Topic outline

  • UNIT 1: Mechanical and blacksmith tools

    1. Look at the picture below carefully.
    d
    2. Describe the situation shown in the picture.
    3. Who is the right person recommended to help in such situation?
    4. What kind of tools are required in such situation?
    1.1 Mechanics tools
    Find out
    1. Who a mechanic is.
    2. How to use and maintain mechanical tools.
    3. Where does a mechanic store his or her tools.
    4. What will happen if mechanics were not in our society today?
    a) Identification of mechanic tools
    Activity 1.1 Identifying mechanics tools
    1. Visit a nearby mechanics garage. Look at the people working in
    the garage. What tools are they using? Which of these tools do
    you know?
    2. List down the tools the mechanics are using. What are the tools
    being used for?
    3. Come up with a table like this.
    n
    A mechanic is a person who enable our machines to work properly.
    Table 1.1 Common mechanics tools and their uses
    n
    n
    b) Uses of mechanics tools
    Activity 1.2 Practicing use of mechanics tools
    1. Visit a garage while it is operating.
    2. Observe the tools being used and how the mechanic uses them.
    Come up with a table like this.
    d
    3. Use the tools yourself (You will be guided by the mechanic).
    What challenges did you encounter?
    Table 1.2 Common mechanics tools and their uses
    6
    h
    k
    o
    Remember!
    Tools can harm us. Be very careful while at the workshop. Do not hurt
    yourself or others while using tools.
    c) Maintenance of mechanics tools
    Find out
    How to maintain mechanics tools.
    Activity 1.3 Repairing and maintaining mechanics tools
    1. Look at the following pictures.
    h
    2. Discuss what is taking place in the above pictures.j
    Some ways of maintaining mechanics tools are:
    • Cleaning
    • Oiling /Greasing
    • Repairing
    • Keeping the tools in a clean, dry and safe
    place.
    • Keeping tools in toolbox after use.
    • Using tools for the purpose they are made
    for.
    Work to do
    The maintenance practices mentioned above do not apply to all
    mechanics tools. Come up with a table on which maintenance practice
    applies to which tool.
    d) Storage of mechanics tools
    Find out
    How to store mechanics tools correctly. Write short notes and
    compare with your friend’s findings.
    Activity 1.4 Storing of mechanics tools
    1. Look at the following picture.
    q
    2. Discuss what is being done in the picture above.
    Before storage, mechanics tools should first be thoroughly cleaned, dried
    using a clean piece of cloth then stored either in a cool and dry place or
    in a toolbox as shown below.
    n
    e) Dangers when using mechanics tools
    Find out
    The dangers when using mechanics tools.
    Activity 1. 5 Identifying dangers when using mechanical
    tools
    1. Look at the following picture
    n
    2. Describe the danger shown above in the picture.
    Some dangers that we face while working in a mechanics workshop
    include:
    • Being hit by moving objects.
    n

    working with mechanics tools
    • Cutting or hurting ourselves as
    we use the tools.
    • Getting cuts or bruises by objects
    lying in the garage.
    Dangerous chemicals getting
    into our eyes, nose or mouth

    f) Precautions to take when using mechanics tools
    Activity 1.6 Precautions to take when using mechanics
    tools
    1. Look at the following picture.
    o
    2. Describe how you can dress appropriately when working in a garage
    to avoid accidents.
    To avoid the dangers associated with use of mechanics tools, we should
    always:
    • Keep mechanics tools safely and properly after use.
    • Wear protective clothing such as overall, mouth masks, gloves,
    gumboots among others to protect us as we work.
    • Use tools carefully and for the right purpose to avoid injury.
    • Avoid directing chemicals to other workshop users.

    Work to do

    Find out other dangers related to working in a mechanics workshop
    apart from the ones above. How can we avoid them? Come up with
    a table like this.
    u
    Remember!
    Always buy original tools. Counterfeits may be cheap but break down
    very quickly. In the long run, they are more expensive!

