- Label: 1
Talk about what you plan to do tomorrow with your friend. This could be your leisure or usual activities.
2.1 Describing tourist destinations
Listen carefully as your teacher reads the following words.
park lake museum forest waterfalls church memorial site
Now look at the following pictures. Which of the above words can you use to talk about each picture?
Tell your friend the names of the places that you want to visit. Also give a reason why you want to visit these places.
I would like to visit the National Museum of Rwanda to learn about the history of my country.
We use would like to talk about actions that one is interested in doing.
Take turns talking to your friends about places that you would like to visit in Rwanda.
One person should ask a question, the other one answers it. Follow the example of the children in the picture below.
Listen carefully as your teacher reads the following text.
Every year, people gather to take part in the mountain gorilla naming ceremony.
The ceremony is referred to as Kwita Izina.
During the ceremony, all the gorillas born at Volcanoes National Park are named.
Respected people from all over the world name the gorillas.
Rwanda is the only country that names its mountain gorillas. Therefore, Kwita Izina attracts tourists from all over the world. These tourists come to see this unique ceremony.
Answer these questions orally.
a) What is this text about?
b) Which animals does the text talk about?
c) State the national park mentioned in the text above.
Carefully read the text on Kwita Izina above.
Answer the following questions in your exercise books.
a) Which animals are named during Kwita Izina?
b) Where do the tourists who attend Kwita Izina come from?
c) Who gives names to the animals mentioned in the text?
d) What is the importance of Kwita Izina to Rwanda?
Recite the poem below in your groups.
I am a tourist
I am a tourist from Europe.
When I am on vacation,
I visit different places of the world.
Africa is my favourite destination.
Especially East Africa.
The land of friendly people,
With a variety of rich cultures.
Rwanda is among the richest in terms of culture.
Home to Kigali
The cleanest city in Africa.
A country with a thousand hills.
Lying side by side.
Hiding many treasures in the volcanoes.
Like the mountain gorillas that I love to watch.
1. Read the poem above carefully.
Now answer the following questions.
a) Discuss and suggest a suitable title to the poem.
b) What does the poem talk about?
c) Why does the speaker like Rwanda more?
d) What is being done that has made Rwanda the cleanest city in Africa?
2. The words below are used in the poem.
vacation destination favourite variety
a) Use a dictionary or the Internet to find out the correct meanings and pronunciation of the words.
b) Write the meanings of these words in your exercise books.
c) Construct four correct sentences using these words.
Identify the following tourist attractions or destinations from the crossword puzzle. One is done for you.
volcanoes parks forests museums lakes rivers
a) Use five different words that you have learnt about tourist attractions or destinations to construct five (5) correct sentences.
b) Draw a sketch map of Rwanda. Mark and name the different tourist attractions.
Look at the pictures below. Construct three correct sentences using the pictures.
Use would like in each sentence.
2.2 Describing a trip
Think about a journey that you would like to make.
Tell your friend where you want to go, how you will go and what you will do once you get there.
Let your friend also tell you about his or her journey.
I am going to Musanze next week to visit my aunt. She is unwell.
We often use going to in the following ways.
a) When talking about what one intends to do.
I am going to read more books about wild animals next term.
b) When making predictions based on what is happening or taking place at present.
He is going to be a brilliant student. It is going to rain. We will not see the gorillas.
c) When giving commands.
For example, You are going to pick up all the rubbish that you have thrown in the park.
Listen carefully as the teacher reads the text below.
Construct five sentences that show the different uses of going to. Write these sentences in your exercise book.
Listen carefully as the teacher reads the text below.
Manzi: Tomorrow is Saturday. What do you plan to do?
Igabe: I am going to visit my aunt who lives in Huye.
Manzi: That is good. Will you come back in the evening?
Igabe: No, I would like to watch a football match on Sunday. Amavubi is playing against the “Uganda Cranes” in Huye. I think I am going to watch them play.
Manzi: That’s nice. I wish I could come with you. I have never been to Huye. How will you get to Huye?
Igabe: I will take a bus. I hope to enjoy the bus ride to Huye.
Read and make sure you understand Activity 3 very well.
Role-play Activity 3 with your classmates.
Read Activity 2 above again.
Now answer the following questions orally.
a) Who is going to Huye?
b) What will happen in Huye on Sunday?
c) Which day of the week were the two friends talking?
d) Write the lessons you have learnt from the dialogue.
Think about a place that your class would like to visit.
Discuss about a visit to that place with your classmates. Remember to give a reason for visiting the place.
Create a dialogue by taking turns to ask each person to talk about the planned visit.
Read the passage below. Underline all the words that you do not understand. Then attempt the questions that follow.
A Trip to Gatuna
Mutoni had never been to the Gatuna Border Post. She heard about it from her father. One day, Mutoni requested her father to take her to Gatuna.
“Yes, I can,” Mutoni’s father said. “I can go with you over the weekend. I will not be working on Saturday.” They planned to leave early the following Saturday.
“I am going to Gatuna Border Post on Saturday,” Mutoni told her friend when they met. Mary was interested in going too.
“I am going to ask for permission from my parents. I would like to come with you,” Mary told Mutoni.
Mary’s parents gave her permission to go. Mutoni’s father asked her to be ready by 5.45 am on Saturday.
They set off at exactly 6:00 a.m. on saturday. The two pupils were very excited by what they saw along the way. There were terraced hills, meandering roads and vast tea plantations.
At the border, they found a long line of travellers from different countries. Some had come all the way from Kenya and were being cleared by the border authorities.
Mutoni’s father took the two pupils through all the different sections. He explained to them how important Gatuna was to the economy of Rwanda; just like their Social Studies teacher had said. Mary promised to tell her teacher about the trip when school would open in January.
a) Discuss the meaning of the new words that you underlined.
b) Now look up the correct meaning of the underlined words in a dictionary or on Internet.
Read the story in Activity 5 again. Now answer the following questions. Write True for correct statements and False for incorrect statements.
a) Mutoni learnt about Gatuna Border Post from her father.
b) Mary asked for permission to travel from Mutoni’s father only.
c) Mary, Mutoni and Mutoni’s father started their journey at 5.45 am.
d) The girls saw a line of people at the border.e) Mutoni’s father told the girls about the importance of the border post.
Choose a particular place in Rwanda that your group would like to visit. Plan for the trip by answering the following questions.
a) How many people will be going for the trip?
b) Which means of transport is best for taking the group to its destination?
c) What will you need to carry for your trip?
d) How will the things you have carried be used?
e) What other requirement will be needed for your trip?
Write down the answers from your discussion.
Choose a group leader to present your answers to the class.
1. Fill the blanks with different names of tourist destinations and attractions
a) Our group is...….. visit Amahoro National stadium.
b) The Head teacher is going to take students to...…... next week.
c) Primary six pupils are going to visit...….. at the end of the year.
d) I am going to in...………….. December.
2. Write a short story about a trip that you want to take. Remember to
use going to.
2.3 Talking about tomorrow
Look at Uwamahoro’s plan of activities that she wants to do tomorrow.
1. Look at each picture carefully. Talk to your friend about the picture.
Explain what is happening in each picture.
Sam wrote down a plan for his activities as follows.
My planned activities for tomorrow
6:00 am – I will get up and take a bath.
6:30 am – I will have breakfast and then board a bus to school.
7:00 am – I will be at school.
1:00 pm – I will go to the bus stop and board a bus back home.
1:30 pm – I will have lunch with my parents.
3:00 pm – I will go to play football with my friends.
6:00 pm – I will go back home, bathe and do my homework.
8:00 pm – I will watch TV and go to bed.
Make a similar plan of activities for yourself.
Write down the activities in your exercise book.
Present your plan to your classmates.
Use the plan of Sam’s activities to answer the following questions.
a) How many activities did Sam plan for ?
b) When will Sam play football?
c) What will Sam be doing at 1.30 pm?
d) What time will Sam be at school ?
An adverb of time is a word that describes:
a) When an action happened.
b) For how long an action happened.
C) How often a certain action happened.
Examples of adverbs of time are now, then, today, in the morning, at 6:00 a.m, among others.
1. Construct five correct sentences with your study partner using different adverbs of time that show the future.
2. Write these sentences in your exercise books.
3. Read the sentences to your classmates.
Identify and underline the adverbs of time in the following sentences.
1. I am going to buy a new shirt next week.
2. My sister goes to Kigali in December.
3. It rained heavily last night.
4. Next month, the twins will be five years old.
5. My favourite television programme starts at 6:00 p.m.
Read the letter below.
Now discuss it and answer the questions that follow.
a) Who wrote the letter?
b) To whom was the letter written?
c) When was the letter written?
d) What is Betty planning to do?
e) In which school is the writer?
f) Retell the message in the letter in your own word
Write a letter to your friend who is in a different school telling him or her about what you are going to do tomorrow.
2.4 Making suggestions
1. Listen as your teacher reads the dialogue below.
Ngabo: Hello, Kabera.
Kabera: Hello, Ngabo.
Ngabo: Teacher Mike is coming to class at 10:20 a.m. Have you finished doing the class assignment that he gave us?
Kabera: No, Ngabo. I haven’t finished it. I failed to get a good resource book to use.
Ngabo: I also had the same problem. I have only done part of the assignment.
Kabera: So what do we do?
Ngabo: Shall we go to the library? I am sure we will find plenty of books that will help us.
Kabera: Why didn’t I think of that? Yes, let us go then before the bell for the next lesson rings.
Ngabo: You may need a pen and a notebook to take notes.
Kabera: Oh, thank you for reminding me. I had forgotten about that.
2. Role-play the dialogue above with your friend.
Read the dialogue in Activity 1 again and answer the following questions orally.
a) What suggestion was given?
b) Who is suggesting what to do?
c) Why have they chosen the school library?
d) What lesson have you learnt from the dialogue?
e) Suggest a suitable title for the dialogue.
Make a dialogue about giving suggestions and present it in class.
Discuss the importance of a school library. Write down the findings in your exercise book.
Present your answers in class.
To make a suggestion, use shall at the beginning of a question.
You can also use the word may, to indicate that you want to suggest something.
a) Shall we go to the library?
b) You may need a pen and a notebook to take notes.
Sounds and spelling
Listen carefully and write down what your teacher dictates.
vcolnaoseearrange the following letters to get correct words.
You will always find me in the past. I can be created in the present. But the future can never touch me.
What am I?
Planning for the future is a waste of time. Do you agree? Give your views.
Unit 2 Assessment
1. Write down your favourite tourist sites in Rwanda and why you like them.
2. Choose a place you want to visit in the future, make a plan in your book about the visit and present it to the class.
3. Write a list of activities you are planning to do tomorrow.
4. How do countries like Rwanda benefit from tourists?
5. Design a tourist brochure (a small book usually with a cover) to explain the beauty of Rwanda’s tourist sites.
6.travel visit go shopping picnic
travel visit goshopping picnic
outing come back have dinner get up
7. Write three sentences that make suggestions about what you will do tomorrow.
8. Draw a picture of a tourist in one of the Rwandan tourist attractions. Write a sentence about it.
9. Write one or more short words that you can get from the following words:
a) destinations ............................
b) favourite .................................
c) tourist .....................................
d) suggestion .............................
10. Write sentences using the short words that you have formed above.
Look outside, and then say what the weather is like.
3.1 Talking about the weather
1. Describe the weather shown in the pictures below.
2. Now match the sentences below to the pictures above.
a) It is raining today.
b) The sun is shining brightly.
c) There is no wind this afternoon.
d) There is too much wind this afternoon.
