom.

      Mortehan reforms (1926-1931)

      Between 1926 and 1932, the Resident of Rwanda called Georges Mortehan introduced reforms in the administrative structure of Rwanda. These reforms marked the end of the three-tier leadership in their various regions. The kingdom was divided into districts (ibikingi), whose leader had to be a chief (chef de cheferie), appointed by the Resident himself. The administration at igikingi level changed. The three former chiefs were replaced with Tutsi chiefs and sub-chiefs who were also appointed Mortehan (Resident). The functions of the chiefs were no longer seen in the administrative system of the country. Their responsibilities were given to the territorial administrators and chiefs of districts. The king no longer had powers to appoint or dismiss chiefs. Unfortunately, the administrative responsibilities in the new structure was unfairly done. It excluded the Hutu, Twa and Tutsi with a moderate background in favour of the Tutsi from well to do families. The chiefs were in turn replaced by their sons who completed from the school reserved for sons of chiefs. This is because they were seen as being able to rule in a modern way.

      Deposition of King Yuhi V Musinga in 1931

      Activity 2.11

      Describe the reasons for the deportation of King Musinga in 1931. Thereafter, compile an essay for the teacher to mark.

      It is important to note that King Musinga first collaborated with the German administrators during German colonialism. The colonialists in return supported him to defeat the northern rebellions. However, Mwami Musinga was opposed to the missionary activities, especially those of the Catholic Church. He considered Christianity as one way for weakening his position. The situation worsened with the coming of the Belgians who collaborated with the Catholic Churchs’ authorities. It is because of this state of affairs that made King Musinga to refuse to be baptised. According to the report of the Vice Governor General Voisin in 1931, he stated, “King Musinga had been accused of being opposed to moral, social and economic activities of the colonial administration. He is at the same time accused of being hostile to the work of the missionaries.” It is this that soured the relationship between the King and the colonial administration, the Catholic missionaries as well as Rwandan collaborators all of whom were Belgians.

      On 12th July 1931, Governor General Voisin announced the deposition of King Yuhi V Musinga. The king was asked to leave Nyanza royal court to Kamembe in Kinyaga. Musinga left for Kamembe on 14th July 1931. On that very date, Rudahigwa, the son of the chief of Nduga-Marangara, was proclaimed King by Vice-Governor General Voisin under the royal name of Mutara III. King Musinga was moved from Kamembe to Moba near Bukavu in Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C.) in 1940. He spent the last bitter years of his life here, eventually dying on October 25th 1944.

      2. Socio-cultural reforms

      Activity 2.12

      I. Identify some of the cultural ceremonies and festivals practised in Rwanda today.

      2. Explain the significance of each ceremony you have mentioned. Present your findings in class for further discussion.

       a) Traditional education

      Traditionally, education was informal and it was delivered through the family. The family taught boys and girls differently. Girls got their education from their mothers and aunties through urubohero. Boys training was delivered through Itorero. The education offered to the youth in Itorero included military and leadership skills, iron smelting, pottery and basket making. This is because the youth were expected to take over the mantle of leadership and participate in nation building in the future. Itorero training was also meant to instil patriotism and boost self esteem among the granduants.

      However, with the coming of the colonialists, itorero and other forms of traditional education in Rwanda were abolished. They were replaced with secular and religious education. The most important skills acquired from these formal schools were reading, writing and arithmetic. This new form of education also enabled learners to acquire skills necessary to work for Belgians. Unfortunately, this did not benefit the local populace, especially the younger generation, which lost touch with their history and ancestry. Contrary from what was expected, the shift from traditional (informal) education to the formal (colonial) type of education did not serve to address national needs at that time. It instead provided avenues of climbing to a higher social status. Those who went through formal education came to be perceived as being of a better status than those who did not have this type of education. This divided the society rather than unite it as traditional education had done. Since then, primary education which was limited to a lower level was expanded. For instance, between 1925 and 1935, the number of pupils increased. By 1945, the numbers had reached 100,000 pupils in primary schools. Secondary schools started in 1912 with the creation of the minor seminary of Kansi which in 1913 was shifted to Kabgayi. In 1929, with the establishment of the Groupe Scolaire d’Astrida, secondary education grew and increased. In 1933, the pupils of the former school for the sons of chiefs who lived at Nyanza were enrolled. Apart from Groupe scolaire d’Astrida, there were other secondary schools which include the following;

      • Teacher Training School in Save which was started and managed by the Marist Brothers.

      • Teacher Training School in Zaza by Brothers of Charity.

      • Teacher Training School in Ruhengeri by Brothers of Christian Instruction.

      • Teacher Training School for girls at Save managed by White Sisters.

      • Teacher Training School in Kigali for girls ran by the Benedictine Sisters while their auxiliary laymen ran other Training College at Muramba and Byimana.

      • Teacher Training School College in Shyogwe by the Alliance of Protestants.

      b)      Introduction of identity cards

      Before the colonial form of identification, a Rwandan was first identified by his clan. Being Hutu, Twa or Tutsi was a mere social category. The identity cards which were introduced by the Belgians in 1935 classified Rwandans as belonging to Tutsi, Hutu and Twa. Each Rwandan had an ethnic identity card in the years that followed later.

      To ascertain where one belonged, those who owned ten cows or more were classified as being Tutsi. Those with less cows were classified as Hutu while Batwa were considered not only as those without but also as the pygmies and as those who survived on pottery activities.

      Unfortunately, there were cases where some of the children belonging to the same parent could be classified both as Hutu and Tutsi. For instance, one who had cows was regarded as a Tutsi and another one without cows was regarded as Hutu, yet the two shared same biological parents.

      c)       Health centres

      Before the coming of colonialists in Rwanda, Rwandans used natural herbs (imiti gakondo) to cure various diseases such as malaria and headaches. However, colonialists phased out of local herbs and replaced them with western drugs and medicines. In collaboration with the Christian missionaries, the health sector was transformed by constructing various hospitals in different parts of the country. The medical sector was left in the hands of the Christian Missions. By 1932, the colonial administration had 2 hospitals including Kigali hospital and Astrida as well as 29 dispensaries. From 1933, the colonial administration introduced a new policy of replacing all dispensaries with mobile “assistance camps.” All this aimed at providing health care to the local populace in order to solve the problem of insufficient medical infrastructure. The private hospitals were put in place in Kigeme and Shyira by the Anglican Church and some others by Mining companies like hospital of Rutongo by SOMUKI and Rwinkwavu Hospital by GEORWANDA. Other hospitals set up by Christian Missionaries in different parts of the country among others included the following set up the following:

      • Kabgayi and Mibilizi by the Catholic missionaries

      • Kilinda by the Presbyterians

      • Gahini by the Anglicans

      • Ngoma-Mugonero by the Adventists In an attempt to increase the medical staff, a section of training of medical assistants was opened in Groupe Scolaire of Astrida and medical auxiliaries also opened at Astrida and 2 schools for Assistant Nurses at Kabgayi and in Kigali. As a result by the end of Belgium mandate, 4 rural hospitals and more than 10 dispensaries had been built by the Colonial administration.

      d)      Religion (Christianity)

      Before the coming of the colonialists, the king was not only the head of the monarchy, but also a spiritual leader. He was considered divine and therefore held religious rituals regularly. He was thought to be a link between his people and the ancestors. Colonial agents worked against traditional religion as they considered it pagan and backward. In fact, they considered the African way of life to be that of uncivilised people. They used this as an excuse to introduce and support Christianity over traditional religion.

      Important to note is that the spread of Christianity and Christian culture benefited a lot from the 1926 colonial administrative reforms.  These reforms required that to be a chief or sub-chief, one was to have at least some western education acquired from the colonial schools in Rwanda.

      Catholicism was the most dominant religion among other denominations like the Presbyterian, Anglican and Adventists. Churches were built across the county in places such as Zaza, Nyundo, Rwaza, Kabgyayi, Kilinda, Gahini and Gitwe.

               

                                        Fig 2.7: Kabgayi Catholic Church

      Activity 2.13

      1. Research about other socio-cultural reforms that may have taken place in Rwanda during the Belgium Mandate. Write a brief explanation from your findings.

      2. Besides the Catholic Church, identify other Christian denominations in Rwanda.

      3. Apart from Christianity, mention other religions in Rwanda.

      3. Economic reforms Rwanda experienced a lot transformation during the Belgian Mandate. Such had both negative and positive effects on Rwandans.

      Activity 2.14

      Using textbooks and internet, find out the economic reforms made during the Belgian Mandate. Afterwards, make a report from your findings  to be presented in class.

      Some of the economic reforms introduced in Rwanda during the Belgian Mandate include the following:

      i) Forced labour policy

      During the Belgium rule, some members of a family were required to offer free compulsory labour. This was to accomplish some projects started by the colonial government in a system called the akazi. This labour to the government was to be offered for two days in a week of seven days. Worse still, the forced labour was given amidst cruelty and brutality from the administrators. The introduction of akazi made people feel that they were being punished. The local people underwent suffering while constructing roads, churches and hospitals. This included transporting construction materials from different areas to Kabgayi Catholic Church and growing and cultivating various crops like cassava, sweet potatoes and coffee far from their homes. Locals were also required to transport European goods to places they were asked to. Sometimes, people could fail to harvest what they cultivated due to the long distance from their homes. At times, the farms were intentionally picked near the roads where colonial officials could usually pass so as to create good impression. Due to the forced labour policy, the locals could not get enough time to work on their farms. They instead concentrated on working on coffee farms, with little or no pay. This led to a shortage in food supply. As a result, a number of famines were experienced, such as Rumanura (between 1917 and 1918), Gakwege (between 1928 and 1929) and Ruzagayura (between 1943 and 1944). These famines affected people more often than before the coming of the colonialists. It too resulted into fleeing of many Rwandese to neighbouring countries like Congo and Uganda to look for paid labour.

      ii) Agriculture and animal husbandry

      The Belgians introduced cash crops such as coffee, pyrethrum, cotton and tea. Unfortunately, this was done through forced labour where labourers worked for long hours. They established agricultural research centres in various parts of the country to ensure the best harvests. These included Rubona (Southern Province), Rwerere (Western Pronvince), and Karama (Eastern Province). The Rubona adriculture research station was to deal with agricultural problems affecting average attitude land, Rwerere station in Gisenyi dealt with those affecting higher attitude while Karama station was for low attitude areas. Overemphasis on these crops meant that food crops were not considered as important. The result was frequent food shortages and famines. 

      The Belgians countered food shortages by introducing cassava, maize, soya beans and Irish potatoes to try to improve food production for subsistence farmers. This was important especially because of the two droughts and subsequent famines of Rwakayihura/Rwakayondo and Rudakangwimishanana between 1928-29 and 1943-44 respectively. Hybrid cattle breeds were also introduced to boost the production of hides and skins for export. 

      To support animal husbandry, research centers were set up at Nyamiyaga-Songa in the southern region, Cyeru in the northern region and Nyagatare in the eastern region. Animal health centres were built and veterinary clinics established in rural areas to improve the local breeds by crossbreeding them with exotic ones. This was to develop more productive and resistant breeds.

      iii) Mining activities

       Mining activities started from 1923 with two main companies: RwandaUrundi Tin Mines Company (MINETAIN: Société des Mines d’Etain du Ruanda-Urundi) and Muhinga-Kigali Mining Company (SOMUKI: Société Minière de Muhinga-Kigali) in1934. Some other mining companies such as GEORWANDA was established in 1945 while Compagne de Recherche et d’Exploitation Minière (COREM) was established in 1948. The major minerals extracted by the mining companies were gold, cassiterite, wolfram, tin, colombotantalite and mixed minerals. These mines not only increased the volume of exports but also provided local people with employment opportunities.

      iv) Taxation policy

      In a bid to increase tax revenue to finance their administration and projects, Belgians introduced poll tax in 1917. This was compulsory for all adult male Rwandans. This was to be paid in form of money. Unfortunately, the  methods of collection were brutal. Tax defaulters were flogged while others were imprisoned, which made many people who were unemployed to run to  the Belgians to look for jobs so as to pay taxes.

      v) Trade and commerce

      In pre-colonial times, Rwanda’s socio-economic activities revolved around cattle rearing, crop cultivation, ironwork, art and crafts and hunting. These activities provided the local population with products for subsistence consumption. However, surplus products were used for trade with the neighbouring communities. Like many countries in Africa, trade of goods and services was carried out in Rwanda through a barter trade where goods were exchanged for other goods. During the colonial period, Congo, Rwanda and Burundi were placed under common Belgian protectorate from 1916 to the early 1960s. The introduction of head-tax and use of money as a medium of exchange by the Germans and Belgians respectively changed the society’s socio-economic perception of wealth. Over time, trading centres started to develop. People could find agricultural products as well as crafts from such centres. Colonial administrators established commercial centres where local and foreign traders like Europeans and Asians could trade. Others who took part in the trade were the Belgians, Portuguese, Indians, Greeks, the Omani’s and Pakistanis who

       operated licensed businesses. Generally, the business environment has been expanding since then, to include cross-border and international trade.

      vi) Infrastructural development

      In the 1920s and 1930s, Belgians constructed roads to facilitate trade and effectively administer the colony. The first vehicle arrived in Rwanda in 1927, which led to the construction of the following three international roads:

      • Bujumbura-Bugarama-Astrida-Kigali-Rwamagana-Gatsibo-NyagatareKagitumba

      • Bujumbura-Cyangugu-Bukavu

      • Bukavu-Cyangugu-Astrida

      However, European administrators generally overlooked the abuses of the officials who embezzled the taxes that were collected. They also oversaw forced labour during the construction roads, in various mining activities and during the planting of coffee. There was also the setting up of hydro-electric power stations to produce electricity. These stations were set up as from late 1950’s to supply power to developing industries. Those that were constructed include Mururu (on River Rusizi) and Ntaruka (between lakes Burera and Ruhondo).

      Activity 2.15

      Research on economic activities currently carried out in Rwanda and present your findings in class

      iii) Reforms introduced during the Trusteeship (1946-1962)

      Activity 2.16

      Using the Internet and textbooks, research about what the Belgian colonialist should have done in different sectors to enable Rwanda gain autonomy and be prepared for political independence. Thereafter, compile an essay for marking by the teacher.

      After World War II in 1945, the victorious nations created the United Nations Organisation (UNO) which replaced the League of Nations. This is because the League of Nations had failed to promote world peace. The principle mission of the UNO was to maintain peace and security in the world. By this time, Rwanda’s mandate regime was replaced by the trusteeship regime, although they were all under the Belgian authority. On 13th December 1946, the UNO and Belgium signed a Trusteeship Agreement on Rwanda. On April 29th 1946, the Belgian Parliament approved it. The UNO’s mission was to help prepare Rwanda to reach autonomy before its independence. Later on, the UNO began to have visits every after two years. The purpose of these missions was to hold consultations, examine together with the state holding trusteeship any petition arising from the administrated population and to assess the political situation of the countries under the trusteeship. Such missions in Rwanda were in 1948, 1951, 1954, 1957 and 1960. The UNO requested Belgium to assist her colonies for the political evolution.

      The trusteeship had the following general objectives:

      • To maintain international peace and security.

      • To help in political, economic, social and cultural development of the inhabitants of the territories under trusteeship.

      • To ensure progress towards either autonomous leadership or independence.

      • To promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all irrespective of the race, gender, language and religion.

      • To ensure equal treatment in all social, economic and financial problems to all the members of the UN.

      When UN mission visited Rwanda in 1948, they found that Belgians had done nothing to enable Rwanda reach the political evolution expected. The UN left after requesting Belgium to prepare Rwandans to reach autonomy that was desired for political independence. Belgium, instead of acting as requested by the UN, introduced the Ten Year Plan. This was aimed at achieving social and economic development than political development as requested by the UNO.

      Economic reforms

      The first mission of the UNO in 1948 realised that the Belgian government had not done much in socio-economic development and recommended that more social and economic reforms be promoted. In reaction to this recommendation, the Belgian government elaborated a Ten Year social and economic development plan for Rwanda-Urundi in 1951.

      a) The Ten Year Plan

      The Belgian-led administration in Rwanda put in place a Ten Year Plan, which was meant to bring about political, economic and social development in Rwanda. It also focused on providing significant financial support in public health, agriculture and education. However, this Plan had several weaknesses. These include:

      • It was projected over a long period of time.

      • Not all the people of Rwanda were involved in its formulation. Only the leaders were told about it while the rest of the population was ignored.

      • Since the Belgian administrators who were in charge of the plan could be moved from one country to another, it was difficult for it to be effectively implemented.

      The Ten Year Plan resulted to notable changes in Rwanda, even if these changes were slow despite its full implementation. Under this Plan, the following was achieved:

      a) There was an improved access to education, although the majority of the learners continued to receive basic education. Numbers decreased as learners continued to advance into higher classes.

      b) It had a range of strategies aimed at preventing famine.

      c) The increasing monetarisation of the Rwandan economy enabled more people, apart from the elites, to realise the advantages and opportunities associated with business activities.

      d) Access to medical care also became more equitable, widely available, effective and affordable – independent of sub-group identity. Several projects were financed under this Plan, like the construction of schools, hospitals, dispensaries, roads and the development of marshlands and the plantation of forests. Financing of the Ten Year Plan was in two forms, that is:

      • External financing, which the Belgians achieved by creating a ‘‘Fonds du Bien-Etre Indigène’’ with two million francs. Belgium was also committed to annual financial aid which increased from 150 million per annum in 1950 – 1951 to 560 million in 1961.

      • Financing local projects was done through increasing tax rates on cattle, subjecting polygamy taxation as well as taxing exports.

      b) Abolition of Ubuhake

      On land authorities, there were considerable socio-economic reforms which were done. Among the most notable ones, there was the abolition of the socio-economic dependence system based on the cow or ubuhake by the royal decree of the King Mutara III Rudahigwa on 1st April 1954. The abolition of ubuhake was as a result of the decision of the king in agreement with the indigenous Rwandan Superior Council. The traditional patron-client relationship of ubuhake was a highly personalised relationship between two individuals of unequal social status. The king further argued that the clientship was an obstacle to economic development that could create disorder among the people if not stopped. This abolition had two objectives:

      • To liberate the pastoral clients (abagaragu) who used to spend much of their time working for their patron (shebuja)

      • To encourage private initiatives and to force cattle keepers to reduce the number of cows to manageable and profitable size.

      Political reforms

      During the reign of the Belgian Trusteeship, there were two political reforms brought by the Belgian administrators: the establishment and creation of councils.

      Establishment of councils

      The first reform of its kind was introduced on May 4th 1947. It was the creation of a Conseil du Governement du Ruanda-Urundi. The Council comprised of 22 members, 5 of whom were Belgians including the Governor, 2 Resident Representatives and 2 Belgian state agents. The other 13 members were said to represent other foreigners living in Ruanda-Urundi. From 1949, the Kings of Ruanda-Urundi became members of the Conseil du Governement. This Council was majorly meant for consultation. On March 26th 1949, it was abolished by a Belgian royal decree and replaced with the Conseil Général du Ruanda-Urundi. Conseil Général du Ruanda-Urundi was composed of 50 members. 9 of these were high level personalities and automatic members, who included the Governor, 2 Residents, 2 kings and 4 high level Belgian functionaries. Apart from these, there were seats reserved for 4 representatives chosen by the Haut Conseil du Ruanda-Urundi from among its members, 18 representatives of expatriates and 14 members appointed by the Governor. Another political reform initiated by the Belgians in Rwanda was as a result of the Decree of 14th July, 1952. This was in response to the critical reports of the United National Trusteeship missions in Rwanda in 1948 and 1951. The  decree led to the establishment of councils at local and country levels. They included Conseil de sous-chefferie (sub-chief councils), Conseil de chefferie (the council of chiefs), Conseil de territoire (the council of territory) and Conseil Superieur du Pays (the superior council of the country). The Councils established served for consultation purposes only. They did not have any power in decision making. The composition of each council was as follows:

      (a)  Conseil de sous-chefferie (the Council of sub-chief): It was made up of a sub-chief who presided over it and 5 to 9 elected members.

      (b) Conseil de chefferie (the Council of Chiefs): This was composed of the chief himself who was its chairperson and 10 to 18 members of whom 5 were sub-chiefs elected by their peers. Others were notables elected from members of a college made up of 3 notables from sub-districts. 

      (c) Conseil du territoire (the territorial council): This was made up of the head of the territory and chiefs from that territory as well as a number of sub-chiefs which had to be equal to the number of chiefs. The subchiefs who sat on this council were chosen by their fellow sub-chiefs from their ranks. There were also notables on the council whose number was equal to that of chiefs and sub-chiefs. The notables were elected from an electoral college composed of 3 people elected by each conseil du territoire from among its members.

      (d) Conseil Superieur du Pays (the high council of the state): This was presided over by the king. It was made up of representatives of the councils of the 9 territories (Cyangugu, Astrida, Nyanza, Kigali, Kibungo, Byumba, Ruhengeri, Gisenyi and Kibuye), 6 chiefs elected by their peers, a representative elected by each council of the territory from the members who sat on it, 4 people chosen because of their understanding of the problems of the country and 4 people chosen based on their level of assimilation towards western culture. 

      The councils were created mainly because the trusteeship terms provided that the Belgian administration was to increase the participation of Rwandans in the administration of their country. Thus, the powers of the local government were increased although they were to be supervised by the trusteeship administration. However, the elections to the councils were to be indirect, and the chiefs were tasked to determine the outcome.

      The decree also had the following effects:

      • It empowered the king to make regulations in the administration of the kingdom.

      • The king was also authorised to make arrangements for social and economic services and to impose communal labour in 60 days.

      • The chiefs had authority to implement the decrees of the king especially communal labour and labour services for the chiefs. The right to vote was introduced in 1954. Nevertheless, the system could hardly be described as democratic. For example, notables responsible for electing the sub-chiefdom councils – that is, the lowest level of councils – would themselves now be elected rather than nominated. Each council would thereafter vote on the membership of the superior council of the country council as previously done. Very important to note was that only nationals were allowed to be members of these councils and they served for a period of three renewable years. The administrative structure of Rwanda after establishment of these councils by 1952 was as follows:

       

                         Fig 2.8: Administrative structure of Rwanda by 1952

      Activity 2.17

      With the help of a resource person, listen to stories of how Rwanda got independence amidst difficulties. Find out more from textbooks other difficulties that Rwanda faced in attaining self-rule. Make a report and present to the teacher for assessment.

      The Belgians used the divide and rule system of administration. In Rwanda, they took advantage of the historic division of labour between the Hutu and Tutsi. They went ahead to incorporate the Tutsi into the ruling class. Generally, the Belgian rule was characterised by social favouritism towards the Tutsi.

      From the conseil supérieur du pays, a memorandum called Mise au point was made on 22nd February 1957. This was mainly addressed to the UN Trusteeship mission to Rwanda and to the Belgian colonial administration. This document strongly questioned the colonial power. It criticised discrimination based on colour, questioned monopoly of the missionary-led education which compromised its quality and finally demanded for increased representation of Rwandans in the political administration of their country. More so, the Mise au point made the Belgian authorities to mobilise an intellectual group of the Hutu to write another memorandum as a counter attack which they called Le Manifeste des Bahutu (Hutu manifesto) or Note sur l’aspect social du problème racial indigène au Rwanda. It was produced on 23rd March 1957. The signatories of this memorandum included Grégoire Kayibanda, Joseph Habyarimana Gitera, Calliope Murindahabi, Maximillian Niyonzima, Munyambonera Silvastre, Ndahayo Claver, Sentama Godefroid and Sibomana Joseph among others. They were majorly opposed to the power by the Tutsi.

      In such a state of affairs, the colonial power had successfully created a HutuTutsi conflict which had never been there before. Later on, it became a barrier to the unity of Rwandans. This prompted King Mutara III Rudahigwa to establish a committee to study the “Muhutu-Mututsi social problem” on 30th March 1958. In June 1958, the conseil supérieur du pays produced a reaction on the report established by the committee. They pointed out that there was no Hutu– Mututsi problem that existed but a social-political problem on the level of political administration. This problem, they concluded, was not ethnic in nature. The conseil supérieur du pays members moved on to demand the removal of the ethnic mention in the identity cards. The situation intensified with the creation of political parties in Rwanda competing for power.

      These political parties included:

      Union Nationale Rwandaise (UNAR)

      The Union Nationale Rwandaise (UNAR), or Rwanda National Union Party, was officially formed on 3rd September 1959. Its President was Francis Rukeba. Its other leaders were Michel Rwagasana, Michel Kayihura, Pierre Mungarurire and Chrisostome Rwangombwa among others. The party was basically a nationalist, monarchist, anti-colonialist and reformist party. It was formed to demand for immediate independence of Rwanda.

      Rassemblement Démocratique du Rwanda (RADER)

      Rassemblement Démocratique du Rwanda (RADER) or Rwanda Democratic Assembly, had the following members: Bwanakweli Prosper, Ndazaro Lazarus, Priest Bushayija Stanslas and Steven Rwigemera. This Party was quite close to the colonial administration and the Catholic Church. It was also democratic and advocated for constitutional monarchy.

      Parti du Mouvement pour l’Emancipation Hutu (PARMEHUTU)

      Parti du Mouvement pour l’Emancipation Hutu or Movement for the Emancipation of the Hutu was formed in October 1959. It was officially launched as a Party on 18th October 1959 with Grégoire Kayibanda as its President. Other prominent members were Niyonzima Maximillien, Ndahayo Claver, Murindahabi Calliope, Makuza Anastase, Rwasibo Jean Baptiste and Dominique Mbonyumutwa.

      PARMEHUTU advocated for privatisation of property especially land and codification of customs. In the beginning, it seemed to advocate for constitutional monarchy. However, later on, it advocated for a republican state. On May 8th 1960, while in its meeting at Gitarama, the abbreviation of MDR (Mouvement Démocratique Républicain) was adopted to PARMEHUTU.

      Association pour la Promotion Sociale de la Masse (APROSOMA)

      APROSOMA stands for Association for Social Promotion of the Masses. It was established on 1st November 1957 by Joseph Habyarimana Gitera. It was launched officially as a political party on February 15th 1959. Its other influential members were Munyangaju Aloys, Gasigwa Germain and Nizeyimana Isidore. The day-to-day activities of APROSOMA were not far different from that of PARMEHUTU. Besides the above national political parties, there existed other local political clubs. Some of these were:

      AREDETWA: This stands for Association pour le Relèvement Démocratique de Batwa or Association for Democratic Elevation of Batwa. It was founded by Laurent Munyankuge from Gitarama. This party was later absorbed by PARMEHUTU.

      APADEC: This stands for Association du Parti Démocratique Chrétien or Association of Christian Democratic Party. Its founder was called Augustin Rugiramasasu.

      • UMUR: This stands for Union des Masses Rwandaises.

      • UNINTERCOKI: This stands for Union des Intêréts Communs du Kinyaga.

      • ABAKI: This stands for for Alliance des Bakiga.

      • MEMOR: This stands for Mouvement Monarchiste Rwandais.

      • MUR: This stands for Mouvement pour l’Union Rwandaise. The formation of these political parties set the ball rolling for intense mobilisation of their strongholds through public political gatherings. These gatherings were followed by violence. It explains the subsequent violence that occurred in the years that followed, beginning 1959. From 1st to 7th November 1959, violence broke out in Gitarama against the Tutsi and the members of UNAR. This was started by the members of PARMEHUTU and APROSOMA from Byimana in Marangara. Soon, it spread to Ndiza, Gisenyi and Ruhengeri. The origin of this violence was believed to be the attack of Dominic Mbonyumutwa, a member of PARMEHUTU, (who was the chief of Ndiza at that time).

      He was attacked by young Tutsis as he was leaving Catholic Church service at Byimana Parish, in the former prefecture of Gitarama in the present day Ruhango District. Between 7thand 10th November 1959, there was a counter attack prepared by the members of UNAR against the major leaders of PARMEHUTU and APROSOMA. These attacks had been hindered due to intervention of the Force Publique. During that period, the resident representative Preud’homme had put Rwanda under a military occupation regime. Colonel Guy Logiest was dispatched from Stanleyville (Kisangani in Belgian Congo) and appointed commander of the military forces which were operating in Rwanda at the time on the 11th November 1959. This violence had various effects, which included:

      a) Houses belonging to the Hutus and Tutsis were destroyed systematically.

      b)  Many Tutsis were killed, internally displaced and became refugees in neighbouring countries like in Burundi, Uganda, Tanzania and Belgian Congo.

      c)  There were arbitrary arrests, imprisonments and assassinations.

      d) The twenty chiefs were dismissed and 150 sub-chiefs replaced by the members of PARMEHUTU, with the assistance of Colonel Guy Logiest. Following the above, in November 25th 1960, the following administrative reforms were introduced:

      • The General Governor changed the title and became General Resident

      • The sectors or sub-chiefdoms were reduced from 544 to 229. They were renamed Communes then commune elections were prepared.

      • The 10 Territoires become Prefectures headed by the Préfets who were appointed.

      • The High Councils of the state was dissolved and replaced by as a Special Provisional Council comprising 8 members from 4 political Parties namely RADER, PARMEHUTU, UNAR and APROSOMA. This Special Provisional Council was formed on 4th February 1960 at Kigali. King Kigeli V Ndahindurwa could not hide his hostility for that council because it actually substituted his powers.

      • The chiefdoms or Districts were abolished. From 26th to 30th July 1960, there were communal elections. The following results were realised: PARMEHUTU obtained 70.4% equivalent to 2,390 Communal Councilors, APROSOMA obtained 7.4% equivalent to 233 Communal Councilors, RADER obtained 6.6% equivalent to 206 Communal

      Councilors and UNAR got 1.8% which was equivalent to 56 Communal Councilors. From these elections, PARMEHUTU got 166 Bourgmasters from which 21 were from APROSOMA, 18 from APROSOMA-PARMEHUTU, 7 from RADER and 17 from different political parties. In reference to these results, PARMEHUTU was declared the winner. In the meantime, UNAR protested against these results and so did King Kigeli V Ndahindurwa. For this reason, King Kigeli V Ndahindurwa on July, 1960 was forced to go to Congo Belgian to meet the UN Secretary General and as well as to attend Congo’s independence celebration. After these elections, the Belgian Minister in charge of Ruanda-Urundi issued orders stopping King Kigeli V Ndahindurwa from returning to Rwanda.

                        

                            Fig 2.9: Kigeli V Ndahindurwa

      This made the Resident General to put in place a Provisional Government on 26th October 1960. This was made up of 10 Rwanda Ministers and 9 Belgian State Secretaries. A few months later, on 28th January 1961, there a coup at Gitarama, famously  known as Coup d’Etat  de Gitarama. During this time, a meeting took place in a market place in Gitarama in which about 2,900 Councilors and Bourgmasters who had been elected from PARMEHUTU and APROSOMA political parties participated. With full support of the Belgian government, the following resolutions were reached:

      • The monarchy was to be abolished.

      • The Kingdom emblem and the royal drum (Kalinga) was also to be abolished.

      • The Ubwiru institution was also to be abolished.

      • Rwanda was to be officially declared a Republic.

      • Mbonyumutwa Dominique was to be elected as the first President of the Republic.

      • There was to be the formation of a Government made up of 11 ministers with Grégoire Kayibanda as Prime Minister.

      • The was to be a constitution and a judiciary based on the new state.

      In February 1961, the Belgian Trusteeship confirmed that regime and transferred the power of autonomy to them. A new tri-colour flag of Red, yellow and Green was exhibited on 26th February 1961. On September 25th 1961, legislative elections and a referendum were organised and were won by PARMEHUTU. It was declared that majority of voters voted ‘‘No’’ against the monarchy and the candidature of King Kigeli V Ndahindurwa. On 2nd October 1961, the legislative assembly was put in place. Grégoire Kayibanda was elected  the President of the Republic by the Legislative Assembly headed by Joseph Habyarimana Gitera. On 1st July 1962, Rwanda got independence, and the Belgian flag was replaced by the Rwandan flag.