    Self –Test 1.1

    1. What do you think would happen if there were no mechanics to repair or fix broken down machines?
    2. Which mechanic tools is used for:
    a) Replacing a car Tyre?
    b) Unscrewing nuts?
    3. Name the mechanics tools below.
    i
           (a)                                                       (b)                                           (c)
    4. What are some of the dangers that we face in a mechanics
    workshop?
    5. Name three protective clothing that a mechanic should put on?
    1.2 Blacksmith tools
    Find out
    1. Who a blacksmith is.
    2. What tools a blacksmith uses.
    3. Where a blacksmith works.
    4. What will happen if we did not have blacksmiths in our society.
    5. How to use blacksmith tools.
    a) Common blacksmith tools
    Activity 1. 7     Identifying blacksmith tools
    1. Visit a nearby blacksmith workshop. Look at the people working
    in the workshop. What tools are they using? Which of these tools do you know?
    Blacksmiths are people who make or repair tools made of iron by hand.
    They heat metals until red-hot then they beat them with a blacksmith hammer into desired shapes.
    Table 1.3: Common black smith tools
    t

    N.B Some tools that we use at home that are made by blacksmiths
    include knives, axes, machetes, saucepans among others.
    b) Uses of blacksmith tools
    Find out
    The specific uses of blacksmith tools.
    Activity 1. 8 Practicing the use of blacksmith tools
    1. Visit a blacksmith workshop.

    2. Observe the tools being used and how the blacksmith uses them.
    3. Try using the blacksmith tools yourself.

    Table 1.4 Common blacksmith tools and their uses

    jj
    k
    a

    c) Maintenance of blacksmith tools

    Activity 1.9 Practicing maintenance of blacksmith tools
    1. Apply oil on the anvil and blacksmith hammer. What is the
    importance of this practice?
    2. Leave a blacksmith hammer outside the house over night. Do
    you notice anything on the blacksmith hammer after two days?
    Some ways of maintaining blacksmith tools are:
    w

    • Cleaning thoroughly after use.
    • Tools with metallic parts such as anvil, hammer
    and tong should be oiled or greased.
    • Keeping in a dry place to avoid rusting.
    d) Storage of blacksmith tools
    Find out
    1. Correct practice on storage of blacksmith tools.
    2. Conditions needed for proper storage of blacksmith tools.

    Activity 1.10 Storage of blacksmith tools

    1. Look at the following picture.

    g

    2. Describe how blacksmith tools are stored in the picture above.

    Before storage blacksmith tools should be cleaned, wiped dry and stored

    in a toolbox or hanged on a wall.

    e) Identifying dangers when using blacksmith tools
    Activity 1.11      Identifying dangers of blacksmith tools
    1. Look at the following illustration.
    l
    2. Describe the danger shown in the picture above.

    Some dangers that we face while working in a blacksmith workshop

    include:
    • Being hit by moving objects.
    • Cutting or hurting ourselves as we use the tools.
    • Getting bruises by objects lying in the workshop.
    • Dangerous metal particles getting into our eyes, nose or mouth
    as we work.

    • Getting burnt by fire or hot metals.

    f) Precautions to take when using blacksmith tools
    Activity 1.12 Protecting the body when using
    blacksmith blacksmith tools
    1. Look at the following picture.
    h
    2. Describe how you can dress appropriately in a blacksmith workshop
    to avoid accidents.

    To avoid dangers associated with use of blacksmith tools, we should

    always:
    • Keep blacksmith tools safely and properly after use.
    • Wear protective clothing such as overall, mouth masks, gloves,
    and gumboots to protect us as we work.
    • Use tools carefully to avoid injury.
    In general, blacksmiths need to protect themselves against fire or

    hot metals which may cause burns or scalds to their skins as they work.

    Work to do
    Find out other dangers related to working in a blacksmith workshop
    apart from the ones above. How can we avoid them? Come up with

    a table like this.

    u

    Self –Test 1.2
    1. Mention five main tools used by blacksmiths.
    2. Which tools do you use at home that are made by blacksmiths?
    3. Why should we wear googles when dealing with blacksmiths

    tools?

                                         UNIT TEST 1

    1. Why are these people important in our society?
    a) Mechanic
    b) Blacksmith
    2. Match the tool with its use in the table below using a line.
    8

    4

    3. Mutoni was heard by a friend complaining how dirty a blacksmith
    job is. What advice can you give Mutoni?
    4. Why do you think it is necessary for mechanics and blacksmiths to
    put on protective clothes?

    5. What is wrong with the picture below?

    n

    6. Give at least 3 important tools that we use in our homes that are
    produced by blacksmiths.
    7. Bring some blacksmith tools such as anvil, tong and pincers to

    school. Practice maintaining them. What did you do to each tool?

  • UNIT 2:Simple machines

    1. Look at the picture below showing people working in a construction

    site.

    n

    2. Is it easier to move materials as shown in the picture?
    3. Suggest what you can use to move the materials shown in the picture faster.
    2.1 Definition of simple machine
    Find out
    1. What a simple machine is.
    2. The difference between working with and without a simple

    machine.

    Activity 2.1 Carrying heavy weight
    1. Look at the following pictures.
    e

    2. Which one above finds it easier to carry the load? Explain why?

    Simple machines are simple devices that make work easier. Examples

    include wheelbarrow, hammer, screwdriver, spade among others.