1. Go out of the class if possible and observe the weather conditions. What is the weather like today?
a) It is very hot today.
b) The temperature is very high.
c) The wind is blowing softly to the west.
2. In groups, talk about what you are observing.
One can ask, “What is the weather like today?” The other can answer by saying, “The sun is shining brightly, today.” Or One can ask, “Is it raining today?” The other can answer by saying, “Yes, it is.” or “No, it is not raining today. The sun is shining brightly.”
Find at least seven (7) words that are used to describe weather in the puzzle below.
The Present Continuous Tense is used to show that an action:
a) Is still going on at the time of speaking.
b) Is happening now.
c) Will or will not happen in the near future. It is formed by adding – ing to the main verb.
Read the following examples:
1. It is raining in town.
2. He is carrying an umbrella.
Construct seven sentences in the Present Continuous Tense and read them out to the class.
Change the following verbs into the Present Continuous form. Use the converted verbs to construct sentences.
Rain = raining
It is raining. (Present continuous)
Thunder = thundering
It's thundering right now.
a) Pour b) Blow c) Drizzle d) Shine
e) Flood f) Freeze g) Snow
Write seven sentences in different tenses and change them into the Present Continuous Tense.
Present the sentences to your classmates.
The weather today
Mr Rukundo: Good afternoon, Jane?
Jane: Good afternoon, Mr Rukundo.
Mr Rukundo: How can I help you, Jane?
Jane: Please tell me about today’s weather.
Mr Rukundo: Well, it is rainy, and the temperature is cold.
Jane: I think it is cloudy and calm.
Mr Rukundo: You are partly right, Jane. It is calm because there is no wind. But it can’t be cloudy and at
the same time be rainy.
Jane: I don’t understand what you have just said, sir.
Mr Rukundo: I mean it was cloudy and the clouds have cleared because the water that was in the
clouds is falling as rain.
1. Role-play the dialogue between Mr Rukundo and Jane.
2. Answer the following questions.
a) Which words are used to describe weather in the passage above?
b) What is the meaning of the word temperature?
Draw and colour a picture to show the weather that you are experiencing today. Display your picture on the notice board for your friends to see.
3.2 Predicting the weather
Name the weather instruments shown below. Which element of weather are they used to measure?
1. Make a weather chart for the whole week similar to the one shown below. You can also draw symbols in place of the words.
2. Observe the weather on a daily basis. Is it the same as you had recorded in your weather chart?
3. Construct sentences that show predictions about weather according to the weather chart that you have filled in.
1. It was cloudy and windy on Monday.
2. On Tuesday, it was rainy and very cold.
Read the following weather forecast as heard on Rwanda Television. Complete the forecast by picking the correct words to fill the gaps.
fall sunny viewers presenter forecast cold
Role-play the weather forecast above in class. Let pupils be chosen at random from each group to be the weather forecaster. The rest of the class will be the viewers.
Your teacher will organize for a field trip to the nearest weather station.
a) Observe all the weather instruments that are used in the station.
b) Find out how the weather forecasters are able to predict the weather for a given place.
Also ask any other questions that you might have.
c) When back in class, draw all the weather instruments that you saw at the station.
Under each instrument, write its use.
a) Listen to a recorded weather broadcast message.
b) Draw a weather chart based on what you heard.
c) In pairs, compare your work. Are the charts different?
3.3 Planning future events
Tell your friends about what you plan to do over the weekend depending on the weather conditions.
1. If it rains on Friday, I will go to the garden with my father on Saturday.
2. If it will be sunny over the weekend, I will wash my clothes.
3. If it will be windy on Sunday, I will go to the beach to fly my kite.
Look at the pictures below. Predict the type of clothing you will wear for each picture.
Present your answer in a complete sentence in your exercise book. Then read it out loud for your classmates.
If you have a picture of rainy weather, you can say; “If it rains this morning, I will wear gumboots”.
Look at each of the pictures about the different weather conditions above, and write a paragraph explaining each situation.
The first conditional is used to express a future action as determined by another factor.
It is also called IF 1. It shows the possibility of something happening if a certain condition is fulfilled.
It is made up of two parts:
The IF clause and the main clause.
If it rains, he will weed the garden.
The coloured is the IF clause while the part after the comma is the main clause.
The Present Simple Tense is used in the IF clause while the future simple is used in the main clause.
The first conditional can be expressed using two structures:
1. If condition then result. or 2. Result then if condition.
1. If it rains, I will plant maize.
2. If it rains, I will carry an umbrella.
3. We shall rest if the weather is hot.
4. The trees will shake if it rains.
Where the main clause starts a conditional sentence, there is no comma added after the main clause as seen in numbers 3 and 4. However, a comma is always necessary after the IF clause if it starts a sentence before you can continue with the main clause. As seen in numbers 1 and 2.
Construct five sentences in the first conditional (IF 1) to explain how their programs change because of the weather changes.
Read and recite the poem below.
Is it raining on the hill?
No, it is not raining.
Is it raining in the valley?
No, it is not raining.
I will carry my umbrella.
Will the sun shine?
Yes, it will shine.
On the hill and in the valley,
I will see the rainbow.
And carry my umbrella.
1. Why is the poet carrying an umbrella when it is not raining?
2. What does the poet expect to see?
3. State the colours of a rainbow.
3.4 Describing future plans
a) Listen carefully as your teacher reads the following words.
temperature, chilly, freezing, warm, forecast, thunderstorm, lighting
b) Discuss the meanings of the words that you know with your friend.
c) Use a dictionary or the Internet to find out the meanings of the words that you do not know.
Choose the correct word from the words you learnt above to fill in the blanks.
1. The...………. is going to be cold in March.
2. The girl is going to be scared by the.........….during the rainy season.
3. The weather...……... is going to be read after news.
4. Byumba will be in October.
5. I am …………... Get me a sweater please.
We use ‘going to’ to talk about what we plan to do, predict or give commands.
1. I am going to Huye on Friday evening. I hope it won’t be cold.
2. I will put on my new gumboots when it rains.
3. We are going to Musanze in the evening. We are taking umbrellas with us because it might rain there.
Write down 3 different sentences about an activity that you hope to do in the future. Share what you have written with the class.
In your exercise, re-write the sentences describing each of the pictures below correctly.
3.5 Describing seasons
Talk about the pictures. What is the difference between the pictures?
Read the passage below about Rwanda’s climate and answer the questions that follow
Rwanda has very good climate. Temperatures vary from one region to another because of the different altitudes.
The south western part of Rwanda receives heavier rainfall compared to the eastern part.
Rwanda experiences two rainy seasons and two dry seasons. The long rainy season begins in March. During this time there is a lot of rain. The short rainy season is experienced from October to November.
The long dry season is experienced from June to around mid September. Lastly, the short dry season is experienced from December to February.
Rwanda’s capital city has an average temperature of 21°C. These cool temperatures are experienced because there is always cloud cover all year long.
1. Look up the meanings of the following words. Write them down and share with the class.
2. Write the months next to the seasons.
a) Long rainy season ---------------------
b) Short dry season -----------------------
c) Long dry season ------------------------
d) Short rainy season ---------------------
3. Discuss in groups and explain why rainfall is heavy in the South–west and North–east, but not in the East. Write in your notebook and present to the class.
Study the bar graph about Rwanda’s climate and answer the questions that follow.
1. What is the title of the bar graph?
2. What information is displayed on the:
a) X-axis b) Y-axis
3 Which month receives the highest rainfall?
4 Write down two months with the least rainfall.
5 Describe the characteristics of the season with the least rainfall in a paragraph.
From the example of the bar graph given above, work in groups and construct bar graphs about Rwanda’s climate using the information provided in the table below.
The Present Simple Tense is used to express habits, facts or abilities. The tense appears on the verb. Read the following sentences:
1. The temperature is hot in the afternoon.
2. Farmers plant their crops in the rainy season.
3. We harvest our crop in the dry season.
Construct sentences about the graphs you have drawn in Activity 3 and Activity 4.
For example, in the first graph we can say:
a) Rainfall is highest in the month of April.
b) Temperatures are high in the middle of the year.
c) Temperatures are low during the rainy seasons.
Sounds and spelling
Listen carefully as the teacher dictates words used to describe seasons. Write down the words in your exercise book.
Re-arrange the letters to form words relating to weather.
htdunreormts oughtdr doodlfs
ostfr pemtaurepre istm
I flash the sky with bright lights and I sound louder than any gun.
What am I?
Hold a class debate on the motion:
Industries are responsible for the harsh weather we are experiencing.
Think, pair and share
Talk about man’s activities in the environment that negatively affect weather and climate.
Unit 3 Assessment
1. Discuss and explain the difference between weather and climate
2. a) Draw pictures of the different weather conditions. Colour and write a sentence describing each picture.
b) Describe the kind of activities done during:
• Rainy season
• Dry season
3. Study and describe the current weather conditions and make a weather prediction for tomorrow.
4. In pairs, review your work and discuss your weather findings and explain why your predictions were either correct or incorrect.
5. Make a list of plans or events you want to do that will be determined by weather.
6. Search for weather charts from atlases, newspapers and other academic materials. Copy the weather
charts and interpret the information for the class.
7. Make weather charts for your class and hold an exhibition. Invite the head teacher to be the guest of
honour. Choose a leader to explain what you have done.
8. Draw and label at least three instruments used at a weather station.
9. In groups, discuss and explain why some areas in Rwanda receive heavy rainfall and some areas do not. Share your answers.
10. Complete the following sentences correctly.
a) If the sun shines tomorrow, we -----------------------
b) If it rains, I ---------------------------
c) They will play football if ------------------------
d) We shall carry our umbrellas if ----------------------
11. Study the table below showing temperatures in months in Eastern Province, Rwanda.
a) Draw a bar graph from the table.
b) Write three sentences about the graph.
12. Write in words.
a) 39°C ------------------------------- b) 32°C ----------------------------------------
What is an offence?
How do we know that a person has committed an offence?
4.1 Describing people
Listen carefully as your teacher reads the words below.
Do you know what they mean?
caring charming considerate excitable faithful funny kind
pleasant polite sincere thoughtful honest hardworking
Use a dictionary or the Internet to find out the meaning of each word. Make sentences using the words above.
1. The following words describe bad behaviour. Find them in the crossword puzzle.
rude bossy fussy
picky manic aggressive
2. Use a dictionary or the Internet to find and write down the meaning of each word.
Listen carefully as the teacher reads the passage below. Answer the questions that follow.
Behaviour is the way someone acts or behaves towards other people.
We can use behaviour to describe people. For example, someone can be honest, hardworking, generous, sympathetic, and so on. The story below talks about Kamana.
Kamana lives in Bugesera. He has a big farm. He plants many different types of fruits on his farm. The farm employs many people from the neighbouring village.
All his children are grown ups. But there are always children running around in Kamana’s compound. Kamana takes care of all the orphans in the village.
Because of his hard work, Kamana has been elected as a leader in the local sector. He spends most of his free time talking to young people about life.
a) How has Kamana been described?
b) How can young people benefit from listening to their elders?
c) In pairs, describe famous people in your community.
1. Read, discuss and answer the questions about the passage below.
Present your answers to the class.