                 

                      Fig 2.10: The flag of Rwanda at independence

      2.4 Effects of Belgian colonisation

      Activity 2.18

      Assess the reforms made by Belgian colonial administrators between  1916-1962. Thereafter, make a presentation in class.

      Political effects

      a) Change in the traditional administration

      Belgians used indirect rule as their administrative method. With this, they stripped off the traditional powers of the Mwami (king) and reduced his position to being ceremonial.

      They rejected the ancient administration of Rwanda that was based on the functions of the three chiefs at igikingi level. The former cattle, land and army chiefs were abolished and replaced with one chief. They reduced the powers of the king including barring him from appointing or dismissing his chiefs. Finally, King Yuhi V Musinga was deposed in 1931. This meant that the entire administration rested in the hands of Belgian administrators.

      b)Formation of councils

      During the Belgian administration, there was formation of councils. These were mainly to prepare Rwandans for autonomy that was to enable them gain total independence. c) Formation of political parties Belgian colonial rule led to the formation of political parties like PARMEHUTU, UNAR and RADER. These were to compete for power during the transition to democracy. However, this was not achieved at all.

      Economic effects

      i)  Improvement in agriculture

      There was transformation in crop cultivation as well as animal husbandry. For instance, they introduced new food and cash crops like cassava and coffee to solve famine and increase the volume of exports respectively. The growing of cash crops was compulsory so as to improve Belgian economy. This was followed by introduction of research centres and animal breeding centres in places such as Karama, Songa and Rubona. These centres were meant to produce better quality seeds in food and cash crops, fast growing and drought resistant varieties as well as quality animal breeds. However, they used forced labour (shiku) where people provided free labour on European gardens as well as plant coffee on their farms by law. Other cash crops introduced included cotton, tea and pyrethrum.

      ii) Generation of electricity

      In the field of energy, from 1958, the dams were constructed to produce hydro-electric power. These included Mururu on Rusizi River and Ntaruka HEP stations.

      iii) Establishment of industries

      Belgians were instrumental in the setting up of industries in Rwanda. Examples of such industries include BRALIRWA, a beer manufacturing company. After establishment, it officially started operating in 1959. In addition, the management of the Breweries of Congo and Burundi, then under the management of Brasseries de Leopoldville (Brewery of Kinshasa), decided to build a brewery in the eastern region of Rwanda (in Gisenyi) on the northern shores of Lake Kivu.

                  

                                   Fig 2.11: A section of Brarilwa Factory

      iv) Introduction of commercial mining

      Mining activities started in 1930 with two main companies: Rwanda-Urundi Tin Mines Company (MINETAIN: Société des Mines d’étain du RuandaUrundi) and Muhinga-Kigali mining company (SOMUKI: Société Minière de Muhinga-Kigali) in 1934. Some other mining companies that were established include GEORWANDA and COREM.

      v) Construction of roads

      In the 1920s and 1930s, Belgians constructed various roads to facilitate trade. However, European administrators generally overlooked the abuses of those officials who embezzled funds collected as taxes, road construction and human abuses in plantation farming.

      vi) Introduction of taxes

      Belgians also introduced the collection of taxes. The introduction of cash taxes instead of agricultural produce was intended to increase cultivation of coffee as a cash crop in their favour. This was very unfair for the majority were not employed and could not pay cash taxes.

      vii) The traditional manufacturing sector was discouraged

      Imported substitutes were encouraged hence replacing the locally produced products since they were of better quality than locally made products. The imported goods included clothes, salt, knives and hoes. This led to poverty and suffering to local entrepreneurs.

      viii) Introduction of forced labour

      Many economic reforms that were introduced were implemented using the forced labour policy. However, this destroyed their aims because instead of solving the economic problems, they led to famines where the energetic people fled to the neighbouring countries to engage in paid labour.

      Social effects

      a) Abolishment of traditional education

      The Belgian colonialists abolished traditional education through itorero and replaced it with colonial education. The Belgian colonial government in collaboration with missionaries established schools like GS Astrida, teacher training schools and seminaries.

      b) Establishment of health centres

      Belgians also set up health centres to take care of the people. The government hospitals established during the Belgian rule included the hospitals at Kigali, Butare, Nyanza, Kibuye, Gisenyi, Ruhengeri, Byumba, Kibungo and Rwamagana. Gishari Tuberculosis Centre was established by the Belgian colonial government in 1955.

      c) Construction of churches

      They also constructed churches in different parts of the country like in Kabgayi,  Ngoma-Mugonero and Gahini. This was to facilitate the spread of Christianity.

      Activity 2.19

      Write an essay on the impact of German and Belgian colonisation of Rwanda. With reasons, explain briefly the impact that was worse than all.

      Revision questions

      1. Discuss the causes of German and Belgian colonisation of Rwanda.

      2. Examine the impact of German colonisation of Rwanda.

      3. Give the reforms that were introduced by the Belgian colonisation of Rwanda from 1916 - 1962.

      4. Explain the effects of Belgian colonisation of Rwanda.


      • Key unit competence To be able to describe the causes and the course of genocide against the Tutsi (planning, execution and how genocide was stopped)

        Activity 3.1

        1. In Senior One, we studied about the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. Explain the meaning of the term ‘genocide.’

        2. Visit the library and carry out a research on the causes of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. Look for more information from the Internet where necessary. Present your findings in class.

        Genocide is the mass killing of innocent people based on their tribe, race, religion, political ideas, among other reasons, with an intention of completely wiping them out. The 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi was the mass killing of innocent Tutsi based on racism. The Genocide against the Tutsi began on the night of 7th April 1994, only a few hours after the death of President Habyarimana.

        3.1 Causes of Genocide against the Tutsi

        The 1994 genocide against the Tutsi was a long planned campaign of mass murder in Rwanda. It occurred over a period of 100 days beginning from 7th April.

        The genocide was sparked off by the crush of the presidential jet Falcon 50 at Kanombe after it was hit by a missile. Among other people on board were Presidents Juvenal Habyarimana of Rwanda and Cyprian Ntaryamira of Burundi who were coming back from Dar-es-Salaam. They all died on the spot. This was interpreted by staunch Hutu population as an attempted assassination of their president. They began the long planned move to wipe out the Tutsi population in pretext to revenge for the death of their president.

        The following are other causes of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi:

        a)      Division ideology

        This has its roots from the colonial era. This was because both the Belgians and Germans supported and collaborated with the Tutsi in administration of the country. In addition to that, Germans and Belgians treated Rwandans as belonging to different social categories, that is Tutsi, Hutu and Twa. In addition, both the 1st and 2nd republics practised divisive and exclusive politics based on social categories in schools and in administration. This planted  the seeds that resulted into the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi.

        b)     Bad leadership during the 1st and the 2nd Republics

        Both the 1st and 2nd republics promoted division between Rwandans. They were characterised by indoctrination of part of the population with extremist, genocidal ideology. This tore the national unity among the masses and later resulted into the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. Both regimes made no attempt to unite the people. They maintained the ethnic identity cards indicating a person as being Hutu or Tutsi. They promoted hatred and disharmony between the Hutu and Tutsi. The Tutsi were discriminated against, to a point where the Hutu were discouraged from marrying a Tutsi. 

        c)      The culture of impunity

        During both regimes, criminals who committed crimes against humanity were rewarded by being promoted to important administrative positions instead of being punished. Corruption, favouritism, cheating, embezzlement and diversion of public funds were common under the 1st and 2nd republics. The victims went unpunished. In cases of massive killing of the Tutsi, the criminals were congratulated instead of being punished or trailed. Therefore, laws had loopholes and cases were judged in favour of the majority Hutu. This increased the killing of the Tutsi.

        d)     The role of local media

        The media played a key role in aiding the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. The call to murder all Tutsi men, women and children was broadcasted over one of the two radio stations in Rwanda. Various newspapers, magazines and television stations also called for and supported the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. Examples are the Kangura and Umurwanshyaka magazines, the government owned Radio Rwanda and RTLMC (Radio Télevision Libre des Mille Collines) radio and television stations. 

        The Kangura Newspaper for instance carried news that portrayed false ideology of ‘Hutu Majority’ and ‘Tutsi Minority.’ It claimed that all Tutsi were dangerous, and their intention was to clear the Hutus. It advised that the Tutsi needed to be dealt with before they launched their attacks on Hutus. In other publications, the newspaper negatively portrayed opponents of the government as traitors working with the RPF. 

        The media also downplayed the state-sponsored violence against innocent civilians that was being carried out under the disguise of security. It also coordinated and mobilised killings as well as ensuring that the plans of extermination were fully executed.

        Activity 3.2

        Copy the table below in your notebook. In it, fill in the TV and radio stations as well as newspapers that are dominant in present day Rwanda.

        e)      Greed for power by the members of Akazu

        Most members of the Akazu, who mostly originated from Gisenyi prefecture (current Rubavu and Nyabihu Districts) wanted to keep on the rule over the country. They formed the inner circle of government and were close friends to Juvenal Habyarimana’s wife Agathe Kanziga. To achieve this, they took the responsibility of eliminating the Tutsi of whom they considered as an obstacle to their intentions. They prepared for Genocide against the Tutsi.

        3.2 Planning and execution of Genocide against the Tutsi

        Activity 3.3

        With the help of a resource person and textbooks from the library, find out how the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi was planned. Thereafter, make presentation in class.

        The history of genocide dates back to 1959. This is because the root cause of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi was a long process of violence, hatred, injustice and divisions under the 1st and 2nd Republics whose results were first marked by the 1959 massacres directed against the Tutsi.

        In 1973, other Tutsi massacres were organised by the government of the 1st Republic using the Rwandan students (of secondary schools and universities). These massacres targeted Tutsi intellectuals. After 1990, the government of the 2nd Republic crystallised ethnic split. The 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi started on 7th April 1994 under the pretext of Juvenal Habyarimana’s plane crash near Kanombe airport. From the first killings in Kigali, the genocide spread across the whole country within 100 days where over 1,000,000 Tutsi civilians perished.

        Identification of the enemy

        The enemy to be eliminated was any Tutsi within the country.  Enemies also included moderate Hutu who were seen as sympathisers.

        Preparation and establishment of lists

        As part of the conspiracy to exterminate the Tutsi, civilian and military authorities and militia prepared lists of persons to be eliminated. This was done by establishing a list of the people to kill especially the Tutsis. It also included politicians, intellectuals, businessmen and ordinary people in Kigali and elsewhere in the country. As early as in October 1990, lists were used for arrests.

        Creation of  civilian militia

        Militias comprised of organised groups, armed individuals and army troops (Garde présidentielle,  Interahamwe and impuzamugambi militias). These were trained and served as a complementary force to Rwandan army to ensure that all enemies were killed.

        Setting up road blocks

        Day and night patrols (Amarondo) were set up in different corners of the country to prevent any attempt to escape.

        Course of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi

         Activity 3.4

        1.  In groups, organise a role play of how the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi was executed.

        2.  Research with the help of a resource person on the role played by RPF/RPA towards stopping of 1994 genocide. Thereafter, compile an essay for marking by the teacher.

        It should be noted that no genocidal action could take place without the involvement of the government. This is why the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi was a long process, having started in 1959. It had been set into motion by the governments of the 1st and 2nd Republics of Rwanda.

        The 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi began on 7th April 1994 shortly after the crush of the presidential plane. Soon afterwards, there was incitement from the local media and genocidaires, soldiers of the presidential guards and Interehamwe militias who described the act as assassination of the president by the Tutsi.

        They started systematic elimination of the Tutsi and Hutu politicians in opposition. Different meetings were held at the High Command of the F.A.R (Forces Armées Rwandaise) which resulted into the formation of the interim government on 8th April 1994, where Dr Sindikubwabo Theodore was nominated as the President of the Republic and Kambanda Jean as Prime Minister. Their government was composed of ministers most of whom belonged to extremist wing of political parties that had accepted to be part of the coalition.

        From 7th to 11th April 1994, acts of great horror had spread throughout the entire country except in Gitarama and Butare Prefectures. The killings began on 15th and 21st April after sensitisation from some members of the interim government. At the beginning, the militias in small groups killed the victims in their homes and along road blocks. However, later on, the Tutsi began to escape and look for safe places in public offices, commune offices, hospitals, stadiums, schools and churches. Even in these places, they would still attack and kill them. Generally speaking, there were no safe places to hide.

        On 12th April 1994, the interim government (also called Abatabazi) left the capital of Kigali following the advance of the RPF-Inkotanyi and settled in Gitarama at Murambi. From here, they later relocated to Gisenyi and in refugees camps located in Goma (in Zaïre/DRC). Among the features of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi, there were many forms of extreme violence.

        The main tools used during the genocide against the Tutsi were machetes, grenades and bullets. Other forms of torture and killings included burning people alive, throwing people into pit latrines while still alive and forcing family members to kill each other.

        Actors of genocide against the

        Tutsi The Genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda had different categories of actors: organisers, executors, accomplices of killers and those who killed observers.

        Government of Rwanda under Habyarimana: As the main organiser, it holds the core responsibility of having neither forbidden nor punished violence against one part of its population. It provided financial, material and moral support to the executors. It had used all means to encourage the killings through the sectarian education and government owned media.

        Militias: These were paramilitary groups of people formed and trained for civil defense of the country by 1990. Groups like Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi were used to echo hatred, suspicion and division against the Tutsi as the Liberation War was on-going. The teachings recalled many differences between Hutu and Tutsi, prejudices and other kinds of stereotypes of each group.

        • Forces of Garde présidentielle (Republican forces): They actively participated in the killings all over the country as from 19th April 1994.

        • Civil servants and the military: These include prefecture and commune civil servants and commune police. They organised militias and Hutu citizens to track and kill the victims hiding in many places including hills and houses.

        • Local actors: These included businessmen, MRND local representatives and local opinion leaders (such as teachers and entrepreneurs). They worked hand in hand with local authorities to implement government directives and to execute the genocide against the Tutsi.

        • Citizens: They played the role of being observers, executors and accomplices to the killing of innocent relatives, brothers, sisters, colleagues and friends. The targeted group to be exterminated was the Tutsi population without any distinction of age, religion, region and sex.

        Note: One could assert that among all these categories, there were a few numbers that were reluctant to act as they were expected. Some accepted to die instead of killing their brothers, sisters, neighbours and friends while others used all means to save those who were being killed by providing them refuge or helping them escape the danger before RPF forces arrived. Some testimonies of genocide survivors proved this fact.

        3.3 Role played by RPF/RPA to stop the genocide against the Tutsi

        Activity 3.5

        1. Write down what the following initials stand for in relation to Rwanda:

         i)  RPF

        ii) RPA

        2. Discuss the role of RPF in Rwanda today.

        Thereafter, make in class.

        It should be emphasised that the role of RPF forces in stopping the Genocide is of major importance. From the onset of the 1990 Liberation War, RPF forces worked to liberate the country from the hands of dictator Juvenal Habyarimana and his clique among the Akazu. When the  mass killings started from 7th April 1994 (though it had taken place sporadically since 1959) to July 1994, RPF forces doubled their mission. They fought to liberate the country at the same time stopping genocide and saving victims. Below are the ways RPF forces laboured to save lives:

        • On 7th April 1994, the chairman of RPA High command, General Paul Kagame, convened an emergency meeting of RPA High command at Mulindi Headquarters. From that meeting, General Kagame gave orders to stop the genocide, defeat the genocidal forces (F.A.R and Militias) and rescue genocide survivors.

        • During the 100 days of the genocide against the Tutsi, the RPA saved thousands of people through rescue operations conducted across the country.

        • Rescuing civilians was the main objective of the campaign against the genocide.

        The genocide was stopped on 4th July 1994 when the genocidal forces and F.A.R (Forces Armées Rwandaises) were defeated and Kigali liberated. The struggle for liberation and stopping the genocide continued countrywide until 17th July 1994. Finally, areas that were controlled by the French forces under zone Turquoise (Gikongoro, Cyangugu and Kibuye) were also liberated at a later stage, leading to the total liberation of Rwanda.

        Revision questions

        1. Discuss the causes of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi.

        2. Explain the course of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi.

        3. Discuss the role played by RPF/RPA to stop the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi.

        4. Describe how the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi was planned and executed.

        5. Write down what the following initials stand for in relation to political parties in Rwanda:

        i) ICTR

        ii) RPF

        iii) UNAMIR


        • Key unit competence To be able to describe the origin, rise, organisation and decline of kingdoms in East and Central Africa: Case study of Buganda and Kongo kingdoms.


          Introduction

          There were many kingdoms in the east and central Africa region before colonial era. Among the most established kingdoms were the Buganda and the Kongo kingdoms. This unit explores the origin, rise and organisation of each of these two kingdoms. It concludes by studying the reasons for the decline of these two kingdoms.

          4.1 Factors for the rise of Buganda and Kongo kingdoms

           1. Buganda Kingdom

          Activity 4.1

          With the help of your teacher, invite a resource person to talk to you about Buganda Kingdom. Remember to take notes and ask questions during the talk.

          This was one of the most developed and highly centralised states in the interlacustrine region in the middle of 19th Century. It covered the area between Lake Kyoga and Lake Victoria in the north and south respectively. To the west she was boarded by Bunyoro and extended as far as River Nile to the east.

           Activity 4.2 Use the map of Buganda Kingdom on page 40 to answer the following questions:

          1. Identify the areas that existed within the kingdom.

          2. Write the names of kingdoms that bordered Buganda Kingdom.

            

                     Fig. 4.1: Map showing Buganda Kingdom (in the 18th Century)

          Origin of Buganda Kingdom

          There are two theories that explain the origin of the Buganda Kingdom. The first theory is based on traditions in Buganda. These traditions suggest that the founder of Buganda was Kintu. Kintu was an immigrant from Mount Elgon region. He is believed to have organised the Buganda clans in one centralised organisation with himself on top of administrative hierarchy. This theory is popular among the Baganda and is believed by about thirteen clans. The other theory that explains the origin of Buganda is the Kimera theory.  Traditions in Bunyoro assert that Buganda Kingdom was formed by a sub dynasty of Babito. They argue that after the Chwezi Empire disintegrated, different provinces founded their own kingdoms. Traditions say that the founder of Buganda kingdom was Kato Kirema, a twin brother of Isingoma Rukidi Mpuga. Isingoma Rukidi was the founder of Babito Dynasty in Bunyoro Kingdom. 

          What is important is that by the middle of the 16th Century, a kingdom emerged in the area north of Lake Victoria. The kingdom later expanded in all directions.

           Factors for the rise and growth of Buganda Kingdom

          By the 19th century, Buganda was at the peak of its greatness. It stretched from Lake Albert in the west, River Nile in the East and bordered the Bahaya states in northern Tanzania. The land the kingdom occupied was fertile and experienced good climate that favoured crop production.

          Activity 4.3 In Senior One, we learnt about the ancient Rwanda Kingdom. The kingdom started as a small state but later on expanded to become a big kingdom. Form groups to discuss some of the factors for the growth of Rwanda Kingdom.

          Let us now look discuss the some of the factors that led the rise and growth of Buganda Kingdom.

          a)      Strong and ambitious leaders

          Around the 14th and 15th centuries, the small Buganda Kingdom experienced rapid growth and expansion. Initially, the kingdom was made up of smaller kingdoms of Busiro, Kyadondo and Mawokota. This growth came about as a result of powerful and ambitious kings of Buganda at that time. Such kings captured new areas towards the end of the 16th century. They added them to the existing Buganda Kingdom. At the same time, it can rightly be argued that the kingdom had weaker neighbours such as Bunyoro Kingdom. Examples of such strong leaders are Kabaka Kateregga, who raided Bunyoro and conquered Ggomba, part of Butambala, southern Ssingo and part of Busunju. This was around the 16th and 17th centuries. However, Kabaka Kyabaggu made raids into Busoga but was later forced to withdraw. Another successful and ambitious leader was Kabaka Jjunju, who annexed Buddu, Kooki, parts of Kiziba and Karagwe from Bunyoro in the 18th Century. He also made Buhaya pay tribute to the larger Buganda Kingdom. Kabaka Ssemakokiro, in the last quarter of the and Bulemezi. He also forced Busoga to pay tribute to Buganda. Kabaka Mawanda, in the 18th Century, got Karagwe, which lay to the north east of Bulemezi and north west of Singo.

          b)      Centralised administration

          Buganda was a highly centralised state under a king known as Kabaka. He ruled with the help of the traditional parliament called Lukiiko. Apart from the Lukiiko, the king was also assisted by three important officials; the prime minister (Katikiro), the treasurer (Omuwanika) and chief justice (Omulamuzi). The king was a source of power from the head of the administrative unit to the bottom level. Important to note is that a decision by the Lukiiko as well as Kabaka’s word was final in settling disputes and initiating development projects. 

          c)       Smooth succession of leaders

          Succession of leadership in the kingdom was well laid out. Before the kabaka died, he had to name his successor. If he did not, the katikiro and the clan heads would be responsible for choosing the capable kabaka.

          This reduced conflict that could arise out of succession. In general, this promoted stability and peace in the kingdom.

          d)      Trade

          Bugada Kingdom participated in trade with its neighbours such as Ankole, Bunyoro, Karagwe and Rwanda. It traded in bark cloth and iron. Generally, the trade boosted its economic progress.

          The kingdom also participated in Long Distance Trade that was being carried out between the East African Coast and Central Africa. The Arabs from the coast brought guns in exchange for slaves and ivory. The kingdom used these guns to conquer her neighbours and further expand her territory.

          e) Strategic location

          Buganda Kingdom was strategically positioned with natural features. For instance, Lake Victoria on the south, Lake Kyoga on the north and River Nile on the east. These natural features provided defense against her neighbours.

          f) Fertile soils and favourable climate

          The kingdom supported agriculture. This is because it lay on land that was fertile. Together with favourable climate that it experienced, it produced good harvest that supported the population. Matoke was their staple food.

          They also kept livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats.

          g) Strong army

          The kingdom had an army equipped with iron weapons such as spears, bowls and iron arrows. There also existed royal bodyguards that maintained the Kabaka’s court and constantly protected it.

          The army defended the kingdom and protected its boundaries. Every ablebodied male adult had a responsibility to protect it. The army was well organized, trained and disciplined.

          h) Unifying language, religion, ancestry and culture

          The Kingdom of Buganda had several unifying factors. Among these was their language, others being their traditional religion, a common ancestry and similar culture. All these factors led to the kingdom’s rise, growth and expansion.

          For instance, the Buganda Kingdom was a homogenous society with the Bantu whose language was Luganda. This made communication easy and swift throughout the kingdom.

          The Kabaka among the Baganda on the other hand was not only an administrative leader, but also a spiritual leader. He was believed to be the overall mediator between his people and their god, Lubaale.

          Their culture also emphasised respect for authority and elders. This minimised cases of disobedience and internal revolts.

          i)        Begun as a small state

           At first, the Kingdom of Buganda was small. This made it possible to be easily administrated and controlled. Communication throughout the kingdom was also fast and effective.

          Activity 4.4 Compare the above factors with those that led to rise and growth of Rwanda Kingdom you learned in Senior1. Discuss in pairs.

          2. Kongo Kingdom

          The Kingdom of Kongo was located in west central Africa. It covered the  present day northern Angola, Cabinda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. It stretched to the southern part of Gabon. The largest area it ever extended to reached the Atlantic Ocean in the west and to the Cuango River in the east. Further, it stretched from the Congo River in the north to the Kwanza River in the south.

           

               Fig. 4.2:  Map of Kongo Kingdom towards the end of the 19th Century

          The kingdom consisted of several core provinces ruled by the ‘Manikongo’, meaning lord or ruler of the Kongo Kingdom. However, Ike Kingdom  extended to neighbouring kingdoms such as Ngoyo, Kakongo, Nsoyo and Matamba.  The Kingdom of Kongo largely existed from 1390-1891 as an independent state. From 1891-1914, it existed as a vassal state of the Kingdom of Portugal. In 1914, the titular monarchy was forcibly abolished, following the Portuguese victory against a Kongo revolt. The remaining territories of the kingdom were assimilated into colony of Angola.

          Origin of Kongo Kingdom

          Activity 4.5

          Every kingdom has a story behind its origin. Some of the stories may be true while others may be exaggerated.

          1. Write a story you have heard about the origin of Rwanda Kingdom.

          2. Ask your friend to narrate to you a story about another kingdom he or she knows.

          3. Narrate the story from your friend to the whole class.

          The Kingdom of Kongo was also known as Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo. According to Kongo traditions, the kingdom’s origin lies in the very large and not very rich area of Mpemba Kasi.  Mpemba Kasi is located just south of modern day Matadi in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A dynasty of rulers from this small political unit built up their rule along the Kwilu Valley, and lie buried in Nsi Kwilu, its capital.

          Traditions from the 17th Century point to this scared burial ground. According to missionary Girolamo da montesarchio, the site was so holy that looking upon it was deadly. Girolamo da montesarchio was an Italian capuchin who visited the area from 1650-1652. 17th Century subjects of Mpemba Kasi called their country “mother of the king of Kongo” in respect of the territory’s antiquity. The first king of the Kingdom of Kongo was Lukeni Lua Nimi (1380-1420).

          Factors for the rise of Kongo Kingdom  

          Activity 4.6

          In groups:

          1. Identify some of the minerals that are found in Rwanda.

          2. Give a list of countries that Rwanda trades with.

          3. Discuss how the mineral and agricultural resources of Rwanda have helped it to grow. Write a report from your findings for class presentation.

          a)  Presence of River Congo

          Kongo Kingdom was astride the mighty Congo River. The river provided a good fishing ground for the locals. Fish not only provided food but also served as a commodity for trade with neighbouring communities.

          b)  Trade

          Kongo Kingdom practised trade with its locals and the neighbouring states. The items traded included iron implements, slaves, agricultural products and handcraft industry products. For instance, people mined iron and copper for their use and for trade. They also produced pottery and clothing. They traded in these items and the income was used to grow and expand the kingdom.

          c)  Contributions from vassal

          states The centre of the Kongo Kingdom was its capital city, Mbanza. From there, the Kongo rulers established a highly organised kingdom. The village was the basic political unit of the kingdom. A group of villages made up a district. Districts were grouped together into six provinces. The king required the provinces to pay as tributes to the kingdom. The tributes were ivory, fish, minerals and meat used to expand the kingdom.

          d)      Availability of minerals

          The Kingdom of Kongo was rich in minerals such as ivory, copper and iron. These items were traded with the Portuguese. The kingdom earned a lot of income from the minerals.   

          e)      Agriculture

          Agriculture was the basis of production in the Kongo Kingdom. The soil was  fertile and favoured growth of crops. People cultivated cassava, maize, beans and sweet potatoes. The kingdom did not experience serious famine. In the villages, land was owned communally. The harvests were divided among families, with some set aside for payment of taxes. Towns were reliant on forced labour to farm plantations.

          f)       Art and craft

          Many people in the kingdom had skills in pottery and weaving. They made pots and pipes, and wove fine cloth from barks of some trees. They traded these items with the people of Atlantic Ocean in exchange for seashells and salt. This helped the kingdom stabilise and rise.

          g)  Strong leaders

          Kongo Kingdom had able, strong and brave leaders who organised the kingdom under effective control. The leaders ensured that there was peace and prosperity in the kingdom. Some of the notable kings were King Afonso and King Alvaro I.

          h)      Strong army

          The kingdom had an army equipped with iron weapons such as spears, bowls and iron arrows. The army defended the kingdom and protected its boundaries. 

          i)        Absence of external and internal attacks

          There were little  external threats to the kingdom. This was because the neighbouring states were weaker than Kongo. The king also had a strong army which he commanded. King Alfonso even used the Portuguese mercenaries and guns to exert direct control over defence, tribute collections and long distance trade.

          Activity 4.7

          From the knowledge gained from Senior One, compare the above factors with the ones that led to rise and growth of Rwanda Kingdom. Draw a table that will show the comparison.

          4.2 Political, social and economic organisation of Buganda   and Kongo kingdoms

          1. Political, social and economic organisation of the Buganda Kingdom

          Activity 4.8

          1. Draw a chart showing different departments in your school.

          2. In groups, discuss the role of each department.

          During your discussion, you must have realised that a school has different departments. Each department must strive to enable the school achieve its objectives. The way departments in a school operate can be used to show how kingdoms in the past were organised. Consider the following points on political, social and economic organisation of Buganda Kingdom.

          i)        Political organisation

          Buganda was a highly centralised state under a king, also known as ‘Kabaka’. He was referred to as ‘Ssabataka’ (head of Bataka) and ‘Ssabasajja’ (Head of all men). Ssabasajja meant that he was above the Bataka and all men. The system of succession to the throne in Buganda was matrilineal, that is, the Kabaka’s sons took up their mothers’ clans. This was aimed at giving opportunity to every clan to produce a king. The Kabaka was the source of power. He could appoint, discipline and dismiss any official of the state at his will. This promoted loyalty in his subjects and chiefs.

          The Kabaka was a political and religious leader of the kingdom. He presided over most of the traditional ceremonies like initiation, thanks giving and child naming in the kingdom. For efficient and effective administration, the kingdom was divided into 20 counties. Each county was under a Saza chief. There were further subdivisions into sub-counties, each under a Gombolola chief. The chiefs were appointed directly by the king.

          Militarily, Buganda had no standing army. It was the responsibility of every male adult to contribute to the defence of the state. That is why the chiefs were not merely administrative in function. They were also military leaders in their regions as well. However, there was a royal guard that was maintained at the Kabaka’s court for protecting him.

          The Kabaka was a commander-inchief of the kingdom. The central government of Buganda was in the hands of the Kabaka, assisted by three important ministers.

          These were:

          • The Prime minister (Katikiro)

          • The Chief justice (Omulamuzi)

          • The Chief treasurer (Omuwanika)

          They were appointed by the king amongst most influential clans in Buganda. For easy administration, the Kabaka also had a council called Lukiiko which advised him on important state matters. It was composed of 89 members. These were the prime minister, chief justice, six Kabaka’s nominees, 60 clan heads, 20 county chiefs and treasurers.

          The Kabaka had important women advisors namely; Namasole (Queen mother), Lubuga (Chief sister) and Nabagereka (Chief wife).

          Land was also an important and a political tool. The king controlled the whole land except for the Bataka. The king could give land at his will. This practice ensured that the subjects and chiefs were loyal to the king.

          ii)  Economic organization

          a)      Agriculture

          Buganda Kingdom was predominantly agricultural. Matooke (banana) was their basic food. They also grew maize, sweet potatoes, cassava and beans. There was also keeping of some cattle, sheep and goats but on small scale.

          b)      Art and craft

          Buganda Kingdom had a wide range of handicraft products, from basketry, mats, ceramics, beads, pottery, hand textiles and woven products to musical instruments, toys, jewellery, bags, leather products, batik and woodcrafts. The skills of making these items were handed down from one generation to the other. Crafts for the Kabaka were made by highly trained and specialised craftsmen, who sometimes resided at the palace.