    2.2 Types of simple machines
    Find out

    How different simple machines are used to do work.

    Activity 2.2 Identifying simple machines

    1. Look at the following pictures5

    2. Name the types of simple machines shown above.

    Simple machines are of different types. The various categories of
    simple machines are:
    Levers e.g wheelbarrow,crow bar
    Wheel and axle e.g windlass
    Pulleys e.g elevator, cargo lift
    Inclined planes e.g ladder
    Wedges e.g metallic saw

    Screws e.g screwdriver

    a) Levers
    Activity 2.3       Uses of simple machines
    1. Discuss how each group of levers is used. Write a report and

    present the report to the rest of the class.

    n

    Activity 2.4      Practicing the use of levers

    1. Practice playing on a see-saw as shown below with a friend.

    f

    a) Why did you go down and your friend up?
    b) Change positions along the wooden plank. What happens?

    2. Now, try moving a stone using a crowbar as shown below.

    h

    Were you able to move the stone? Now try moving the stone
    without the crowbar? Was it easier? Why?
    3. Which point on the see-saw is:
    a) Effort?
    b) Load?
    c) Pivot or fulcrum?
    How about on the crowbar?

    4. What does your findings tell you about levers?

    Definition
    A lever is a stiff bar with a fixed turning point called a fulcrum or pivot.

    A lever was one of the first simple machines to be discovered in life.

    Parts of the lever
    A lever is made up of effort, fulcrum and load. These parts are shown in

    the diagram below.

    h

    Depending on the position of these parts, levers are put into different

    categories.

    Classes of levers
    Activity 2.5     Identifying classes of levers based on
                            the position of the effort, fulcrum or load

    1. Do the following:

    a) Try removing a piece of nail from wood as shown below.

    u

    b) Open a bottle of soda using a bottle opener as shown below.

    k

    c) Scoop sand using a spade as shown below.

    4

    Study questions
    In the three cases above,
    i) Where did you apply energy to lift the load?
    ii) Where was the turning point?
    iii) What was the position of the load?
    2. Draw a diagram to show the parts of the lever in the positions
    above.
    3. Find out more about the types of levers based on the positions
    of the three parts above. Come up with a table on classes of

    levers as shown below.

    l

    • The turning point of a lever is called pivot or (fulcrum).
    • The force applied to the lever is called effort.
    • The resistance against which the force is applied is called load.
    Levers are put into three classes depending on the position of the fulcrum,
    effort or load.
    i) First class levers
    In first class levers, the fulcrum is between the load and the effort.

    The pictures below are examples of first class levers.

    k

    Work to do
    Find out other machines which belong to this category. Write the list
    down in your notebook.

    ii) Second class levers

    In this class of levers, the load is between the effort and the fulcrum.

    d

    Examples of levers in this class include paper cutter, nut-cracker,

    wheelbarrow and bottle opener in use.

    Work to do
    Find out other machines which belong to this category. Write down
    the list in your notebook.

    iii) Third-class levers

    In this class, the effort is between the load and the fulcrum.

    The pictures below are examples of third-class levers.

    6

    Examples of levers in this class include a tennis racket, fishing rod, baseball

    bat, the human arm, a broom, tweezers and a spade in use.

    Work to do
    Find out other machines which belong to this category. Write down

    the list in your notebook.

    b) Wheel and axle
    • The wheel and axle is a simple machine that has two wheels,
    one large and smaller one fixed together. Examples include a door

    handle, a steering wheel and a windlass.

    y

    c) Pulleys
    • Pulleys - a pulley is a wheel that rotates around an axle which has
    a groove where a rope or a string fits.
    • Types of pulleys include: A single fixed pulley, movable pulley

    and the block and tackle pulley system.

    Z

    d) Inclined plane
    Inclined plane - this is any device with a sloping surface. Examples
    of inclined planes are: staircase, a ladder, a meandering road on a

    steep hill, a ramp among others.

    N

    e) Wedges
    Wedges - a wedge is an object with one sharp cutting edge.

    Examples of wedges are knife, razorblade, axe and chisel.

    N

    f) Screw
    Screws – A screw is a metal rod with a raised thread running
    round it.
    • Screws are used to hold and join pieces of metals or wood together.

    • Screws are also used in jacks to raise heavy objects like cars.

    e

    2.3 Dangers when using simple machines
    Find out

    The dangers of using simple machines.