Uwamahoro was sent to the shop by her mother. She was given 2000Rwf to buy a kilogram of sugar. The shopkeeper gave her a balance of 1700Rwf instead of 1300Rwf. She counted the money and realised that she had been given too much. She decided to return the extra amount of 400Rwf. The shopkeeper was very pleased with her. She gave Uwamahoro a sweet.
a) What was Uwamahoro doing in the shop?
b) What mistake did the shopkeeper make?
c) How much does a kilogram of sugar cost in the shop?
d) Describe Uwamahoro. Use appropriate adjectives.
2. Read the short description of Eric below.
Eric is my best friend. I like him because he is honest. He never cheats people or tells lies. He is also very hard working in class. He greets teachers whenever he meets them.
In pairs, take turns describing your friend.
Follow the example in the table below with sentences that describe people’s behavior and expand it up to six people. (Good is for positive and bad is for negative. One example has been done for you).
4.2 Describing social behavior
Talk about things we should or should not be or do. Fill your answers in the table below. Make a presentation in class.
Read the passage below and then answer the questions that follow.
Avoid peer pressure
Teacher Murenzi was having a class discussion with his Primary Six class. They were talking about unacceptable behaviour in society.
“What are some of the things that people do that you do not like?”he asked.
“I do not like it when people smoke near where I am,” answered Immaculate.
“I hate young boys and girls who take drugs and drink beer,” said Tom.
“What do you think causes young people to do that?” Teacher Murenzi asked.
“I think it is because of peer pressure,” said Chantal.
“Very true, Chantal,” Teacher Murenzi answered. “Most young people are forced to do bad things because they want to have friends. You shouldn’t smoke, take drugs or drink because your friends are doing it.”
“Teacher, I have a question,” said Amos.
“Go ahead and ask, Amos.”
“People in our estate gamble and bet a lot. Is it okay?”
“Good question, Amos. Gambling and betting can be addictive. We should not take part in any activity that can be addictive,” said Teacher Murenzi.
a) Which unacceptable behaviours did the pupils talk about?
b) What did Chantal say was the cause of young people drinking and taking drugs?
c) Which problems are experienced in the estate where Amos stays?
d) How can we overcome bad social behaviour?
e) What lessons do you learn from this passage?
Describe the kind of unacceptable social behaviour experienced in your community. Present your answer to the whole class.
A pupil could say,“In my sector, people take a lot of drugs. They drink heavily”.
4.3 Giving opinions on social behavior
1. What do you think about the following?
a) Children who do not want to go to school.
b) Parents who use their money on alcohol but do not take their children to school.
c) Classmates who make a lot of noise in class.
d) Learners who do not obey school rules.
e) People who do not apologise when they make mistakes.
2. Use any one of the following starters to give your answer:
a) In my opinion -------------------------
b) I think that .---------------------------
c) I don’t think that --------------------
Remember, we use modal verbs with other verbs to express ability, obligation, and possibility among others.
could, should, must, shouldn’t, may might, wouldn’t, mustn’t
When giving our views on social behaviour, we can use the modal verbs as seen below.
1. People should drink responsibly.(in support)
2. People shouldn’t take drugs. They are harmful. (we disagree with the social behaviour)
Discuss and come up with your opinions about good social behaviour. Use should for good social behaviour. And shouldn’t for social behaviours that are not good. Read the sentences to the class.
Choose the correct modal verb to complete the passage below. Present your work to the class.
People...…………….. learn to be responsible citizens. Drinking too much
......…......……...put one’s life in danger. You...……….. also get arrested for
smoking in public places if the new law is passed. Although the police
issued a warning to the public, many people...……….. not understand
how disobeying orders...……………. make them end up in prison.
4.4 Making school rules
1. What are school rules?
2. Research and write down your school rules.
3. Who ensures that your school rules are followed?
Your teacher will provide you with copies of your school’s rules and regulations. One pupil will read the rules aloud in class.
Design a poster of your school rules. Rewrite the rules that have been read as a guide.
Use we must -------------------------(for the Dos).
We mustn’t ----------------------------(for the Don’ts).
Hold a class exhibition on the rules that you made. The head teacher will be the guest of honor.
You will take turns to explain to him or her the importance of having such rules.
4.5 Describing laws
Discuss the meaning of the words below.
Use the new words in Activity 1 above to make correct laws.
Use modal verbs to write five laws.
4.6 Describing punishment
1. Use a dictionary or the Internet to find the meaning of each word below.
offender, fine, arrest, punish, imprison, disobey, break, licence, valid
2. Make correct sentences using the words above.
Study the table below. Discuss and complete sentences in column A by choosing the best answers from Column B. Write them down and present your answers to the class.
Study the consequences of breaking laws as provided below. Complete their ‘if’’ clauses and present to the class.
Write a brief story about someone you saw being arrested.
In your story, include:
a) Law or laws that the person being arrested broke
b) The punishment given for breaking that law
Read your story to the class.
Read the text below on laws and the punishment given by the police. Answer the questions that follow. Present your work to the class.
a) What is the meaning of:
– law – punishment
b) If you were a police officer, which of the above laws would be the most important to you?
Give reasons for your answer.
c) What other roles do the police play apart from keeping people safe on the road?
Construct five sentences about the punishment one would get after breaking any of the laws above. Use the first conditional “if". For example, If you drive for more than 60 km/hr., you will pay a fine of 30,000Rwf.
Sounds and Spelling
Listen as your teacher dictates words and sentences. Write them down in your exercise books.
Re-arrange the letters to form correct words used to describe behaviour.
Look up their meaning and correct pronunciation in the dictionary.
restar ……………. gsudr ……….. ripons……...
holcalo …………… teals...……….
I am the only place that loves bad people. When they come to my home I make them work for many hours.
If they don’t want to stay, they must pay a fine. What am I?
Organize a class debate on the motion: Smoking in public should be abolished. Let one side bet affirmative and the other negative.
Unit 4 Assessment
1. Discuss how you would describe a pupil who makes a lot of noise while the teacher is in class, does not want to respect teachers, doesn’t follow school rules and abuses and fights fellow pupils.
2. Describe the kind of social behaviour you see in your community.
a) Write three sentences that discourage bad behaviour using shouldn’t.
b) Write three sentences that support good behaviour using should.
3. a) List the laws of Rwanda that you know. Read your work in class.
b) Describe what would happen to people who break such laws.
4. Make rules for your class. Present in class.
5. Write a speech that talks about the importance of obeying school rules.
6. Suggest ways for young people to stay away from bad behaviour.
7. Discuss the topic:The government should stop the production of alcohol. Do you agree? Give your views.
a) How many family members do you have at home? Who are they?
b) Use your exercise book to draw a family tree representing your family
5.1 Describing family trees
Study the family tree below and answer the questions that follow.
a) How many people are in the family?
b) What is the meaning of sibling?
c) Which of these family members do you have in your family?
Construct your family tree. Describe it to the class.
You can say:
This is ………….. She/he had...…………. daughters and sons.
...............…...got married and gave birth to ……………...
Use the clues given to fill in the crossword puzzle and discover the secret message in the coloured boxes
1. The daughter or son of my uncle or aunt.
2. The brother or brother-in-law of my parents.
3. The son of my sister.
4. My mother’s husband.
5. The sister or sister-in-law of my parents.
6. My father’s wife.
7. The daughter of my parents.
1. Read the poem below.
My son will talk about me
Grandfather talks a lot about great grandfather,
In the presence of my father.
My father too talks a lot about my grandfathers.
He says that they preserved our family.
Now I am talking about my father,
He gave me life.
My son will,
Talk about me.
2. Find out the number of people mentioned in the poem and draw a family tree for the poem.
Display your work and share with the class. Give names to each person in the family tree.
Write about your family members by answering the following questions.
a) How many people are there in your extended family ?
b) How are you related to each one of them?
c) Do they live in the same area as you?
d) Who is the oldest?
e) Why is it important to know your family tree?
5.2 Describing family members
Talk about the family of Mr Rukundo that is shown below.
Read and role-play the dialogue below.
Juliet has brought a family photograph to school. She is describing the family members in the photo to her friend Mutoni.
Mutoni: Oh, what is that in the middle of the book?
Juliet: It is a family photograph.
Mutoni: Who is that woman in the blue dress?
Juliet: She is my mother. She is now 45 years old. Next to her is my aunt Mary. She is my mother’s
sister. She got married to a Kenyan man and they now live in Nairobi. The two boys seated here
are my uncle’s children. The elder one is in secondary and the other is in Primary Five.
1. Share family photos and talk about the photographs with a friend.
2. Describe your relationship with the people in the photograph.
3. Let your friend talk about your family pictures to the rest of the class.
Correct him or her if they give wrong descriptions.
Draw a picture of your family. Below the picture describe every family member that you have drawn
Rearrange the scrambled sentences to make a meaningful story.
1. When we returned home, I wrote him a thank you note. I love my father very much.
2. He later drove us to the museum.
3. My father is a lovely dad.
4. He does not forget our birthdays.
5. I had never seen so many things about Rwanda’s past in a museum.
6. The last time he organised my birthday, he took us to a very beautiful hotel.
We had lots of drinks and food.
5.3 Describing personalities
Read the adjectives given below. What do they mean?
anxious boring creative clever joyful brave careless cruel lazy
Listen to the descriptions given below. Which word do they go with?
1. Someone who shares things with others.
2. Someone who does not talk too much.
3. A person with bad manners.
4. A person who is always clean and tidy.
5. A truthful person.
6. A person who is never afraid.
Adjectives of personality are adjectives that are used to describe a person and his or her character.
Do you remember what an adjective is?
Find the opposites of the following adjectives that are used to describe personality.
unhappy clever dishonest dirty
impolite unfriendly irresponsible disorganized
Take turns describing each other’s personality. Write your friends personality in your notebooks.
Each one of you will read out what you have written to the class.
Tell each other about your family members and their personality.
One will ask: What is he like? Or, what is she like?
And the other will describe their behaviour using adjectives of personality that you know and have learnt.
strict friendly cold kind rude
honest polite abusive arrogant
5.4 Saying who you like
1. Which words can you use to talk about what you like?
2. Make at least three (3) sentences using each of these words.
3. How do you feel about the things you like?
4. How do you feel about the things you dislike?
Find out what your friend likes and why. Write in your notebook and present in class.
Look for at least 6 words that are used to describe feelings in the word puzzle below.
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.
My aunt is great
Aunt Sylvia is close to me more than anybody else in our family.
I got to know her way back in 2005 during my third birthday party. She gave me the best birthday gift.
The dress she bought me was very beautiful.
She visits me at school and brings me my favourite foodstuff.
Each time I leave home for school, I shed tears because I know that I will miss her a lot.
I like her more than anyone else in the family because she is my best friend.
She always guides me on my studies. Aunt Sylvia has promised to take me to Mombasa next year if I perform well in the national examinations. I am now working very hard so that I do not disappoint her.
a) When did the writer get to know Aunt Sylvia?
b) List down the reasons the writer likes her aunt.
c) Why is it important to pass your national exams?
Write a short paragraph about the person you like most in your family.
Give the reasons why you like that person the most. Read your work to a friend.
5.5 Describing a family member and their life story
Read the passage below. Tell the class a brief story about your hero.
My mother is called Mrs Sandrine Kagabo.
She is a wonderful woman. She is a police officer. She was born on 12th December, 1982.
She studied at Lycee de Kigali and the University of Kigali. She then went to the Gishari Police Training School in Rwamagana.
She met my father after completing her course. Two years later, they got married.
I am their first born.