          Products of art and craft were a source of income to the Kingdom, as they were traded with the neighbouring kingdoms in exchange for other products the kingdom could not produce. Later, with the coming of Arabs, these products made a significant part of items they could obtain for the Buganda in exchange for their goods.         

          c)       Trade

          The economy of Buganda Kingdom was characterised by interstate trade. Bark cloth was traded in different territories such as Busoga Bunyoro and Teso. Buganda also traded in fish with lakeshore people of Buvuma and Ssese Island. Exchange of these items at this time was barter trade.  By mid 19th Century, Buganda got actively involved in long distance trade.  It established close ties with Arabs. Through these ties, Buganda acquired arms and ammunitions. Other items traded included cloth, beads and glassware materials.  War booty, minerals and tributes also formed another important revenue source for Buganda Kingdom. After acquiring arms and ammunitions, Buganda embarked on organising raids and wars against her neighbours. Buganda stole cattle, iron works and beautiful women from neighbours. Buganda obtained tributes from conquered state such as Busoga and Bukedi. The tributes were paid regularly as sign of loyalty to the king.

          iii)  Social organisation

          a)      The clan system

          The clan was the basic social political unit in the organisation of the kingdom. Ganda cultural norms prevented the establishment of a royal clan by assigning the children of the Kabaka to the clan of their mother. This practice allowed the Kabaka to marry into any clan in the society. Clans were led by clan heads. They were Kabaka’s representatives among his people. Clan heads were also charged with settling disputes on behalf of the Kabaka. Families belonged to specific clans, each with its own shrine where sacrifices were offered to the ancestors. Mbogo, Mamba, Ngeye and Ngonge were some of the clans in Buganda. However, by the end of the nineteenth century, the Kabaka had replaced many clan heads with appointed officials and claimed the title, “head of all the clans”.

          b)      Language and culture

          Buganda was a homogenous society whose language was Luganda. The Baganda also had the same way of dressing and dancing. This homogeneity in language and culture promoted unity within the Buganda society. 

          c)       Intermarriages and unity

          The Kabaka married from different clans. This created unity between the royal family and all the clans he has married from. By providing matrilineal succession, it was possible for every clan to provide a king. 

          d)      Class division

          Buganda was a class society. There were three classes namely:

          1. Royal class (Abambejja and Abalangila)

          2. The chiefs and clan heads (Bataka)

          3. Peasants (Abakopi) The royal class enjoyed several privileges such as owning a lot of land and not paying taxes. It was also referred to as the first class. The second class was made up of clan heads called Bataka and chiefs. They were clan functionaries of the state and enjoyed several privileges such as owning land. The third class was made up of commoners or peasants (Abakopi). They were not supposed to own land. Abakopi consisted of slaves and captives from conquered areas.

          e)  Traditional religion

          Buganda Kingdom was a religious society. The Kabaka was a spiritual head and overall mediator between his people and their god, Lubaale. This god was consulted through mediums who were usually ancestors. There were other minor gods such as Nalubale, Dungu, Musoke and Kibuuka under Lubaale. There were also taboos and totems of Buganda that helped in maintaining traditional culture, law and order in the society.

          Activity 4.9

          Discuss the similarities and differences between political organisation between Rwanda and Buganda kingdoms.

          Organisation of Kongo Kingdom

          Activity 4.10

          Write an essay on any of the following topics:

          • Our leaders

          • Our resources

          • Our families Read your essay to the class.

          i)  Political organisation

          The Kingdom of Kongo was ruled by a king who had absolute power. In most times, the king ascended to the throne through conquests. The king of Kongo Kingdom took the title of Manikongo, meaning lord or ruler of Kongo. The king appointed lower level officials to serve, typically for a three year term. The king also had power to dismiss lower officials at any time he wished. The king appointed officials from his family. The Kingdom of Kongo was divided into various provinces that made its highest administrative divisions. The Kingdom of Kongo was centralised. The highest concentration of population around Mbanza-Kongo and its outskirts played a critical role in the centralisation of Kongo. The capital was a densely settled area. Rural areas were sparsely populated. The Kongo administration regarded their land as revenue assignments. The government put a head tax for each villager, forming a basis for the kingdom’s finances. The kingdom granted land titles to the holders of land, renewable annually at the court.

          The kingdom’s army mainly constituted of a male population. The army fought with swords and carried shields for protection. An army of about 20,000 soldiers stayed in the capital. Smaller contingents were deployed to and lived in major provinces under the command of provincial ruler.

          ii)  Economic organisation

          The people of Kongo earned their living in the following ways:

          a)      Trade

           The Kingdom of Kongo was a highly developed state as compared to the neighbouring kingdoms such as Nsoyo, Kalonga, Ndongo and Matamba. It was at the centre of an extensive trading network. Kongo traded with many African kingdoms. Kongo had many skilled craftsmen that made cloths, potteries and other goods. Trade flourished not only between African kingdoms, but also across the sea. The most famous were the Portuguese. Kongo provided goods such as ivory, hides, copper and iron. The Portuguese brought silk, glass, guns and manufactured goods. Tributes were collected from the conquered people (vassal states). The tributes were in form of minerals, ivory, animal skins and hides, meat and agricultural products.   The kingdom also collected taxes from long distance trade. Mbanza Ngungu was the terminal of various long distance trade routes. Through it, a lot of tax was collected from the traders.

          b)      Agriculture

          The Kingdom of Kongo was mainly made up of farming communities. Agriculture was the basis of production. This is because the kingdom was located in a fertile area, which was suitable for agriculture. Rainfall was adequate, but not excessive.  The northward flowing tributaries of the Congo River system and the strips of forests, which lined the river banks, left plenty of open country for agriculture between the streams. In this kingdom, food was sufficient. The surplus could be exchange for other goods. People grew maize, potatoes and beans. In areas further from the water sources, they grew cassava, sesame, millet and sorghum. Spices widely grown in the kingdom included tomatoes, onions, garlic and hot pepper. They supplemented their diet with wild fruits they gathered from trees in the thick rainforest. The types of fruits they ate were bananas, coconuts, dates and citrus fruits. In some cases, they domesticated these fruits to manage their supplies. They also reared animals such as cattle, goats and sheep. Livestock provided them not only with meat, but also with hides.

          c)       Mining

          The whole region where the kingdom of Kongo covered was rich in iron ore.

          There were large copper deposits, both north of the lower Kongo at Mindouli and southwards in Katanga. In some part of lower Kongo, there were people specialised in working iron and copper into tools and weapons. The iron that was mined from the mines of Sundo was greatly esteemed because it enables them to make knives, swords, axes and other items. Cutting and slashing weapons such as great axes and swords, the Kongo army utilised muskets and fusils.

          In the pre-colonial period, rulers in kingdoms that could produce iron could control their relationship with other kingdoms. Possession of iron meant military power and trade dominance. Iron tools also meant increased agricultural output and potential food surpluses. For this reason, artisans skilled in the working of wood, copper and iron were highly esteemed. Without the agricultural tools forged by the smiths, the large populations of Congo towns would not have been possible. Iron tools made agriculture on a large scale possible in the Congo Basin and were in great demand for that exact reason: more food meant more people and more power.

          The Portuguese were among the first to trade in iron goods, exporting copper and iron manilas starting in 1470 to the Gold Coast. Other iron trade goods included knives, weaponry, containers, firearms and tools like scissors.

          d)      Hunting and gathering

          Hunting and food gathering were common in Kongo Kingdom. This was done by men. Hunting wild animals provided meat. Cattle were also hunted both for meat and for their hides, which could be used for trade. It supplemented agriculture and trading. Elephants were hunted in order to get ivory, which was so marketable at the time..

          e)      Art and craft

          People in Kongo Kingdom practised art and craft. They made pottery such as pots from clay. They also wove raffia clothes which would be exchanged and traded with other people in and outside Kongo.

          iii)  Social organisation

          The society of Kongo kingdom was based on clan system. Everybody was supposed to belong to a particular clan which was headed by clan head. The clan settled disputes on behalf of the king. The society was also divided according to profession of people. People of the same profession belonged to the same group.

          Religion played an important role in lives of the people of Kongo Kingdom. The religious cults were under the leadership of regional religious leaders. The king acted as a spiritual and religious leader. This unified people under one umbrella of belief. With time, the kings of Kongo Kingdom such as King Afonso were converted   to Christianity. This increased their authority while undermining the authority of regional religious leaders. This made Kongo to become heavily dependent on Portugal and other Christian world. The Kongo people spoke in the Kikongo language. This united almost all provinces in Kongo Kingdom in terms of communication. People respected their culture and it was a source of pride.

          Activity 4.11

           In groups, discuss the common features of the organisation of Buganda and Kongo kingdoms.

          4.3 Factors for the decline of Buganda and Kongo kingdoms

          Activity 4.12

          Read the following passage then answer the questions that follow. Contrary to what many think, leadership is about ‘carrying’ other people’s load. It requires patience, tolerance, wisdom, fairness and dedication. In some cases, a leader must be strict, even if other people will oppose him or her. The most important thing is that the strictness should be based on fairness and service to all.

          A good leader should always be ready to attend to the needs of the people he or she leads. While doing so, he or she must prioritise the needs. That is to say that some needs may require urgent attention than others. If leadership is left to weak, undecided, immoral and corrupt leaders, a state fails. Many states have collapsed due to leadership wrangles or incitement. In some cases, tribalism has led to collapse of regimes and deaths of innocent citizens.

          1. According to the passage, explain what leadership entails.

          2. Identify some of the factors that can lead to collapse of a regime as mentioned in the passage.

          Guided by the passage above, let us now discuss what led to the decline of Buganda and Kongo kingdoms. 

          Factors for the decline of Buganda Kingdom

          a)      The coming of Europeans

          The location of the kingdom made it open to foreign interference. For example, it was located along the trade routes which were used by Europeans. These Europeans consisted of explorers, missionaries, chartered companies and, later on, colonialists. They signed treaties with the Kabaka and chiefs, and stopped slave trade and slavery.

          They also abolished traditional religion, introduced Christianity and reduced the powers of the Kabaka. This led to the decline of the kingdom.

          b)      Big size of the kingdom

          The kingdom expanded to its great height to annex Busoga and Bukedi and other vassal states. The big size due to expansion came with administrative loopholes, rebellions and inefficiency in control. For instance, distant administrative areas like Busoga broke away, weakening the kingdom as well as reducing its size.

          c)       Religious conflicts

          The coming of Christian missionaries in Buganda brought some negative effects. For instance, there were some religious conflicts among Catholics, Protestants and Muslims. These religious conflicts divided people along religious lines.

          d)      Weak military

          The large areas that the kingdom occupied made it difficult for it to maintain a large enough army to protect it. With further expansion, the kingdom’s military system weakened. It also had no standing army to defend the kingdom on a daily basis except the royal guards that maintained the king’s security. This led to its decline. With the coming of the Europeans, the Buganda army was unable to protect the kingdom. This was because they had less powerful guns from Arabs as compared to those of the colonialists.

          e)      Succession disputes

          In the early 19th century, a man called Mutebi tried to become the kabaka of Buganda. He had the backing of a number of chiefs for the throne. This was disputed by his brother, Kamanya, who had similar interests. What followed was a bitter succession war between these two brothers.

          The dispute caused the death of Mutebi in the hands of his brother, Kamanya. Kamanya was so paranoid he even killed his own sons. Another succession dispute was witnessed between Apolo Kaggwa, supporting Daudi Chwa and Daudi Mwanga.

          The dispute started shortly after Mwanga’s father had been forced out of his kingdom and into exile in the Seychelles Islands. The dispute lasted between 1888 and 1892, culminating in the Battle of Mengo. Apollo Kaggwa defeated a Muslim supported Daudi Mwanga and saw the installation of a Christian backed one-year-old Daudi Chwa. Kaggwa ended up being one of the three of kabaka’s regents.

          f)       Decline of trade

          Trade in Buganda kingdom declined or collapsed especially with the coming of Europeans. The Europeans stopped long distance trade with its main item, slaves. This led to a reduction of the kingdom’s revenue, consequently leading to its downfall.

          g)      Death of strong leaders

          The kingdom of Buganda lost capable, brave and strong leaders such as Kabaka Mwanga and Kabaka Mutesa. These leaders had special and natural skills of administration. This brought a gap in the kingdom in terms of reorganisation hence leading its decline.

          h)      External attacks

          Buganda Kingdom kept on declining and became less feared by its neighbours.  This caused the neighbouring kingdoms that were assumed to be weak, before to attack it. Such an attack was mounted by the Bunyoro Kingdom. From such attacks, Buganda experienced damages and losses. 

          i)        Disunity

          The kingdom became disunited because of religious conflicts and divisions. The subjects started hating and fighting themselves. This led to the kingdom’s decline. 

          j)        Political instabilities

          The coming of the British caused political instability in the Buganda Kingdom. This is because their interests in the kingdom were mainly economic. To effectively benefit from this new-found economic entity, they had to devise a way of disturbing the unity that had kept the kingdom together. They therefore opted for ‘divide-and-rule’ policy, as a way of hindering the people’s relations in order to prevent potential political alliances and uprisings. The people of this former prosperous kingdom found themselves clustered in regions and tribal communities. The divide-and-rule policy was so effective that it prevented Africans from taking part in the national political arena. This in turn suppressed any form of unity in coming up with political movements that could oppose their selfish maneuvers.

          The British also introduced Christian religion in the kingdom, which caused serious divisions amongst the people. For instance, when Mutesa died in 1884, his son Mwanga succeeded him. Mwanga was a young man when he took the throne. Unfortunately, he lacked the leadership qualities of his late father. Soon, the kingdom became unstable as a result of the rivalries between the various religious camps. With the kingdom in turmoil, the religious groupings effectively became political affiliations. Each of these affiliations confronted the king militarily. Mwanga was deposed by the armed converts, forcing him to flee the kingdom in 1888.

          In the civil war that ensued, Muslims emerged successful. They proclaimed an Islamic state and installed Kiwewa, a prince who had converted to Islam, as king. However, the Christian converts ganged to fight the Muslims and defeated them. The Christians installed Kalema, a prince who was in support of their efforts.

           Factors for the decline of Kongo Kingdom

          a)      Internal and external conflicts

          There were significant struggles over succession after Afonso’s death in 1542 and many times after that. Particularly in 1568, as a result of such a struggle, Kongo was temporary conquered by rival warriors from the east known as the Jagas. Adding to Kongo’s troubles in the early 1600s was a general dissatisfaction among the Bakongo with their rulers, some of whom were greedy and corrupt.

          Internal conflicts from time to time became so much common after the death of King Antonia in October 1665. The king died without the heir apparent. Many of the men who could have taken his place either died or were captured, including his seven-year-old son. The ruling house of Kinlaza and the opposing house of Kimpanzu fought furiouslyover the throne. This devastating war ended up weakening the kingdom. It took 40 ears to rebuild it.

          b)      Civil war in the kingdom

          After the death of Afonso, Kongo declined rapidly and suffered major civil wars. The Portuguese shifted their interest southward to the kingdom of Ndongo and helped Ndongo defeat Kongo in 1556.

          c)       Effect of the Jaga Wars

          The Jaga wars, which all but destroyed the Kongo kingdom in 1568, brought a Portuguese military invasion. This brought with it a new class of self-reliant traders, adventurers and rogues, who established themselves in a kingdom which, in their eyes, owed them a debt of gratitude.

          d)      Death of able leaders

          The Kongo Kingdom had several able leaders who had inspired its growth and expansion. Death of such leaders caused its decline. Such a leader was Alvaro II. After his death in 1614, conflicts arose between Kongo and the Portuguese colony of Angola over land that was agriculturally productive. Eventually, in 1622, the Portuguese governor of Angola launched an attack on Kongo. They captured many slaves from the Kongo Kingdom, weakening it in the long run. This was not the end. Due to the conviction that there existed silver and gold mines in Kongo, they later launched a series of invasions against the Kongo Kingdom for the next half century.

          e)      The Mbwila Battle between 1665 and 1678

          Some neighbouring kingdoms such as Angola, supported by the Portuguese, invaded southern Kongo in 1622. Continued disputes between Kongo and Portugal over similar areas in the region led to skirmishes in the small district of Mbwila, ending up in the Battle of Mbwila on 29th October 1665. This Battle was mainly over areas where copper was being mined in the Kongo

          Kingdom. The Portuguese invaders killed King Antonio I and cut off his hand. They transported it to Portugal. Most of his nobles, court officials and 5,000 Kongolese troops were also killed. Although Kongo continued to exist, from this point on, it ceased to function as a unified kingdom. Instead, it dissolved into small chiefdoms and never recovered.

          f)       Slave trade

          Slave trade being conducted by the Portuguese was instrumental in bringing the kingdom to an inglorious end, as it became depopulated by the growing demands for slaves. The Kongo Kingdom has been since viewed as being one of the major channel where slaves were picked from, which lasted about four centuries. This resulted in the relocation of millions from the hinterland. The slave trade, which undermined the social structure of Kongo, continued to weaken the authority of the manikongo.

          g)      Integration of the kingdom into the Portuguese colony 

          In 1641, Manikongo Garcia II allied himself with the Dutch in an attempt to control Portuguese slave traders. However, in 1665, a Portuguese force decisively defeated the army of Kongo.

          From that time onwards, the manikongo was little more than a vassal of Portugal. The kingdom disintegrated into a number of small states, all controlled to varying degrees by the Portuguese.

          The area of Kongo was incorporated mostly into Angola and partly into the Independent State of the Congo. Like any other kingdom in Africa, Kongo did not survive the scramble and partition of Africa. The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 decided the sharing of Kongo Kingdom between three countries.

          These were France, Belgium and Portugal. This marked the end of Kongo Kingdom. Much later on, a revolt against Portuguese rule and complicity of the kings led by Álvaro Buta between 1913 and 1914 was suppressed. This triggered the eventual collapse of the Kongo Kingdom by being fully integrated into the Portuguese colony of Angola.

          h)      Weak army

          The Kongolese army became so weak because of internal and external attacks that were constant. The Kongolese army mostly relied on Portuguese mercenaries who became of little help because of their personal demand.

          i)        Big size

          The kingdom of Kongo had become too big to be administered by the already weak leaders. The army too was not so strong enough to protect and defend the kingdom from internal and external attacks.    

          Activity 4.13

          In groups, discuss the achievements and failures of the following key leaders of Kongo and Buganda kingdoms especially: Afonso I and Muteesa I.

          Revision questions

          1. Explain the origin of Buganda Kingdom.

          2. Discuss the factors that led to the rise and growth of Buganda Kingdom.

          3. Describe the organisation of Buganda kingdom in the 19th Century.

          4. Examine the factors that led to the rise Kongo Kingdom.

          5. Identify the reasons that led to the decline of Kongo Kingdom.



          • Key unit competence To be able to explain the rise, organisation, effects and decline of long distance trade.
            Activity 5.1 

            1.Use a dictionary to find out the meaning of the word ‘distance’. 

            2. From your knowledge of Entrepreneurship, define trade. 

            3. Now link the two to explain what long distance trade is. Whatever you have mentioned could be just be the dictionary meaning of long distance trade. 

            4. Now, use internet to find out about long distance in relation to the history of East and Central Africa.

            5.1 Rise and organisation of long distance trade

            Activity 5.2 

            1. Identify major market centres outside your Sector. 

            2. Give a list of major goods of trade in those market centres. 

            3. Find out how much it costs to travel by road to the market centres you have mentioned. 

            4. Find out the distance from your school to each of the market centres you have mentioned.

            Imagine that somebody asked you to walk to some of the market centres you have mentioned. What excuse would you give? Do not be surprised that in the past, traders walked hundreds of kilometres to trade. Let us now study about the rise and organisation of long distance trade.

            This was the trade that was conducted over long distances between the interior of central and East Africa and the East African coast. This trade involved long distances. In most cases, it entailed travelling thousands of miles from one region to another through hostile environment. This trade was done by well prepared traders, usually organised with sophisticated means of transport. The traders were also armed with firearms for fighting or defending themselves in case of danger or attacks on the way. It was led by experienced men who knew the routes and territories where traders passed. 

            Reasons for the rise, expansion and growth of Long Distance Trade of the 19th Century

            Activity 5.3 

            In groups, discuss the factors that must have promoted the rise, expansion and growth of Long Distance Trade in the 19th Century. Present your findings in class.
            Let us now tackle the reasons that led to rise, expansion and growth of long distance trade of the 19th Century. 

            a)  Availability of goods in the interior of both East and Central Africa 

            Long Distance Trade thrived because of availability of goods for trade. The goods included gold, ivory, animal skins, slaves and ostrich feathers. These goods, especially ivory, were highly demanded in India for making bangles. In Europe and America, the goods were used for making piano keys and ornaments. 

            b)  Increased demand for slaves in Europe and America 

            Slaves were on high demand in Europe and America. This led various dealers to intensify their search in the interior for slaves. The ready market and improved ways of exporting them encouraged the traders involved. 

            c)  The vital role played by Indian and other Arab merchants in Zanzibar

            Most Indians and Arabs were professional traders.This contributed to the growth and expansion of the professional caravan traders. The traders were greatly motivated to carry out adventures in the interior of East and Central Africa.

            d)  Increased demand for slaves 

            The French sugar industries on the Islands of Mauritius, Madagascar and Re-union also played a big role in the expansion of slave trade. It was this cheap, free labour in combination with Island climate that favoured the growth of sugarcane. 

            In addition, capturing slaves had been made easier by the introduction and availability of firearms. Availability of firearms made it easier for Chokwe, Bisa and Nyamwezi people to acquire captives. 

            e)  Division of labour 

            Specialisation in some interior communities boosted the rise and development of long distance trade. Communities such as Chokwe and Nyamwezi practised division of labour. After preparing the land for planting, men would leave the work of harvesting to women. Men would then travel far off looking for ivory and transacting trade for several months without coming back home.

            f)  Introduction of cowrie shells as a medium of exchange 

            Initially, long distance trade was conducted on barter system. Later on, cowrie shells were introduced to act as a medium of exchange. This solved problems such as cheating and divisibility of some goods experienced during barter trade. This led to further growth and expansion of long distance trade. 

            g) The hospitality of interior societies 

            Some African societies such as the Baganda warmly welcomed the traders. The Yao guided and offered food and shelter to the traders.  Other tribes such as the Akamba, Nyamwezi and Buganda related well with coastal people. This good relationship helped the trade to develop.  

            h)  Favourable climate 

            The interior of East Africa was characterised by two types of climate, wet and dry. March to November was a wet season, allowing people to practise agriculture. December to February was a dry season. During this period, the interior communities engaged in long distance trade.

            i)  Increased demand for goods

            The increased demand for goods by the locals and slaves by the traders promoted trade. The people in the interior needed goods such as guns, clothes, glasses and saucepans. Coastal traders on the other hand needed gold, slaves, copper, skins, feathers and agricultural products (including honey and tobacco) which could only be obtained from the people in the interior parts of Africa.

            j)  Political stability in the interior of East Africa 

            The East African coast was peaceful and politically stable, creating a conducive environment for trade. This was characterised by a period of peace brought about by the rise of powerful African leaders such as Nyungu ya Mawe, Mirambo, Seyyid Said and Mutesa who provided security and accommodation to traders. These African leaders organised trade caravans and provided security to traders. The presence of firearms also promoted political stability as they were used to provide security to the traders.

             
            Organisation of long distance trade


            1.  Participants 

            Long distance traders were both locals and visitors from the coast and beyond. The locals included the interior African tribes such as the Yao, Akamba, Nyamwezi, Baganda, Bisa, Banyoro, Ganda and Kikuyu. These tribes provided commodities and security to the traders. Visitors to the interior whose aim was to trade were the Arabs and Europeans. They brought manufactured products.


            2.  Trade items 

            The interior African tribes provided the following commodities to traders: ivory, gold, slaves, ostrich feathers, leopard and zebra skins, copper and rubber. The Arabic/foreign goods included guns, gunpowder, clothes, iron products, knives, beads, plates, sugar, saucepans and mirrors.


            Activity 5.4 

            Summarise the above points (Trade items) in form of a table.


            3.  Means of transport and communication 

            Originally, traders used to move on foot from the East African Coast to the interior of East Africa. Later on, donkeys were introduced from Saudi Arabia, hence making transportation of goods easier. The mode of communication
            at first was a problem. 

            Later on, the interaction between the Bantus and Arabs led to the formation of Kiswahili language that was commonly used in the business. Kiswahili was used as a medium of communication by traders while exchanging goods. It initially started at the Coast. Later on, it spread to the interior parts of East Africa. 

            4.  Means of exchange 

            At the beginning of this trade, barter system was used. This was associated with transaction problems. Later on, cowrie shells were introduced and used as a medium of exchange. 
            5.  Major trade routes of long distance trade 

            Long distance trade was conducted through four main routes. These were: the southern route, the central route, the northern route and the Khartoum route.

             i) The southern route 

            This began from coastal port in towns of Kilwa, Malindi and Sofala. It ran through southern Tanganyika, modern Mozambique and south of Lake Malawi. It extended to corridors of Yao and Biza region. Slave trade was a dominant activity carried out along this route. The Yao tribe dominated the trade. 

            ii) The central route 

            It began from the port of Bagamoyo and extended into the interior across Tanganyika to Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika. It crossed the Lake to reach the Congo basin. From Tabora, the route diverted northwards to link the kingdoms of Karagwe, Buganda, Ankole and Bunyoro. Again, this central route branched southwards to enter the corridors of Lake Tanganyika, Lake Rukwa and Lake Malawi. The Nyamwezi people dominated this route. The main trading item was ivory.

            iii) The northern route 

            This started from the ports of Pangani, Mombasa and Tanga. It passed through north east Tanganyika and Nyika plateau of Kenya to western Kenya, Lake Rudolf and eastern shores of Lake Victoria. The Akamba, Kikuyu and Mrima people were prominent traders along this route.
            They dealt in goods such as ivory, slaves, traditional medicine and poisoned arrows. 

            iv) The Khartoum route 

            This route followed the present day Nile River up to Sudan in the Nile valley. It crossed the Mediterranean Sea. It was mainly dominated by Khartoumers from Sudan. The Khartoumers traded with sedentary societies of northern Kenya and northern Uganda. This route mainly dealt in slaves and ivory. 

                 

                      Fig 5.1: Trade routes used during the long distance trade

            5.2 Reasons for the decline of long distance trade

            Activity 5.5 

            Ishimwe has been in the business of selling new clothes in Kigali City for six years now. However, in the recent past, she has been experiencing low sales. In groups, discuss some of the reasons that may have led to this situation. Compile a report for class presentation.

            a)  The trade became less profitable 

            Just like in the case of Ishimwe, there are some factors that negatively affected long distance trade. For instance, long distance trade attracted traders which resulted into competition for market. 

            This led to the flooding of goods forcing traders to lower prices. This reduced their profit, discouraging them from continuing. This caused their goods to fetch low profits. 

            b)  Constant interstate wars 

            Recurrent interstate wars increased insecurity. For example, wars caused by the Nyamwezi who were using the Ruga Ruga warriors was a threat to the continuity of this trade. This made many traders to abandon this trade for fear of being killed.   

            c)  The death of some trade tycoons 

            Rich and prominent people in this trade such as Mutesa I and Mirambo died in 1884. Seyyid Said died in 1846. These kings did not only control but also financed the organisers of the trade. Their death deprived this trade of security, hence its downfall.

                                  

                                        Fig. 5.2: Seyyid Said

            d)  Exhaustion of some vital goods 

            The dwindling supply of important goods and commodities such as ivory, gold, salt, zebra skins, rhino horns and ostrich feathers led to decline of this trade. These goods were purchased in large quantities due to high demand. With time, they got depleted due to the increasing demands for ivory the hunters killed many elephants eventually the number of elephants reduced and the supply of ivory declined. 

            e)  The role played by Seyyid Bargash 

            He attempted to overthrow Seyyid Said as the leader of Oman at the East African Coast (Zanzibar). This resulted into fierce fighting between the supporters of Seyyid Bargash and those of Seyyid Said. This forced Seyyid Said to close the Zanzibar slave trade market. 

            f)  Abolition of slave trade 

            Slaves were at the centre of the long distance trade. The abolition of slave trade by Britain and Belgian parliaments caused a sharp decline in the supply of slaves. 

            This resulted into reduced slaves in the market. Since many traders were interested in the slaves, abolition of slave trade culminated into the collapse of long distance trade. 

            g)  Poor means of transport 

            Even with experienced traders, roads were poor in the interior. This deterred the transportation of goods from the interior to the coast and vice versa. 

            This was partly caused by physical difficulties due to deep valleys, rivers, lakes and mountains. This provided an obstacle in the transportation of goods to East African Coast. 

            h)  Overtaxation 

            African chiefs such as Mirambo and kings such as Kabaka charged a lot of taxes because they wanted to get rich in a short time. This led to reduced profits in the trade and consequently discouraging traders from the trade. They finally pulled out of long distance trade. 

             i)  Scramble for and partition of Africa

            The colonisation of Africa resulted into final collapse of long distance trade. This is because the political, social and economic life of the Africans was under the control of Europeans. Colonial masters put a stop to long distance trade. This is because they too required African labour to develop their colonies.

            j)  Flooding of European cheap goods in the African market 

            Industrial revolution in Europe led to mass production of goods. These cheap quality products sold more than those traded in during the long distance trade. This, too, led to the collapse of the trade

            5.3  Effects of long distance trade

             a) Social effects 

            i. The trade led to interraction of people from varied backgrounds and cultures in East and Central Africa. For example, the interaction of interior people with Arabs at the coast led to the origin of Kiswahili language and adoption of Islam as a religion.   

            ii. Long distance trade helped to improve relationship between some African societies which had been enemies before. For example, the Akamba and the Nandi tribes in Kenya had to ignore their traditional differences in order to trade freely.  

            iii. The trade depopulated many places. It involved, among others, selling of people as slaves. Many people were killed as they tried to defend themselves against the slave traders. Others were captured, enslaved and sold.    

            iv. As trade expanded in East and Central Africa, the old trading centres developed into major towns. These towns included Kilwa, Tabora, Ujiji and Zanzibar. 

            v. Famine was experienced in some areas. This was as a result of slave raid which forced people to flee their homes looking for safer areas. This disorganised the agricultural activities and earlier economic ventures set up by East and Central African people. 

            b)  Economic effects 

            i. It led to the introduction of new commodities in the interior of East and Central Africa. Such commodities included guns, beads, porcelain materials and clothes.

            ii. The trade revealed how productive the interior of East and Central Africa was. It had a lot of ivory, copper, gold, tortoise shells and rhino horns. Europeans developed an interest to control East and Central African areas for easy exploitation of the unexploited resources. 

            iii. The use of cowrie shells as a medium of exchange increasingly became important in East Africa. For example, they were used in the kingdoms 
            of Buganda and Bunyoro. By the end of 19th Century, Indian Rupees had spread to Buganda. This greatly undermined the old system of barter trade.  

            iv. The trade stimulated the production of local foodstuffs. A lot of foodstuffs were required to meet the food demands of caravan traders. The traders did not carry food supplies along with them during their long journeys. This gave the natives along the various trade routes in East and Central Africa an opportunity to have an income from sale of food. 

            v. The demand and sale of ivory led to the depletion of elephants in East Africa. Through this trade, there was misuse and exploitation of African people and animal resources. 

            vi. It led to emergence of people with skills. People such as Mirambo, Nyungu ya Mawe and Tippu Tip made names as traders and pioneers in large economic activities of East Africa.

                                       
                                                Fig. 5.3: Tippu Tip

            c)  Political effects 

            i. The firearms strengthened security in some African communities. A lot of African societies that were weak before were able to stage strong resistances against the invading colonialists in the later years.

            ii. The Bunyoro, Hehe and the Nandi resisted colonialism during and after long distance trade. 

            iii. Long distance trade led to state formation of East Africa. This came about as a result of individuals who acquired wealth and other opportunities from the trade. The trade helped leaders such as Nyugu ya Mawe, Mutesa I, Mirambo and Misri to build lager political kingdoms.


            iv. The trade led to the collapse of some weak African societies. For example, Ngindo and Tonga of southern Tanganyika declined as a result of long distance trade activities. 

            v. Communities that were involved in the long distance trade managed to establish large armies which were used to expand their territories. For example, the Nyamwezi had Ruga Ruga, trained  army that protected and defended the kingdom. The Banyoro also built its army known as Abalusura. Nyungu ya Mawe’s army was called Mviti. These armies helped their kingdoms to expand and rise. 

            vi. The trade discouraged the production of local commodities such as beans, iron implements, salt and bark cloth. This was mainly because local commodities proved less profitable than slaves and ivory. Moreso, imported commodities such as clothes, shoes and saucepans proved quite superior to local ones.

            Activity 5.6 

            In groups, discuss the effects of long distance trade and make an oral presentation of the results to the class.
            Revision questions
            1. Discuss the reasons that led to the rise and growth of long distance trade in East and Central Africa. 

            2. Describe the organisation of long distance trade in East and Central Africa. 

            3. Give reasons that led to the collapse of long distance trade in East and Central Africa. 

            4. With examples, identify the effects of long distance trade in East and Central Africa. 

            5. Explain the meaning of long distance trade.

            • Key unit competence To be able to explain the origin, causes and effects of Ngoni migration.
              Activity 6.1 

              For this activity, you need to refer to Senior 2 Geography textbook. Define the term ‘migration’.