    Activity 2.6 Dangers when using simple machines
    1. Which dangers do you face when using simple machines? Discuss
    in groups and write a report. Choose one group member to
    present the report in class

    Some dangers that we face when using simple machines include:

    • We can get pricked by pointed parts of the machines.

    d

    • Machines with sharp edges can cut our skin.

    d

    • We can fall when using inclined planes such as ladder
    t

    • We can get hurt while using machines like bicycle.

    g

    Remember!
    We should always buy quality machines and tools. Cheap tools or
    machines may cause accidents. They may also get spoils quickly , this

    makes it expensive in the long run.

    2.4 Safety in using simple machines
    Find out
    How to use simple machine safely without any danger?
    Activity 2.7     Identifying protective methods when using
                            simple machines

    1. How can we avoid the dangers associated with the use of simple
    machine?
    2. Discuss in your group and write short notes.

    3. Compare your report with that of other classmates.

    • We should always be careful when using simple machines to avoid
    accidents.
    • We should always wear protective clothing when using simple
    machines.
    • Protective clothing include overalls, goggles, gumboots, gloves,

    mouth and nose masks among others.

    d

    Self –Test 2.1
    1. What is a lever?
    2. Look at the diagram below. Can you label the parts named X,Y

    and Z?

    m

    3. How would you know whether a given machine is:
    a) First class lever?      b) Second class lever?
    c) Third class lever?

    4. A ladder is an example of ___________. (lever, inclined plane)

                              UNIT TEST 2
    1. What is the importance of the invention of simple machines by
    early human beings?
    2. Where do we apply simple machines in our daily lives.
    3. Give three examples of simple machines where wheel and axle is
    applied.
    4. In which category of simple machines does the one shown below

    belong to?

    h

    5. Given the following list of simple machines: wheelbarrow, nut
    cracker, tweezers, tong, pliers and a pair of scissors. Put them

    into three groups as shown in the following table.

    s

    6. Name parts of your body that act as levers.
    7. Go for a tour around your school. Observe how the roads are
    constructed on steep slopes. Why do you think the roads are
    constructed like that?
    8. What is the use of screws and bolts? What type of simple machines
    are they?
    9. How would you advise primary 6 pupils using simple machines
    with sharp edges?
    10. The diagram below shows a claw hammer being used to

    remove a nail from a piece of wood.

    a

    Based on the diagram, the hammer is _________ class of lever.
    11. Write true or false:
    a) A simple machine uses a single applied force to do work
    against a single load. _________
    b) A simple machine enables people to do work with less effort
    and at greater speed. ____________
    c) Life became very safe when early human beings discovered
    the use of simple machines. _________
    d) The force applied on a simple machine is always greater
    than the work done. _____________
    e) Most levers are examples of simple machines.

    12. Which type of simple machine is shown below?

    g

    A. Lever                  B. Wedge
    C. Screw                 D. Single fixed pulley
    13. Mugabo sweeps the class floor every morning using a broom as

    shown below. To which class of lever is the broom?

    f

    A. Fist class Lever
    B. Third class Lever
    C. Second class Lever
    14. What is a simple machine and how does it help to make work
    easier?
    15. Visit a construction site and list the simple machines used there.

    16. Why do roads on a steep slope meander as shown below?

    r

    17. What is a lever? _____________________
    18. Look at the diagram below. Can you label the parts named X,Y

    and Z?

    n

    19. A ladder is an example of ___________ (lever, inclined plane)


  • UNIT 3:Objects production

    1. Look at the picture below.

    h

    2. What is happening in the picture?

    3. What can you advise the pupils to do?

    3.1 Making toys using clay
    Find out
    1. How you can make a doll using clay.

    2. How you can make a toy motorcycle using wires.

    Activity 3.1      Modelling a doll using clay

    What you need
    • Clay • Water in a container • Model of the doll
    What to do
    1. Collect clay and water.
    n
    2. Mix the clay with water and knead it to obtain dough for modelling.
    u
    3. Model the trunk of the doll.
    o
    4. Model the head with ears, eyes, nose and mouth.
    o

    5. Model the limbs and join the trunks.

    y

    6. Make the final touches and compare your doll to show/drawn on the

    chalkboard. Allow you a model to dry under shade.

    i

    Remember!
    We should not dry our toys under direct sunlight as this will make

    them crack!