I have got a younger sister.
Rearrange and write the scrambled sentences in their correct order.
1. He was born on 1st September, 1975.
2. The house is very big.
3. He is now a retired man but still receives support from the government.
4. After completing school, he joined the Rwanda tourism board.
5. Because there were many free rooms left.
6. My father is called Mr Niyonsenga.
7. He got his retirement package and used the money to build a house.
8. He invited some of our relatives to live with us.
Read the conversation below and attempt the questions that follow.
Betty: Who is this?
Linda: This is Aunt Mutesi. She is my father’s eldest sister.
Betty: She is very beautiful. And who is that?
Linda: That is Uncle Chris. My Mother’s only brother. He works in Tanzania.
Betty: He looks like he is tough and strong. And these ones, who are they?
Linda: These are my parents.
Betty: They look very smart!
Linda: Yes. They both work in a bank and always have to look smart.
Betty: Tell me something about them.
Linda: My mother is very talkative but my father is quiet.
Betty: What about these two? The boy looks like an athlete.
Linda: That is my brother. He likes sports. The other one is my cousin. She likes singing.
a) Who among Linda’s family members works in Tanzania?
b) What do you know about Aunt Mutesi?
c) Describe Uncle Chris according to Betty.
d) How different is Linda’s father from her mother?
e) Who among Linda’s family members likes singing?
f) In pairs, role-play the conversation above.
g) Draw a relevant picture to go with the dialogue, colour it and write two sentences about it.
We use ‘because’ when we want to give a reason for something. Clauses with because introduce information that the reader or person being spoken to does not know.
Read the examples below:
1. He bought two shirts because he has two children.
2. Mother prepared food because we were hungry.
3. Father likes Chantal and James because they are hardworking.
Write five sentences with a because clause and read them out to the class.
We can use ‘have got’ when talking about possessions or a person’s characteristics. It is used with:
I, you, we, and they.For he, she, or it, we say, ‘has got'. For example: I have got two sisters.
Complete the following sentences correctly. Read your work to the class.
1. He was punished ------------------
2. His parent was called to school .-------------------
3. She was not allowed to sit the examination .---------------------
4. They have got .-------------------
5. I have got .--------------------------
6. She has got .----------------------
7. It has got .
Sounds and spelling
Listen carefully as your teacher dictates words that are used to describe family members.
Write them down in your exercise books.
Rearrange the following letters to make correct words.
nuisco ………. phewen ……………. herfta……………….
taun……………. lceun…………. teomhr………..
I gave birth to your father and your father calls me mother. Who am I?
Hold a class debate on the motion:
Mothers care for us more than our fathers.
Think, Pair and Share
Peace in the country starts from the family. Discuss.
Unit 5 Assessment
1. Explain the meaning of a family tree.
2. Draw and describe the family tree of your family.
3. Match the following family relations with the correct words that describe them.
4. Read a short story about Peter below and answer the questions that follow.
Peter likes sharing things at school. He doesn’t use harsh words when talking to people.
He doesn’t break school rules. He keeps track of time and everyone likes him.
He has so many friends at school.
a) Describe Peter’s personality.
b) What makes you like Peter?
c) Do you have a friend like Peter? Which of the things does he or she have in common with Peter?
5. Choose one of your family members and write a short description about him/her.
6. Write a simple poem about your family with the title: “I love my family”.
7. Choose the correct words from the brackets to complete the following sentences.
a) Maria got married to her -------------------- .last year. (uncle, cousin, husband)
b) They have got four---------------------------- . It is a large family of six. (grandparents, husband, children)
c) Belinda has been ----------------------------- .for two years. She is getting married next year. (couple, engaged, elder)
8. How does your family help you to become a better person in life?
9. Rearrange the following sentences to form a meaningful story.
a) She says she likes saving lives.
b) Maria’s mother is a nurse at King Faisal Hospital.
c) Her father is an accountant with Rwanda Revenue Authority (RRA).
d) She has two brothers.
e) One of them is in the United States of America.
f) Maria is the sixth born in her family.
g) The other one plays football for the National Team.
Share about your favourite book. State the title and author of the book you like most. In a few words, explain what the book is about.
6.1 Finding information in books
Identify the different reading materials shown in the pictures below.
1. Talk about different parts of a book.
2. How do we use the following part of a book?
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Parts of speech Page number
Nouns ....................................................... 2
Pronouns .................................................. 6
Verbs ........................................................ 15
Adjectives ................................................. 24
Prepositions .............................................. 35
3. Discuss and write a similar table of contents for any subject of your choice.
Your teacher will provide the class with textbooks for practise.
Listen attentively to the teacher as he/she reads out content from the Table of Contents.
Open to the correct page number.
Follow the text below with your eyes only as the teacher reads it out for you.
Do not move your finger across the text.
Sometimes we just want to get the general idea of a book, story or passage without paying much attention to the details. We therefore need to skim the book.
• Read the title and subheading to find out what the text is about.
• Look at the pictures.
• Read the first and last sentence of each paragraph.
You don’t have to read every word in the sentence. For very short texts just identify the keyword and run your eyes through the words near it.
We use skimming to:
• See what is in a newspaper or website.
• Go through a book to see if you want to read it.
a) Practise skimming of different books, storybooks and newspapers with your friend.
b) Talk about what each book, storybook or newspaper contains.
Skim through the text below. Answer orally within 5 seconds. What are the names of the people in the text below? Every evening, Munezero would put milk next to the pumpkin. At night, Mahoro would get out of the pumpkin and drink the milk.
Follow the text below with your eyes or fingers as your teacher reads it out loud.
What do you do when you want to look up a word in the dictionary? Do you start from the first page? The easiest way is to go straight to the first letter or syllable of the word you want to identify. This is referred to as scanning. In addition to checking dictionary entries, you use scanning to:
• Look up a word from the index or table of contents of a book.
• Read a timetable to know when the next English lesson will be.
• Choose a website to open after doing an internet search.
a) Practise scanning of different books, storybooks and newspapers.
b) Can you guess what each text is saying just by looking at the title?
Your teacher will provide you with newspaper leaflets. In your groups, scan through the leaflets. You will be timed to make sure you do not go into detailed reading. Answer the questions that the teacher will ask you.
Find the answer to the question below by scanning through the given text. Answer orally within 5 seconds. How many times does the word Kabanda appear in the text below? Munezero was very happy. In the morning, she told Kabanda that she had seen Mahoro when she came out of the pumpkin to take her milk. “Let’s convince Mahoro to stay with us forever,” Munezero told Kabanda. “Yes, please. Thank you very much,” Kabanda replied.
6.2 Reading stories
Do you read storybooks?
Tell your friend about the last storybook that you read. Try to answer the following questions:
a) What was the story about?
b) Was it interesting?
b) Why were you reading that book?
d) Retell the story in your own words to your friend.
1. Read the story below in pairs.
2. Write down any word or words that you do not understand. Look for the meaning of the word in a dictionary or from the Internet.
The Daughter of the Bush
Kabanda was out taking care of his father’s cows when he saw a beautiful girl.
“Hello, how are you?” he asked.
“Hello. I am fine and you?” the girl answered.
“What are you doing in the bush? This is not a good place for a girl to be,” Kabanda said.
“I stay here. This is my home. I am the daughter of the bush,” the girl replied.
Then the girl disappeared.
Kabanda realised that he had not asked the girl her name. He looked for her everywhere but did not find her. However, there was a huge pumpkin where the girl had been standing.“I will just take this pumpkin home and give it to my mother,” Kabanda said to himself. “Then I will tell her about the most beautiful girl I ever saw that was standing near the pumpkin”.
That evening, Kabanda gave the pumpkin to his mother. He also told her about the mysterious girl.
Before going to sleep, Munezero, Kabanda’s mother decided to boil some milk. She put the milk in a cup and put it next to the pumpkin. She went out to wash the saucepan. When she came back, she saw a beautiful girl sitting next to the pumpkin. She was drinking the milk that Munezero had boiled!
Munezero realized that this was the girl that Kabanda had told her about. She did not quarrel with the girl. She just bade her goodnight and then went to sleep.
Munezero was very happy. In the morning, she told Kabanda that she had seen the girl he had talked to her about.
“Let’s convince her to stay with us forever. She is a very beautiful girl,” Munezero told Kabanda.
“Yes, please. But can I see her and at least ask her name?” Kabanda replied.
3. Retell the story in your own words to your classmates.
Your teacher will allow you to borrow storybooks from school to read at home. You will be required to retell the story during the next English lesson.
Write a summary of the story you retold the class in Activity 3. Display your work on the Class Activity Board so that the other pupils can read your work.
Your teacher will read you the story below. Listen to it attentively since you will be randomly chosen to retell it to the class after answering the questions that follow.
How Eagle And Hen Became Enemies
A long time ago, Eagle and Hen were very good neighbours. They lived together peacefully.
One day, Hen went to Eagle to borrow a stitching needle. She wanted to make clothes for her chicks. Eagle warmly welcomed Hen and even gave her the needle. After using the needle, Hen forgot to keep it away safely. Her chicks saw the needle and went to play with it. Hen’s compound was full of rubbish and unfortunately the needle got lost.
Hen tried to look for the needle but she did not find it. The compound was full of litter. She became afraid and did not tell Eagle that the needle was lost.
One day, Eagle wanted to use his needle. He went to Hen’s house to get it. That is when he discovered what had happened. Eagle was so disappointed and very angry.
“It is simple. Each time I come here and I don’t get my needle, I shall pick one chick and go with it,” he told Hen.
From that day onwards, Eagle still takes Hen’s chicks. Hen continuously searches for the lost needle by scratching the ground with her feet. She has also taught her chicks to run away and hide under her wings whenever they see an eagle.
a) Who is Hen’s enemy?
b) In pairs, identify the animals in the story.
c) Why did Hen visit Eagle?
d) According to the story, why do hens scratch the ground?
6.3 Writing compositions
Discuss with your group members and come up with reasons why we write. Present you group’s findings in class.
Read the composition writing tips given below. Make short notes in your exercise book.
Read the story How the Eagle and the Hen Became Enemies again. Identify the paragraphs that make the main parts of the story.
Write a simple story on any of the following.
a) The reading and writing competition
b) My sister’s wedding
c) My 13th birthday party
d) The new school library
Read the following text carefully.
6.4 Understanding instructions in examinations
The following tips can guide you during an examination. Your teacher will read them to you. Listen carefully and take notes. Share the notes you have written with your classmates.
On the examination day, before you start answering any examination questions:
a) Make sure you have enough writing materials (pens, pencil, eraser and sharpener where necessary).
b) Read and understand the instructions on the examination paper. The instructions guide you on the total number of questions that you are supposed to answer. Understanding the instructions is the first step in passing examinations.
c) Check to see that all your questions can clearly be read and that there are no blank pages on your question paper.
d) Carefully read and understand each question. Examination questions are asked differently. Each question has a verb that tells you what the examiner expects.
• Underline: simply use a ruler and a pen or pencil to underline what should be underlined.
• Fill in the blank spaces.
• Rearrange the sentences or words or letters to form meaningful sentences or words.
• List/name/state means you just make a list of the main issues. Do not explain.
• Explain or describe means you give details in your own words to talk about the topic.
For example, Explain why a bat is called a mammal.
Explanation: A bat is a mammal because it has got hair on its body. It also feeds its young with milk.
• Write means you organize your thoughts and write following the introduction, body and conclusion system as we learnt earlier.