              Look around your home and societies neighbouring you. Were all people who live there born in those areas or some just joined from different or similar places? It is normal that people move from place to place due to different reasons. That is an aspect of migration. Therefore, migration is the movement of people from one place to another. 

              6.1 Origin of the Ngoni 

              The Ngoni belong to the Nguni, the Bantu people of Northern Zulu land in South Africa. They had settled to the south east of the Drakensburg Mountains. They were the last group of Bantu speakers to settle in East Africa in 1840s.   They were originally Ndwandwe people under Zwide’s leadership. When Shaka defeated Zwide, they fled northwards from their home areas under Zwangendaba. This was due to the Mfecane (a period of trouble) upheavals brought about by Shakas’ tyrannical rule and expansionist policy. The Ngoni were close relatives of the Zulu, Swazi, Pondo, Thembu and Xhosa.

              They were warriors and cattle rustlers. Due to this, they never were in good terms with their neighbouring ethnic groups which partly forced them to move away in 1820s towards the north of South Africa. Slowly, some reached Malawi and Zambia while others (Maseko, Ngoni and Tuta Ngoni) went to Tanzania.

              6.2 Different Ngoni groups 

              The Ngoni left their homeland and crossed River Zambezi in 1835. They fought and destroyed the Shona and made a temporary settlement at Nyasaland (Malawi) in South Africa. They continued to Ufipa, southern Tanzania in the 1840s. As they marched northwards, their number increased greatly as a result of absorbing men and women they defeated into their army. By the time they reached southern Tanganyika in about 1840s, they had become ‘mixed’ people. The Ngoni entered southern Tanganyika in two groups. These were the Maseko Ngoni and Zwangendaba. 

              Zwangendaba was initially of the Ngoni tribe under Ndwedwe society. He led the first and largest group out of South Africa. They crossed River Zambezi, moved through Malawi and Zambia until they reached Ufipa plateau in around 1840s. This group was mainly composed of the Ngoni tribe. Zwangendaba’s group was quite strong and displaced many people in different societies they passed through. 

              The Ngoni never settled in an area for long. They kept moving northwards while capturing, absorbing and recruiting people into their group. Zwangendaba died around 1848. As a result, his followers split into five sections. Three of the groups moved towards South Africa, occupying the present day Malawi and Zambia. After series of succession disputes, two of these groups (Tuta and Gwangara Ngoni) remained at Ufipa.  Later on, Tuta moved northwards into Holoholo in Tanganyika. While in Tanzania, the Tuta Ngoni were responsible for the amalgamation of many dispersed Nyamwezi chiefdoms. The chiefdoms were amalgamated into one loosely organised and centralised Nyamwezi state. 

              The Tuta Ngoni needed protection against other Ngoni invaders. In the process, they disorganised the trade routes along Tabora and Ujiji. They captured Mirambo and imprisoned him. They later released and recruited him in their army. Eventually, he became a military genius and a statesman who established the Nyamwezi Kingdom until 19th Century.

                                          
                         Fig. 6.1: An impression of Mirambo (Reign: 1860 - 1884)

              The Gwangara group led by Induna commanders such as Zulugama and Mbonani moved eastwards. They defeated the Hehe and Sangu. They reached Songea around 1860s. In Songea, the Gwangara fought with Maseko Ngoni in a fierce battle. As a result, the Maseko Ngoni were defeated. Mputagama was killed. 

              The Ngoni fled across Ruvuma to Morogoro under Chikuse who replaced Mputagama. They intermarried with the local people to form the Mbuga group and established a new state at Songea. 

              The Mbwewa and Quasi Ngoni groups moved into the present day Zambia. They founded a small state there. The Maseko Ngoni were led by Induna Maputo (Mputa). They travelled through Mozambique and crossed River Zambezi. They passed to the east of Lake Malawi and finally settled at Songea. They incorporated many Yao groups and became the ruling class in the area. Another group, led by Mzilikazi, moved northwards across Drakensberg mountains. They first settled in Transvaal republic. Due to Boer and Zulu pressure, they were forced to cross River Limpopo. They finally settled in the present day Zimbabwe where they founded the famous Ndebele Kingdom.

              Another important group to mention was the Holoholo who migrated to Barotseland in the present day Zambia. This was the original Sotho tribe which lived between the Orange and Transvaal rivers in South Africa.
                
                  Fig. 6.2: A sketch map showing Ngoni migration into East and Central          Africa (between 1800 and 1840)

              6.3 Reasons for Ngoni migration
              Activity 6.2 

              1. Think of people living in your hometown. Write down the places or countries where some of them came from. 

              2. In groups, suggest some of the factors could have made them come to your hometown. 

              3. Use Senior 2 Geography textbook to explain the reasons for population movement. 

              From your findings, you discover that different people came from different places and assembled in one area for various reasons. This can be related to different Ngoni groups that migrated from their homeland and joined east and central African states where they have lived to date. The following are some of the reasons for Ngoni migration:

              a)  The dictatorship of King Shaka Zulu 

              Shaka was the king of the Zulu empire where the Ngoni came from, he was a dictator and a tyrant. He used harsh administration policies such as forced recruitment into his age regiments which made his subjects to suffer. This partly made the Ngoni to migrate, looking for a political change.

              b)  Over population 

              On the one hand, Zulu land had become too small for the Zulu to live. On the other hand, some of the Ngoni owned large herds of cattle which needed bigger lands. This too inspired the Ngoni to migrate northwards to Central and East Africa in search of pastureland and water for their animals.

              c)  External pressure 

              This was due to the British and the Boer invaders who moved and occupied Ngoni’s original homeland from Cape Town (the Great Trek). This caused panic and fear among the Ngoni hence making them to migrate to East and central Africa.
              d)  Shaka’s wars of expansion

              Shaka Zulu began expansionist wars which turned the Zulu land into a land of misery, suffering, displacement of people and death. This is what came to be known as Mfecane. Therefore, the Ngoni migration was meant to search for peaceful areas.
              e)  Ambitious political leaders 

              There were some Ngoni leaders such as Zwangendaba, Maputo, and Zulugama who conflicted for political power with Shaka. Shaka denied them a chance for political positions in the Zulu land. These leaders provided good leadership. The Ngoni desired to migrate hence making their migration inevitable.

              f)  Outbreak of diseases 

              There was a wide outbreak of a number of diseases in the Zulu land which scared people. Diseases such as small pox and nagana attacked both people and animals. Small pox is said to have first occurred in 1816 and re-occurred in 1832. Many people died from small pox infections while others lost their cattle in large numbers due to nagana. This led to their migration into East and Central Africa.

              g)  Outbreak of famine 

              The Zulu land experienced by hunger and food shortage. This was due to Shaka’s expansionist wars that caused insecurity and hindered food production and agriculture. There was also limited land for cultivation. 

              h)  Internal conflicts 

              Internal conflicts among the Ngoni was due to differences brought by their clans and land ownership. Land shortage and forceful recruitment of the youth into age regiments only fueled the conflicts. These drew local people into conflicts with their king, making their homeland unpleasant to live in.

              Activity 6.3 

              The reasons for Ngoni migration explained above can broadly be categorised either as push factors or pull factors. In groups, draw a table with two columns, one with push factors and the other with pull factors. Give reasons for your classification. 

              Write a report to be presented in your class

              6.4 Consequences of Ngoni migration

              Activity 6.4 

              1. In groups, discuss the impact of migration. 

              2. Present your findings to the class.

              The points you have mentioned are much related to the consequences of Ngoni migration from South Africa to East and Central Africa. Let us now study the following points: 

              • There was spread of Ngoni customs and culture as well as detribalisation in places where they settled. People of East Africa, for example the Mbunga copied and learned the cultures and languages of the Ngoni which resulted into deculturalisation in most societies. 

              • It led to introduction of new weapons such as the assegai spear in East Africa. They also introduced military skills which they learnt from king Shaka. 

              • There were intermarriages between the Ngoni and Nyamwezi. This led to improved relationship between the invaders and the indigenous people. It also led to an increase in population. 

              • As they migrated, they engaged in war with communities in their way. This led to widespread devastation, depopulation and displacement of people. In fierce confrontations, many people lost their lives. Examples of communities affected were the Shona and Fipa. Most people ran to mountains, bushes due to fear of Ngoni raids and attacks. 

              • They destroyed the economy of the people of southern Tanzania. Due to cattle rustling by the Ngoni, most people who depended on cattle for survival were left poor. 

              • The Tuta Ngoni disrupted trade caravans between Tabora and Ujiji. This way, they interferred with slave trade in East Africa. They also displaced people from their homes and so made it easy for slave raiders to capture and sell them. 

              • The invasion gave rise to the formation of bigger political units for defensive purposes. For example, thirty chiefdoms of the Hehe united under chief Muyumbwa and Hehe became a strong state. 

              • The Ngoni language was imposed over the languages of the conquered people. 

              • Many small Ntemi chiefdoms united and formed large political units under strong leaders to fight the Ngoni. This led to the formation of new societies (ethnic groups) such as the Mbuga. 

              • The Ngoni led to emergence of new strong states led by groups known as Ruga-Ruga. Their system of administration changed from clan to centralised leadership. This strengthened such newly created states.

              Activity 6.5 

              1. Research on other consequences of Ngoni migration. Write a summarised report from your findings for class presentation.

               2. In groups, discuss the consequences of Ngoni migration in East and Central Africa.

              Revision questions

              1. Briefly describe the origin of the Ngoni. 

              2. Identify different Ngoni groups. 

              3. Discuss reasons for Ngoni migration. 

              4. Explain the positive effects of Ngoni migration. 

              5. State some negative effects of Ngoni migration.

              • Key unit competence To be able to explain the causes and consequences of exploration of Africa.
                Activity 7.1

                Think of a new place that you recently visited. It should be a place that you had never visited before your recent visit. 

                1. Why did you visit the place? 

                2. What was the impact of your visit to the place you visited on you? 

                3. Now, get a dictionary to find out the meaning of the word ‘exploration’.

                From the above activity, it is clear that you visited the place for a reason. That act of travelling to that place can be referred to as exploration. The European explorers in Africa had come as visitors. Exploration can be defined as travelling to a place or through an unfamiliar area in order to learn about it.

                7.1 Different European explorers and their routes

                Activity 7.2 

                1. Use the map of Africa to identify the main routes used by different European explorers. 

                2. Carry out a research using different History books in the library and from the Internet to find out explorers who visited Africa in the 15th and 19th Centuries. Prepare a comprehensive report for class presentation. Include a map showing the routes each explorer followed.
                Let us discuss about some of the European explores and their routes.

                1.  Infante Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (Henry the  Navigator)

                Infante Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu better known as Henry the Navigator was born on 4th March 1394 in Porto, Kingdom of Portugal. He was an important figure in 15th Century Portuguese politics and in the early days of the Portuguese Empire. Through his administrative direction, he is regarded as the main initiator of what would be known as the “Age of Discoveries.” Until Henry’s time, Cape Bojador remained the most southerly point known to Europeans on the desert coast of Africa. Superstitious searers held that beyond the cape lay sea monsters and the edge of the world. In 1434, Gil Eanes, the commander of one of Henry’s expeditions, became the first European known to pass Cape Bojador.

                                                  

                                                     Fig. 7.1: Henry the Navigator (1394 - 1460)

                2.   Bartolomeu Dias 

                Bartolomeu Dias was born in 1451 (although some sources quote 1450 as his year of birth). He was a Portuguese explorer. He sailed around the south most tip of South Africa in1488. He reached the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic Ocean. He was the first European known to have done so. King John of Portugal appointed him on 10th October 1487 to head an expedition. The expedition was supposed to sail around the southern tip of South Africa with the hope to find a sea route to India. Dias was also charged with the responsibility to find the lands ruled by Prester John, a fabled Christian priest and ruler.

                                        

                                            Fig. 7.2: Bartolomeu Dias (1450 - 1500)

                Together with his crew, they reached Kwaaihoek near the mouth of the Bushman’s River. He wanted to continue to India but his crew refused to go further. He was forced to turn back. It was only on the return voyage that he discovered the Cape of Good Hope in May 1488.

                3. Vasco da Gama 

                Vasco da Gama was born on in 1460 (some sources say 1469) in Sines, Portugal. He was the Portuguese explorer who discovered an ocean route from Portugal to India. He was the first European to reach India by sea, linking Europe and Asia for the first time by ocean route. 

                He sailed from Lisbon, Portugal on 8th July 1497 heading to the east. At that time, many people thought that da Gama’s trip would be impossible. This was because it was assumed that the Indian Ocean was not connected to any other sea. Da Gama sailed around Africa’s Cape of Good Hope on 22nd November and continued to India. He finally reached Calcutta, India on 20th May 1498. This was after many stops in Africa and problems with many Muslim traders who never wanted interference in their lucrative business. He died on 23rd December 1524 in Kochi, India.

                                    

                                        Fig. 7.3: Vasco da Gama (1460 - 1524)

                4.  Mungo Park 

                Mungo Park was born on 11th September 1771 in Selkirkshire, Scotland. He was a Scottish explorer of West Africa. He was the first westerner known to have travelled to the central portion of the Niger River.

                In September 1794, Mungo Park offered his service to the African association. He was then looking for successor to Major Daniel Haughton. Major Daniel had been sent in 1790 to discover the source of the Niger River and had died in the Sahara Desert. Supported by Joseph Banks, Park was selected. On 21st June 1795, he reached Gambia River and ascended it 300 km to a British trading station named Pisania.

                                   

                                          Fig. 7.4: Mungo Park (1771 - 1806)

                On 2nd December, accompanied by two local guides, he started for the unknown interior. He chose the route crossing the upper Senegal basin through the semi-desert region of Kaarta. The journey was full of difficulties. For example at Ludamar, he was imprisoned by a Moorish chief for four months. On 1st July 1796, he escaped alone with nothing but his horse and a pocket compass. On 21st July 1796, he reached the long sought Niger River at Segu. He thus became the first European to do so. Mungo Park died in 1806 in Bussa, Nigeria. 

                5. James Grant 

                James Grant was born in 1772 in Forres, Scotland. He was a British Royal Navy officer and a navigator in the early nineteenth century.  He made several voyages to Australia and Tasmania, and was the first to map parts of the south coast of Australia. He sailed into Table Cape, South Africa on 8th July 1800.

                Here, Grant received dispatches from the Duke of Portland advising him of the discovery of a strait between New South Wales on the east coast of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land. He returned to England in 1858 but later joined Hanning Speke in an expedition to discover the source of River Nile. While on this mission, Grant carried out several investigations independently and made remarkable collections in botany. He died on 11th November 1833 in St Servan, France.

                                  

                                      Fig. 7.5: James Grant (1772 - 1833)

                6.  Dr David Livingstone 

                Dr David Livingstone was born on 19th March 1813 in Blantyre, Scotland. He was a Scottish medical doctor, missionary and a remarkable explorer. He was the first European to see the Victoria Falls which he later named Victoria. He named it Victoria in honour of queen Victoria of England. He discovered numerous geographical features such as Lake Ngami, Lake Malawi, Lake Bangweulu and Victoria Falls. Livingstone’s last journey began in 1866. However, he was deserted by his followers. This did not discourage him. He travelled to Ujiji, on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika where he established a base for his expedition. During this time, he lost touch with Europe. 

                Fearing that he might have died, Henry Morton Stanley was sent to find him, dead or alive. Stanley met Livingstone at Ujiji. Livingstone’s meeting with H.M Stanley on 10th November 1871 gave rise to the popular quotation “Dr Livingstone, I presume?”. They stayed together and even explored Lake Tanganyika. However Stanley failed to convince Livingstine to return to Europe. They parted ways on 14th March 1872. In August 1872, Livingstone resumed his search for the source of River Nile. However, he was found dead on 1st May, 1873 due to exhaustion and illness. He was one of the most popular heroes of the late 19th Century in Victorian Britain. He had a mythical status which operated on a number of interconnected levels. These were: 

                • Protestant missionary martyr   

                • Imperial reformer 

                • Scientific investigator and an explorer   

                •Anti-slavery crusader 

                • Advocate of commercial empire.

                                  

                               Fig. 7.6: Dr David Livingstone (1813 - 1873)

                7. Johannes Rebmann 

                Johannes Rebmann was born on 16th January 1820 in Gerlingen, Germany. He was a German missionary and explorer. He was the first European along with Johann Ludwig Krapf to enter Africa from the Indian Ocean coast. Additionally, he was the first European to find Mount Kilimanjaro in 1848. The following year, he saw Mount Kenya together with his colleague Krapf.

                            

                            Fig. 7.7: Johannes Rebmann (1820 - 1876)

                8. Sir Richard Francis 

                Burton Sir Richard Francis Burton was born on 19th March 1821. He was a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, cartographer, spy, linguist, poet, fencer and a diplomat. He was known for his travels and explorations in Asia, Africa and America. He was also known for his extraordinary knowledge of languages and cultures. He spoke 29 languages from Europe, Asia and Africa. Burton and John Hanning were the first Europeans to visit the great lakes region of Africa.

                They were in search of the source of River Nile. Burton was engaged by the Royal Geographical Society to explore the east coast of Africa. He, guided by the locals, led the expedition. He was the first European to see Lake Tanganyika. He died on 20th October 1890 in Trieste, Austria-Hungary.

                        

                        Fig. 7.8: Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821 - 1890)

                9. Sir Samuel Baker 

                Sir Samuel Baker was born on 8th June 1821 in London, England. He was a British explorer, officer, naturalist, big game hunter, engineer, writer and 

                abolitionist. He also held titles of Pasha and Major General in the Ottoman Empire and Egypt.

                Between April 1869 and August 1873, he served as a governor of General of the Equatorial Nile Basin (Today’s northern Uganda and South Sudan). He discovered Lake Albert. He was an explorer of the Nile and interior of Central Africa. He was also a big game hunter in Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. Baker and his wife became the first Europeans to see a substantial water fall on the Victoria Nile. Baker named it Murchison Falls after the then president of the Royal Geographical Society, Sir Roderick Murchison. He died on 30th December 1893 in Newton Abbot, England.

                             

                             Fig. 7.9: Sir Samuel Baker (1821 - 1893)

                10. John Hanning 

                Speke John Hanning Speke was born on 4th May 1827 in Buckland Brewer, United Kingdom. He was an officer in the British Indian army who made three voyages of exploration to Africa. He is the one most associated with the search for the source of River Nile. In 1856, Speke and Burton came to East Africa to find the great lakes. The great lakes were rumoured to exist at the centre of Africa. This happened in February 1858. The two were the first Europeans to reach Lake Tanganyika. It was hoped that the expedition would locate the source of River Nile

                                  

                                  Fig. 7.10: John Hanning Speke (1827 - 1864)

                John Hanning Speke was the first European to discover Lake Victoria. He also discovered that Lake Victoria was the source of River Nile. This was on 30th July 1858. John Hanning Speke died on 15th September 1864 in Corsham, United Kingdom. 

                11.  Sir Henry Morton 

                Stanley Sir Henry Morton Stanley was born on 28th January 1841 in Denbigh, Wales, United Kingdom. His original name was John Rowlands. He also had a Congolese name Bula Matari meaning, ‘breaker of rocks’. Stanley was a Welsh journalist and explorer. 

                He was famous for his explorations in Africa as well as his search for Dr David Livingstone. He was one of the first westerners to make a transcontinental journey across Africa. When Livingstone died in 1783, Sir H.M Stanley resolved to take up the exploration of Africa. He had to begin from where Dr Livingstone had left off. His visit to Mutesa I of Buganda led to the admission of missionaries in the area in 1877. It also led to the eventual establishment of a British protectorate in Uganda. He also confirmed that Lake Tanganyika had no connection with the Nile River. Sir Henry Morton Stanley died on 10th May 1904 in London, United Kingdom.

                                           

                                           Fig. 7.11: Henry M Stanley (1841 - 1904)

                12. Carl Peters 

                Carl Peters was born on 27th September 1856 in Neuhaus, Germany. He was a German explorer, colonial ruler, politician and author. He was the major reason for the foundation of German colony of East Africa in today’s Tanzania. Carl Peters was a strong supporter of Social Darwinism and Volkisch movement. He died on 10th September 1918 in Bad Harzburg, Germany.

                               

                                   Fig. 7.12: Carls Peters (1856 - 1918)

                13. Joseph Thomson 

                Joseph Thomson was born on 14th February 1858 in Penpont, United Kingdom. He was a Scottish geologist and explorer who played an important part in the scramble for Africa. Thomson’s Gazelle is named for him. Excelling as an explorer rather than an exact scientist, he avoided confrontations among his porters or with indigenous peoples.

                                   

                                   Fig. 7.13: Joseph Thomson (1858 - 1895)

                He neither killed any native nor lost any of his men to violence. His motto is often quoted to be “He who goes gently, goes safely; he who goes safely, goes far.” In 1883, he embarked on another Royal Geographical Society expedition. This time, his mission was to explore a route from the eastern coast of Africa to the northern shores of Lake Victoria. British Empire traders wanted a route that would avoid potentially hostile Maasai and German traders who were competing in the area. He died on 2nd August 1895 in London, United Kingdom. 

                14. Mary Henrietta Kingsley 

                Mary Henrietta Kingsley was born on 13th October 1862 in Islington, London. She was the first female explorer on the African continent. She was also an English ethnographic writer and explorer. Her travels throughout West Africa and resulting work helped to shape European perceptions of African cultures and British imperialism. Mary landed in Sierra Leon on 17th August 1893 and passed into Luanda, Angola. 

                She lived with local people who taught her necessary life skills for surviving in the African jungles. She often went into dangerous areas alone. Her earlier training as a nurse prepared her for slight injuries and jungle maladies that she would later encounter. Mary later returned to England in December 1893. She died on 3rd June 1900 in Simon’s Town, South Africa.

                                                      

                                                 Fig. 7.14: Mary Henrietta Kingsley (1862 - 1900)

                15.   Oscar Baumann 

                Oscar Baumann was born on 25th June 1864 in Vienna, Austria. He was both an explorer and a cartographer. He is well known for his exploration of the interior of German East Africa; presently Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania. He is also known for producing maps of the region. He was the first explorer to enter Rwanda in 1892. He was also the first European to visit Lake Eyasi, Manyara and Ngorongoro crater. 

                In 1885, Baumann was part of an Austrian exploratory expedition of the Congo basin. Unfortunately, he never completed his mission. He had to leave for his home country, Austria, at an early date due to illness. In 1896, Bauman was appointed consul to Zanzibar by the Austro-Hungary government. Unfortunately, Baumann later died at an early age of 35 years.

                                            

                                              Fig. 7.15: Oscar Baumann (1864 - 1899)

                16.  Count Gustav Adolf von Gotzen

                                       

                               Fig. 7.16: Count Gustav Adolf von Gotzen (1866 - 1910)

                Count Gustav Adolf von Gotzen was born on 12th May 1866 in the Kingdom of Prussia, German Confederation. He was a German explorer and a governor of German East Africa. He was also the second explorer to reach in Rwanda after Dr Baumann. He made his first trip to Africa in a hunting expedition to Mount Kilimanjaro. Gotzen also led an expedition to claim these hinterlands. He took with him George Von Prittwitz and Herman Kersting.

                The party set off from Pangani on the Tanganyikan coast on 21st December 1893. After travelling through Masaai areas, they eventually arrived at Rusumo Falls on the Akagera River on 2nd May 1894. He went on to meet King Rwabugiri at his palace in Nyanza. He died on 2nd December 1910 in Hamburg, German Empire.

                 Activity 7.3 

                Find out about the following explorers from the library or by using the internet:

                7.2 Different causes of exploration

                 a)  Geostrategic interests 

                The desire for respect and prestige attracted many European explorers to Africa. This was because those who would discover new things were given titles such as sir and many other rewards. A country with many colonies was also highly respected hence the exploration of Africa. For example, France regarded the acquisition of colonies in Africa as prestigious and as a way of strengthening her supremacy in Europe. 

                After 1870, European rivalry spread to Africa, Asia and the Pacific and colonies were increasingly regarded as symbols of national prestige. 

                b)  To discover more about Africa 

                Most of the explorers were scientists and geographers who desired to research about African societies and their organisation, for example, Thomas Fowel Buxton.
                Africa was also long believed to be dark and undomesticated continent to many Europeans. It was this, among other reasons, which made the Europeans to come to Africa for exploration. 

                c)  Humanitarian reasons 

                Some of the explorers had humanitarian reasons and feelings. They wanted to stop slave trade and cure various diseases such as malaria that were affecting lives of Africans. The best example in this case was Dr David Livingstone.

                d)  To spread Christianity 

                Some explorers such as Rebmann were Christian missionaries. They came partly to spread Christianity to Africa. They believed that Africans were primitive. They also wanted to counter the influence of Islam in Africa. 

                e)  Agents of colonialism 

                Explorers are also believed to have been sent by their home countries to prepare Africa for colonisation. This explains why they did the mapping and tracing minerals and fertile soils.

                f)  To discover the sources of African rivers

                The source of this longest African river (River Nile) was unknown to all. This created the need to come and find its source. It influenced the coming of explorers such as Richard Burton and Speke. Other sources of rivers discovered by explorers are Niger River and River Zambezi.

                g)  Love for adventure 

                Some other explorers were full of excitement to travel to new places beyond their continent, especially Africa. They believed that Africa was dark and uninhabited.

                h)  The effects of industrial revolution 

                By 1750s, European changed from agriculture to industrial economy. This required raw materials and spices such as nutmeg, ginger, cloves, cinnamon and pepper. It also required and luxury goods such as silk, gold, silver, jewels, ivory, porcelains and tea from Africa and the East. They needed a market for their industrial out puts.

                i)  To find new trade routes

                The explorers were looking for an alternative safe trade route this was due 
                to political tensions and frequent fights on the way from European countries to India (in Asia). Usual path passing through Suez Canal was clouded with political instabilities and frequent fights. It was also becoming less and less safe for trade purposes.

                j) Improvements in technology

                Europeans began to build stronger and faster sailing ships such as a caravel. A caravel was a ship with two sails on each side. This was required for running with the wind and for sailing into the wind. The Europeans also came up with better navigational instruments which could tell north and south of the equator by the position of the stars. An example was the magnetic compass. 

                Activity 7.4 

                In groups, discuss the consequences of exploration of Africa. Present your findings in class.

                7.3 Consequences of exploration of Africa

                The following are some of the consequences of exploration of Africa: 

                1. Exploration of Africa led to the introduction of Christianity. Some explorers were missionaries. For example Dr. Livingstone and Rebman. This ushered in European missionary activity in Africa and the final spread of the gospel. 

                2. The exploration led to the drawing of the map of Africa. Explorers drew more accurate maps of Africa on paper which eased the coming of many more Europeans in Africa due to the geographical discoveries made by their predecessors. 

                3. It led to the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama (14971499). This increased trade links between Europe and the East. 

                4. It contributed to the stopping of slave trade. The explorers reported evils of slave trade in Europe and campaigned against this inhuman trade. They insisted that slave trade be replaced with legitimate trade which was more profitable and acceptable in Africa. 

                5. Exploration opened the interior of Africa to the Europeans. Many feared to come due to the belief in the Dark Continent theory. However, with exploration, many got information about the interior which enticed them to come. 6. Africans adopted a new culture. Aspects of this culture included language, dressing, feeding and religion. This was responsible for the weakening or disappearing of the traditions among the communities that interracted with the Europeans. 

                7. Explorers led to the colonisation of Africa. This was through a number of activities such as signing misleading treaties with local African chiefs and cooperating with other colonial agents like missionaries. Africa was finally colonised by Europe. 

                8. It made Europeans to increase their political ambitions to create colonial empires for prestige. For example, Britain was able to expand her wealth and power. 

                9. It turned Africa to be a source of raw materials and market for European manufactured goods such as clothes and guns. 

                10. Exploration led to the production of a new race of people known as the Mulattos. These came as a result of intermarriages between Africans and European explorers. 

                11. It led to introduction of plantation agriculture and keeping of exotic breeds of livestock. The Portuguese introduced maize which was grown in large plantations. Other crops that were introduced by Europeans were sugarcane, tea, cocoa and tobacco. Livestock breeds that were introduced were those of among others, pigs, horses, sheep and cattle. 

                12. Many trading posts in West Africa and in many other parts of Africa developed. For example, Timbuktu in Mali, South of the Sahara. 

                13. Exploration led to the rise of capitalism. Rise of capitalism resulted from the growth of town and city life and the expansion of trade. 

                14. It led to the rise of mercantilism. This rose from economic growth and expanding royal power. Joint stock companies such as the English East India Company and Dutch East India Company were formed. It also led to rivalries at sea. 

                15. Exploration led to introduction of commercial revolution because it ushered in trade involving Asia, America and Europe. Europe became the centre of world trade. 
                16. Shifts in population occurred. Europeans migrated to Asia and America and Africa. 

                17. Knowledge about the earth increased. This made a significant impact on Geography. Explorers were able to learn more about areas in Africa and the Americas. In learning more about such places, explorers were able to bring knowledge of a larger world back to Europe.

                In addition, methods of navigation and mapping also improved as a result of the travels of people such as Prince Henry the Navigator. Prior to his expeditions, navigators used traditional charts which kept them tied to the shoreline. Among the many goals of his expeditions were to develop a new nautical chart so future sailors could sail out of sight of land. All in all, the Age of Exploration served as a stepping stone for geographic knowledge. It allowed more people to see and study various areas around the world. This increased geographic study, giving us the basis for much of the knowledge we have today. 

                7.4 Problems faced by explorers in Africa

                Activity 7.5 

                In Activity 7.1, you explained your visit to a place you had never visited before. Using that information explain the challenges you are likely to face when you visit a new place.
                The explorers faced a number of challenges during the exploration. Some of them have been discussed below: 

                a)  Poor communication and transport 

                Generally the whole of pre-colonial Africa had no established railways and water canals. Most rivers and lakes were not navigable. There were also physical barriers such as forests, mountains and rift valleys. The European explorers were not familiar with such. They could get lost in forests. This slowed their work for some time. 

                b)  Harsh climatic conditions

                Africa had different climatic conditions as compared to what the explorers were used to in Europe. It was sometimes too hot or too cold. Tropical diseases such as malaria and yellow fever killed a large number of European explorers. Due to such conditions, West Africa was regarded as a white man’s grave yard. 

                c)  Hostility from slave dealers 

                Most Europeans explorers claimed to have come to stop slave trade on African soil. This drew them into hostility with Arab slave dealers who disliked missionary explorers for attacking their business. This led to constant attacks and alliances with resistors to frustrate Europeans. 

                d)  Limited manpower

                The explorers lacked enough manpower. This was due to coming in of few professionals compared to the big tasks they had. Some also died or were sick and unable to work. Africans were ignorant and had no required skills. This led to overworking leaving many places unattended.

                e)  The problem of language barrier 

                This was another challenge that was faced by the European explores. They spoke European languages that were not known in Africa. Europeans spoke languages such as English, German and French. In Africa, there was no uniform language because even Swahili was not known to all. This hampered communication as there were no even interpreters.

                f)  The threat of Islam

                Islam had long been introduced in most places of Africa. It spread especially at the coast of West Africa and East Africa where Arab traders lived. Many people had embraced Islam yet missionary explorers wanted to stop it. They wanted to replace it with Christianity. This led to wars where many perished, consequently slowing down the work of explorers. 

                g)  Hostile tribes 

                This was another challenge that was faced by European explorers in Africa. Most tribes stopped explorers from passing through their land. The Turkana, Nandi and Maasai from Kenya were among the hostile communities that attacked and killed explorers. This was in addition to tribal wars that affected the work of European explorers in Africa. 

                h)  Presence of wild animals 

                These included animals such as lions, reptiles and wild beast in the tropics. Most explorers passed through forests and national parks due to lack of 
                geographical maps and compasses. They were later eaten up and killed by lions (man-eaters), for example, in Tsavo National Park in Kenya. This threatened their mission in Africa.

                i)  Lack of home support 

                Most explorers lacked enough support from home. This was due to long geographical separation between Europe and Africa. This led to limited supplies in form of food, medicine and clothes. It crippled their work alongside registering a lot of failures. For example, Dr David Livingstone died before completing his work.

                j)  Getting lost 

                One big problem was faced was that they were lost in Africa due to lack of geographical maps and compasses. They either relied on local guides or just gut feelings. This was catastrophic in the sense that if they got lost nobody could help them. 

                k)  Diseases 

                When explorers encountered new people, they exchanged diseases as well as goods. Diseases such as malaria, dysentery and yellow fever caused many deaths among ship crews. Some of these, especially yellow fever, were spread to other ports that the sailors visited. This left most of them sickly and unable to do the work effectively.