    Activity 3.2        Modelling animals using clay
    What you need
    • Clay • Water in a container • Model of the doll
    What to do
    1. Collect materials needed.
    u

    2. Mix the clay with water and knead it to obtain dough for of modelling.

    a

    3. Model the trunk of the cow.

    a

    4. Model the head with ears, eyes, nose,mouth.

    s

    5. Model the limbs and join the trunks.

    n

    6. Model the tail and join it the trunk.
    7. Fix the head onto the trunk. Make the final touches and compare your

    model drawn on the chalkboard.

    s

    8. Allow you a model to dry under shade.

    m

    Remember!
    Our environment is our life. When collecting clay, avoid destroying a

    vegetation and polluting the water

    Work to do
    Use the steps above to make a model of a sheep or a dog. Smooth en

    your model and make it as attractive as possible.

    3.2 Making toys using wires
    Activity 3.3    Making a motorcycle using wires
    What you need
    • Wires   • Pliers   • Ruler   • Rubber bands
    • Old slippers( for making a wheel)  • Pencils  • Drawing paper
    What to do

    1. Collect materials you need.

    a

    2. Make a sketch of toy motorcycle.

    s

    3. Prepare appropriate pieces of wires with the right measurements.

    w

    4. Bend the wires according to the motorcycle shape to be made. The
    frame of main parts are: body of motorcycle, handlebars, footrest

    or foot peg.

    s

    5. Connect the different frames with rubber bands.
    6. Fix two wheels on the frame made of body and handlebars.

    7. Display the complete the motor cycle.

    n

    Remember!
    When making toys from wires, care should be taken. Wires are sharp

    objects that can pierce and harm the skin.

    3.3 Making utility objects in threads
    Find out
    How you can make utility objects ( socks, scarfs, hats) using threads.
    Activity 3.4    Making socks
    What you need
    • Threads            • Sewing needle
    • Pair of scissors    • Razor blade or lance let
    What to do

    1. Collect the materials needed.

    s

    2. Choose your favorite yarn

    s

    3. Cast-on-loop using the left hand needle.

    s

    4. Use two needles to begin knitting the socks as shown below.

    d

    5. Knit the socks until you reach full sock as shown below.

    d

    6. Wrap the end of socks using a piece of cloth to make them strong.

    This is called hemming.

    s

    7. Repeat steps 1-4 to make another sock.

    a

    Activity 3.5     Making scarf
    What you need
    • Threads or yarn      • Sewing needles
    • Hand cream            • Pair of scissors
    • Razor blades
    What to do

    1. Collect materials required.

    s

    2. Choose your favorite yarn
    d
    3. Cast on as shown below.
    d
    4. How to knit cast on 24 stitches.
    s
    • Hold the needle with the 24 cast on stitches in your left hand.
    • Insert the point of the right needle into the first stitch from front to
    back under your left needle.
    • With your index finger bring the loose yarn under and over the
    point of the right needle.
    • Draw the yarn through the stitch with your right needle point.
    • Skip the first loop on he left needle off , so you now have the new

    stitch on the right needle.

    b

    5. Knit until the scarf is complete.

    n

    6 . Wrap the scarf on your neck .

    o

    Watch video using internet link http://www.youtube.com/

    watc?v=IwRwJUgt_Tg on how to knit a scarf.

    3.4 Making learning materials using a paper
    Find out
    How to make learning aids from paper.
    Can you name some learning aids you made in Primary 4 and 5? How
    did you make them? In this class, you will make:
    • Regular polygons, for example a pentagon and hexagon.

    • Various solids, for example cuboid and cylinder

    3.5 Making regular polygons
    Find out
    How to make regular polygons from manila paper. Which tools and

    materials are used when making polygons from a paper.

    Activity 3.6 Making regular polygons from manila paper
    What you need
    • Manila paper                 • Pencil
    • Pair of scissors
    What to do
    1. Collect the materials required.
    h
    2 . Draw a hexagon using a pencil,compass on the manila paper.
    f
    3. Cut the paper along the lines as shown below.
    n
    Remember!
    To make a regular polygon, you first draw the polygon on a manila
    paper. Cut the manila paper into the polygon using a pair of scissors.


    3.6 Making solids
    Activity 3.7      Making solids from papers
    What you need
    • Pencil     • Ruler      • A pair of compass
    • Manila paper      • Lancelet, razor blade or pair of scissors
    What to do

    1. Collect materials needed.

    f

    2. Draw a hexagon using a pencil on the manila paper.

    f

    3. Cut the paper along the lines as shown below.

    n

    4. Fold the shape into the cube or solid as shown below

    n

    3.7 Maintenance of utility and learning objects
    Find out
    How to maintain utility and learning objects.

    Activity 3.8      Maintaining utility and learning
    objects

    1. Look the picture below.

    n

    2. Discuss how to maintain utility and learning objects.
    Ways of maintaining utility and learning objects include:
    • Storing utility objects in a clean and dry place.They should be
    covered to avoid dust.