• Define means that you only give the meaning of the word in question. For example, define what a mammal is. You would say:
A mammal is a vertebrate which has hair and feeds its young with milk.
e) Always think and plan before you start writing your answer. You can even organise your thoughts by writing them on rough paper first before you start writing. If you need rough paper, do not be shy to ask for some.
f) Distribute your time according to the questions that you have. Do not dwell on one question for too long. Or if you find that you are unable to answer a given question, simply move to the next one. You will come back to the particular question when time allows.
g) Allow for time to read your work again. This allows you to make corrections.
h) Always write neatly. This helps the teacher to easily read what you have written.
i) Where you are required to use a pencil, for example in drawing diagrams, use a pencil. If you don’t have one, let the supervisor know.
Your teacher will distribute sample examination papers.
Read through the examination papers. Identify the main verbs used in the questions and discuss how you should respond to the questions according to the instructions.
Work on all the different sections and present your work in class.
For reporting exact words we often use speech marks. For example, Mary told her mother that she would not go to school, would be written as Mary said, “I will not go to school.”
Read the story below and answer the questions that follow.
Indiscipline in the school
The head teacher came to the assembly ground and everyone could tell that he was not happy. The P6 pupils had left the school grounds before time.
“I will not accept this kind of behaviour in the school. Those who have no interest in their studies will suffer a lot in future.”
The pupils remained silent as the head teacher spoke with authority. The next speaker was the disciplinary master.
He emphasised what the head teacher had talked about before reading out the names of the most indisciplined pupils in the school.
Punctuate the following sentences.
a) Good morning pupils the head teacher greeted the assembly.
b) The head teacher said I will not accept this kind of behaviour in the school.
c) Do not come late to school the disciplinary master added.
Read the speech below. Retell the speech to a friend in your own words.
“Our dear headmaster, teachers and fellow pupils, good afternoon. My name is Alice Mutoni, the new head prefect of this School. First, I would like to thank you you for trusting me with this position. Thank you for electing me. I promise to do my best to serve you.
Secondly, I want to welcome you all to the new year and new term. I want to encourage you, my fellow pupils, to work hard. Hard work pays. Most importantly, P6 candidates, remember you’re the light of this school. Your good performance on the national examinations will be our pride.
Thirdly, I would like to encourage all pupils, to be disciplined. We must present a good image of our school. I think everyone is proud of this school. Therefore, as the head prefect, I encourage you to become responsible citizens of our country, Rwanda.
Our school has various computer rooms, science labs and a library. I remind you to take care and full responsibility for these facilities.
I would like to end my speech here. Thank you for listening. May God protect us. Good day”.
Re-read the speech above and answer the questions below.
b) What does the speaker say in paragraph one? Start: “In paragraph one,...…………….
c) What does the speaker say in paragraph two? Start: “In paragraph two,...…………..
d) Why does the speaker thank the audience? Start; “The reason why...………………..
e) Why do you think the P6 candidates need to work harder? Start; “The
reason why .”...………………….
f) Is Mutoni’s speech educative? Why?
g) Draw Alice Mutoni giving a speech to the school members. Write a
sentence about it.a) Suggest a suitable title for the speech.
Words like first, secondly, thirdly, therefore, further more, more so, however, another reason, for example, are called connectors. They are used to make the text flow easily by linking different ideas together.
If you’re chosen to be a sanitary prefect. Write the things you can do to improve the school sanitation.
Sounds and spelling
Listen carefully as your teacher dictates sentences to you. Write them down in your exercise books.
Re-arrange the following letters to form correct words. Look up their correct pronunciation and meaning in a dicposecmo………………...
Unit 6 Assessment
1. Choose a storybook from the school library. Read it and retell the story to the class.
2. In pairs, find a textbook and ask each other to look for information from the book using the table of contents.
3. In pairs, look up the meaning of the following words used in reading. Write down the meaning in your notebook.
4. Get any reading material and practise scanning and skimming with a friend.
5. Explain what is needed when you come across the following words in an examination. Present to the class. list, state, identify, discuss, illustrate, draw, give, explain, classify, mention, evaluate, compare, differentiate, contrast, summarise, compose.
6. In groups, set simple examination papers for any subject of your choice. Present your work to the class.
7. Read a text in groups out loud. Let each member of the group take notes on the most important parts. Compare your notes and talk about them in class.
8. In pairs, write simple stories and exchange your work. Check each other’s grammar.
9. If your classmates elect you as a class monitor, write a short speech to your classmates.
10. Draw one of your school leaders giving a speech. Write a sentence about the picture.
Name an animal that used to live on earth but no longer exists. How did you come to know about this animal?
7.1 Describing prehistoric animals
Listen carefully as your teacher reads the following words and text. Read the words out loud after the teacher.
fossil dinosaur mammoth prehistoric palaeontology palaeontologist
There is a branch of science that specifically studies the remains of animals and plants.
It mainly deals with animals and plants that lived or grew before human beings started keeping records.
This means that these are very old animals.
The name given to this time is the prehistoric period.
The remains of animals and plants that lived during this period are known as fossils.
The people who study fossils are known as paleontologists.
The branch of science that studies fossils is paleontology.
The most common animal that lived in the prehistoric period is the dinosaur.
Most paleontologists have studied dinosaurs in detail. However, there were also other animals that lived during this period.
An example is the mammoth. This was an elephant that had hair unlike the elephants we know today.
Use a dictionary or the Internet to find the meaning of the new words in Activity 1.
Read the passage again to see how the words have been used.
Listen carefully as your teacher reads different texts that describe prehistoric animals.
Identify the animals that the text is talking about from the pictures below.
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.
Archaeopteryx was a dinosaur that looked like a bird.
It had teeth and claws but it also had feathers and wings. This type of dinosaurs looked similar
to modern birds.
However, they had a long, stiff, bony tail unlike modern birds.
Each wing of the archaeopteryx had two separate fingers that had sharp, curved claws.
Unlike birds, archaeopteryx did not have a beak. Instead they had jaws with small, sharp teeth.
It mostly ate insects.
a) Which characteristics of a bird did the archaeopteryx have?
b) Why is it important to learn about animals like the archaeopteryx?
c) In pairs, find out the meaning of the following words as used in the passage:
claws stiff bony beak
11. There were different types of dinosaurs. Some of them are given below.
Anatosaurus Apatosaurus Brachiosaurus Dilophosaurus
Protoceratops Ankyylosaurus Spinosaurus Stegosaurus
Triceratops Tyrannosaurus rex
2. Choose one type of dinosaur from the list above.
3. Carry out library research on the type of dinosaur. If possible, you can use the internet for research.
4. Write a brief description of some of the characteristics of the type of dinosaur that you selected by answering the following questions
a) How big was your dinosaur?
b) What did it look like?
c) What did it eat?
d) Where did it live?
5. Draw a picture of the type of dinosaur that you selected.
7.2 Classifying animals
a) How do we classify animals?
b) Write them down and present to the class.
Discuss the meaning of the following words in pairs. Write the meanings in your exercise books.
vertebrates invertebrates cold blooded warm–blooded
Back bone flora fauna
Copy the table below into your books.
Discuss and compare the table below by writing yes/no for the characteristics of the different classes of animals. Present your work.
Copy the table below into your books.
Discuss the names of different animals and fill in the table with the correct answers.
Which of the following animals are found in Rwanda?
Your teacher will read different names of animals to the class. (Vertebrates and invertebrates.) Make flash cards and arrange them based on the animal category. Do the same with cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals.
7.3 Recounting personal experiences of seeing animals
1. Read out the following words.
tourist trip national park wild travel holiday
2. Do you know the meaning of each word? Try to explain the meaning using your own words.
3. Now use a dictionary or the Internet to find the correct meaning of the words you read.
Look at the following pictures. Tell a story based on the pictures.
1. Interview your friend using the following questions.
• Have you ever visited a game reserve or a national park? If yes, which one? If no, say which
game reserve you would like to visit.
• Which are your favourite wild animals?
• Where can these animals be found?
• Which wild animal would you like to see that have you not seen?
2. Write sentences using the answers that your friend has given.
• Uwamahoro has visited Nyungwe National Park. Her favourite wild animal is a mountain gorilla.
• Mountain gorillas can be found at Volcanoes National Park.
• Uwamahoro would like to see a shark.
3. Read the sentences to your classmates.
Read, discuss and answer questions about the passage below.
The Roadside Monkeys
Gatera was travelling from Kigali to Musanze by bus. When they reached Nyamweru, they saw three monkeys squatting by the roadside. They looked hungry. Gatera felt sorry for them.
“What can I do to help them?” Gatera thought. Then he remembered that he had packed some bananas.
He asked his father if he could throw one yellow banana to the monkeys. He got so excited when his father agreed.
Gatera threw the banana out. In a short while, the monkeys were fighting for it. The other passengers joined Gatera in throwing food to the monkeys. They were throwing any food item that they had. One passenger who was sitting at the back was throwing maize cobs.
a) Where was Gatera going?
b) What did he see along the way?
c) How did the passengers help the monkeys?
d) Which food items are mentioned in the passage?
e) Find the meaning of the following words as used in the passage?
excited squatting passengers
Share your personal experience of how you reacted after seeing a wild animal.
Remember to use the past continuous tense.
You may start your narration with any of the following sentence starters
a) One day, I was walking-------------------------------------.
b) Last term when our social studies teacher took us to ---------------------------.
c) The first time I saw a baboon was when my father-------------------------------.
d) The monkey was eating maize in the neighbour’s garden. When it saw me,--------------------------.
Write a story of between 250-350 words about seeing an animal in a forest. Pay attention to the past continuous tense. Read your story to the class.
Adjectives are placed before nouns to modify the noun. For example, We saw a big elephant.
We use the past continous tense to talk about the past. We also use it to talk about things that
continued happening for a period of time.
Study the list of adjectives below. Use the adjectives to construct sentences about animals.
sharp long large heavy cold blooded warm blooded
• Lions have sharp canines.
• An elephant has got very large ears.
Ask your friend questions about things you want to know about animals.
Begin your questions like this:
a) How big ?--------------------------?
b) How many-------------------------?
c) What .....................................?
Your friend will respond by giving a declarative sentence.
A declarative sentence is a sentence in the form of a statement.
Mahoro: How big is an elephant?
Ganza: An adult elephant weighs about 24,000 pounds and stands at about 13 feet tall.
Mahoro: How many lions are in Akagera National Park?
Ganza: There are five lions in Akagera National Park.
Sounds and spelling
Listen carefully as your teacher reads out different words. Write these words down in your exercise book.
Re-arrange the following distorted/disorganised letters to form correct words and read the word to your friend.
I am strong. I have long hair around my neck. I feed on meat. What am I?
Hold a class debate on the motion “Climatic Change is the major cause of animal extinction in the world.”
Think, pair and share.
Discuss and share:
What would happen to animals if their habitat is destroyed by man?
Unit 7 Assessment
1. What are prehistoric animals?
2. Match the following prehistoric animals with their names.
3. Write a short text about an animal of your choice and state:
a) Whether it is a vertebrate or invertebrate.
b) Where it lives (land or water).
c) How it reproduces (give birth or lays eggs).
4. What do the following words mean in the study of animals?
a) aquatic b) endangered c) habitat
5. Write a simple poem about your favourite prehistoric animal.
6. a) Collect the following items and classify them into different groups. Fish backbones, feathers, eggs, shells, legs of insects. For example, grass–hoppers fur or hair from animals. Write down the names of the animals the objects come from.
b) Explain to the class why your group decided to classify the animals into that particular group.