                Remember!
                Touring new places is indeed very important. It enables one to discover, have fun and be exposed to new areas. However, travelling without taking precaution is risky. Remember the following: 

                1. Do not travel alone to places you do not know very well. 

                2. Avoid walking on foot in national parks for animals can easily kill you. 

                3. Travel once in awhile but not always to minimise costs and to avoid bankruptcy.

                Revision questions


                1. Define the term ‘exploration’. 

                2. Identify different European explorers who visited the African continent. 

                3. Account for the reasons why European explorers were interested into the African continent.

                4. Discuss the challenges faced by explorers while on the African continent. 

                5. Explain the impact of the European exploration of the African continent.

                 

                • Key unit competence To be able to evaluate causes and consequences of European colonisation of Africa.

                  Activity 8.1

                  Use a dictionary to find out the meaning of the following words: 

                  1. Colony 

                  2. Colonialists
                  From your answers, we can conclude that colonisation refers to a situation in which a powerful country rules or controls a weaker one for its own economic gains.

                  Activity 8.2 

                  Below is an incomplete table showing the European colonisers and their colonies. Copy it in your note books then use the example given to complete it.


                  NOTE: Ethiopia and Liberia were the only African countries that were not colonised. Ethiopia was too strong for Italy at the Battle of Adowa in Ethiopia in 1896. Liberia had just been founded by United States of America as a home for the freed slaves. This happened after the abolition of slave trade in the late 19th Century. United States of America could not allow any European power to colonise Liberia.

                  8.1 Different causes of European colonisation in Africa

                  Activity 8.3 

                  Follow the instructions carefully. In pairs, find out from your friend the things he or she likes about Rwanda. After that, tell him or her what you like about Rwanda. Present what your friend told you to the class. 

                  Africa is a very beautiful continent. It has physical features that people make people from other continents travel to see. Take Rwanda as an example. It has beautiful hills, rivers and lakes. It also has mineral resources. These are some of the things which made Europeans to come to colonise Africa. Let us now discuss them in finer details. 

                  • There was need for raw materials for their home industries. This was due to exhaustion of raw materials in their home areas due to industrial revolution. 

                  • There was need for market for their finished goods because the European markets were not enough to consume whatever was being produced by their industries. 

                  • They also wanted cheap labour for their industries and farms in the New Lands. 

                  • They also wanted areas where they could invest their surplus capital. This was because investment was not profitable in Europe due to competition. 

                  • They also wanted land to settle the excess population which had grown due to population pressure in their countries medical care. 

                  • They wanted to spread Christianity so as to save the Africans from hell. 

                  • The Europeans also wanted to stop slave trade and slavery, thereby promoting respect for human rights.
                  126
                  • They also wanted to civilise Africans by teaching them how to read and write. They also wanted to introduce European cultures for, example, dressing and eating feeding habits. They believed that European culture was the best. 

                  Activity 8.4 

                  Further activity Research to find more about other causes of European colonisation of Africa.

                  8.2 Methods of colonial conquest in Africa

                  Activity 8.5 

                  Remember the famous saying: There are many ways of killing a rat

                  1. What does it mean? 

                  2. In groups, discuss various ways which you can use to make more profit in your business.

                  In life, some people will do anything to achieve what they want. Likewise, the colonialists used various methods to colonise Africa. The methods are discussed below. 

                  a)  Use of explorers 

                  Explorers drew maps showing fertile areas and rich mineral areas. They shared information about how rich Africa was. This attracted their home governments to come and take over African areas. 

                  b)  Use of missionaries 

                  European missionaries encouraged their governments to establish colonial rule in Africa so that they could put an end to the wars between African states, stop the slave trade and protect them from attacks by the locals and Muslims. They also softened African hearts by preaching to them and persuading them to accept Europeans and support their goals. 

                  c)  Use of traders (chartered companies) 

                  Companies such as IBEACo and GEACo facilitated the colonisation of Africa. 
                  The trading companies through their agents signed treaties with the African rulers. Carl Peters of Imperial Germany East Africa Company for example, signed treaties with Sultan Sakwa of Kavirondo, William Mackinnon of Imperial British East Africa Company signed treaties with various Kenyan chiefs.

                  d)  Use of force 

                  Africans did not meekly accept the imposition of foreign rule. Many communities resisted this. In the face of such resistance, the European powers resorted to military conquest. They used force to subdue the Africans. This method was mainly used by the French, British and Germans. 

                  e)  Treaty signing 

                  Europeans also signed treaties with African Chiefs to take over African areas. For example, Moffat Treaty, Rudd Concession and the Buganda Agreement. 

                  f)  Use of gifts and presents 

                  Some African rulers were lured into accepting Europeans through presents such as beads, clothes, weapons and intoxicating drinks. Others were made chiefs while some were promised western education, for example, Semei Kakungulu of Uganda. 

                  g)  Use of tricks 

                  This is where Europeans deceived African chiefs and took over their areas. For example, Jaja of Opobo was convinced to board a war ship in 1887 by Johnston and deported to the West Indies. 

                  h)  Divide and rule tactics 

                  Europeans used the divide and rule tactics by playing off one community against another. They encouraged warfare between African communities. Once weak, the European powers occupied it. This was the case with Nupe against the Fulani, the Baganda against the Banyoro and the Maasai against the Nandi.

                  Activity 8.6 

                  1. With the help of your teacher, watch films or video on European colonisation of Africa. 

                  2. Write down the lessons that you have learnt.


                   Fig. 8.1:  Map showing European powers and their area of influence in Africa by 1914

                  8.3 Colonial systems of administration 

                  There were several systems of administration used by colonialists after successfully colonising Africans. These were: 

                  i. Indirect rule by the British 

                  ii. Assimilation by the French 

                  iii. Direct rule by the Germans

                  i)  The indirect rule

                   It was a system under which the Europeans recognised the existing African political system and used it to rule over the colonies. In this system of administration, African local kings and chiefs were allowed to maintain their positions as administrators. However, they were under the supervision of the British.
                  The British made new policies and decisions which were implemented by African local leaders. It should be noted that under indirect rule, African political and social institutions were retained by the colonial masters.

                  Reasons why the British used indirect rule 

                  1. It was economically cheap. The British wanted to avoid payment of high salaries to white staff and administrators in their colonies. In addition to that, the staff and administrators required good accommodation, troops to provide security. 

                  2. The British lacked enough manpower to administer all their colonies in Africa. The number of British citizens in Africa was small compared to their colonies. The British had no alternative but to use African chiefs. 

                  3. The British feared resistance and hostilities from Africans. The British wanted to avoid resistances and rebellions that would come after overthrowing the local African kings from power. 

                  4. There was language barrier. The British did not understand the languages and customs of Africans. Letting African leaders to rule was a better choice to solve the language problem. 

                  5. The African kings and chiefs would act as ‘shock absorbers’ in case of any conflicts and wars. The African kings and chiefs would be blamed in case the British policies became unpopular among Africans. 

                  6. There was existence of well established centralised system of administration in Africa. This encouraged the British to rely on such existing systems of administration to implement their policies. Indirect system was applied successfully in Buganda, Rwanda and Northern Nigeria. 

                  7. It was a way of deliberately preparing Africans for self-government. The British wanted to train future African leaders for their colonies in Africa. 

                  8. The success of indirect rule in other parts of the world such as India also encouraged the British to apply it in Africa. This was because they had seen its good results. This forced the British officers to adopt it in Northern Nigeria and Uganda. 

                  9. The British used indirect rule because they expected African loyalty. They expected African leaders to work hard in order to please their masters. This would bring good results to the British government. 

                  10. Indirect rule was favourable for the exploitation of African resources. It would create peaceful conditions and give the colonialists enough time to engage in activities such as mining and trade.

                  Activity 8.7 

                  In your own opinion, which method of colonial administration would you prefer? Give reasons for your answer.

                  ii)  The French assimilation policy

                  Activity 8.8 

                  Use a dictionary or Internet to find out the meaning of ‘assimilation’. In groups, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of assimilation.
                  The word ‘assimilation’ is derived from the French word ‘assimiler’ which means cause to resemble or to look alike. Assimilation was a system of administration in which French colonies were given a culture and civilisation similar to that of France. It was intended to make Africans be like the French citizens. That is to say, the Africans were to substitute their indigenous culture, religion and customs with French culture, language, laws, religion and civilisation.

                  NOTE: The Africans were to resemble the French citizens in all spheres of life except colour. African colonies were to resemble provinces of France.

                  Reasons why the French adopted assimilation policy 

                  • The French believed in superiority of their culture and civilisation. They considered it to be more developed. Therefore, they felt it was their duty to spread it among people with backward cultures through assimilation policy.

                  • The influence of the French revolutionary ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity also made the French to use assimilation policy. They had a feeling that all people are equal.

                   • The French wanted to create a policy that would support France in future conflicts and international issues. This policy would create friendship between France and her African colonies.
                  • The French expected this policy to be economically cheap because the process of assimilating Africans was simple and easy. 

                  • The French regarded their colonies as overseas French territories. Therefore, assimilation policy was the best alternative system for changing territories to resemble the French provinces in Europe. 

                  • The French wanted to create a class of African French men who would help in the administration of their colonies. 

                  • The early contacts between the French coastal areas of West Africa especially Senegal made it easy for assimilation. This is because Africans had already adopted French cultures and language. 

                  iii) The Germany direct rule

                  Activity 8.9 

                  1. In pairs, find out what direct rule is. 

                  2. In groups, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of direct rule.
                  In this system, indigenous and political administrative institutions are replaced with those of colonisers. The Germans used direct rule to administer some of their colonies in Africa (German South West Africa (Namibia) and German East Africa (Tanzania). It involved use of soldiers to directly control their colonies. They would bring in new chiefs where they had no chiefs. They replaced the old chiefs with new ones. 

                  Why the Germans applied direct rule

                   • It was used because the Germans believed that it was the only system through which they could effectively administer their colonies. 

                  • They also believed the system would enable them to exploit and benefit from African resources. For example, they believed that they could raise enough revenue through taxation. 

                  • With direct rule, the Germans would ensure that the Africans grow enough cash crops to feed their home industries. 

                  • The Germans had used force to take over many parts of Tanganyika. Soldiers had to be used; otherwise Africans could revolt at the slightest opportunity.
                  132
                  • The Germans had suffered early revolts and therefore had to bring in the harsh leaders to avoid more riots. 

                  • The Germans wanted to promote their superior culture over Africans. This would involve imposing their culture on them. 

                  • In many societies, there were no chiefs. Where the chiefs existed, they were not faithful or powerful enough. The Germans therefore had no one to entrust authority with. 

                  • They opted for this system because they had enough manpower to man all departments. There was no need of recruiting or using Africans. 

                  • They feared the expense of training Africans before they could take over administration. They thought that it could strain their budget. 

                  • Like other powers, the Germans did not want to use a system that was used by their rivals (British). This would intensify competition and rivalry among them.

                  Activity 8.10 

                  In groups, discuss the consequences of European colonisation. Present your findings in class.

                  8.4 Consequences of European colonisation 

                  The colonisation of Africa started after 1870 and ended in 1960s when many African countries got their independence. It had far reaching consequences which were both positive and negative as discussed below.

                  Positive consequences 

                  (i) Colonisation led to creation of bigger African states. This was as a result of combining small African societies which were combined by the colonialists.

                  (ii) European colonisation led to abolition of slavery and slave trade among African societies. For example, the Europeans stopped the Yao, Nyamwezi and Akamba who participated in slave trade. 

                  (iii) There was introduction of Western education in the colonies. This brought new scientific knowledge and new languages such as English and French into Africa.

                  (iv) There was establishment of communication networks and infrastructures such as roads and railways in African colonies. A case in point is the Uganda railway and Tanzania railway. 

                  (v) Colonisation led to the development of agriculture in Africa through introduction of new crops. The new crops included coffee, cotton, cocoa, rubber and sugar cane in addition to plantations agriculture. 

                  (vi) Colonisation led to the spread of Christianity in Africa. Many Africans dropped their traditional religion and were converted to Christianity. Today there are many Christians especially in central, eastern and southern parts of Africa. 

                  (vii) Western cultures such as ways of dressing, dancing, eating and marriage were introduced in Africa. For example in Senegal, Africans who got assimilated dressed and ate like the French. 

                  (viii) Colonisation led to introduction and expansion of legitimate trade in Africa. Africans acquired European manufactured goods in exchange for the African raw materials. The materials included clothes, sauce pans and utensils. They were exchanged for gold, hides and skins.

                  (ix) There was emergence and growth of towns and urban centres in African during the colonial period. Such towns started as administrative centres for colonial governments which were developed into modern towns today. 

                  (x) Colonisation led to rise of African nationalism where Africans wanted to rule themselves instead of being ruled by Europeans. This brought unity of African people against Europeans. 

                  (xi) Colonisation opened up parts of African continent to the outside world. This led to the creation of links between African countries and the rest of the outside world.

                  Negative consequences

                  (i) Colonisation led to loss of independence for Africa. Many African societies had been independent for long. Things changed only when they were colonised by Europeans, for example, some African chiefs were removed from power. 

                  (ii) Colonisation led to rebellions that resulted from resistance of some Africans. Some of the rebellions were the Maji Maji in Tanzania, Shona– Ndebele, Mau Mau in Kenya. Many Africans lost their lives in these wars of rebellion against Europeans.

                  (iii) Colonisation led to creation of artificial boundaries in Africa which caused conflict between African modern states. States such as Uganda and Tanzania, Nigeria and Cameroon, and Ethiopia and Eritrea were involved in border conflicts. 

                  (iv) The European policy of divide and rule created hatred and disunity among some African tribes. This has continued up to today.

                  (v) It led to collapse of African cultures as they were dropped in favour of the European cultures, for example, cultural dances and hospitality. 

                  (vi) Colonisation made African countries to remain underdeveloped and dependant on the colonial masters. This has led to the dependency syndrome. 

                  (vii) It led to over exploitation of African resources such as gold and fertile soils by the Europeans. They exploited for the resources their own benefits.


                  Revision questions
                  1. Define the term colonisation. 

                  2. Explain different causes of European colonisation of Africa. 

                  3. Identify different methods of colonial conquest of Africa. 

                  4. Describe the consequences of European colonisation of Africa. 

                  5. Identify different colonial systems of administration.

                  • Key unit competence To be able to analyse the reactions of Africans to colonial conquest.

                    9.1 Forms of African responses towards European colonial   conquest

                    Different African societies reacted differently towards colonial rule. The reactions depended on the circumstances that existed in such societies. African response can be grouped into two main ways. These are: 

                    1. Collaboration 

                    2. Resistance 

                    Activity 9.1

                    In groups, discuss the meanings of the following words: 

                    1. Collaboration 

                    2. Resistance Make presentation of your findings to the entire class.

                    1.  Collaboration 

                    In this case, African states and societies cooperated with the Europeans. They even assisted them in the process of establishing colonial rule in Africa. In other words, such African states welcomed Europeans and even allowed them to settle in their societies. Examples of African societies that collaborated with Europeans include Buganda in Uganda, Fante in Ghana and Creoles in Sierra Leone. The following were some of the African leaders who collaborated with Europeans: 

                    • Kabaka Mutesa I of Buganda 

                    • Semei Kakungulu of Uganda 

                    • King Lewanika of Lozi Empire

                    • Jaja of Opobo 

                    • Gerere of Dahomey 

                    • Merere of Nyamwezi

                    2.  Resistance

                    From what you found out in Activity 9.1, you realise that resistance refers to the situation where Africans opposed the establishment of colonial rule in their societies. This implies that: 

                    •  Africans rejected the presence of foreigners in their societies and fought against them. 

                    •  Africans refused to cooperate with Europeans as they (Europeans) tried to impose their rule on their (Africans) societies. 

                    Nama-Herero Rebelion 1904-1907 

                    This was an armed joint resistance in Namibia. It was started by two tribes, the Nama and Herero against German colonial masters. The Germans took over parts of Namibia in 1884 hence subjecting the Nama and Herero to colonial rule. The rebellion was led by Samuel Maherero. It was basically a fight for self-rule. 

                    Causes of the Nama-Herero rebellion 

                    (a) Land alienation 

                    The Nama and Herero lost their land to the Germans. The Germans encouraged white settlers to stay in Namibia. They also encouraged establishment of agricultural plantations. The Nama and Herero were pushed into reserves. The conditions in the reserves were so harsh that it compelled the two tribes to begin a rebellion against the Germans. 

                    (b) Outbreak of natural calamities in 1897 

                    There was an outbreak of natural calamities such as rinder pest that attacked cattle in Namibia. The disease killed up to 80% of the Herero herds. This was a great loss to the Herero.This was blamed on Germans in Namibia. 

                    (c) Forced labour 

                    The Nama and Herero were subjected to forced labour by the Germans in plantations, copper mines and railway construction. Pastoral communities which were not used to such conditions had no alternative but to resist.


                    (d) Unfair taxation system 

                    The Germans imposed a number of taxes such as land tax and hut tax on Herero.  Methods of collection were unfair. Tax defaulters were either imprisoned or their property was confiscated. This also annoyed the two tribes. 

                    (e) The role of traditional religion 

                    The Nama and the Herero were strongly motivated and encouraged by traditional religion. Prophet Sturman who lived in Nama societies encouraged his people to rebel and promised them victory and immesurable benefits. This inspired the Nama and Herero to begin Nama-Herero rebellion as they believed they would defeat the Germans. 

                    (f) Germans’ desire to disarm the Nama

                     After the Herero uprising, the Germans decided to disarm the Nama in order to avoid further challenges. This was opposed by Africans who later formed a joint rebellion against Germans. 

                    (g) The need to regain lost independence

                    The Nama and Herero wanted to regain their independence that they lost to German colonial masters in Namibia. This also provoked them to stage an armed struggle against Germans to demand for self-rule. 

                    (h) The 1903 Credit Ordinance 

                    This was a new law that was passed by the German traders. They were demanding for the payment of their debts from Africans. The German traders had given goods on credit to Africans and demanded payment within one year. This was followed with harassment of Africans who teamed up for the rebellion against German invaders. 

                    (i) German harsh rule

                    Germans in Namibia were harsh and oppressive to Africans. They mistreated people through their colonial administrative policies. This too annoyed Africans.

                    (j) Loss of cattle to the Germans

                     German soldiers grabbed cattle belonging to the Nama and the Herero. This, in addition to the effects of rinder pest, made Africans poor and annoyed. 

                    (k) Good leadership 

                    The Nama and the Herero had good leaders such as Samuel Maherero of Herero and Hendrik Witbooi of Nama. The two organised their people in the society uprising against the Germans. 

                    Activity 9.2 

                    In groups, research to find out more about Nama-Herero rebellion. Prepare a report for presentation in class discussion.

                    Fig. 9.1: Samuel Maherero (1856 - 1917)   Fig. 9.2: Hendrik Witbooi and his wives (1830 - 1905)

                    Kabalega of Bunyoro 

                    Kabalega was born on 18th June 1853. He was also known as Chwa II Kabalega. His father, Omukama Kyebambe IV, was called Kanyange Nyamutahingurwa. Kabalega was the Omukama of Bunyoro from 1869 to 1899. Kabalega resisted the British attempts to colonise his Bunyoro Kingdom. On 1st January 1894, the British declared war on Bunyoro. For five years, Kabalega was able to resist the British. He, Kabalega, was shot by the British on 9th April 1899. He was wounded in the arm and captured alongside Kabaka Mwanga by Semei Kakungulu and Andreya Luwandagga, two Buganda military generals who were collaborating with the British.

                              
                                   Fig 9.3: Chwa II Kabalega (1853 - 1923) 

                    Kabalega was then exiled Kabaka in Kismayu and later in Seychelles. In 1923, he was given permission to return to Bunyoro. Unfortunately, he died in Jinja on 6th April 1923. He died shortly before reaching the borders of the kingdom. Kabalega was the last great king of Bunyoro. After his fall, the kingdom was run by the British until Uganda’s independence in 1962. 

                    Reasons why Kabalega resisted British colonialism in Bunyoro

                     (a) His strong army called Abarusura 

                    He had a large well-trained army that he himself trained. His men were equipped with guns that he had acquired from long distance traders. This strongly encouraged him to revolt. He believed that he could defeat the British. 

                    (b) Relationship between Buganda and the British 

                    The British collaborated with his rivals and enemies, the Baganda. This left him with no choice but to stage resistance against the British.

                    (c) Kabalega’s early war victories over neighbours 

                    He had earlier on skillfully attacked and defeated his neighbours such as Karagwe. This gave him false confidence of victory against the British. 

                    (d) Selfish economic interests 

                    The British interfered with the profitable slave trade. As a result, the Nyoro incurred losses. The Nyoro decided to collaborate with Kabalega to resist the British rule in their empire. 

                    (e) Forced cash crop production 

                    The British introduced a number of cash crops such as coffee, cotton and tea. They were supposed to be grown by the Banyoro. This was viewed as 
                    exploitation and a way to prevent them from growing food crops. It also made Kabalega to resist British rule in Bunyoro. 

                    (f) Mistreatment of earlier collaborators 

                    The colonial masters in Buganda Kingdom reduced powers and authority of the king. They subjected people to forced labour. They took people’s land by force. This increased his hatred against colonialism. For example, Semei Kakungulu believed that the British would allow him to become the King of Bukendi of Busoga, but the British preferred to rule these areas through civil servants in their pay and under their control. The British also limited Kangulu to a 20 square mile area.

                    Activity 9.3

                    In groups, research to find out more about Bunyoro resistance.

                    Prepare a report for presentation in class discussion.

                    Samoure Toure and the Mandinka Empire 

                    Samuore Toure was born in 1830 in Manyambaladugu, a village south east of Kankan in present-day Guinea. Samoure was a great warrior who fought imperialism in the 19th Century. He refused to submit to French colonisation. He chose to fight. Toure became a well known leader, training and commanding a growing and disciplined army. He expanded his conquests, building a united empire called Mandika. By 1874, he declared himself Faama (monarch). He established the capital of his kingdom at Bisandugu in present-day Gambia in the 1880s. The empire covered Bamako, Sierra Leone, the Ivory Coast and Liberia. On 1st May 1898, the French seized the town of Sikasso. Toure and his army took up positions in the Liberian forests to resist.

                    How Samori Toure resisted the French for long 

                    • He used good methods of fighting which included guerrilla warfare and scorched earth policy. His army destroyed crops, granaries of food, houses and poisoned water before retreating. This made the French lack supplies. He also used guerrilla warfare to avoid direct battles with the French. 

                    • He had a very powerful army. It was large, well equipped and well trained. His army consisted of 30,000-35,000 soldiers. 

                    • He had strong weapons and large in number. He also had his own workshops where his skilled blacksmith produced weapons such as shields, arrows and spears. He also acquired guns from the coastal traders and the British. 

                    • Strong unity and support of his citizens and conquered states enabled him to resist for long. The Mandinka and people from conquered states supplied him with food and joined his army against the French. 

                    • Islam also played a very important role. All the Mandika people were Muslims and religion acted as a uniting factor. This unity of the Mandika enabled them to support Toure against the French. 

                    • He used diplomacy too. For example, he allied with the British in Sierra Leon who continued supplying him with weapons that he used to fight the French. His relationship with the British scared the French. 

                    • Geographical factors also favoured him. The Mandinka were fighting on a home ground that they understood very well. On the other hand, the French were fighting on a foreign land and became challenged. 

                    • He had a reliable spy network. Toure had a spy network system composed of Dyulla traders, his old time friends. The spies provided him with information concerning French advances to his empire. This helped him prepare in advance before the French attacks.

                    • The personality and character of Samori Toure played a role. He was a military genius and personally commanded his army. He was a brave soldier. This made him to challenge the French troops for long in the Mandinka Empire. 

                    Activity 9.4 

                    In groups, research to find out more about reasons for the defeat of Samori Toure and the Mandinka. Prepare a report for presentation in class.
                          

                               Fig. 9.4: Samori Toure (1830 - 1900) 

                    The Maji Maji Rebellion 

                    In Tanzania Maji is a Swahili word which means water. It came from the prophecy of a traditional religious leader called Kinjikitile Ngwale. Kinjikitile mixed some water with millet and sorghum flour then sprinkled on African soldiers. He believed that the magic water would protect Africans from bullets of the Germans. This was a reaction of Africans living in south east Tanganyika against the German colonial masters. Many tribes joined this rebellion. The tribes included the Mbuga, Wangindo, Ngoni, Bena, Zaramo, Mafumbi, Makonde, Ngindo and Urugulu.

                           

                    Fig. 9.5: A sketch map of German East Africa showing areas affected by rebellion 

                    Causes of the Maji Maji rebellion 

                    (a) Rise of nationalism among Africans 

                    The societies of southern Tanganyika developed too much hatred for the Germans and their rule because of their brutality, forced labour and disrespect of African culture among others. They decided that the only way to have independence was through a rebellion. 

                    (b) Heavy taxation

                    The German administration introduced taxation as a way of forcing the Africans to work on European farms. Africans (Ngoni, Ngindo, Zaramo, Matumbi, Pogoro, Lungura, Ndendeule, Mpunga and Bena) rebelled as a way of saving themselves from the heavy taxes that were imposed on them by the Germans. Not only were the taxes heavy but even the methods of collection were harsh and brutal.

                    (c) Loss of land to Germans 

                    The Germans had grabbed the fertile land belonging to Africans, for example, within the rift valley and Mahenge plateau. In those two areas, the Germans established plantations. This compelled Africans to rebel so as to regain their land.

                    (d) Forced labour policies 

                    Africans were forced to work on German construction projects such as railways and roads. They were also forced to work in the cotton plantations. Africans were made to work for long hours and were given small wages. Sometimes they would work with no pay. This annoyed Africans and they decided to fight the Germans. 

                    (e) The oppressive German rule 

                    The Germans employed Arab-Swahili as headmen (Jumbes) and chiefs (Akidas) to assist in the administration. These Akidas and Jumbes were very harsh to the African communities. They had no respect for the African traditional rulers and they flogged them in public. Germans used Akidas and Jumbes who were unpopular among the African societies. They were unpopular because they had mistreated people before. They were harsh in the implementation of German rule. They had no respect for the African traditional rulers and at times flogged them in public. 

                    (f) Need to revenge on the Germans 

                    Some African societies like the Ngoni joined the Maji Maji so as to revenge the Boma massacres of 1897. In this incident, Ngoni leaders were tricked by the German officials into entering a ‘boma’ or fort. Once inside, the Germans tried to arrest them and in the ensuing struggle, many people died. 

                    (g) Role of Kinjikitile Ngwale 

                    Kinjiketile Ngwale mobilised people in 1904. He sent messengers to the surrounding country to train people. He spread the power of ‘magic water’ from River Rufiji which inspired many people to join the rebellion. The water, they believed, had powers of turning bullets into water. People did not have any fear for the German bullets. The belief in the water gave the warriors courage to face the Germans despite the fact that the latter were better armed. 

                    (h) Need to preserve the African culture

                    Africans wanted to retain their culture as the German administration had disrupted the way of life of the African people. Germans also had no respect for African culture and customs. They and their servants raped Ngindo women, an offence that was punishable by death. They also burnt African shrines.This annoyed the Africans. 

                    (i) Outbreak of natural calamities 

                    There was an outbreak of natural calamities such as famine in 1905 in the south east Tanganyika states. The famine led to resentment among the locals. Such calamities caused Africans to suffer. They were attributed to the presence of Germans on their land.

                    (j) Overthrowal of native leaders 

                    Due to the German colonial policy of direct rule, many native African leaders lost their power to German administrators. African leaders such as Mkwawa and Mifambo were replaced with Akidas and Jumbes. These Akidas and Jumbes were harsh to the African communities whom they considered backward and illiterate. Many Africans were not happy. They therefore joined the rebellion as a way of restoring their leaders.

                    Activity 9.5 

                    1. In pairs, research to find out more about Maji Maji rebellion. 

                    2. Prepare a report for presentation in class discussion.

                    9.2 Types of resistance 

                    Resistance can be divided into two groups. These are: 

                    (a) Active resistance 

                    (b) Passive resistance 

                    a)  Active resistance

                    It is also called armed resistance. It involved the use of arms against the colonisers. Examples of African leaders who actively resisted were: 

                    (i) Samoure Toure of Mandika 

                    (ii) Menelik II of Ethiopia

                    (iii) Kabalega of Bunyoro 

                    (iv) Kinjikitile Ngwale who led the Maji Maji rebellion 

                    b)  Passive resistance 

                    It refers to deliberate refusal by the Africans to cooperate with the colonisers. For example, the Pogoro of Tanzania refused to pick cotton.  Some African communities resisted by refusing to pay taxes. Passive resistance is also known as unarmed resistance or noncooperation.

                    Activity 9.6 

                    For each of the case studies above, identify the form of resistance used. Present your answer in form of  a table. 

                    Causes of resistance 

                    • African societies resisted because some of their traditional enemies had collaborated with the Europeans. Therefore, they could not join their rivals. For example, the Asante resisted because the Fante collaborated. Bunyoro also resisted because Buganda had collaborated. 

                    • Some African societies felt that they were militarily strong and could therefore defeat the Europeans. For example, King Kabalega of Bunyoro did not imagine that there was any force that could defeat his own army. 

                    • Other African communities had the desire to protect their trade monopolies and commercial prosperity. They wanted to protect their commercial benefits that they had gained from earlier trades. Examples of such communities are the Hehe and the Ngoni who had big influence in the long distance trade. 

                    • Africans wanted to protect their cultural practices and customs. They felt that Europeans were going to interfere with their culture and customs such as polygamy. The Europeans considered such practices primitive and barbaric. 

                    • Bad economic policies of Europeans such as forced labour, taxation and land alienation annoyed Africans. These policies made Africans to suffer, forcing them to resist. 

                    • Some African leaders were enlightened enough to realise the tricks and plans of Europeans in advance. This made them to resist straight away. 
                    For example, Menelik II of Ethiopia demanded writing of the treaty in two languages. 

                    • Africans resisted because they wanted to preserve political independence of their territories. The African leaders feared to lose their positions and power to the Europeans. 

                    • The influence of African traditional religion also contributed to the spirit of resistance in Africa. African traditional leaders preached to the people against the Europeans. They said that their gods were not happy because of the presence of foreigners on the African land. They also said that occurrence of natural calamities such as prolonged drought and diseases were caused by the whites. 

                    • Some African societies resisted because they were economically strong and required no assistance from the Europeans. For example, Samoure Toure had built a strong economy for Mandika Empire through trade. This made him feel that he did not need any support from the Europeans. 

                    • Nationalism was also another reason for resistance. Africans resisted because of a high spirit of nationalism for their societies and people. This forced them to fight foreigners who occupied their land. 

                    • Other Africans resisted because they were bandits and feared to be punished by colonial governments. For example, the Nandi had stolen materials for construction of the railway. They feared that they would be punished by the British in case they found. They opted to resist. 

                    Activity 9.7 

                    In pairs, identify seven points that may have been common to all leaders and communities who resisted. Explain your choices in a report to be presented before the class.

                    Effects of resistance

                    The effects of Africa resistance can be divided into both negative and positive as discussed below:


                    Negative effects of African resistance 

                    • Many of the Africans died of new diseases, such as small pox, that were brought over by the British. That was because the Africans had no immunity to these diseases.
                    • Often times the natives fought the British in battle in order to defend their way of life. Many people were lost to resisting the Europeans.

                     • The demand for cash crops caused a shortage of food which led to starvation. Fertile land was taken by Europeans and the dry, unproductive land was left to Africans. It could not support crop growing. 