    • The learning materials should be placed on the wall of the classroom.

    Remember!

    Our utility objects require maintenance otherwise they will be spoilt.

    UNIT TEST 3
    1. Name two materials that can be used to make toys.
    2. How can you make a toy made of clay strong?
    3. Apart from toys, name other utility objects found at home that
    are made of clay.
    4. Describe how you can make a motorcycle from wires. How can
    you make it look beautiful?
    5. Look at the picture below.

    n

    a) What is the girl doing?
    b) What materials is she using?
    c) How can she make the mat more durable?
    6. a) Give the importance of knitting in our society.
    b) Apart from knitting, which other methods can be used to
    make utility objects?
    7. Describe how we can maintain our utility and learning materials.
    8. Below is a boy playing with a toy.
    a) What is the toy made of?
    b) How should the boy maintain

    the toy?

    d

    9. Make a cylinder using a Manila
    paper. Which tools did you use?
    What method did you use?
    10. Hitayezu does not like modelling
    using clay. He says it makes him
    dirty and that when he goes home,
    his parents quarrel him. What advice can you give Hitayezu and

    his parents?

  • UNIT 4: Writing Skills

    1. Study the picture below.
    m
    2. Summarize what is going on in the picture in one paragraph in
    your notebook.
    3. Type your summary using your XO laptop. Are you happy with
    your typed work? How can you make it look better?

    4.1 Gnome Environment

    In Primary 4, you learnt about the two interfaces used in the XO laptop.
    Can you name them? How do you switch from Sugar to Gnome

    interface?

    Activity 4.1    Switching from Sugar to Gnome interface
    1. Go to my Settings by placing the cursor at ‘X’
    v

    2. Click on switch desktop.

    v

    3. Click on switch to GNOME.

    i

    4. Lastly, click on restart now button.

    m

    Your screen should look like this.

    b

    Identification of elements of Gnome environment
    Activity 4.2           Gnome environment

    1. Look at the screen below. Does it look familiar?

    n

    2. Identify the parts shown on the screen.
    There are top and bottom panels in a Gnome window. On the top left
    there are: applications and places. On the top right, we find network,
    date and olpc user.

    (i) The Top Menu Panel

    This panel stretches across the top of the screen. The left side contains:
    • Applications
    • Places
    The right side of the panel is home to:
    • A clock and Calendar
    • Network connection
    • Battery status
    • The User Switch area
    Note: If you hold the mouse pointer over the menu text or an icon, a
    brief description of its function appears. If you click one of these icons,

    that application starts.

    Activity 4.3    Launching an application menu
    To launch an application, perform the following:
    1. Open the Applications menu by clicking on it.
    2. Move the mouse down the menu to the Sound and Video. (Each
    sub menu opens as your mouse passes over the category).
    3. Click the menu item for the application.

    4. Locate where you can record sound.

    n

    This Menu displays a list of installed applications. When you click on
    Applications, a drop-down list appears as shown above. Each of these
    sub-menus corresponds to a category. For example, in the Sound & Video

    sub-menu, you will find applications for playing CDs and recording sound.

    ii) Places menu
    Activity 4.4 Explaining places menu

    1. Click on places icon as shown below.

    n

    2. Select recent documents.
    3. Write down names of the documents/ folders which are there.
    The ‘Places’ menu is a quick way to go to various locations on your
    computer and your local network.
    It allows you to open the following items:
    Home folder- where your personal files are kept by default.
    The Desktop folder - which is the main work area on your
    computer.
    Documents - list several of the last folders opened.
    The computer window allows you to browse the computer’s files
    and all data storage attached to the computer.

    • Network allows you to manipulate your networks.

    iii) Network menu
    Activity 4.5        Network Menu

    1. Click on network icon to see which network connections are
    available for use in accessing the internet.
    2. To connect a network you click on it. For example: click on one

    laptop per child to connect on it or to disconnect it

    n

    It displays available networks including WI-FI networks that are available.

    Setting date and time

    Activity 4.6 Setting date and time
    To set date:
    1. Place the cursor on the date icon at the top right panel. A drop

    down window with the calendar appears.

    f

    2. Click on the back and front arrows to select month and year.

    jh

    3. Place the cursor on the date then click on it to set the date.

    t

    To set time:
    4. Place the cursor on the time icon at the top right panel. Click on

    edit. This will allow you to input the correct time.

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    Sometimes, the date and time on the XO-laptop may not be right. When

    this happens, you may need to re-set the date and time.