For example one group could write fish for a ‘backbone corner’ and explain that fish is a vertebrate. Vertebrates are animals with backbones. Almost all fish are cold–blooded. Fish live in water and …
7. List three:
a) cold blooded animals.
b) warm blooded animals
8. Write a short story about your experience of seeing an animal in a forest. Pay attention to the past continuous tense.
9. Write a story about prehistoric animals and read it to the class.
10 What do the following animals eat?
lions elephants giraffes gorillas zebras
a) What are the things that make up our environment?
b) Name the different types of resources in our environment.
8.1 Talking about resources
1. Define a resource.
2. What do we call a resource that cannot be replaced?
3. What do we call a resource that can be replaced?
Share your answers with the rest of the class.
Read the words below. They are used when talking about resources. What do they mean?
natural man-made renewable non-renewable artificial
1. Look at the list of resources given below. Say whether they are man-made or natural resources.
2. Name other resources that you know.
11. Read the dialogue below and answer the questions that follow.
Farmer: Look at my garden, my crop is drying up.
Officer: It is because your garden has no fertile soil left.
Farmer: Yes, the rain water has been washing away the top soil.
Officer: In agriculture we call that soil erosion.
Farmer: What can I do to prevent soil erosion?
Officer: You can dig trenches. You can also make terraces in your garden.
Farmer: I don’t know how to make terraces. Can you kindly show me how to do it?
Officer: Yes, I will. You can also plant some trees. Roots help to hold the soil together. Lastly always use
manure when you plant your crops. Manure helps to add nutrients to your soil
a) Identify the people in the conversation.
b) Suggest a suitable title to the dialogue.
c) What is happening to the crop?
d) What is soil erosion?
e) Why should farmers dig terraces on the slopes of hills?
f) Write down lessons you have learnt from the dialogue.
g) Explain how farmers control soil erosion in your community.
2. Act out the conversation above with a friend.
3. Draw a relevant picture to go with the dialogue and write a sentence about it.
8.2 Describing the location of key resources in Rwanda
There are different types of natural resources. Look at the pictures below and explain the type or resource shown.
Look at the four images of natural resources above. Construct a sentence to show where each resource is found in Rwanda.
Present your sentences in class.
Study the map of Rwanda and locate where key natural resources are found.
Write down in your notebooks the name of each resource and the place where it is found.
Present your findings to the class.
Construct sentences about the location of the key natural resources in Rwanda.
• There is a lake in Gatsibo.
• Coltan mines are found near Kamonyi.
• Natural gas is located in Lake Kivu in Rubavu district.
Your teacher will read to you the text below.
Listen carefully and note down important points about the location of resources in Rwanda.
You will use the information you have written to label a map of Rwanda.
Resources in Rwanda
Resources in Rwanda are located in different parts of the country.
The eastern, western and northern parts of the country have fresh water bodies such as lakes and rivers.
The southern part has thick forest cover. This part has a forest called Nyungwe forest.
Other natural resources such as animals are found in Rwanda’s national parks.
These parks are almost evenly distributed accros the country. The east has Akagera National Park.
The South has Nyungwe National Park and the north has Volcanoes National Park.
Rwanda is also rich in mineral deposits. Mining is done in Gifurwe and Rwinkwavu.
Some of the minerals found include wolframite, cassiterite and coltan.
a) List down all the natural resources mentioned in the passage.
b) Locate and label where these resources are found on a map of Rwanda.
c) Discuss and write sentences about the usefulness of resources in Rwanda.
8.3 Talking about dangers to the environment
Study the pictures below and answer the questions that follow.
a) Describe what is happening in each picture.
b) Discuss how the activities shown above are likely to affect the environment?
c) What can the people and the government do to control the activities in the pictures?
Read and recite the poem below.
We have many industries.
Industries produce smoke,
Smoke goes into the atmosphere.
Smoke pollutes atmosphere.
The atmosphere has oxygen,
Oxygen is what we breathe.
Breathing keeps us alive.
We have many industries
Industries produce waste
Waste is poured into the lake
Waste pollute the lake.
Our lake gives us fish
Fish is what we eat
Eating keeps us alive.
a) Suggest another suitable title to the poem.
b) How will smoke from industries affect man? Discuss in pairs.
c) How will waste from industries affect man?
d) What benefit do we get from a lake?
e) What should the government do to prevent environmental pollution?
8.4 Talking about protecting the environment
Identify at least five (5) words related to environment from the puzzle below.
Use them to construct correct sentences.
Work in pairs to complete the dialogue below.
Write what you think were Kalisa’s responses.
Mutesi: Do you think the environment will still be good when we are old?
Mutesi: You think it will be ok if we protect it. How should we do it?
Mutoni: Digging terraces to control soil erosion is a good idea. What else
should we do?
Mutoni: You say we ought to conserve the forests. Why should we conserve
Mutoni: Are you sure trees help in the formation of rainfall?
Mutoni: I think we should avoid any bad environmental practice for the good
of our country.
Mutoni: Thanks for your time.
a) Now read the complete dialogue to the class.
b) Act out the dialogue in front of the class.
c) Write other ways of protecting the environment.
d) What lessons have you learnt from the dialogue?
Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.
Man and the environment
Man gets all his basic needs from the environment. If we do not take good care of the environment, man will starve and die.
What is man really doing to destroy the environment? Man is cutting down trees without planting others.
This is called deforestation. Trees help in making rain, are home to wildlife and provide medicine.
More so, man is pouring industrial waste into water bodies like lakes and rivers.
The wastes will end up poisoning all the water or will kill all things that live in the water.
Man is also carrying out illegal hunting called poaching. This will cause many important animals to become extinct.
If man plants more trees, he will make the earth green again. If man stops pouring garbage into the water, the water will be clean again.
Clean water is good for aquatic animals to live in. It is our responsibility to leave the environment better than we found it.
a) Why is the environment important to man?
b) What benefits do trees have?
c) How important are water bodies to man?
d) What will happen if man continues destroying the environment?
e) What will you do to protect your surroundings?
f) Discuss with your study partner the importance of having many trees in our country.
g) Why do you think national parks in Rwanda should be protected?
Should is used to give advice. We use should to tell people what to do or how to do things. We use shouldn’t in the negative.
1. People should plant more trees.
2. You should not walk in the rain.
3. Trees should not be cut down.
4. Industries should not pour waste into lakes.
5. Children should not play in the bush.
Use the table below to construct ten correct sentences.
We use need to when we want to tell people what to do or how to do it. Use need to to make a suggestion is considered polite. The opposite is needn’t.
1. We need to protect the environment.
2. We needn’t cut trees without planting others.
3. You needn’t carry your umbrella today.
4. They need to read about animals.
Discuss and write down five sentences using need and needn’t. They should be about the environment.
1. If you pay, you can enter the zoo.
2. If the population increases, people will cut down more trees.
3. If it rains too much, our crops will die.
4. If the sun shines, the soil will dry out.
5. If we keep our environment clean, we shall be healthy
Write five correct sentences about the environment in the First conditional.
Study the table and construct five correct sentences in the First Conditional tense.
Write a poem about any factor affecting your environment. Present it in class.
Sounds and spelling
Listen carefully as your teacher dictates sentences to you. Write each sentence in your exercise book.
Rearrange the letters to form words
I never walk but always run. I don’t sleep even though I have a bed.
I have a mouth but never eat! Who am I?
Hold a class debate on the motion:
Man’s activities are destroying the environment.
Think, pair and share
Suggest a punishment that the government can give to people who destroy the environment
Unit 8 Assessment
1. Discuss how resources are related to the environment. Present your answers in class.
2. List down all the natural resources found in Rwanda.
3. Discuss what different resources provide.
4. Locate and label on a map of Rwanda’s places where different resources are found.
5. What natural resources can be affected by pollution?
6. Match the following sentence parts
7. State some of the things that cause harm to the environment.
8. Explain how we can protect our environment and natural resources.
9. Draw and colour one resource of your choice and state its usefulness.
10. Draw a map of Rwanda and locate districts where key natural resources are found.
11. Suggest possible ways of protecting our environment.
12. Discuss and present why it is important to have government bodies such as REMA.
13. Discuss and write down what would happen if we cut down all the trees from forests.
14. Draw members of your community doing any activity that protects the environment.
a) What is a family?
b) List and explain some pieces of advice parents commonly give their children.
c) What shouldn’t one do to keep at peace with our family members?
9.1 Describing jobs in the household
1. Describe the activities shown in the pictures.
2. Match the pictures with the correct sentences.
a) Mary’s father is looking after their newborn baby.
b) Mary’s mother is cooking food.
c) Claude is slashing the compound.
d) Mary is washing cups and plates.
e) Mary’s mother is building a house.
Discuss what you do to help at home. Write in your notebooks and present to the class.
Question: What work do you do at home?
Answer: I make my bed.
Use the words below to make sentences to show the household chores done by family members.
• Clean the bathroom • Mop the floor
• Clean the toilet • Cook breakfast
• Wash dishes • Cut the grass
• Make the bed • Prepare a meal
• Clean the windows • Throw away the garbage
My father cuts the grass.
Write about your favourite household chore.
9.2 Describing what parents say
Your parent wants you to do the things shown in the pictures. What will they tell you to do?
1. When we want someone to do some thing, we begin the sentence with a verb.
2. When we want someone not to do some thing, we begin the sentence with the word don’t.
Complete the table below using the right commands.
Use one of the words below to complete the sentences correctly.
clean, wash, make, prepare, throw
1.--------------------------- your clothes! You are a big boy.
2. Don’t -------------------the dishes! You will break them.
3. Don’t--------------------me wait!
4. -------------------------- dinner now!
5. Don’t--------------------rubbish everywhere! Take it to the dustbin.
Read and role-play the dialogue below.
Mother: Sweep the house. I am going to the farm.
Gatete: Yes, Mother, but where can I find the broom?
Mother: Check behind the kitchen door.
Gatete: Okay, Mother.
Mother: One other thing, Gatete.
Gatete: Yes, Mother?
Mother: Prepare tea. There is some money in the drawer. Use it to buy bread.
Don’t stop to play on the way to the shop.
Gatete: How much money is in the drawer mother?
Mother: I left a one thousand franc note. I think it will be enough.
Gatete: Okay, mother I will do everything as you have said.
a) Discuss and write down four commands that Mother used to tell Gatete what to do.
b) Discuss why it is important to keep our houses and surroundings clean. Present your work.
c) Get in pairs and tell your friend why it is good to obey parents.
Write down the answers in your notebooks and read them to the class.
d) What lesson have you learnt from the dialogue?
Make your own dialogue about giving commands and act it out.
One of you will take the role of a parent and the other a child.
When we want to report what was commanded, we change the sentence into past simple tense. Instead of saying ‘giving a command’ we can ‘tell’ a person what to do.
That is why ‘tell’ changes to its past simple tense of ‘told’ when the command is reported.
Mother told Gatete to sweep the house.
Look at the sentences below. They are commands. Give a response to each as shown in the example.
1. Sweep your room every morning. Answer: I was told to sweep my room every morning.
2. Wash your clothes every day.
3. Pray before going to sleep.
4. Say sorry after making a mistake.
5. Respect your family members.
6. Sit and eat with the others.
7. Help your friends in doing work.
8. Greet all family members.
9. Care for the sick in your family.
10. Do not waste food.
9.3 Describing what parents require
Talk to one another about what your parents tell you to do. Say what your friend says to the class.