                    • Cultures and customs were broken down when traditional authority figures were replaced. 

                    • Homes and property were transferred to the authority of the British and the natives had little or no say in it. 

                    • Men were forced to leave their villages to support themselves and their family because there were no opportunities for high paying jobs because they were filled by the British 

                    • African culture was disrupted by the European culture through the educational system and spread of Christianity.  

                    • There was a division of African culture. Rivals were united while kinship and family members were split because of the artificial boundaries instated by the British. This caused a great amount of tension within regions. 

                    Positive effects of African resistance 

                    • As a result of African resistance, European colonialists put efforts to improve colonies and resulted in improved sanitation and education. 

                    • Hospitals, schools, and factories were built creating more jobs for the people of Africa and also the conditions of work improved because forced labour was abolished in some colonies like in Tanganyika after Maji Maji.

                    • The amount of local warfare was reduced greatly due to control of the African government by Europeans. This brought political stability in many African states. 

                    • Order and negative peace were brought to the colonies because the Europeans intensified security in their colonies after recognising that Africans had the potential to resist their rule. 

                    • The average life expectancy increased as a result of combined factors like improved health facilities, peace and order that were intensified after African resistance.
                    • Literacy rates rose because in very many African resistances, the Africans lost the battle and therefore had to succumb to the European civilisation including religion and education.

                    Methods of resistance 

                    (a) Use of armed resistance 

                    Some Africans took up arms against the colonialist. They faced the colonialists in battlefields. Examples of those who used armed resistance against colonialists are Maji Maji in Tanganyika, Nama-Herero in Namibia and Shona-Ndebele in Zimbabwe. 

                    (b) Strikes 

                    Africans in different countries demonstrated against colonialists due to colonial exploitation and harsh rule. Strikes included both peaceful and violent ones in places such as mines and plantations.

                     (c) Boycotts

                     Africans boycotted in the following manners: 

                    (i) Refusing to buy European goods 

                    (ii) Failing to attend European schools, churches and hospitals 

                    The aim of the boycotts was to ensure that Europeans made losses in their businesses. This was one way of forcing them to grant independence to Africans. 

                    (d) Formation political parties

                    Several African elites formed political parties such as African National Congress by Nelson Mandela in South Africa. Dr Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana formed Conventional People’s Party. All acted as uniting factor for Africans to fight against colonial rule.

                    Activity 9.8 

                    Do a research about the contributions of Nelson Mandela and Dr Kwame Nkurumah to their respective countries. Summarise your fingings in point form. Present the findings in class.

                                        

                            Fig. 9.6: Dr Kwame Nkurumah                 Fig. 9.7: Nelson Mandela (1909 - 1972)                                                  (1918 - 2013)

                    (e) Forming African Independent churches 

                    Africans also formed independent African churches such as Ethiopian, Messianic and Zionist churches. The churches cited exploitation in European led churches. They cited the following cases: 

                    (i) High baptism dues

                    (ii) Forced tithing 

                    (iii) Lack of promotion to high position of priest hood 

                    (f) Use of diplomacy 

                    This was a non-violent approach. Africans negotiated with Europeans for fairness in administration. They also wrote letters to colonial governments to grant Africans independence. A good example of a country which used diplomacy is Ghana. 

                    (g) Formation of trade unions 

                    These were labour organisations formed to help workers get fair pay and good treatment at work. Trade unions later acted as political parties and demanded for political independence. 

                    (i) Formation of Pan-Africanism 

                    This was an organisation that was formed by Africans in Africa and Africans in the Diaspora. It was formed by Dr Marcus Garvey and W.E.B Dubois. It called for speeding up the process for independence and agitated for ‘Africa for Africans’.
                    Activity 9.9 

                    1. Use internet and other resources to find out the full name of W.E.B Dubois. 

                    2. Research on the life histories of Dr Marcus Garvey and W.E.B Dubois.

                                                                 
                                                 Fig. 9.8: Dr Marcus Garvey                 Fig. 9.9: W.E.B Dubois        

                                                         (1887 - 1940)                                      (1868 - 1963)

                    (i) Liberation wars 

                    There were also guerrilla movements started by Africans such as Jonas Savimbi of Angola. He formed MPLA (Popular Movement for Liberation of Angola) and Eduarde Mondlame founded FRELIMO (Front for Liberation of Mozambique) in Mozambique. All this pressurised colonial masters. 

                    Activity 9.10 

                    Carry out a research about Jonas Savimbi. Use internet and other resource materials. Present your findings to the class.
                    9.3 Forms of Collaboration The two forms of collaboration that Europeans and African leaders engaged in were:

                    (i) Mercenery collaboration 

                    (ii)   Career collaboration

                    Activity 9.11 

                    To understand the meaning of each form of collaboration, your teacher will provide you with two stories of leaders who collaborated. One will be of mercenery collaboration and the other of career collaboration. With reasons, identify each type of collaboration the leaders in the story were.

                    9.4 How Africans collaborated with European colonialists

                    Africans collaborated with Europeans in the following ways: 

                    a)  Signing treaties 

                    The most common way of African collaboration was by signing treaties. All these treaties were signed in favour and protection of European interests, for example, giving them authority over land. For example, the Lochner Treaty between Lewanika and British South Africa Company.

                    b)  Provision of labour

                    Africans also collaborated by providing labour on European farms and construction projects. Africans went ahead to mobilise fellow Africans to work on European farms. 

                    c)  Provision of accommodation 

                    Africans also collaborated by providing accommodation to the Europeans. They also guided them through the areas which they did not know, especially places that were not easy to locate. 

                    d)  Spread Christianity

                    Africans helped the Europeans to preach Christianity to fellow Africans. Christianity softened their hearts, thus attracting more collaborators. 

                    e)  Helping in interpretation 

                    African collaborators also served as interpreters to the European colonialists. Some active collaborators were taught the European languages. They went ahead to interpret to their counterparts who could not understand the languages. 

                    Reasons for African collaboration 

                    (a) Need for assistance against enemies 

                    African societies collaborated in order to get support from Europeans against their enemies. They expected to get military assistance from the Europeans, for example, Buganda against Bunyoro, and the Fante against the Asante. The Shona collaborated with the British so as to use them against the Ndebele. 

                    (b) Weak military 

                    Some other African societies were militarily weak. They realised that Europeans had better weapons and methods of fighting. They also feared to resist European rule since their resistance would not be successful. They
                    therefore decided to collaborate. Some communities chose friendship as a way of protecting their social, economic and political organisation. Examples include Mutesa I of Buganda, Maasai under Lenana, Rumanyika of Karagwe and Tukolor of the Lozi. 

                    (c) Natural calamities 

                    Natural calamities such as drought, famine and diseases also forced some African societies to collaborate. This is because they expected that collaboration with Europeans would be a solution to their problems. 

                    For instance, the Maasai had been weakened by smallpox, rinderpest and internal conflict. On the other hand, the Banyankole were affected by jiggers and rinderpest. They also feared more attacks from Rwanda and Bunyoro. Such societies were too weak to fight the British. They chose to collaborate to solve their problems. 

                    (d) Personal interest 

                    Some Africans collaborated because of personal interests and gains. They were opportunists and excepted rewards from the colonial governments. Others wanted to acquire wealth. They admired European goods such as clothes, beads, guns, mirrors and wine. On the other hand, others collaborated because they hoped to loot property after defeat of African resisters. An example is Luo support against the Nandi. They wanted high administrative posts. An example of such persons was Semei Kakungulu of Buganda. 

                    (e) Benefit from European openings 

                    Other Africans collaborated because they wanted to benefit from European trade (legitimate trade). They intended to acquire European manufactured goods such as guns, clothes and glasses. An example of such Africans was Jaja of Opobo. He collaborated with the French because of trade benefits at the coast of West Africa.

                     (f) Influence of missionaries 

                    Another reason was the influence of missionaries. The missionaries had softened the hearts of Africans through their preaching. They used to say, “We were all created in God’s image. Love one another as you love yourself.” By the time European colonialists came, the Africans were ready to practise Christianity.

                    (g) Ignorance

                     Africans collaborated due to ignorance of the real intentions of colonialists. They believed that the Europeans were visitors who were in Africa for a short while. Little did they know that they had come to stay. 

                    (h) Lack of African nationalism

                    Lack of African nationalism was also a reason. Some Africans did not have nationalistic feelings. They therefore collaborated so as to fight fellow Africans whom they considered their enemies. 

                    (i) Effects of slave trade 

                    There was also the issue of effects of slave trade. African societies that were affected by slave trade collaborated because they wanted the Europeans to stop the trade.

                    (j) Desire for western civilisation

                    Some Africans collaborated with Europeans because they admired the Western culture and civilisation. 

                    (k) Succession disputes 

                    There were also some succession disputes. Some kings collaborated with Europeans in order to defeat their competitors. An example is King Lenana of Maasai who collaborated with the British in order to defeat his brother Sendeyo.

                    Buganda collaboration

                    Buganda was one of the largest, best organised and most powerful kingdoms in Eastern Africa in the 19th Century. The reaction of Buganda leaders to the establishment of colonial rule varied. Some resisted at one time but others collaborated at another time depending on circumstances. Kabaka Mutesa collaborated with the Europeans. He collaborated with the Europeans for the following reasons: 

                    • He wanted to use the Europeans to reduce the power and influence of the Muslims. In 1875, he invited European Christian missionaries to Buganda. They arrived in 1877 and built mission stations at the Kabaka’s capital. Soon rivalry developed between the Protestant and Catholic missionaries. Each group tried to have more influence over the Kabaka.

                    • Mutesa took advantage of this rivalry by playing one group against the other. He did this to ensure that none of the groups became powerful enough to undermine his power. 

                    • Mutesa also wanted to obtain maximum benefit from the Europeans. They tried to out do one another in the provision of educational and health facilities and in the supply of firearms to the Kabaka. They also helped the Kabaka to obtain trade goods from the coast.

                    Activity 9.12 

                    1. In groups, research to find out more about Buganda collaboration. 

                    2. Prepare a report for presentation in class discussion.

                                                 
                                                  Fig. 9.10: Kabaka Mutesa I (1837 - 1884) 

                    Maasai collaboration 

                    The Maasai were among the most powerful communities in Kenya during the first half of the 19th Century. They had a standing army due to their ageregiment system which ensured a steady supply of warriors. The Maasai even attacked Arab caravans who then began to avoid passing through their territory. 
                    In the late 19th Century, the British imperialists arrived and the Maasai response was surprisingly one of collaboration. The Maasai collaborated for the following reasons: 

                    • Maasai power had declined during the second half of the 19th Century. The power vacuum was filled by the Nandi. The Nandi raided and weakened the Maasai. With their power and wealth gone, they could not offer any resistance to the British invasion and occupation.

                    • The community experienced civil wars in the period between 1850 and 1870. In addition to this, there were succession disputes between Lenana and Sendeyo. Both were sons of Laibon Mbatian and the claimants to the throne. Lenana therefore sought British assistance to subdue his brother. Sendeyo was pushed southwards into northern Tanzania and Lenana thus became the undisputed Laibon of the Maasai. 

                    • During the second half of the 19th Century, the Maasai were weakened by natural calamities. These included a locust invasion, cholera epidemic, pleuro-pneumonia, small pox and rinderpest. They adversely affected the people and their livestock. 

                    • Towards the end of the 19th century, there was famine in Maasai land. Lenana therefore took some of his people to British forts and in Agikuyu land to save them from imminent death. After the famine he went to reclaim them. He found out that they had been sold to  slave dealers by the Agikuyu. He prepared to go to war against the Agikuyu but before he could do so, an incident occurred. In 1895, a caravan of Agikuyu traders and Swahili porters returning from Eldama Ravine were involved in a confrontation with the Maasai. The Maasai massacred 650 Agikuyu and Swahili porters. On hearing the news, a British trader, Andrew Dick, set forth with two French travellers and massacred 100 Maasai single handedly. The Maasai dreaded the military might of the Europeans and thus collaborated.

                                       

                                          Fig. 9.11: Lenana and the British (1906)

                    • On the other hand, the Europeans sought Maasai cooperation to facilitate railway construction. They also hoped to use their morans (warriors) to subdue uncooperative people.

                    Activity 9.13 

                    Between resistance and collaboration, which one would you have preferred if you lived in the 19th Century? Give reasons for your choice.
                    Revision questions
                    1. Explain, with examples, how Africans responded to European colonialism. 

                    2. Describe the origins of Nama-Herero rebellion 1904-1907.

                     3. Explain the causes of African resistance to colonial rule. 

                    4. Define the term collaboration.

                    5. Describe how Africans collaborated with European colonialists.

                    • Key unit competence To be able to explain the causes and consequences of industrial revolution, technical inventions and their inventors.

                      Activity 10.1 

                      1. Use a dictionary or Internet to find out the meanings of the following words: 

                      i. Revolution 

                      ii. Politics

                      iii. Economy 

                      iv. Social 

                      v. Industry  

                      2. Use an atlas to locate England on the map of Europe.
                      Use the dictionary or Internet to find out the meaning of the word revolution again. What do you notice? 

                      You must have realised that revolution is a change that takes place in a given society. The change may affect the social, political and economic aspects of that society. It is also defined as the process that permanently changes the state of affairs and the way of doing things.

                      Industrial revolution refers to the changes in the methods of production where machines replaced human labour. It led to greater changes in the whole economy of European countries. It began in England in the 1850s and later spread to other countries.

                      10.1 Political, economic and social situation in England    before the industrial revolution

                      Activity 10.2

                      Read the following passage then answer the questions that follow: 

                      In the history of pre-colonial Rwanda, production of food was for subsistence. Families produced on a small scale purposely for home consumption. In case there was surplus produce, it was exchanged for other needs from local communities. For instance, grains for milk or milk for pots. Transport was poor. People walked long distances for trade. Politically, Rwanda was ruled by the monarchs. Leadership was hereditary. There was no voting for leaders of people’s choice. The king could appoint or dismiss chiefs without consultation. Socially, there were periodic famines that caused misery among families. Some people died due to famine. There were also various diseases that claimed the lives of people and animals. This was caused by lack of proper medication

                      1. In groups, discuss the general changes that have taken place in the modern Rwanda. 

                      2. Use the points given in question 1 above to identify the following changes in Rwanda.

                      i. Economic 

                      ii. Political

                      iii. Social 

                      Present your findings to the whole class. 

                      Before the industrial revolution started, Britain was quite different from the way it is today. Industrialisation brought with it new types of roads, trains and many other forms of communication. All these never existed in Britain prior to industrialisation. Before industrial revolution began, it was very hard to keep in touch with people in other parts of the country. News was spread by travellers or through messengers. Goods were distributed largely within the locality in which they were produced. 

                      In the 1750s, UK Government was a constitutional monarchy with a parliament. However, only wealthy male landowners were allowed to vote (about 5% of the total population). The poor had no representation in the government and were offered little protection from authorities. Politics were based on land ownership and military honours won. Women and ordinary men were given few rights. As a result, life was a constant battle against famine, wicked landlords, overwork and sheer bad luck.  Majority of the people lived in the countryside. They depended on agriculture. Subsistence farming was still very common. A family would have a small farm which provided for their own needs, and would sell any surplus produce. Other people would work as labourers on larger commercial farms. In the domestic system, Britain relied on cottage industries. An example of a cottage industry was weaving. Most weavers worked in their own homes. Weaving was a predominantly male occupation during that time. Women and girls did the carding and spinning of wool into thread. The whole family was involved. 

                      Everything was powered by hand, animals, windmills or water-wheels. This system could only produce goods in small quantities. As manufacture was by hand, with items being made individually, it was a slow process. With the rapidly growing population of this period, the domestic system was not able to produce the amount of goods required. Most people in preindustrial England lived on a subsistence level, with little or no savings. Most peasants struggled simply to meet the basic needs of their families. In England, between the 15th and 18th centuries, 70% to 80% of household income went to buying food. For centuries, the English diet consisted mostly of bread and porridge, with very little meat. As a rule, Europeans ate few fruits or vegetables. They believed that the fruits and vegetables could cause disease, depression and flatulence. Most people were illiterate and rarely bathed. Their idea of healthcare was that physical suffering from an illness was God’s divine way of purifying the soul. Many children worked in the family farm or business. Others were trained to either become traders or go into domestic service. If they were servants, they would normally live in the home of their employer. Daily life in pre-industrial times changed very little for Europeans. Almost all people lived and worked in the countryside. Things changed from 1300 to 1750. For the average peasant, people’s work and social life mixed. Families lived on small plots of land, growing crops mostly for home consumption. Children learned to milk cows, churn butter and tend to farm animals. For many years, rural families relied on tools such as wooden ploughs. They also depended on beasts of burden to pull them. Transport was mainly on foot, on horseback and in horse drawn vehicles. People also relied on water transport by 1750.

                      Roads were horrible. It took over two weeks to travel from the top to the bottom of the UK by road. People used ships (via the ocean and, later, canals) to move quickly or to transport goods but still it was slow.  The wealthy had their own horse-drawn carriages. There were also public coaches, which often carried both mail and passengers. Ordinary people used them. For local journeys, most people walked several miles to a town or to visit friends and relatives. Education was variable. There was no compulsory education in England. Children of the poor could only get a little elementary education at a charity school or ‘dame’ school. Many children were taught to read and write at home. Literate mothers often gave children their first lessons. Grammar schools educated middle class boys such as the sons of tradesmen and farmers. Private tutors and governesses sometimes educated the children of the upper classes at home. Sometimes they went to boarding schools. For boys, Latin and Greek were still very important. Latin and Greek were at the centre of grammar school and boarding school curricula. Girls’ boarding schools often concentrated on fashionable accomplishments such as music, drawing, embroidery and French. However, some had more demanding curricula. Clothing was made locally with animal hides and fur. Nylon had to be used. Cotton was not imported in large quantities until developments enabled mass production of goods. Another clear trend in pre-industrial society was the slow growth of population from generation to generation. Poverty, war, plague and poor hygiene resulted in high death rates, especially among young people. Even in the 1600s, approximately 25% of newborn children died before their first birthday. Another 25% died before their tenth birthday.

                      Life was for the bulk of the population, the farmers. By the 18th Century, the feudal system was long gone. It was replaced with a system in which the people were as reliant upon each other and their masters as before.

                      Activity 10.3 

                      Use the information in Activity 10.2 to: 

                      1. Compare modern Rwanda with England before the industrial revolution.

                      2. Identify the modern methods of farming in Rwanda. 

                      3. In groups, discuss in detail each of the following condition that existed in pre-industrial revolution in England: 

                      i. There was no use of fertilisers. 

                      ii. There was no use of tractors.

                      iii. There was land fragmentation. 

                      iv. Europeans were using poor tools.

                      v. Animals such as pigs, goats, cows and sheep were kept together. 

                      vi. Most farmers built their houses far away from farms. 

                      vii. There was no fencing of the land. 

                      viii. There were no low standards of living. 

                      ix. There was scarcity of goods. 

                      x. All Europeans were lazy. 

                      10.2 Factors that led to the industrial revolution

                      Activity 10.4

                      1. Identify two types of industries found in the special economic zone of Rwanda in Masoro. 

                      2. List any two products of Inyange industries. 

                      3. Discuss the reasons that have made it possible for such industries to grow of in Rwanda.
                      Today, Rwanda has very many industries. Some of them are: 

                      i. Rwanda Foam for mattresses 

                      ii. Inyange for food processing 

                      iii. Azam and Pembe for wheat flour

                      iv. Mironko Plastic Industry for plastics 

                      v. Safintra for iron sheets 

                      vi. Sulfo for cosmetics 

                      This makes Rwanda much different from what it was in traditional and precolonial times. Factors that led to the industrial revolution in England
                      Let us now study some of the factors that led to industrial revolution in Europe.

                       a)  The abolition of feudalism

                      Members of the middle class in Britain bought land from the landlords. They then put the land under commercial use leading to industrial development. 

                      b)  Technological leadership 

                      Britain took the leading role in technological innovations and inventions. Machines such as water wheel, spinning jenny, spinning mill and steam engine were first invented in Britain.  This was a great step towards industrial development. 

                      c)  Natural resources 

                      Most European countries had plenty of natural resources. For example, Britain had natural resources such as coal, iron and steel. It could also get these resources from her colonies. Swift running rivers were used in the running of machines. 

                      d)  Presence of a large labour force 

                      There was a large labour force due to a population that was constantly increasing. There was also the influx of people to Europe from all over the world. Some European countries such as Spain and France also provided a large labour force. This provided skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour needed for industrial development. 

                      e)  Ready market 

                      There was a ready market for the finished goods. For example, Britain had a ready market for her finished goods both locally and in her colonies of Africa and India. This motivated industrial development. 

                      f)  Enough capital 

                      Countries such as Britain had accumulated a lot of wealth from their trades with other countries. The wealth was invested in industrial development.

                      g)  Developments in the financial institutions 

                      Europe had well developed banking and insurance systems. For example, Britain had enough banks which offered credit facilities to potential investors. This enabled the investors to have capital for industrialisation. Insurance companies provided security for industrial assets. All these helped industrialisation to begin.

                      h)  Renaissance (rebirth of knowledge) 

                      Renaissance is a period in history, from the 14th to the 17th Century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the middle ages and modern history. This resulted into new discoveries such as the steam engine of James Watt which was instrumental in the beginning of industrial revolution.

                      Activity 10.5

                      1. Read points a to h in the sub-unit, ‘Factors that led to industrial revolution’. Identify the points that are unique to Britain alone. 

                      2. Listen to your teacher as he/she reads for you some more points. Remember to take notes.
                      Factors that led to industrial revolution in Britain

                       (a) Lack of internal custom barriers 

                      Britain had no internal custom barriers that would discourage investors to invest in industrialisation.

                      (b) Political stability 

                      Britain had enjoyed a period of relative peace and stability unlike Germany, Italy and France. Britain kept off from European conflicts as well.

                      (c) Presence of a strong naval force

                      Britain had a strong naval force which protected her from external attacks. She used her navy to protect her merchants from foreign competition and to guard her trade routes.

                      This was something that encouraged foreign investors to invest their money in industrial sector.

                      (d) Improved transport system 

                      This included roads, railways and water transport which were much developed. Canals were constructed linking existing rivers and lakes. During the second half of the 18th century, roads and  railways were constructed to link industrial centres. They were to transport raw materials and finished products to their destinations as well. It eased connectivity in terms of sources of raw materials, transportation of workers, industrial centres and markets. 

                      (e) Favourable government policy 

                      The government of Britain lowered taxes on profits to support the business class. This also encouraged industrialisation to take place.

                      (f) The impact of French revolution and Napoleonic wars 

                      This discouraged industrialisation in France. On the other hand, it motivated Britain to industrialise and supply France with industrial goods. 

                      (g) Existence of natural harbours 

                      Britain had good natural harbours which could not freeze even in winter. This facilitated the transportation of goods throughout the year.

                      (h)   Good geographical location of Britain 

                      Britain was located at the centre of less industrialised states that provided market for her finished goods. She also had navigable rivers such as Thames. All these were instrumental for the beginning of industrial revolution. 

                      (i) Dominant position on over sea trade

                      Britain controlled a big part of Europe’s overseas trade mostly in the 18th Century. This helped her get cheap raw materials to feed her industries. She also got a market for her finished goods.

                              

                       Fig. 10.1: Map of England showing major industrial areas in the 18th Century 

                      10.3 Effects of industrial revolution
                      Activity 10.6 In groups, discuss the effects of industrial growth in Rwanda.

                      The following were some of the effects of industrial revolution:

                      • New machines which were used led to unemployment of many people. 

                      • There was expansion of international trade as countries produced different goods. 

                      • Industrialisation led to the need of market and raw materials from Africa and subsequent colonisation of Africa. 

                      • It led to the development of modern transport and communication systems. Many roads, railway lines, bridges and canals were constructed during this period. 

                      • It led to increased utilisation of idle natural resources that were not in use before. 

                      • Industrial revolution led to urbanisation, that is, urban centres developed due industrial activities. 

                      • Industrial revolution increased the demand for services provided by lodges, hotels, banks, insurance companies and schools. 

                      • It led to the collapse of feudalism in Europe. This was because landlords sold their land to the members of the middle class. 

                      • It helped the middle class to get political power. This later promoted democratic rule in Europe. People could now vote for leaders of their own choice. 

                      • Industrial revolution led to the rise of socialism. People advocated for state ownership of property to replace private ownership and income inequality. 

                      • It increased the number of middle class for these owned factories and mines. Some started sending their children to upper class schools. 

                      • It led to rural-urban migration leading to overcrowding and accommodation in towns. 

                      • The fumes from industrial centres led to environmental degradation. The industries produced bad smell leading to air pollution. 

                      • It led to the increase in population in Europe. Population in many European countries tripled due to better living conditions. There was good shelter as well as improved medical care that reduced diseases that previously killed people. 

                      • Industrial revolution led to exploitation of workers by industrial owners. People worked for long hours with low wages. There were cases of unfair dismissals which contributed to the formation of trade unions. The trade unions bargained for better working conditions.

                      • It increased child labour in mines and mills in England. Child labour was the cheapest labour of all. 

                      • Industrial accidents increased. 

                      The infant factories were extremely unsafe. People worked without safety regulations and with no protective gears in place. In case of injuries, there was no compensation. 

                      Activity 10.7 

                      Draw a table with two columns showing both the positive and negative effects of industrial revolution from the above points. Share your work with your classmates. 

                      Present your findings to the class

                      10.4 Technical inventions and their inventors

                      Activity 10.8 

                      Research on the developments made during the Neolithic revolution. Use internet and other History resources.
                      Relate those developments with technical inventions during the industrial revolution. Let us now briefly discuss the following technical inventions and their inventors:

                      i. Spinning mule (Crompton’s mule) by Samuel Crompton 

                      ii. Spinning jenny by James Hargreaves 

                      iii. Water frame by Richard Arkwright 

                      iv. Steam engine by James Watt 

                      v. Flying shuttle by John Kay 

                      i)  Spinning mule (Crompton’s mule) by Samuel Crompton 

                      Spinning mule is a machine used to spin cotton and other fibres. It was invented in 1779 by Samuel Crompton. He combined both the spinning jenny and the water frame to create this machine. It is also known as Crompton’s Mule. The machine was widely used between late 18th Century and 20th Century. \

                               

                         Fig. 10.2: Samuel Crompton (1753 - 1827)       Fig. 10.3: Spinning mule

                       ii)   Spinning jenny by James Hargreaves 

                      In 1764, James Hargreaves invented the Spinning jenny. It was a device which allowed one person to spin many threads at once. It helped in increasing the amount of finished cotton that a worker could produce. By turning a single wheel, one could now spin eight threads at once, a number that was later increased to eighty. Unfortunately, the thread was usually coarse and lacked strength. Despite this shortcoming, over 20,000 machines were in use in Britain by 1778. 

                                      
                      Fig. 10.4: James Hargreaves (1720 - 1778)      Fig. 10.5: Spinning jenny

                      iii)  Water frame by Richard Arkwright 

                      In 1764, Richard Arkwright created the Water frame to produce yarn faster. It was initially called the Spinning frame. It was too large to be operated by hand. After experimenting with other sources of power, Richard Arkwright decided to employ the power of a water wheel. His machine came to be known as the Water frame.

                                                                  

                      Fig 10.6: Richard Arkwright (1732 - 1792)              Fig 10.7: Water frame

                      iv)   Steam engine by James Watt 

                      In 1769, James Watt improved the steam engine and in effect created a new source of power. Early model steam engines were introduced to drain water and raise coal from the mines. The crucial development was the use of steam for power. The first steam engine was actually produced by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt later improved and patented it. The original idea was to put a vertical piston and a cylinder at the end of a pump handle. The next step was to put steam in the cylinder and condense it with a spray of cold water. The vacuum created allowed atmospheric pressure to push the piston down. Watt made it a reciprocating engine, creating the true steam engine.

                       

                      Fig 10.8: James Watt (1736 - 1819)        Fig 10.9: Steam engine

                      v)    Flying shuttle by John Kay 

                      Flying shuttle was a machine used in weaving. John Kay, a mechanic from Lancashire, patented the flying shuttle. Using cords attached to a picking peg, a single weaver, using one hand, could operate the shuttle on the loom.  With this invention, it took four spinners to keep up with one cotton loom, and ten people to prepare yarn for one weaver. So, while spinners were often busy, weavers often waited for yarn.  As such, the flying shuttle effectively doubled a weaver’s production of cloth.

                       

                      Fig 10.10: John Kay (1704 - 1779)      Fig 10.11: Flying shuttle

                      Remember! 

                      Industrialisation is of value to a country’s economy. It enables people to get employment. It also ensures that there is provision of affordable products of acceptable standards. The government too gets taxes. However, the industrial wastes and gases from industries should be well managed. Good management of the wastes reduces environmental degradation. We will also have good health. 

                      Revision questions

                      1. Define the term ‘industrial revolution’. 

                      2. Describe the political, economic and political conditions in England before the industrial revolution. 

                      3. Describe the factors that led to industrial revolution in England. 

                      4. Assess the effects of industrial revolution. 

                      5. Briefly explain some of the technical inventions and their inventors during the industrial revolution.

                      • Key unit competence To be able to explain the causes and impact of American Revolution.

                        Activity 11.1 In groups, discuss the causes of the 1990 liberation war in Rwanda. Use the knowledge gained from Amatorero, Ibiganiro and other sources of information in your discussion. Let one of you compile a report for class presentation.

                        11.1 Causes of American Revolution 

                        You read about the word revolution in Unit 10. In that case, it was about industrial revolution. In this unit, we shall discuss another aspect of revolution in relation to America.

                        American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place in America between 1765 and 1783. Thirteen American colonies rejected the British monarchy and dictatorship. They overthrew the authority of Great Britain and founded the United States of America. The American Revolution is also known as the American war of independence.  

                        The thirteen former British American colonies were Virginia, New York, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Georgia. 

                        These American colonies had been under British control for a long period of time. They wanted to be independent. 

                        During the period of colonisation, the colonies united against the British Empire. They took up arms and started the revolutionary war. This culminated in the declaration of independence in 1776. The thirteen states defeated the British in the battlefield in October 1781. They were led by George Washington as the first American president.

                        Activity 11.2 

                        Refer to Activity 11.1.

                        In groups of three, pick out points from the activity that you think were the same causes of the American Revolution. Group them according to social, political and economic causes. Present your findings in class.

                        Let us now study the causes of American Revolution under the following sub-headings:

                         (i) Political causes

                         (ii) Economic causes

                         (iii) Social causes

                        11.2  Political causes 

                        • The rise and growth of nationalism among the Americans and need for independence 

                        This was promoted by nationalists such as Samuel Adams, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. They argued that if the British governed themselves, why not Americans? This awakened the need for self-rule among the Americans hence leading to the revolution.

                        • The effects of Anglo-French war of 1756-63 

                        During this war, France was fighting with Britain over profitable colony of Canada. The war ended with the defeat of France by Britain, and taking over Canada. The effect of this was that it weakened Britain financially and encouraged the Americans to revolt against her. Britain also raised taxes to solve financial crisis at home. Americans protested against the tax increment.

                        The role played by revolutionary leaders The most notable one was George Washington. He organised the minutemen and mobilised foreign support to fight for their independence. 

                        • The passing of intolerable acts 

                        These included the Stamp Act whereby revenue stamps were put on printed materials and commercial documents like news papers. It was replaced by Townshend Act whereby the British chancellor levied taxes on lead paper, paint, glasses and tea. These were received with negativity by Americans making them to begin a war of independence. 

                        • The character of King George III of England 

                        He came to power in 1760. Unlike the former kings, he wanted to bring American colonies to closer control. In order to achieve this, he introduced a number of harsh laws. He was also so rigid that he refused to change the taxation system. 

                                                   

                        • The oppressive rule of the British government 

                        The British leaders such as Greenville, Townshend and Rocking were harsh to the Americans. They did not allow freedoms such as of speech, press and worship. There were no fair trials in courts of law. All these annoyed the Americans.