    Activity 4.7      Opening Abiword program
    You will open an Abiword program in this activity.
    1. Go to applications. A drop down menu like the one shown below

    appears.

    l

    2. Place the cursor on office, then click on it.
    3. Select Abiword then click on it. A window like the one below

    appears.

    Did your screen look like this?

    j

    This is the Abi word that can be used to type a word document

    Activity 4.8     Text typing in Abiword
    Follow the steps above to open a new abiword document using your

    XO - laptop. Type in the words ‘Hello children’.

    s

    Working with a document
    Activity 4.9      Creating a new document
    1. Follow the steps as highlighted in Activity 4.8 to open a new
    Abiword window.

    2. Click the File tab and click New, or just click on the new document

    picon.


    oo

    3. Start typing your text. Once you are done with typing in your
    new AbiWord document, it is time to save your document to
    avoid losing the work.
    4. Click the File tab and select ‘Save As’ option.
    5. Select where you would like to save your file (can be documents,
    desktop or any other earlier created folder on the desktop).
    Enter file name which you want to give (for example, my test)
    and Select ‘Save file as’ type file. By default, it is AbiWord. Abw.
    6. Finally, click on save button and your document will be saved
    with the entered name in the selected folder.
    A new blank document always opens when you start Abiword. But you
    can start another new document by clicking on File + New or just click

    on the new document iconb

    Remember!
    In order for your document to be read using other computers, select

    microsoft word.doc as file type.

    Activity 4.10     Saving new changes
    1. Open the Abiword document you created in Activity 7.7 then
    make some corrections in the document. You may delete or add
    information
    2. Now go to file Tab and click on save option or just click on save
    iconmon the Menu Bar.
    3. Re-open the document from its folder and confirm that the
    corrections were saved.
    To save the new changes to the document you can do one of the following:
    • Press CTRL +S to save the new changes.
    • Click on save icon hbelow the file tab.

    • Click on file then click on save.

    Activity 4.11     Opening a document
    1. Click the ‘File tab’ and select ‘Open’ option.
    (The window below will displayed (an open dialog box), which lets you
    move through different file folders and also lets you select a file, which

    you want to open).

    d

    2. Finally locate and select the file which you want to open and
    click on open. In the above screen the file to be opened is named
    ‘exercise.doc’.
    When you want to open an existing document go to File Tab, select
    Open option , locate your file and click on Open button.

    Activity 4.12 Closing a document

    1. Click the File tab and click ‘Close’ option.
    (When you select close option and if the document is not saved before
    closing, it will display a Warning box asking whether the document
    should be saved or not).
    2. It is up to you; If you want to save the changes, then click ‘Save’,
    otherwise click ‘Close without saving’ button.
    (To go back to the document click ‘Cancel’ button. This will close the
    Dialog Box

    3. Or click on ‘(x)’ at the top right side of the screen.
    Once you have opened an existing document, you work on it. This may
    include making some changes, saving then closing it.
    To close an open document, you can do one of the following:
    • Click the File Tab and click close option.

    • Or click on ‘X’ at the top right of the screen.

    Activity 4.13      Renaming an existing document
    1. Locate the folder where the document is (this may be in my
    documents, desktop or any other folder you created earlier).
    2. Right-click on the document, a drop down menu like the one
    below appears.
    3. Click on rename, and write the name you want. Then after, press

    the ‘Enter key

    b

    When you want to rename an existing file in your XO laptop,
    • Right click on the file you want to rename option.
    • Press the erase botton to delete the existing name.

    • Then type the name of your choice and press enter key.

    Folder management
    Activity 4.14          Creating a folder

    1. ‘Right click’ where you want to create a folder.

    n

    2. Click on ‘new folder’.

    j

    3. ‘Right click’ on the untitled folder, then click on ‘rename’
    option or simply, erase ‘untitled folder’ by pressing on delete
    button on the keyboard then type the new name.

    Folders are used to store documents in a computer. They are named

    depending on what content is stored there.

    To create a new folder, you can do one of the following.

    • Right click where you want to create the folder. It can be either on

    the desktop or elsewhere.

    • Then click a ‘new folder’ and save the folder with a name. You can

    name the documents you want in there.

    Activity 4.15       Create a folder
    1. Follow the steps above to create a folder named ‘ MY SCHOOL’.
    2. Save the folder on the desktop then shut down the XO-laptop.
    3. Switch the XO-laptop on. Switch to Gnome interface then try to
    locate the folder on the desktop. Did you find it?