• My parents tell me to go sleep early. What do your parents tell you to do?
• They tell me to avoid playing on the road. They say it is risky.
• Manzi’s father tells him to fetch water every morning before coming to school.
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.
Share your answers with the class.
‘I want someone to go and fetch me some water,’ Mother called out.
Charles and I were still sleeping. We didn’t want to leave our warm beds and go to the cold
mountains just for water. Moreover, Mother would then use it for cooking sugarless porridge!
We both pretended not to have heard.
‘‘Boys, you should bring water for your porridge!’’ she loudly added.
We remained silent. None of us moved a step. We breathed under our blankets with our eyes peeping
out to the door. Mother was sure we had heard. We were also sure that some punishment would follow.
We heard heavy footsteps coming to the bedroom.
I threw off my blanket and ran out. I snatched the jerrycan in front of the house and headed for the well.
Behind me, I could hear someone following me. I knew it was Mother!
I increased my speed.
After some time, I got tired and reduced my speed. I quickly increased it again when I heard the steps getting close. I knew Mother’s cane was about to hit my back.
I was relieved when I heard Charles calling me.
“It’s me Robert, please wait!” he shouted. What a relief!
Soon Charles caught up with me. We were both breathing heavily.
Charles and I were leaning on a tree to regain our breath.
“Listen,” Charles began, “we ought to obey Mother. She does so much to make sure we are happy and healthy.”
‘That is very true, Charles,” I said.
“I think we ought to apologise to her also. What we have been doing is disrespectful,” Charles added.
“Come on, let’s hurry and fetch the water. She will be waiting for it,”
I told my brother as we started running again.
a) State the people in the story.
b) What were the boys doing when Mother called them?
c) Why did Mother need the water?
d) What made the boys run outside?
e) What advice did the brothers give to each other?
f) Which lesson have you learnt from the story?
g) Draw a relevant picture to go with the story and write a sentence about it.
9.4 Describing a family quarrel
Read the passage below in groups and answer the questions that follow.
Eric: I have to hurry home. Mother told me to wash the cups and plates when I get home.
Sandra: I wanted to do my homework first.
John: Why don’t you do it now?
Sandra: Father told me to go to the market and buy food when I get home.
I have to hurry and get home too.
John: Father told me to go to the garden but I refused.
Eric: That was bad.
John: Why? I cannot do everything!
Sandra: You should obey your parents. Don’t make them angry.
We should help them when they ask
us to do something.
Eric: You ought to apologise to them too.
John: Thank you… Now that I think about it, I was wrong. I will do my best to help my parents.
a) Mention the three people in the conversation.
b) What did Sandra want to do?
c) What did her parents tell her to do?
d) Why were John’s parents angry?
e) What advice did John get from his friends?
‘Ought to’ and ‘ought not’ are used to show when it is necessary to perform an action.
They also talk about something that you expect will or will not happen.
Ought not is the negative of ought to.Look at the examples of ought below.
1. Children ought to go to sleep after praying.
2. You ought to knock at the door before entering.
3. Children ought to obey their parents.
4. Parents ought to care for their children.
Choose the correct form to complete the sentences below.
1. Juma (ought to/ought not to) make his bed.
2. Parents (ought to/ought not to) advise their children.
3. Children (ought to/ought not to) finish their homework before playing.
4. Brothers and sisters (ought to/ought not to) yell at each other.
5. We (ought to/ought not to) say sorry when we make mistakes.
Role play the interview below. Then answer the questions that follow.
Mutoni: What is your name?
John: My name is John Mugisha.
Mutoni: How old are you?
John: I am 13 years old.
Mutoni: Do you often have family quarrels?
John: We do have family quarrels, but not that often.
Mutoni: What are the causes of such quarrels?
John: I remember one between my two sisters which was over a book one of them lost.
Mutoni: What do you do when such quarrels arise?
John: I always try to stop them, but if I cannot then I look for an older person to help.
Mutoni: When was the last time you had a quarrel in your family?
John: Last week, I was busy doing my homework. My little brother decided to untether the
goats and one of the goats was missing for three days. My father blamed it on me.
a) How does Mugisha handle family quarrels?
b) Why did Mugisha have a quarrel with his father?
c) What does the word ‘untethered’ mean as used in the interview above?
d) Get a friend and conduct an interview about family quarrels.
Write down the replies and read them to your friend.
Write a story about a family quarrel that you heard or saw. How was it solved?
9.5 Saying why someone was angry
Read what Vicky and Amina are angry about.
Write a story using one of the following sentence starters. Read your work to the class.
a) I was watching cartoons on television when --------------------
b) The teacher had already entered the class but Paul was still-------------------
c) Jimmy was running very fast. He suddenly knocked me down.-----------------
Recite the poem below and then answer the questions that follow.
I say sorry
When I make a mistake
When I don’t follow instructions
I ought to apologise; I say sorry.
And all will be fine again.
When I don’t obey my parents,
When I don’t clean the house,
I ought to apologise; I say sorry.
And all will be fine again.
1. What is the title of the poem?
2. What does he have to do after making a mistake?
3. Mention two examples of mistakes that are given in the poem.
4. Why should one apologise for making a mistake?
5. Tell your study partner about a mistake you made and how you solved it.
9.6 Giving advice
Discuss and share the answers with your class.
a) What would you tell your friend if you find him or her using dirty water to wash his clothes?
b) What should you do if you find your friends playing on the road?
c) What would you do if your friend is making noise while you study?
d) What would you tell your friend if you found him smoking?
Read the following text. What do you think Mutoni’s parents should do?
Mutoni is stubborn
Mutoni likes playing till late in the night. She does get home at the time her father has set for her to be home. She does not want to do house work.
When she is punished, she runs and sleeps at the neighbour’s house.
Remember ‘should’ and ‘shouldn’t’ are used to give advice.Look at the examples below.
1. Children should obey their parents.
2. We should apologise when we make mistakes.
3. You should visit the dentist regularly.
4. People should not wear dirty clothes.
5. We should not stay out late at night.
Make five sentences from the table below.
9.7 Talking about family rules
1. Read out loud the family rules below.
a) No one will miss a meal.
b) Everyone will wash him/herself.
c) All family members will pray before going to bed.
d) We will apologise for making mistakes.
e) Every family member will respect the others.
2. Do you have such rules at your home?
In your exercise books do the following:
a) Make ten rules for your family. Use ‘will’ as shown in the examples above.
b) Make a poster to show the rules that you have come up with.
c) Practise some of the rules that you have come up with in a role-play about a family.
‘Will’ is a modal verb which helps us to talk about the future.
For example we can say, Will they come here tomorrow?
Will can also be used to show that we intend to do something.
I will follow all the rules at home. This is because it is possible that you might choose
not to follow the rules and therefore get punished. In a way, ‘will’ shows your intention.
Construct five sentences using will to show your intentions.
Choose at least five words from the table below and construct correct sentences using them.
fetch clean angry sorry polite respect apologise wrong
Sounds and spelling
Listen carefully as your teacher dictates words and sentences used in this unit.
Write them down in your exercise books.
Look up the meaning of the following words related to what you have learnt about family.
Practise pronouncing them. Write simple sentences using these words.
aggression anxiety attachment addiction attitude affinity
Hold a class debate on the motion:
Nuclear family is better than extended family.
Think pair and share.
Peace in the country starts from the family. Discuss.
Unit 9 Assessment
1. Describe the household jobs in your family and mention the people who do them.
2. List five command words that your parents used recently to tell you what to do.
3 a) Describe a quarrel you saw in your family.
b) What caused the quarrel?
c) Explain how it was resolved.
4. What pieces of advice can you give to people so that they live peacefully in their families?
5. a) Describe the rules in your family.
b) Which of the rules have helped you to behave well?
c) Which of those rules did you break? What happened to you after breaking the rules?
6. If you were the village leader, explain how you would make sure that family members live in peace with
7. Draw two of your family members giving you commands. Write sentences about the pictures.
What do you think the universe is made up of? Name and briefly explain the different types of planets.
10.1 Describing the solar system
1. Arrange the words below in alphabetical order.
astronomer astronomy satellites galaxy asteroid comet planet
astronaut revolve solar distance rotation diameter orbit
2. Use a dictionary or the internet to find out the meaning of each of the words.
3. Use at least five words from the words above to write correct sentences.
Discuss the following questions and write down your answers. Present your answers to the rest of the class.
a) Find out the eight planets that make up the solar system.
b) What planet is closest to the sun?
c) Which planets have rings?
d) Which is the biggest planet?
e) Which small planet was recently removed from the list of planets?
Read the text below.
Have you ever heard of dwarf planets? Dwarf planets are planets that are smaller than the moon.
There are five dwarf planets that have now been identified.
These are Eris, Haumea, Makemake, Ceres and Pluto.
Pluto was recently demoted to a dwarf planet after astronomers confirmed that it was smaller than Eris.
Of all the dwarf planets, Eris is the largest.
Scientists also believe that there are many other dwarf planets that are yet to be discovered.
Choose one of the dwarf planets and do research about it. Write short notes about it. Present your groups findings to the class.
Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.
The solar system
The sun and the planets and other space bodies that move around it make up the solar system. One complete rotation around the sun is known as an orbit. There are 8 planets in the solar system. These planets are grouped into two groups.
The first group is known as the Inner Solar System. It is made up of Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. These four planets are the ones that are closest to the sun. Another name for these planets is terrestrial planets because their surfaces are made up of rocks.
The second group is known as the Outer Solar System and it is made up of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The other name for these planets is gas giants. The inner and outer planets are separated by the asteroid belt. An asteroid is simply a piece of rock. The asteroid belt is filled with rocks. In addition to the planets and the asteroid belt, the solar system is also made up of moons, comets, dust, gas and dwarf or minor planets.
a) What is an orbit according to the passage?
b) State the elements that make up the inner solar system.
c) What separates the inner planets from the outer planets?
d) Explain the meaning of asteroid.
e) Draw the solar system in your exercise books.
10.2 Describing distances in space
Study the information in the table below and answer the questions that follow. Present your work to the class.
a) Which planet is furthest from the sun?
b) Which planet is closest to the sun?
c) How far away is Uranus from the sun?
d) What is the distance between the sun and the earth?
You will need balls or objects to represent the different planets, a metre rule, measuring tape and a pair of scissors.
a) Rearrange the different objects in an imaginary orbit bearing in mind their distances from the sun (which is the middle object).
b) Take measurements and convert them using the scale chosen.
At this level, we shall not get into the real measurement and calculations of space distances between the different elements in space as space scientists do. However, you are required to do some model measurement using scales that are representative to certain distances say 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) =10cm or 4m.
c) Demonstrate the distance between your objects outside the class. You will be amazed at how far the tape can go if converted.
d) Record your measurements and explain to the class how you arrived at the answers.
10.3 Describing planets
Use the table from the previous page. Also carry out your own research and answer the questions that follow.
a) How many planets do we have?
b) Which is the largest planet?
c) Which planet has the highest number of satellites?
d) Which planet has a ring?
Get into groups and let each group pick one planet and talk about it. Construct sentences that compare the planet you have picked with another planet being discussed by another group.
One group can say Mercury is smaller than the Earth.
1. Name all the planets from A to H.
2. Complete the table below to make five correct sentences that compare the diameters of the different planets.
Read the poem below, and answer the questions that follow.