                        • The Boston massacres of 1770 

                        After the Townshend Act, the Americans started shouting and throwing snow and ice to the English troops. The troops responded by firing and killing them at Boston. This is what came to be known as the Boston massacres. It drove the Americans into a war of independence against the British. 

                        • Undemocratic nature of the British leadership 

                        The Americans were not given chance to participate in the politics of their country. This made them inferior. Only the rich were elected to the colonial assemblies as opposed to the poor. This was opposed by the majority hence leading to the revolution. 

                        • Inter-colonial congress at Philadelphia 

                        In 1774, representatives from all colonies met at Philadelphia. It was there where they started preparing for war. They chose George Washington as the leader of the revolution. They trained soldiers known as minutemen and started seeking for assistance from other countries. 

                        Other causes were unfair judicial system of Britain and the restriction for colonies to occupy new lands of Ohio and Louisiana.

                               Remember! 

                                For a country’s political, social and economic development, peace is a                 requirement. For every country to achieve set goals, its youth must                     work hand in hand with government agencies to promote peace in our                 country. 

                        11.3 Economic causes 

                        • Poor economic policy of the British 

                        The Americans were not allowed to set up their own industries in America. This was intended to force them to continue buying expensive British manufactured goods. This was viewed as a move to subject them to endless poverty. They opposed the policy.

                        • The Boston Tea Party in 1773 

                        This was when the Americans dropped boxes of tea from Britain into water at Port Boston at night. This made the British government furious. The government decided to close the Boston harbour. It also punished Americans so as to pay back the tea. This too led to American Revolution. 

                        • Trade monopoly by the British 

                        In America, trade was exclusively done by the British. All European goods imported to the colonies had to pass through England for taxation. The British benefitted while the Americans did not. On top of that, the imports were expensive compared to exports. This exploitation made the Americans to revolt for their independence. 

                        • The unfair taxation system 

                        In North America, Britain raised taxes in order to meet her debt expenses and to solve financial crisis at home. Both direct and indirect taxes such as like stamp tax, sugar tax and currency tax were introduced

                        Other economic causes were:

                         • Exploitation of American resources

                         • Inflation

                         • Forced labour

                         • Unemployment

                        Activity 11.3 

                        The above reasons justify the American rebellion against British oppressors from 1776-1803 which finally succeeded. They got independence with George Washington as the first American president. Categorise the above factors into two parts; immediate and long term factors.

                        11.4   Social causes 

                        • The role of political philosophers These were intellectuals and great thinkers who exposed the wrongs of the British government to the Americans. Philosophers such as Thomas Penn and Patrick Henry inspired and awakened Americans to fight for their independence. They used newspapers such as New York gazette, American Mercury and The Boston News-Letter.

                        • Foreign support 

                        The Americans got foreign support from other countries such as France, Germany and Spain. These countries gave Americans military, moral and financial support. This increased the determination of Americans to fight for their independence. 

                        • Religious intolerance 

                        There were religious differences between the Americans and the British. Americans had many religions which were different from the British Anglicans. The British forced Americans to adopt their religion against their will. The protestant religions practised by the Americans included Lutherans, Puritans, Huguenots and Presbyterians. Americans strongly opposed it thus leading to the revolution.

                        Remember!
                        In most cases war has negative effects on social, political and economic aspects of the society. Therefore, it is very important that non-violent approaches such as peace talks be used to settle conflicts. The world needs peace. America has the most developed economy in the world. This is partly because she was able to attain her self-rule which led to self-reliance in the long run. It is therefore important that we cooperate towards defending our country’s independence. We can only achieve this by working hard to achieve self-reliance as a tool for economic development.

                        11.5 Effects of the American Revolution both in America and   in the rest of the world 

                        The American Revolution had a great impact on today’s world political, social and economic systems. Let us now look at its effects.

                         1. The revolution led to loss of lives. Many people including soldiers, civilians, Americans, the French and the British died in the war.

                         2. It led to destruction of property such as buildings, roads, bridges and communication lines.

                         3. It led to the inclusion of blacks into Americans citizenship, a privilege which had earlier been denied to them by the British.

                         4. The monopoly of the protestant church was removed and after the revolution. There was freedom of worship among the Americans. It increased religious freedom in all states of America. The citizens were no longer forced to join Protestantism. Many churches came up. Other Americans became Muslims.

                         5. It led to French Revolution due to the effects it had on the French government. For example, there was a financial crisis in France. There was also the spread of revolutionary ideas by the ex-soldiers of the American Revolution such as General Lafayette.

                                           

                         6. It led to the granting of independence to the American colonies. At Paris treaty of 1783, the British king recognised the colonies of America to be free, sovereign and independent. The 13 states were now free to join together and become the United States of America.

                         7. There was liberalisation of trade after the American Revolution. The Americans were free to carry out trade without the British monopoly. The British limitations on American trade were removed, allowing the marine merchans to trade freely.

                         8. It created good diplomatic relationship between France and America. This was due to the assistance rendered by the French to the Americans against the British imperialists. France provided Americans with arms and a combat army to serve under George Washington. They also sent a navy that prevented the second British army from escaping from Yorktown in 1871.

                         9. It increased the status of women and subsequent women emancipation. Women now took control of the families and catered for school going children. Men were away fighting for independence. The revolutionary war affected women by placing them in non-traditional roles. As men went off to war, women were left to fill jobs typically fulfilled by men.

                        This in turn changed society by showing the world that women could do what men can do. 

                         10. American Revolution increased the status of George Washington for his role in gearing the struggle for independence. During the American Revolution, he led the colonial forces to victory over the British and became a national hero. Its success was attributed to him. He later became the first president of America.

                        Activity 11.4 

                        With the help of your teacher, watch films and debates on causes and impact of the American Revolution.

                        Revision questions
                             1. Explain what you understand by the term ‘American Revolution’.

                             2. Account for the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1776.

                             3. Discuss the consequences of the American Revolution both in America              and Europe. 

                             4. Asses the significance of the American Revolution in world affairs.

                             5. Identify the economic causes of the American cause.

                        TOPIC AREA 5:  SOCIETY 

                        Sub-topic area 1:  Human rights, duties and responsibilities 

                        Unit 12:  Rights, duties and responsibilities 

                        Sub-topic area 2:  Democracy and justice 

                        Unit 13:  State and government 

                        Sub-topic area 3:  

                        Unity Unit 14:  Interdependence and unity in diversity 

                        Sub-topic area 4:  Conflict transformation 

                        Unit 15:  Social cohesion 

                        Sub-topic area 5:  Dignity and self-reliance 

                        Unit 16:  Hindrances of dignity and self-reliance in Rwandan society 

                        Sub-topic 6:  Disability and inclusive education 

                        Unit 17:  Concept of disability and inclusive education

                        • Key unit competence To be able to analyse how rights are balanced by obligations and duties and relate this to the situation in Rwanda.

                          Activity 12.1 

                          1.Using the internet and the library, research about the meanings of the following words:

                              • An obligation  •     A duty  •     A right 

                          2. List down things you feel your state must do.

                          You probably found out that an obligation is a course of action that a person is bound to take. It arises out of a sense of duty or results from customs or law. A duty is an obligation to someone or something. A right is what a person should not be prevented from because he or she deserves it. Citizens must not only be aware of their rights, but must also know how to exercise them in a responsible way. Citizens have duties towards the state and personal duties.

                          12.1 Duties of a citizen toward his/her nation

                          Activity 12.2 

                          1. Pair yourselves. 

                          2. Tell your partner about your daily duties at home. 

                          3. Tell the class about your friend’s duties.

                          In finer details, a duty is something you feel you have to do because it is your moral or legal responsibility. A citizen has the following duties towards his or her nation: (a) Allegiance: Every citizen is expected to be loyal to the state. His or her loyalty should not  be shaken. The state expects full allegiance from its citizens.

                          (b) Obedience:
                          All citizens should willingly obey the laws of the state. A democratic government is a government of the people themselves. Laws reflect their own will

                          (c) Payment of Taxes: Citizens have to pay tax to enable the government serve them better. 

                          Activity 12.3

                          In groups, discuss how the government uses the tax collected from citizens

                          (d) Participation in the democratic process: Every adult citizen should participate democratic processes such as voting. A vote is a sacred trust in the hands of the citizens. It should always be used wisely. Suitable representatives should be sent to the parliament. A wrong use of vote may result in a bad government. 

                          (e) Maintenance of law and order: It is the duty of every citizen to cooperate with public officials in the discharge of their duties. Every citizen should try to remove evils and crimes from society. Citizens should not be disorderly.  

                          (f) Work: Every adult citizen should work in order participate in nation building. Idlers are a parasite to the society. Work brings in wealth and prosperity in the country. 

                          Activity 12.4 

                          1. In groups, discuss other duties of a citizen towards his or her country. 

                          2. Present your findings to the class.

                          Remember!

                          As a young person you need to control your sexual life. SAY NO TO SEX until you get married. Having sex at an early age puts you in high risks of contracting sexually transited diseases such as syphilis and AIDS. Girls may also become pregnant. 

                          12.2 Obligations of the state towards its population 

                          Activity 12.5 

                          1. In groups, discuss about the things you think are obligations of the state to its people. 

                          2. Write an essay from your findings. 

                          Did you know? 

                          1. The state is charged with the responsibility of providing security to its people as a way keeping peace and order. For example, the police provide security in Rwanda. 

                          2. The state has to provide basic services such as education, health, accommodation and electricity to its citizens. For instance, the Ministry of Education is in charge of Education in Rwanda. It ensures that there is quality education for all citizens. 

                          3.The state has the responsibility to develop its economy in terms of agriculture, trade and industry. In this case, the government uses taxes, grants and loans to construct roads and help farmers. It also performs other duties for the benefit of citizens. 

                          4. The state is supposed to set laws and make sure they are respected by the citizens. For example, the Rwandan Constitution sets rules that govern the country.  

                          5. The state is supposed to keep its heritage and embrace the national cultures such as setting public and national holidays. For example, we celebrate the Independence Day on 1st July every year. Heroes Day is celebrated on February 2nd. 

                          6.The state has to promote international relations for its country. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is in charge of promoting international relations. It makes sure that Rwanda maintains relations with other countries. 

                          7. It is also the responsibility of the state to manage and exploit natural resources in the country. This has to be done in a sustainable way, to the benefit of all citizens. This responsibility is undertaken by the Ministry of Natural Resources, which is in charge of land, forest, minerals and environment.

                          Remember!

                          As much as there are obligations of the state to its population, we have responsibility too. It is our responsibility to cooperate with the government so as to perform these obligations. For example, we should not sit down and refuse to work and wait for the state to provide us everything. We have to require but rather perform what is expected of us.

                          12.3 How duties and obligations are balanced in Rwanda

                          Activity 12.6 

                          The Government of Rwanda national unity has done a lot to fulfil its duties and obligations to all its population. 

                          1. Discuss with a friend what you feel has been the contribution of the government Rwanda community. 

                          2. Discuss with a friend about these terms: 
                              (i) Gacaca
                              (ii) Girinka Munyarwanda 
                              (iii) Ndi umunyarwanda programe

                          Important

                          It is the duty of citizens and the state to fully perform their duties and obligations to ensure economic growth and development. For example, through paying taxes the state can improve production, roads, education and transport. All these lead to improved standard of life.

                          • The state provides all the basic needs such as electric wires, water points, roads and schools to its population. The population also maintains and protects them. 

                          • In Rwanda the population pays taxes. The government uses the taxes to provide better services to them. 

                          •Both the state and the population are fully and actively involved in environmental management and cleanliness. For example, Umuganda is done on every last Saturday of the month. Everyone who is 18 and above is expected to get involved in this communal work. Another important activity involving every citizen in Rwanda is tree planting during the Tree Planting Day.

                          • The state and population in Rwanda work hand in hand to make sure that there is lasting peace and security. For example, people report on any case of insecurity and indecent behaviour the moment they witness them. The state does the correction of  its citizens  through the Rwanda correctional facilities. 

                          • The population chooses its own leaders to guide them. The state makes sure the leaders are serving people hence ensuring democracy and justice. 

                          • The state and the population in Rwanda unite to ensure that disasters and natural calamities are handled and managed. This is done through programmes of different ministries.

                          Activity 12.7 

                          • In groups, discuss the duties and obligations of each citizen.

                          • Present the results to the class. 

                          • Individually, compose a poem or write an essay on duties and obligations.

                           Revision questions 

                            1. Explain the meanings of the following terms:  

                                (i)  Duties (ii)  Rights 

                            2. Describe the duties and responsibilities that every citizen should fulfil towards his or her nation. 

                            3. Identify the obligations of the state towards its population.

                            4. Discuss the obligations of the state towards its population.

                            5. Explain how duties and obligations are balanced in Rwanda.

                          • Key unit competence To be able to explain the role and functions of the state and government.

                            13.1 Definition of state and government 

                            Activity 13.1 

                            Considering your home District, complete the administrative structure provided below:

                                 

                            A state can be defined as an organised community of people occupying a definite form of territory free of external control and possessing an organised government to which people show habitual obedience. It may also be described as a compulsory political organisation with a centralised government that maintains a monopoly of legitimate use of force within a certain territory. A state comprises of:

                              (i)  People

                              (ii)  Population

                             (iii)  Government

                             (iv)  Sovereignty 

                            government is the system by which a state or community is controlled. It also refers to a particular group of people that controls the state apparatus at a given time. That is, government is the means through which state power is employed. Government can also be defined as the agency through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and realised.

                            Activity 13.2 

                            Using Internet and other relevant materials, find out the following:

                             (i) Organs of the government

                             (ii) Roles of the government

                             (iii) Types of states Present your findings to the class. 

                            13.2 Difference between state and government

                            Activity 13.3 

                            1. In groups of five, discuss and write down the differences between a state and a government. 

                            2. Compare your work with that of other groups. 

                            Compare your findings with the following points:

                             • A state has four elements namely population, territory, government and sovereignty. A government is a narrow concept and is an element of the state. It is right to say that government is a part of state.

                             • The state is more or less permanent while the government is temporary. A government may come and go, but the state continues forever.

                             • The state is generally composed of all citizens but most of them are not members of the government. The government consists of only a few selected citizens. The organs of the government are; executive, legislature and judiciary .The few selected persons will run these three organs of the government. The state is a much boarder organisation than the government. Membership of the state is compulsory but not that of the government.

                             • The state possesses sovereignty. Its authority is absolute and unlimited. Its power cannot be taken away by any other person. Government does not possess sovereignty. It does not have original authority. It only has derivative powers delegated by the state through its constitution.

                             • Whether big or small, the characteristics of the state do not undergo changes. Governments are of different types, and they may vary from one state to another. Various political scientists have given different classifications of the government.

                            Activity 13.4 

                            Research on different types of governments. 

                            Present your findings to the class.

                            •  The citizens possess rights to go against government and not against the state. The state only acts through the government and the government may commit mistakes and not the state. Thus the citizens have only rights to go against the government not the state.

                            13.3 Types of states and basic forms of government 

                              1.  Types of states

                             • Sovereign states: These are states that are not dependent or subject to any other power or state. 

                             • Federated states: They participate in a federal union. This is whereby a territorial and constitutional community form a part of a federation. Such states differ from sovereign states, in that they have transferred a portion of their sovereignty powers to a federal government.

                             • Heterogeneous states: These are states which are made up of many smaller states that are interrelated, interacting and interdependent. They usually form a complex whole that is highly coordinated and organised in its operations. They are mainly associated with military control.

                             • Centralised states: These are states in which all powers of government emanate from one location. It has a central authority.

                             • Decentralised/non-centralised states: These are states in which powers have been redistributed to different people. In a decentralised state, power is dispersed throughout the system. 

                            •  Monolithic states: These are large states that were often ruled by one person. They are slow to adapt to change. They do not have complicated systems of operations, always working with the initial, unaltered ways of administration. Authority flows from the central source, implemented as received by those reporting to it.

                            Activity 13.5 

                            In groups, discuss the differences between a sovereign state and a federal state.

                            2.  Basic forms of government

                            Activity 13.6 

                            Use the list of the countries provided below to identify the form of government each has: Cuba, Zimbabwe, Germany, United Arab Emirates, Rwanda, Oman, Swaziland, china, Taiwan, Iran and Myanmar. Use the internet in your research. Present your findings in class for further discussion.

                            (i) Monarchy 

                            This is a form of government in which a single family rules from generation to generation. The power or sovereignty is personified in a single individual. Absolute monarchy exists when the monarch has no or few legal limitations in political matters. Constitutional monarchies exists when the monarchy retains a distinctive legal and ceremonial role but exercises limited or no political power.

                            (ii) Democracy 

                            Democracy is a system of government in which the people exercise power directly or through elected representatives who form a governing body such as a parliament. In a democratic government, power belongs to the people. Direct democracy is whereby all eligible citizens have direct participation in the decision making of the government. Representative democracy is whereby citizens exercise their power through elected representatives. Elected representatives propose, develop and enact laws for the citizens to abide by.

                            (iii) Authoritarianism 

                            This is whereby a single power holder, a ‘dictator’ or small group of political leaders monopolises political power. 

                            This is a form of government in which the people have no participation. The characteristics of authoritarianism include: 

                            • Absolute obedience to an authority by the people 

                            • Strong central power and limited freedoms.

                            • Informally defined executive power which changes oftenly. 

                            13.4 Organs, role and functions of the state and government

                            Organs of states and government 

                            1.  Executive 

                            The executive is responsible for managing the affairs of a country in accordance with the law. It also collects taxes and takes charge of operation of common services such as roads, water supply, policing and defence.

                            2.  Legislature 

                            The legislature makes the laws that govern the state. It defines rights and obligations of the people and of various arms of government. 

                            3.  Judiciary 

                            The judiciary is the organ responsible for interpreting the laws passed legislative branch. It settles disputes which involve people and government.  It has the authority to give appropriate punishment for violation of law.

                            Role and functions of the state and government

                            Activity 13.7

                             1. Using your knowledge on the obligations of the state from Unit 12, write an essay on the functions of the state and government.

                             2. Present your findings to the entire class.

                            The following are some of the role and functions of the state: 

                            (a) Foreign diplomacy 

                            The central government maintains formal diplomatic relations with other sovereign states in the world. It promotes good relations based on respect, mutual interests and complementarity between the state and other states aiming at enhancing peace, security and development. The government also mobilises and attracts foreign investments. 

                            (b) Security of the people 

                            The government is responsible for ensuring the security of all citizens and foreigners living in the country. The government maintains armed forces in order to protect the territory and the people from attack and invasion by foreign powers. 

                            (c) Domestic order 

                            The government exercises control over the people it seeks to govern and protect. It must maintain internal peace of individuals and groups of the society. It must ensure that citizens live in peace and harmony.

                            (d) Administration of justice 

                            A government promotes and facilitates the rule of law in the country by emphasising equality before the law. It ensures that all citizens are treated equally under the law. It should give equal opportunities and settle disputes with fairness.

                            (e) Protection of civil liberties 

                            The government is also required to preserve and safeguard the basic rights and liberties guaranteed by the constitution to the individual members of the society. It should ensure that the rights of citizens are protected. 

                            (f) Provision for and regulation of the conducts of elections 

                            The government is menat to ensure that free and fair elections are held according to the constitution. The elections should be held fairly, honestly and peacefully. Citizens should be allowed to choose their leaders by voting. 

                            (g) Provision for public goods and services 

                            Public goods and services are provided by government institutions. The government get taxes from citizens to raise money to spend on goods and services which will benefit all citizens. Examples of public goods and services are roads, street lights, schools, hospitals and sanitation. All members of society should benefit from the provision of public goods.  

                            Activity 13.8 

                            Write down public goods and services. Give as many as possible. Compare your answers with your partner

                            (h) Promotion of economic growth and development 

                            The government facilitates fast growth and development of its economy.  The government facilitates Rwanda’s economic transformation through enabling competitive private sector integrated into regional and global markets.

                            (i) Social welfare 

                            The government ensures that it has programmes to provide assistance to the poor. These programmes are designed to alleviate poverty. It should provide education and healthcare to its citizens.

                            Activity 13.9 

                            In groups, discuss some of the programmes that Rwanda government has initiated to eradicate poverty.

                            Remember! 

                            On 18th December 2015, Rwandans peacefully and willingly voted in a referendum. This was done by every citizen of voting age. This signifies the level of democracy, peace and moral values that the Rwandans have. Let us ensure that we pay taxes so that we can improve more. 

                            Revision questions

                            1. Give the definition of the following: 

                                (i) State

                                (ii) Government 

                            2. Explain the differences between state and government.

                            3. Identify four types of states. 

                            4. Discuss the role and functions of the state and government.

                            • Key unit competence Interdependence and unity in diversity.

                              Activity 14.1 

                              1. In groups, discuss the meaning of this statement: UNITED WE STAND, DIVIDED WE FALL. 

                              2. Share your findings with other groups then write an essay.

                              From your findings you notice that people need each other in all aspects of life be it social, political or economic. That is called interdepedency. For interdependence to suceed, people must have unity. They should also have unity in diversity. That is, the existence of oneness in a society regardless of the existing differences.

                              Read the information below:
                              Mukeshimana is a farmer who practises crop cultivation. His friend, Ganza,  practices animal husbandry. His neighbour, Kalisa, runs a retail shop. His father, Mbabazi, is a teacher. His mother, Muhire, is a nurse. 

                              You will notice that all these people need each other. Mukeshimana gets manure from Ganza’s farm. Muhire treats the animals when they are sick. Mbabazi helps to teach their children while Kalisa provides them with goods. The above information tell us that we are interdependent.

                              Remember! 

                              Rwanda takes number one position in Africa as far as gender sensitivity is concerned. It is proved by the 64% women seats in parliament. This has been possible because girls and boys are given equal opportunity in school and society.

                              14.1 Interdependency

                               Activity 14.2 

                              Use a dictionary to find out the meanings of the following words:

                                   (i) Depend

                                   (ii) Inter

                              From the above activities, we can conclude that interdependency is the mutual reliance between two or more groups. In relationships, interdependence is the degree to which members of the group are mutually dependent on the others.

                              Rwandans have had the culture of interdependence from ancient days. They always say, “inkingi imwe ntigera inzu” (one pillar cannot support a house). Therefore, people need each other for a better world.  

                              Types of interdepedence 

                              There are different types of interdependence. These are: 

                                (a) Social interdependence

                                (b) Pooled interdependence

                                (c) Economic interdependence

                                (d) Political interdependence

                              a)  Social interdependence 

                              Social interdependence exists when the accomplishment of each individual’s goals is affected by the actions of others. There are two types of social interdependence, positive (cooperation) and negative (competition). 

                              Positive interdependence exists when individuals feel that they can only reach their goals if they rely on each other. They therefore promote each other’s efforts to achieve the goals. 

                              Negative interdependence exists when individuals feel that they can achieve their goals if their competitors fail to achieve their goals. They therefore obstruct each other’s efforts to achieve the goals.

                              Activity 14.3

                               1. Find out about two or more industries in Rwanda which depend on each other. Remember to write their names.

                               2. In class, describe how the companies you mentioned depend on each other.

                              b)  Pooled interdependence 

                              In this case, each organisational department or business unit performs completely separate functions. However, everybody’s contribution is felt indirectly. 

                              c)  Economic interdependence 

                              This is a situation of specialisation or the division of labour. It is universally applicable to almost all countries. The participants in an economic system depend on others for the products which they do not produce. Countries or groups may be dependent on one another. Consider the following economic integrations: 

                                (i) EAC

                                (ii) COMESA

                                (iii) ECOWAS

                              Activity 14.4 

                              1. Write the full meanings of the following initials:

                                  (i) EAC

                                  (ii) COMESA

                                  (iii) ECOWAS

                              2. Research on the internet and other relvant materials to find out more about the economic integration mentioned in question 1 (i, ii and iii) above

                              3. Present your findings to the class.

                              d)  Political interdependence 

                              Political interdependence is whereby in some cases, of the world work hand in hand to live in peace and harmony. They help each other in times of political crisis such as war. That is why Rwanda accommodates refugees from neighbouring countries such as Democratic Republic of Congo and Burundi. Rwanda also sends its soldiers for international peacekeeping, for example, in South Sudan.

                                             

                              14.2 Unity

                              Activity 14.5 

                              1. In groups, discuss the elements that make one a true Rwandan. Compare your findings with other groups

                              2. Discuss how those elements have strengthened the unity of Rwandans. Present your findings in class.

                              Unity refers to the togetherness of people in order to achieve common ideal objectives. The unity of Rwandans dates back to time immemorial and is characterised by the following: 

                              (a) Same language: Rwandans speak the same language, Kinyarwanda, which is a unifying factor. (b) The same culture: There is homogeneity throughout the myths, legends, tales and moral values.

                              (c) Same political and administrative systems: Rwanda has one government and same administrative structures throughout the country. 

                              (d) Same nation: All Rwandans constitute one nation. They live in one and the same country, Rwanda. This is where all the other values are attached.

                              Ways through which unity has been kept in Rwanda

                                1. National concern to help the poor: In Rwanda, there are always compaigns to help the poor and those in need. For example, the government has been building houses for genocide survivors and educating them through FARG (Genocide Survivors Assistance Fund).

                                2. National activities: Rwanda also promotes unity through national activites such as communal work (Umuganda). During Umuganda, people meet and discuss on development plans and their implementation.

                               3. Participation in national development goals: These include health, education, security, poverty reduction where all citizens are concerned because they are one.

                               4. Fight against exclusion and discrimination: Rwanda promotes unity by fighting against discrimination. It ensures that no one is excluded from all the privileges provided by the country. No individual shuld be denied the opportunity to benefit from development. The equal rights of men and women must be assured. 

                              5. Promotion of solidarity: Solidarity is unity which is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards and sympathies. The ties that bind people together. Promotion of solidarity promotes unity in Rwanda.

                              Remember! 

                              In Rwanda, every last Saturday of the month is meant for communal work (Umuganda). It begins from 8:00 am to 12:00 pm. During this time, members of a Cell meet and discuss matters concerning their community and the country at large. It is important to note that Umuganda promotes living in a clean environment.

                              14.3 Personal identity and national identity (Ubunyarwanda) 

                              Activity 14.6 Find out the features found on the Rwandan national identity cards. Draw how a national identity card looks like, showing the features you have identified Compare your findings with others.

                              Personal identity is the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity. National identity is one’s identity or sense of belonging to one state or nation. It is the sense of a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture and language.

                              Rwandans have a sense of belonging to their nation through their language, Ikinyarwanda.

                              These identities are also protected by the national values (Indangagaciro) and Kirazira. All these are taught to all youth especially those who complete Senior 6. Through this, they are able to know what it requires of them to be identified as Rwandans. These trainings are also organised for Rwandans in diaspora. This is done so that they become good representatives on the global scene even when they are not in the country. 

                                   

                              14.4 Patriotism

                              Activity 14.7 

                              1.  In groups, discuss what you know about each of the following:

                                   • Nelson Madiba Mandela 

                                   • Mutara III Rudahigwa

                                   • Martin Luther King

                                   •     Nkwame Nkuruma

                                   • Gen. Fred Gisa Rwigema

                              2.  Use a dictionary to find out the meaning of the word ‘patriotism’. Present your findings in class.

                              Did you know? Patriotism is the love and devotion for one’s motherland. Motherland is the country from which one originates and is attached to.

                                     

                              Remember!
                              The patriots of Rwanda are mostly those who fought against the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi and its ideologies. Some of them include Gen. Gisa Fred Rwigema, Agatha Uwilingiyimana and Inyange students. Never again genocide.

                              Characteristics of patriotism 

                              Activity 14.8 

                              1.  In groups, discuss what you can do to demonstrate patriotism. 

                              2.  Write short notes on the following patriots

                                   • Patrice Lumumba

                                   • Agatha Uwilingiyimana

                              3.  Present your ideas in class.

                              A patriot is ready to risk his or her life for protection of national integrity, for example, Gen. Fred Gisa Rwigema who died for liberation of his country. Apart from that, patriotism is about:

                               • Being ready to respect and protect public property.

                               • Sacrificing one’s personal interests, including life for the sake of general interests.

                               • Respecting national values and symbols.

                               • Safeguarding and promoting one’s motherland image and reputation. 

                               • Joining a combined effort in the national development.

                               • Protecting the national heritage.

                               • Fighting any wrong and insecurity for the motherland. 

                              From time immemorial, Rwanda’s history has been marked with patriotic men and women. For example, Robwa Nyiramateke sacrificed her life so that Rwanda may not be annexed to Gisaka where she was queen. 

                              Those people who attain the highest level of patriotism are called heroes.  In Rwanda, there are three categories of heroes namely:

                               (a) Imanzi

                               (b)  Imena

                               (c) Ingenzi

                              (a) Imanzi 

                              This is a hero whose deeds are exceptionally great up to now. An example is Major General Fred Gisa Rwigema who planned and started the liberation war. Another example is an unknown soldier who represents all soldiers who lost their lives during the liberation struggle. 

                              (b) Imena 

                              Under this category there are five heroes which include:

                                (i) King Mutara Rudahigwa who abolished serfdom and fought for National independence.

                                (ii) Michel Rwagasana, Agatha Uwilingiyimana, Felicite Niyitegeka and the Nyange students who were massacred in 1997 due to resistance against ethnic divisionism. 

                              (c) Ingenzi 

                              This hero is identified by his superior ideas and deeds emanating from the ordinary life, which he was always ready to defend. Up to now there is nobody who has been identified under this category. It is therefore important to note that patriotism is not based on social status, age and education. It is based on a spirit that grows in any one at any time. Therefore, all Rwandans are called upon to imitate the good examples of our heroes. 

                              14.5 Unity in diversity

                              Activity 14.9

                               Memorise this quote. “There are no nations! There is only humanity. And if we don’t come to understand that righ soon, there will be no nations, because there will be no humanity.”  

                              Isaac Asimov 

                              In groups, discuss what the quote talks about. 

                              Present your findings in class.

                              Unity in diversity means that diversity is a unifying factor. It means that unity is not just based on a mere tolerance of physical, cultural, religious or political differences. It is based on an understanding that difference enriches human interactions. Unity in diversity can be summarised as: Unity without uniformity and diversity without fragmentation. Various forms of unity in diversity in Rwanda include the following: 

                              (a) Physical location: Rwandans are located in different parts of the country. This can be best understood in terms of provinces. Some people belong to the Southern, Eastern, Western, Northern or Kigali City, but they are all Rwandans. 

                              (b) Religious diversities: Rwanda is a country with many religious denominations. Examples are Catholics, Anglicans, Seventh Day Adventists, Muslims and traditionalists. In spite of this diversity, they are Rwandans.

                              (c) Cultural diversities: Rwanda as a country has a diverse sub-culture. This includes the following traditional dances:

                                (i) Ikinimba in the Northern Province 

                                (ii) Amaraba in the Southern Province All these are collectively taken to represent Rwandan traditional dances irrespective of where practised.

                              (d) Economic diversity: In Rwanda, some economic activities are based on the region. For example, livestock farming is predominant in the Eastern Province. Agriculture is predominant in the Northern and Western provinces. 

                              (e) Clan diversities: Rwandans belong to different clans such as Abega, Abasinga and Abashingwe.

                              Activity 14.10 

                              Find out from the elder members of your family the various clans found in Rwanda. Compile a list for presentation in class.

                              Remember! Remember that we are still Rwandans.

                              (f) Political diversities: Rwanda is a country that allows existence of many political parties.

                              Activity 14.11 Use a dictionary to find out the meaning of multi-partism. Identify various political parties in Rwanda.

                              Remember! 

                              Remember that even when there many political parties in Rwanda, they remain Abanyarwanda.

                              (g) Diversity by nationality: Rwanda has opened doors for all people around the world. It gives free residential visa and work permits to all foreigners in Rwanda. 

                              (h) Education diversity: Rwanda, like any other developing countries, has the educated and those who are not educated. All of them, irrespective of their education levels, have equal rights. 

                              Remember! 