The sun and the moon
Both the sun and the moon are kings,
They are kings of the sky.
The moon and the sun are-for ever on war,
The moon never faces the sun,
The sun is always chasing the moon.
When day time comes,
The moon hides its face.
In darkness, the moon, stronger,
That’s why the sun hides from darkness.
And why all this?
Two kings never on one throne.
a) Where do the sun and moon live?
b) Write a paragraph explaining why the sun and the moon are for ever on war.
c) Write your own short poem explaining the relationship between any two planets.
10.4 Describing moons
Some planets have moons. Others do not have moons. Work in groups to identify the planets that have moons.
a) Write down the planets that have moons. State the number of moons for each planet.
b) Make a list of those planets without moons.
c) Make a poster of your findings and hang it in class for others to see.
Read and role-play the dialogue below.
Jane: Look, there comes a funnily dressed person!
Peter: The person looks like an astronaut.
Astronaut: Good afternoon, pupils.
Pupils: Good afternoon, sir.
Astronaut: My Name is Neil, I am an astronaut. Do you know who an astronaut is?
Philip: Yes, sir. An astronaut is a person who travels to space.
Astronaut: Very well, young man. And how do astronauts travel to space?
Mary: They use a rocket, sir.
Astronaut: True. Space is very far away from earth. One has to use a special vessel called a rocket to
travel to space.
Jane: Sir, have you ever been to the moon?
Astronaut: Yes, Jane. I was the first man to walk on the moon. It was the best day of my life!
Peter: That must have been a funny experience. Sir, does every planet have a moon like the one
we see at night?
Astronaut: Not all of them, there are two planets that do not have a moon. There are others that have
one or two. There are also others that have very many moons.
Mary: Wow, the planets with very many moons must be hot !
Astronaut: No, Mary. Moons do not have any heat. In fact the planets that have the highest number of
moons are the coldest.
Philip: But why does the moon shine if it does not have heat?
Astronaut: What we see is a reflection from the light from the sun. It is just light. There is no heat.
Pupils: Thank you very much, sir. We have learnt a lot.
a) Which vessel is used when travelling to space?
b) What is the name of the astronaut?
c) How many planets do not have moons?
d) Why are the planets that have the highest number of moons the coldest?
Study the table below .
a) Which planet has more light at night? Why?
b) Which planet has the highest number of moons?
c) Which planets have no moons?
10.5 Recounting past events
Match the words in Column A with their meanings in Column B.
Copy the puzzle and identify five (5) words related to space science.
Discuss in groups and complete the passage by selecting the right word from the list for each blank space. Write your answers in your exercise books. Choose one pupil from the group to read in class.
failed left astronauts started set off
The first country to launch a space mission was the former Soviet Union (USSR).Their first attempt to land man on the moon--------------------- In 1961, in the USA, President John F. Kennedy------------------- a plan to send humans to the moon and bring them back to earth safely.
Apollo 11--------------------- on 16th July, 1969 with a team of----------------------- on board. They were Neil Armstrong, Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin and Michael Collins.
The first man to step on the moon was Neil Armstrong. The astronauts left a USA flag and a sign on the moon before safely returning to earth. These days, there are so many countries conducting space studies such as the USA, Russia, the United Kingdom, Iran, North Korea, Japan, India, Ukraine and China.
Read the poem below and answer the questions that follow.
Five, four, three, two, one...
He commands the crew
Seated in a cylindrical amazing invention,
That suddenly bursts into a huge flame of fire.
Upwards it goes leaving spectators in a cloud of dust.
Discoveries will never end.
a) What is the poem talking about?
b) What is the counting; “five, four, three, two, one ... ” meant for?
c) Give one word for “cylindrical amazing invention.”
d) Explain what you understand by the words crew and spectators.
e) Write a similar poem about going to space and read it to the class.
We often use as…as/than/more to talk about two things. When there are more than two things, a superlative form is required. This may involve adding _est, _st or most depending on the adjective.
Beautiful as an adjective takes most in the superlative.
Planet earth is not as hot as Venus.Venus is hotter than planet earth.
Discuss and complete the sentences below by using the correct form of the words in brackets. You will read your answers in class.
1. Mercury is the ----------------------- planet to the sun. (close)
2. Saturn is the ------------------------- planet in the solar system. (beautiful)
3. Venus is --------------------------- ---than Neptune. (hot)
4. Jupiter is the ------------------------- planet in the solar system. (big)
5. Mercury is ----------------------------- than earth. (small)
Identify and underline the verbs that show past tense in the following sentences.
1. Armstrong stepped on the moon in 1969.
2. Last year, the USA launched another rocket for a space mission.
3. Different countries competed in space missions after the 1969 success.
4. America trained hundreds of space scientists.
5. An eclipse occurred in northern Uganda three years ago.
Sounds and spelling
Listen carefully as your teacher dictates some sentences. Write them down in your exercise book.
Complete the planet spelling by inserting the correct letters in the blank spaces.
a) N_pt_n _ b) M_r_ury c) Ve_ _s
d) E_ _th e) M_rs f) Ju_ _ter
g) S_t_rn h) Ur_ _us
Carry out your own research on planets. Get information about the planets from atlases and other useful books in the library. The internet will help you too.
a) Make a poster of the solar system. Label all the major planets.
b) Your teacher will provide you with the necessary materials. Using a card board box or clay, design a space craft and display your work for the class in the Activity Corner.
I am a big mass in the shape of a ball. I hang up high in the sky and I have other masses shaped like balls rotating around me. My friend visits the earth at night and, I replace him during the day. I make every human being busy because they like me. What am I?
Space science has saved our planet from a number of problems. Do you agree or disagree?
Unit 10 Assessment
1. Discuss and share the meaning of universe.
2. List all the planets of the universe in ascending order from the one nearest to the sun to the farthest one.
3. Discuss in groups and state which planet is:
a) Closest to the sun
b) Farthest from the sun
c) Smallest in size
d) Largest in size e) Hottest
4. Compare the following planets in terms of distance from the sun, temperature and diameter.
a) Earth and Neptune
b) Jupiter and Uranus
c) Mars and Venus
d) Mercury and Saturn
5. Describe what each of the planets is made up of.
6. In pairs, use atlases to find out the number of moons in:
a) Earth b) Jupiter
7. Discuss why Earth supports human life and the other planets do not.
8. Get in pairs and role-play a teacher and a student asking each other the following question.
a) ------------------------ c) ------------------------
b) -------------------------d) ------------------------
9. Write a composition with the title “My planet earth”.
Follow the guidelines below.
a) Describe what earth is, its position, and unique features like lakes, rivers, mountains, etc.
b) What makes you comfortable on earth?
Abusive: insulting or rude
Addiction: unable to do without
Affinity: a close likeness or agreement
Aggression: feeling of anger, violent behaviour, readiness to attack
Anxiety: worry about what may happen
Arrogant: having or revealing an exaggerated sense of one’s own importance or abilities
Artificial: made or produced by human beings rather than occurring naturally, especially as a copy of
Artist: a person who creates paintings or drawings as a profession or hobby
Asteroid: a small rocky body orbiting the sun Large numbers of these, ranging enormously in size,
are found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, though some have more eccentric orbits
Astronauts: a person who is trained to travel in a spacecraft
Astronomy: the branch of science which deals with celestial objects, space, and the physical universe as
Attachment: the extra part or extension that is or may be attached to something to perform a particular
function Attitude a settled way of thinking or feeling about something
Bossy: fond of giving people orders; domineering
Charming: very pleasant or attractive
Chilly: uncomfortably or unpleasantly cold
Classical: representing ancient Greek or Latin literature, art or culture
Claws: a curved, pointed, horny nail on each digit of the foot in birds, lizards and some mammals
Cold blooded:denoting animals whose body temperature varies with that of environment (e g fish)
Comet: a celestial object consisting of a nucleus of ice and dust and when near the sun, a ‘tail’ of
and dust particles points away from the sun
Compose: write or create (a work of art, especially music or poetry)
Considerate: careful not to inconvenience or harm others
Dinosaur: a fossil reptile of Mesozoic era, often reaching an enormous size
Disciplined: Showing a controlled form of behaviour
Dishonest: behaving or prone to behave in an untrustworthy, deceitful, or insincere way
Disorganized: not properly planned and controlled
Enthusiastic: having or showing intense and eager enjoyment, interest or approval
Excitable: responding too readily to something new or stimulating; easily excited
Folk: people in general or folk music
Forecast: predict or estimate (a future event or trend)
Fossil: the remains or impression of a prehistoric plant or animal embedded in rock and
in petrified from
Fussy: fastidious about one’s needs or requirements; hard to please
Galaxy: a system of millions or billions of stars, together with gas and dust, held together by
Grumpy: bad-tempered and sulky
Hardworking: tending to work with energy and commitment; diligent
Honest: free of deceit; trustful and sincere
Impolite: not showing or having good manners; rude
Injure: do physical harm or damage to someone
Instruments: a tool or implement especially one for precision work
Invertebrates: an animal lacking a backbone such as an arthropod, mollusk, annelid, etc
Jazz: a type of music of black American origin which emerged at the beginning of the 20th
characterized by improvisation, syncopation, and usually regular of forceful rhythm
Large: of considerable or relatively great size, extent or capacity
Leisure: time when one is not working or occupied; free time
Lighting: equipment in a room, building, or street producing light
Lyrics: a lyric poem or verse or the words of a particular song
Mammoth: a large extinct elephant of the Pleistocene epoch, typically hairy with a sloping back and
long curved tusks
Manic: relating to or affected by mania
Melody: a sequence of single notes that is musically satisfying
Memorial site: is a structure built in order to remind people of a famous person or event
Movie: a film
Museum: a building in which objects of historical scientific, artistic, or cultural interest are stored and
National: relating to or characteristic of a nation; common to a whole nation
Natural: existing in or derived from nature ; not made or caused by mankind
Noisy: making or given to making a lot of noise
Non- renewable: existing in finite quantity ; not capable of being replenished
Orbit: the regularly repeated elliptical course of a celestial object or spacecraft about a star or
planet Palaeontologist a person who studies fossils
Palaeontology: the study of fossils to determine the structure and evolution of extinct animals and plants
and the age and conditions of deposition of the rock strata in which they are found
Participate: be involved; take part
Picky: fussy and hard to please
Pleasant: giving a sense of happy satisfaction or enjoyment
Popular: liked or admired by many people or by a particular person or group
Prehistoric: relating to or denoting the period before written records
Presenter: a person who introduces and appears in a television or radio program
Protect: keep safe from harm or injury
Renewable: not depleted when used
Respect: a feeling of deep admiration for someone or something elicited by their abilities, qualities or
Satellites: an artificial body placed in orbit round the earth or another planet in order to collect
information or for communication
Sharp: having an edge or point that is able to cut or pierce something
Sincere: free from pretence or deceit; proceeding from genuine feelings
Slimy: covered by or resembling slime
Stiff: not easily bent or changed in shape; rigid
Strict: demanding that rules concerning behaviour are obeyed and observed
Tourist: a person who is travelling or visiting a place for pleasure
Verse: writing arranged with a metrical rhythm
Vertebrates:an animal of a large group distinguished by the possession of a backbone or spinal column
Volcanoes: a mountain or hill, typically conical, having a crater or vent through which lava, rock fragments,
hot vapour, and gas are or have erupted from the earth’s crust