                              1.  It is time for parents to teach young people early on that in diversity there is beauty and there is strength. Maya Angelou 

                              2.  Unity in Diversity is Strength of our Nation. President Paul Kagame

                              Importance of unity in diversity in Rwanda

                               • Unity in diversity has promoted good international relationships between Rwanda and other countries. Working with diverse people provides more exposure and makes you a better person.

                               • It has led to economic benefits, for example, through taxes paid by foreigners who live and work in Rwanda. These foreigners also come with different and new ideas which are important in economic development.

                               • Unity in diversity has promoted peace and stability in Rwanda because Rwandans look at themselves as one. The cultural, political and economic practises in Rwanda is what is used to describe the people of Rwanda.

                               • It has promoted tourism which has had a very big contribution to the country. People from other countries are coming to Rwanda to see their culture, for example, the diverse traditional dances.

                              Revision questions

                              1. Explain what unity in diversity means.

                              2. Discuss the importance of unity in diversity in Rwanda. 

                              3. Examine the characteristics of a patriot. 

                              4. Identify forms of unity in diversity in Rwanda. 

                              5. Explain different types of interdependence.

                              • Key unit competence To be able to analyse how people can live together in harmony.

                                15.1 Social cohesion 

                                Activity 15.1 

                                1. Use a dictionary to find the meanings of the following word:

                                  (a) Society

                                  (b)  Cohesion 

                                2. In groups, discuss the factors that keep people in harmony and mutual understanding. 

                                3. Share your findings with the entire class. 

                                4. From your findings, discuss the importance of social cohesion.

                                Read your answers for question 1 (i and ii) above. Link them to the following statement:

                                Social cohesion refers to how members of a society or community co-exist in peace.

                                15.2 Factors influencing social cohesion

                                Activity 15.2

                                 1. In groups, discuss factors that influence social cohesion.

                                 2. Present the results from your group discussion in class. 

                                Let us now discuss how the following factors influence social cohesion:

                                 (a) History: A shared past, good or bad, can enable people to live peacefully with each other or antagonistically. For example, colonialism had a big hand in this. Colonialists united some communities on one hand. On the other hand, they created rivalry between some communities. People who share a common history are united since they understand what they have been through.

                                (b) Education: A good education system encourages social cohesion. Schools teach about the importance of social cohesion in a nation. For example, they teach about obligation of citizens, behaviours expected of citizens and consequences of not obeying the law. Schools can also facilitate the appreciation of other cultures and political issues, in so doing, may increase the likelihood that a student will see a point of view other than his own. In school, students from different parts interact with each other. This also promotes social cohesion.

                                (c)  Political views: People with the same political views are united. Many times competitive elective politics can cause divisions or unity among people in a given society.

                                (d)  Socio-economic status: When the income levels of people in a country have a wide disparity, the lower income groups tend to blame it on the better off group. They accuse them of corruption and embezzlement. The rich, in some cases, are not willing to redistribute their wealth.

                                (e) Government regulation: The intervention of the government in any affair of a country can have what the government wants in place. Government can direct citizens on what to do, when, where and with whom hence influencing social cohesion. 

                                15.3 Challenges to social cohesion

                                Activity 15.3 

                                In Senior 1, we learnt about the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. Use that knowledge to answer the following questions: 

                                   1. In groups, discuss the factors that hindered social cohesion in Rwanda.

                                   2. Present your findings to the entire class. 

                                In Rwanda, social cohesion used to be a challenge. In some cases, people were not treated fairly. Let us now discuss the challenges to social cohesion. 

                                (a) Discrimination: Discrimination in all human affairs is a certain concern in every sphere of life. People complain of discrimination from all accounts such as place of origin, sex, age, religious or political affiliation. When people are discriminated against they become bitter and develop hatred. This hinders social cohesion in the society. For example, the Batwa community in Rwanda was expelled from its forest habitat thus forcing them to live as beggars. They were also discriminated against receiving education, housing and employment. This discrimination made the Batwa community to suffer. 

                                (b) Stigma: Many individuals in society face stigma because of some physical challenges and HIV and AIDS. Some face stigma as a result of misfortunes, for example, those who actively participated in the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. All these hinder their full integration in society. In Rwanda, HIV positive people and those affected by the genocide face stigma from the experience they had. Sex workers also face stigmatisation. It is believed that the term marriage is used instead of sexual slavery in order to let the survivors save face by avoiding stigmatisation that is associated with rape and genocide. These affect social cohesion in Rwanda. 

                                (c) Prejudice: This is a negative general view about an entire category of people. For example, it is alleged that Banyarwanda women are weak. This is not true. Such kind of prejudice hinders social cohesion as the victims feel left out. 

                                (d) Income levels:  Where there is a big gap between the rich and the poor, a very big social gap is created. This hinders social cohesion as  the rich will always feel proud to interact with the poor. It also creates hatred between the two. This leads to disunity instead of social cohesion. The low income rates among most Rwandans has affected social cohesion. Thus destroying Rwanda’s economic base. This has eroded the country’s ability to attract private and external investment.

                                Activity 15.4

                                In groups, discuss the importance of social cohesion. Explain briefly your points in a report form. Present your findings in class.

                                Remember!
                                When there is social cohesion, there is peace and unity. This makes it easy for national aspirations such as environmental conservation and sustainability. Social cohesion can prevent tribalism and aspects of genocide.

                                Activity 15.5 Write a poem on social cohesion.

                                Revision questions

                                 1. Explain the meaning of social cohesion.

                                 2. Identify the challenges to social cohesion.

                                 3. Examine the factors that favour social cohesion in Rwanda.

                                 4. Explain the importance of social cohesion.

                                 5. Describe how prejudice may affect social cohesion.



                                • Key unit competence To be able to identify the hindrances of dignity and self-reliance in Rwandan society.

                                  16.1 Types of hindrances to dignity and self-reliance 

                                  Dignity is a condition of being worth of respect, esteem or honour. Selfreliance is a state of being independent in all aspects. The independence could be social, political or economic. 

                                  Self-reliance is a state of being independent in all aspects. This independence can be socially, politically or even economically.

                                  Activity 16.1

                                   1. In pairs, ask your partner to tell you about what he or she knows about dignity and self-reliance.

                                   2. Tell the class about your partner.

                                  The types of hindrances of dignity and self-reliance can be categorised into three basic groups:

                                     (a) Social hindrances

                                     (b) Economic hindrances

                                     (c) Political hindrances

                                  a) Social hindrances 

                                  They are based on the social relations and interactions among Rwandans because of many different social groups. We have farmers and the business class; educated and non-educated. An example of a social hinderance in Rwanda is health education.

                                  b) Economic hindrances 

                                  Economic hindrances are those that are related to trade and commerce. Rwanda faces various challenges that hinder trade and commerce. Some of these hindrances that Rwanda has are due to the following reasons: 

                                       (i) Rwanda is a landlocked country which limits her way of doing business beyond her borders. 

                                      (ii) Rwanda lacks some natural resources.

                                      (iii) Rwanda does not have a reliable market for some of her exports. 

                                      (iv) There are low levels of production.

                                   c) Political hindrances 

                                  They include the effects of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. They also include instabilities in Rwanda’s neighbouring countries such as Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo.

                                  16.2 Importance of dignity and self-reliance in Rwandan   society 

                                  Activity 16.2 

                                    1. In groups, discuss means used in overcoming hinderances of dignity and self-reliance in Rwandan society. 

                                    2. Discuss the importance of dignity and self-reliance in Rwanda.

                                    3. Present in class the results from your group discussion.

                                  Self-reliance is about one’s ability to make decisions and implement them so as to meet his or her goals. Dignity is the sense of self-worth and respect. It is a combination of these two that Rwanda started developing the dignity and self-reliance programme. The programme has continued to be implemented for its various importance.

                                   • Rwanda is able to plan and implement her budget. She visualises where she wants to be in the next fifty years which cannot be possible if the country is not self-reliant.

                                   • Self-reliance has given Rwanda the capacity to optimally use the available resources. The resources are used to meet the needs and desires of the citizens without waiting for help from other countries.

                                   • Self-reliance has created a feeling of bigger independence in the Rwandans. They have managed to accomplish many things without waiting for foreign aid. For example, Rwanda was able to finance more than 60% of its budget in 2014/2015.

                                   • Dignity and self-reliance have won Rwanda and Rwandans international respect.

                                  • The idea of dignity and self-reliance has acted as a bond that brings Rwandans together to achieve common objectives. Many Rwandans have willingly contributed to various development projects because they believe they are for common interests.

                                   • Dignity and self-reliance has increased patriotism among the Rwandans. The population has developed extreme love for homemade products.  Rwandans have gone to the extent of organising the exhibition called “made in Rwanda” where only locally made products are exposed. 

                                  Activity 16.3 

                                  Write shorts notes on the following:

                                     (a) Agaciro development fund

                                     (b) Ishema ryacu

                                     (c) Ubudehe

                                     (d) Kuremera

                                     (e) One-dollar campaign

                                  The above measures have been put in place to achieve self-reliance in Rwanda. 

                                  Remember! 

                                  International cooperation leads to economic development. With a developed economy, it is possible for a country to be self reliant.

                                  16.3 Importance of international cooperation in respect to   Rwandan aspirations 

                                  Rwanda is a member of East African Community. Members of EAC are interdependent and help each other in the political, social and economic aspects. This has helped her to get what she does not produce from other trade partners. She also exports her produce to other countries.  International cooperation is important for Rwanda’s aspiration because of the following reasons:

                                    • International cooperation has led to high competition in Rwandan industries. This has increased improvement of Rwanda’s output.

                                   It has led to improvement of trade because Rwanda has managed to get a wider market for her goods and services. Rwanda can as well get raw materials from other countries. This is a good towards Rwanda’s dignity and self-reliance.

                                   • It increases the bargaining power of Rwanda in international trade markets because international cooperation helps it to have a bigger market.

                                   • It has enabled Rwanda to pull up resources to carry out joint research that leads to innovation and invention. That will lead to self-reliance.

                                   • International cooperation leads to increased investment in Rwanda. This is because it is one way of attracting foreign investors. This will no doubt increase employment capacity hence increasing self-reliance.

                                   • It leads to increased foreign exchange earnings because Rwanda earns a lot of foreign exchange from increased exported commodities.

                                   • It will enable Rwanda to share some common services and infrastructure. These will include roads projects, telecommunication and air services. All these will empower Rwanda to achieve its aspiration of self-reliance.

                                   • International cooperation increases employment opportunities because of increased factors of mobility such as labour. For example, there are many Kenyan, Ugandan and international teachers working in Rwanda.

                                   • International cooperation leads to political cooperation and mutual understanding. Countries can come up to help one another in times of instabilities and natural disasters.

                                  16.4 Activities for promotion of dignity and self-reliance 

                                  Activity 16.4 

                                  In groups, discuss how the following can lead to dignity and self-reliance:

                                   • Buying homemade products

                                   • Competence based curriculum

                                   • Regional economic integration 

                                  Write an essay on your findings. Read your essay in class.

                                  Rwanda has tried to use different ways to achieve dignity and self-reliance. They involve the following:

                                   • Rwanda has changed the education structure from the knowledge-based to the competence-based curriculum. The intention of the reform is to not only produce graduates with knowledge and skills but also to nurture their ability to apply them practically in real life for economic and social benefit.

                                   • Tax reforms were made to increase domestic revenue. This was done by removing tax incentives and exemptions in order to promote local production.  All this was done to attract the private sector and to ensure employment for Rwandans.

                                   • Formerly dependent on agriculture, Rwanda has increased its income channels through development and strengthening of other sectors such as tourism, trade and commerce. The diversification programme was aimed at supplementing the agricultural sector so as to provide alternative sources of income.

                                   • Proper land tenure programme has encouraged consolidation and crop intensification programme (CIP). This should help in maximum utilisation of land resource and reduction of harvest losses.

                                   • Rwanda has also put in place many SACCOs (Savings and Credit Cooperatives). This is a means to allow all people to receive small loans so as to increase entrepreneur skills. 

                                  Activity 16.5

                                  In groups, carry out a research on at least five SACCOs in Rwanda. Make sure you gather as much information as possible from your Entrepreneurship teacher. 

                                  Write a brief explanation on what each of the SACCO is involved in. Present your findings in class.

                                  The government has been sensitising the population on the importance of savings. Savings is a means to increase investment and sustainable growth especially among the low-income earners.

                                  Activity 16.6

                                  Write a poem on dignity and self-reliance. Get guidance from your English and Literature teachers. Present your poems in class.

                                  16.5 Challenges to dignity and self-reliance

                                  Activity 16.7

                                  Rwanda started the dignity and self-reliance policy with various objectives such as reducing foreign aid and dependency.

                                    1. In groups, discuss the challenges Rwanda is facing in the process.

                                    2. Present your findings to the class.

                                  Even though Rwanda tries to be self-reliant, she faces several challenges. 

                                  The following are some of the challenges that Rwanda faces in relation to dignity and self-reliance: 

                                  (a) Limited capital to exploit the available resources: Rwanda is a developing country with a relatively low level of industrial growth. She only produces semi-finished goods, hence earning less from her exports. Limited capital has also caused inadequate exploitation of natural resources including minerals and developing alternative sources of energy.

                                  (b) Limited entrepreneurial skills:  Many Rwandans have not put much effort to start small scale businesses. This has increased the dependency ratio on government jobsespecially among the uneducated. The government is also tasked with increasing chances of availing money for supporting entrepreneurship. This can be achieved through setting up funds from which business ideas can be financed. 

                                  (c) Poor infrastructural development: Roads in the rural areas are not good enough to widen market for goods that are produced in those areas. Electricity and telecommunication networks are also still  under supplied, limiting the populations’ ability to engage in income generating activities. 

                                  (d) Limited market: There is also limited market both at home and abroad. At home, it is because of the low purchasing power. Abroad, it is due to the rampant protectionism to trade for exports.

                                  (e) Low levels of technological development: Traditional methods of production are very common and therefore affecting productivity. Modern methods of production are still expensive to many who may wish to increase their production levels. This includes the cost of acquiring and maintaining machines necessary in the production process. 

                                  (f) Political instability in neighbouring countries: This affects Rwanda especially in terms of trade given that it is a landlocked country. Political instability in these countries makes them buy less or none of Rwanda’s products. It also prevents free transportation of goods to and from Rwanda. 

                                  (g) Effects of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi:  The genocide left a very poor economy with very many social problems. It left many orphans, widows and those with disabilities. All these vulnerable groups are taken care of by the government in terms of education, shelter and medical insurance.

                                  Activity 16.8 

                                  Research on ways of overcoming obstacles to dignity and self-reliance. Present your findings to the class.

                                  Revision questions

                                  1. Explain the meaning of self-reliance. 

                                  2. Describe various types of hindrances of dignity and self-reliance. 

                                  3. Explain the importance of dignity and self-reliance in Rwandan society. 

                                  4. Identify the challenges for dignity and self-reliance. 

                                  5. Explain how Rwanda has promoted dignity and self-reliance.

                                  • Key unit competence To be able to analyse causes and effects of disabilities and determine measures to prevent disability.

                                    17.1 Causes of disability

                                    Activity 17.1 

                                    The body is a coordinated system. This means that all parts of the body are interdependent and therefore complement one another. Try out this simple task. 

                                    Get outside the classroom. Stand at attention. Hold your hands straight. 

                                    Try to move fast. 

                                    What have you noticed?
                                    You will notice that the legs cannot fully perform their duty if the hands have a problem.  A situation where one or more parts of the body cannot function properly is called disability.

                                     
                                    Activity 17.2 Use a dictionary or internet to find out other meanings of disability.
                                    The causes of disability vary from physiological factors to environmental factors. They include the following:

                                      (a) War: During war many people are left with disabilities. Some are left without hands and legs. For example, the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan during the Second World War left many people maimed. Their effects are still felt today in Japan. Children are born with disabilities due to the effects of the uranium bomb.

                                      (b) Drugs: Drugs alter the normal activities of body cells. They sometimes cause mutation in body cells leading to disability. This is why expectant mothers are advised to keep off drugs such as alcohol and cigarettes. Using such drugs always leads to giving birth to children with disability.

                                     (c) Illness: Diseases such as cancer can lead amputation of some body parts hence leading to disability.

                                     (d) Bacterial and viral infections: Infections to body organs can easily leave a person disabled. This is common with bone infections. 

                                     (e) Accidents:  Accidents such as falling off a tree, road or fire accidents can leave one disabled. 

                                     (f) Brain damage: Brian damage can bring about a condition of cerebral palsy. This condition brings about difficulties in coordination, with the brain failing to control the entire body.

                                     (g) Non-execution of the immunisation schedule: Parents are always advised to take their children forimmunisation or vaccination against diseases such as polio. This should be done on time. If this is not done on time, a child is at risk of contracting diseases such as polio and meningitis, which finally result into disability. 

                                     (h) Human activities: Human activities such as working in an industry can cause disability. For example, a man working in a gas producing industry can inhale fumes which can cause disabilities such as blindness, dumbness and deafness. A man working in a welding industry can also get blind if he does not use a protective gear. 

                                     (i) Life style: Some life styles cause disabilities. For example, using earphones can cause ear damage, if one plays loud music. Drinking ilicit brew may cause blindness. Using cosmetics also causes disability, as some of them affect the body parts used on. These body parts can be amputated leaving one disabled.

                                     (j) Disputes: Disputes within a family or a community can lead to disability. For example, two brothers fighting over land and they chop each other’s hands or a man who chops off his wife’s hand.

                                                                               

                                    Activity 17.3 

                                    Research on causes and effects of disability in the society. Present your findings to the class. 

                                    Remember!
                                    Disability is not inability. People with disability have equal rights like those of anyone else. They have the right to education, leadership and employment opportunities. Rwanda is a country that does not discriminate against anybody. All citizens are equal.

                                    17.2 Effects of disability 

                                    Activity 17.4 

                                    In groups, discuss the effects of disability in relation to the following body parts:

                                       i. Ears

                                      ii. Legs

                                      iii. Eyes

                                      iv. Brain

                                    The following are some of the effects of disability:

                                     • A person may have auditory and visual problems.

                                     • Some people may not be able to move without mobility aids such wheel chairs.

                                     • A person may experience recurrent bone infections leading to regular hospitalisation.

                                     • Some people may not want to associate with a disabled person. This will end up stigmatising the person with disability.

                                     • Some disabled persons feel inferior in the society. As a result, they end up not performing their duties well.

                                     • Where there is discrimination, disability can lead to poverty. Some people refuse to employ disabled persons.

                                     • Disability in some cases can lead to death as a result of helplessness and starvation, for example, during a fire outbreak.

                                    17.3 Measures to prevent disability 

                                    Activity 17.5 

                                     1. In groups, discuss the causes of disability and how they can be prevented.

                                     2. Carry out a research to find out how the following have helped in preventing disability:

                                          • Traffic rules

                                          • Immunisation

                                          • Health insurance Present your findings to the entire class.

                                    (a) Vaccination and immunisation: If children are vaccinated or immunised on time, disability-causing diseases such as polio and measles can be prevented. Parents should always ensure that they strictly follow the vaccination and immunisation schedules. 

                                    (b) Proper hygiene: People must ensure that proper hygiene is maintained everywhere and every time. Proper hygiene includes environmental hygiene, body hygiene and food hygiene. This will help to prevent disability that is caused by infection, for example, visual impairment.

                                    Remember! 

                                    A clean and healthy environment is disease free. It helps us avoid diseases that can affect us or even cause disability. We can keep our environment clear through communal work such as Umuganda. We should also keep our environment clean at home and school. It is everybody’s responsibility to maintain hygiene, irrespective of physical condition.

                                    (c) Safety measures:  Safety measures should be put in place so as to avoid and limit accidents. For example, always fasten your safety belts while travelling. This will reduce road accidents hence prevent disability.

                                    (d) Seeking timely medication: People should seek timely medication especially the prenatal care for expecting mothers. This will help to avoid any infections that may result into disability at some later stage in life.

                                    (e) Improving on the feeding habits: This is especially for expecting mothers and children who are more vulnerable to malnutrition effects. In case the balanced diet is hard to get, food supplements such as ion tablets and vitamins should be given. This will help to prevent birth of children with disabilities.

                                    (f) Seeking help: A person can seek help from national and international organisations that help persons with disability. Examples of such organisations are World Vision and Compassion International. 

                                    (g) Sensitisation: Community members should be informed on ways of preventing disability. The information should include management of disability. 

                                    Activity 17.6 

                                    In groups, discuss what education sector is doing to support learners with disabilities. Present your finding in class.

                                    Further activity 

                                    Suggest other measures that can be put in place to prevent disability.

                                    Revision questions
                                       1. Define the term ‘disability’. 

                                       2. Discuss the causes of disability. 

                                       3. Suggest ways through which disability can be prevented.

                                      4. Analyse the effects of disability.

                                      5. Explain how sensitisation can help to control disability.

                                    TOPIC AREA 6:  INDIVIDUAL AND FAMILY 

                                    Sub-topic area 1:  Values, attitude and sources of sexual learning 

                                    Unit 18:  Family and personal values

                                    • Key unit competence To be aware of possible conflicts and appreciate differing family and personal values (in relation to sexuality).

                                      18.1 Conflict and misunderstandings between parents and children

                                      Activity 18.1 

                                       1. In pairs, find out the meanings of the following words: 

                                           (a) Conflict

                                           (b) Adolescence 

                                       2. In groups, debate about ways in which puberty and adolescence bring about conflicts and misunderstandings between parents and children. Present your findings in class.

                                      You probably found out that a conflict is a clash or disagreement between individuals. In this case, it means a situation where parents and their children have disagreements in pursuit of their interests.

                                      Causes of parent-children conflicts in Rwanda 

                                      Activity 18.2 

                                      Read the passage below and answer questions that follow.

                                      Birthday reward 

                                      One time, my friend Akeza had a birthday celebration. She was turning 16 years. We made plans to celebrate her birthday on that Tuesday evening in one of the night clubs in town. My friends Ingabire, Cyusa, Mugisha,Teta, Ntabana and I did not ask for permission to go to the party. We knew that our parents would not allow us. We escaped to the party. Late in the night, the police arrested us for being idle and disorderly. We explained that we were students but they could not listen to us. One policeman remarked in surprise, “Students who spend a night in a club!’’ We were all taken to the police station. Our parents were called upon the following morning. Our parents were mad at us. 

                                        1. Explain why you think their parents were angry with them.

                                       2. Discuss the reasons why these children felt that they would not get permission from their parents to go to the party.

                                       3. How can this way of behaviour affect the academic performance of these teenagers?

                                      The following are some of the causes of conflict between parents and children.

                                        • Income levels on the side of parents determine what they can and cannot afford for their children. When children’s needs are not met by their parents regularly, it creates misunderstandings.

                                        • Some Rwandan parents do not allow their children to participate in sporting activities. When this happens, their children feel betrayed. They feel that they have been denied their rights.

                                        • Some parents lack ways of motivating their children who do not perform well in school. This is because every parent expects good results from their children. This situation sometimes creates misunderstandings.

                                        • Ways of bringing up a family differs from one parent to another. Some Rwandan parents are authoritarian while others are permissive. Children whose parents authoritarian feel restricted. Those whose parents are permissive feel neglected

                                        • Another cause is age and peer influence among the adolescents especially in relation to dating issues. Most Rwandan parents stop their children from having relationship with their peers of the opposite sex. The children feel offended and therefore misunderstandings begin.

                                       • Divorce and separation make children blame their parents for not being able to resolve their conflict. In most cases, divorce makes children stay with only one parent. Such children will hate the other parent.

                                       • Parents tend to choose friends for their children. Parents often do not like friends of their children or some of them, because the worry about bad influence. This causes conflicts between children and their parents.

                                       • There are conflicts about dress code. Parents do not understand clothes young people want to wear. To their opinion, it breaks rules and norms of the society. Therefore, parents do not want to buy such clothes.

                                       • Some parents like to choose education institutions or jobs for their children. This annoys children as they have their own preferences.

                                       • Parents do not like bad habits of teenagers. Habits like smoking or drinking alcohol, even if they smoke themselves. Children tend to disobey their parents and smoke and drink. This annoys their parents.

                                       • There are conflicts about housework and home duties. Children think that they are too busy to spend any time helping in the house. On the other hand, parents feel their children are not helping them.

                                      Activity 18.3 

                                      In groups, discuss the consequences of engaging in sexual relations at an early age. Present your findings to the class.

                                      Remember! 

                                      It is very important to have time and talk to your parents about your concerns. Dialogue helps to solve parent-child conflicts and therefore creates peace.

                                      18.2 Importance of parents-child dialogues about their   differences and developing respect for each other’s rights to have different values

                                      Activity 18.4 

                                      In groups of five, discuss the challenges of child-parent gap. Suggest the measures for bridging that gap in Rwanda. Present your findings in class.

                                      Dialogue is a live conversation between two or more individuals intended for a good outcome.

                                      It is important that parents and children discuss openly. This will help them to know and commit to their duties and responsibilities, and rights and liberties. The following are importance of parent-child dialogue:

                                       • Dialogue gives way to parents to always let their children know what they can and cannot afford. This helps the children understand that their parents love them. It also helps the children to accept their economic status and even hope for better.

                                       • It creates trust, confidence and self-esteem in the two parties to always do things after they have mutual agreement. This creates peace in the family.

                                       • Dialogue helps the parents and their children to always make choice on what type of entertainment they should have. Parents show their children the disadvantages of the bad entertainment.

                                       • Dialogue helps children to make the right choices in life. This is because they talk with their parents and they understand the importance of making right choices. They also understand the dangers of making wrong choices.

                                       • Dialogue improves children’s performance in school. When parents talk with their children, they get to identify their areas of weaknesses. Most parents would help their children deal with it. Thus better results.

                                       • It is the only way parents can have influence on their children’s lives. The children will start taking their parents as friends and guides other than being looked at as rulers. Parents can also influence the type of friends their children can have hence reducing peer influence.

                                       • Rwandan parents can give career guidance to their children during the dialogue.

                                       • Children always confide in their parents since these become the closest and lasting friends. This friendship is built through dialogue.

                                       • Dialogue gives a chance to parents to witness how their children grow especially the adolescents. Parents can therefore chance to share experience on how one must behave to overcome that period. This better than constant punishment and accusations of children.

                                       • Dialogue prevents misunderstanding between parents and children. It also reduces conflicts in the family.

                                      Activity 18.5 

                                      In groups, discuss decision making and its consequences.

                                      Remember! 

                                      Effective communication between parents and their children can enable them discuss on sexuality.

                                      Revision questions

                                      1. Define the term ‘conflict’. 

                                      2. Explain what effective communication between parents and children mean. 

                                      3. Describe how mutual trust between parents and children promotes effective communication. 

                                      4. Explain the importance of parent-child dialogue in upbringing of the proper Rwandan citizens. 

                                      5. Examine the causes of the child-parent conflict.

                                      • Absolute: complete and total. Agitated: troubled or nervous. 

                                        Antagonistically: acting in opposition. 

                                        Apparatus: equipment. Auditory: related to hearing. 

                                        Authoritarian: strict, dictator. 

                                        Beasts of burden: animals which carry load such as donkeys. 

                                        Bourgeois: the capitalist class who own most of society’s wealth and means of production. 

                                        Capitalism: an economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. 

                                        Cartographer: a person involved in developing maps. 

                                        Complementarities: things that make each other complete. 

                                        Deculturalisation: forcing people to leave their culture. 

                                        Democratic process: practice that allows democracy. 

                                        Derivative: imitative of the work of another person with disapproval. 

                                        Detribalisation: causing people to abandon their customs. 

                                        Exhaustion: act of using all of something. 

                                        Fencer: a person who participates in sport of fighting with thin sword. Genocidaires: those who commit genocide or with genocide ideology. 

                                        Governesses: a woman employed to teach and train children in a private. 

                                        household: people who live in the same house.

                                        Homogeneity: similarity or sameness of things. 

                                        Homogenous: similar in kind. Impartial: not taking side. 

                                        Indigenous: originating.

                                        Interlacustrine: existing between lakes.

                                        Interstate trade: trade between two or more countries.

                                        Manpower: skill. 

                                        Massacres: indiscriminate killing of people. 

                                        Mercantilism: belief in making profit in trade. 

                                        Mobility: movement. 

                                        Nominal:  existing in name only. 

                                        Optimally: good, well. 

                                        Permissive: lenient. 
                                        Regiments: military units.

                                        Rivalry: competition for superiority. 

                                        Seized: take hold of. Sovereign: unrestricted. 

                                        Stalwarts: those who supported Americans during American Revolution. 

                                        Sufficient: enough. 

                                        Transcontinental: across continents. 

                                        Tyrant: dictator. 

                                        Upheaval: violent change or disturbance. 

                                        War booty: Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster, or rioting

                                        • 1.  Boubacar, Boris, D. (2006) - Murambi: The Book of Bones; Bloomington & Indianapolis, Bloomington. 

                                          2.  Cohen, J. (2007) - One Hundred Days of Silence: America and the Rwanda Genocide. London: Rowman and Littlefiield Publishers. 

                                          3. Combres, E. (2009) - Broken Memory. Toronto: HAP. 

                                          4. Dallaire, R. (2005) - Shake hands with the Devil: The failure of humanity in Rwanda; 957.571 D 161 s. 

                                          5. Docker John. (2008) - The Origins of Violence: Region, History and Genocide; London: Pluto Press. 

                                          6. Gatwa, T. (2005) - The Churches and Ethnic Ideology in Rwanda Crises 1900-1994; London: Regnum, Oxford. 

                                          7. Goldberg, E. (2006) - Holocaust Memoir Digest: A digest of published survivor memoirs with study guide and maps; Volume 3, Great Britain. 

                                          8. Gribbin, R. E. (2005) - In the Aftermath of Genocide/The U.S role in Rwanda; New York: Universe inc/Lincoln. 

                                          9. Irivuzumugabe, E. (2009) -My Father, Maker of the Trees: How I  Survived the Rwanda Genocide; New York, Bakar Books. 

                                          10. Kroslak, D. (2007) - The Role of France in the Rwandan Genocide; London: C, Hurst & Co. Ltd. 11. Khan, Shaharyar M. and Robinson, Mary M. (2000) - The shallow Graves of Rwanda; 967.57 K 45 

                                          12. Millard, Mary Weeks (2007) - After Genocide, there is Hope; London,  TNP. 

                                          13. Ndahiro, A. & (2008) - Hotel Rwanda (The Tutsi Genocide as seen by Hollywood); Kigali: L’Harmattan. 

                                          14. Norman, L. (1997) - Modern World History; Third Edition,. London: Palgrave Master Series
                                          REFERENCES
                                          231
                                          15. Okoth, A. (2006) - A History of Africa (1915-1995): African Nationalism and the Decolonisation process; Volume 2. Nairobi: East  African Educational Publishers. 

                                          16. P., T. (2003)- Inclusive Education Training in Cambodia: In service teacher training on disability and special needs issues; Disability  Action Council, Cambodia - EENET. 

                                          17. Reid, R. J. (2009) - A History of Modern Africa - 1800 to the Present; 1st Edition,. Wiley-Black well. 

                                          18. Stuart, M. (1997) - Modern European History; 2nd Edition. London: Palgrave Master Seiries. 

                                          19. Totten, S. (2010) - We Cannot Forget: Survivors of the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda; London: RUP. 

                                          20. Twagirayezu, V. (1994) - Murambi “Go if you die, perhaps I will live” CNLG. 

                                          21. UNESCO (2004) - Creating Inclusive Learning; Friendly classrooms; Booklet 4 from the embracing diversity; Bangkok: UNESCO (Bangkok).

                                          22. UNESCO (2004) - Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for creating inclusive learning - Friendly environment; Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok.

                                          23. Wallis, A. S. (2006). The untold story of France’role in Rwandan Genocide. New York,: I.B Tauris & CO Ltd,. 

                                          24. Wilkens, C. (2011): I’m not leaving: New York: Word Outside my Shoes. 

                                          25. Bamusananire E and Ntege D: New Junior Secondary - History Book 2; Netmedia Publishers 

                                          26. Bamusananire E (2013): Fountain History for Rwanda Secondary Schools Senior 6; Fountain Publishers

                                          • File: 1