    4. Rename the folder ‘MY CLASS’ and save. What happens?

    Moving and deleting a folder
    Activity 4.16     To move and delete a folder

    1. Right click on the folder you want to move.

    n

    2. Click on ‘Move” option.
    3. Select where you want to put your folder.
    4. Locate the folder in the new location where you moved it to and
    right click on it to delete. Where is the file finally?
    It is possible to move a folder from one location to another. This can be

    done by choosing ‘move to’ command then clicking on the new location.

    How to delete a folder
    To delete a folder, follow these steps:
    1. Right-click’ on the folder.
    2. Click on ‘move to Trash’. This deletes the folder from its current

    location and move it to the trash or bin.

    s

                Talking Point
    1. Create two folders on the desktop.
    2. Name them as EXERCISE 1 and EXERCISE 2.
    3. Move the folder “EXERCISE 1” to folder “Documents”.
    4. Copy the folder “EXERCISE 2” and paste it in Documents folder.

    5. Delete the folder “EXERCISE 2” from the desktop.

    Saving a file into a folder
    Activity 4.17 Saving a file into a folder
    1. Create an, AbiWord document as shown in Activity 4.7.
    2. Type the following text then save the document on the Desktop.
    Name it “My Residence”.
    My residence address
    Southern Province
    Nyanza District
    Mukingo Sector
    Nkomero Cell
    P. O. BOX 240 Nyanza
    3. Save this file in the folder you renamed ‘MY CLASS’ in Activity
    4.15.
    4. Access the file in the folder, then copy and paste it in the folder
    named “EXERCISE 1” that you created in Activity 4.17 above.

    As mentioned earlier, folders are used to store files. After you have

    created a file, for example in AbiWord, you can then save it in the
    appropriate folder by doing the following:
    • Right click on the file, right click on cut then click on the
    folder, then click paste into folder.

    • Place the cursor on the file and drag it to the folder.

    Activity 4.18 Accessing properties of a folder

    1. Right click on any folder on the desktop.

    s

    2. Select the ‘Properties’ in the display menu and click on it. What
    can you see?
    To access the properties of a file or folder, right-click on it and select
    ‘Properties’

    Elements of AbiWord window

    You have already interacted with AbiWord window several times. How

    does the screen of AbiWord look like?

    Talking Point

    1. Study the window below with a friend.

    s

    2. The main features of the window are shown using letters. Write
    them down in your notebook.
    3. Compare your labelled window with other pupil’s. Did you get it

    right?

    AbiWord is a free word processing program. It has a number of different

    components as described below.

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    (a) Title bar
    Activity 4.19 To name a document
    1. Go to application office and click on AbiWord.
    2. What is the title of the opened Abiword document?
    3. Click on File save as and type the name of your choice and
    click on save.
    4. Now what is the new name of the document?

    5. Click on X to close the document.

    The title bar normally displays the name of the program, and the document

    that is currently open. Title bar shows the document titles.

    Table 4.1 Uses of the buttons in the title bar

    s

    (b) The Menu Bar
    Activity 4.20     Inserting a table
    1. Open a new AbiWord document.
    2. Type “Class test.”
    3. Go to menu bar and click on Insert option.
    4. Click on table and select number of columns of your choice,
    then click on insert.

    5. Type in the marks you got in the class test.

    The menu bar is shown below.

    s

                            Fig 4.9: Menu bar features

    The menu bar allows you to choose commands that AbiWord is capable

    of performing. The menu bar has a series of words on it as shown in Fig
    4.9. The most common one is the file tab.
    (c) Toolbar
    Toolbar buttons are typically used to quickly access commonly used menu
    commands. The two types of tool bars are
    i) Standard toolbar
    This toolbar provides access to the most commonly used operations,
    including creating a new file, saving the current document and printing

    the current document, along with cut, copy and paste functions.

    x

    ii) Formatting toolbar
    Activity 4. 21      Formatting Text
    1. Open AbiWord on your XO - Desktop.
    2. Write the following sentence:
    Hallo friend. My name is Andy and this is my first experience with AbiWord.
    3. Make bold the name “Andy”.
    4. Make italics the phrase “Hallo friend”.
    5. Underline the word “AbiWord”.
    6. Now, use the Erase button of your keyboard and try to delete
    the phrase “with AbiWord”.
    7. Use the text cursor and move to “Andy”. Again use the Erase
    button and delete it in order to type your name.

    This toolbar provides access to various formatting options such as
    Italicizing text, making text bold, underlining text and changing font
    type and font size and so on.

    (d) The Scroll bars

    The scroll bars allow you to view other parts of your document and to
    see what part of the document you are currently viewing relative to the

    entire document.

    i) The Vertical scrollbar
    Activity 4.22        Scroll bar
    1. Open a new AbiWord document.
    2. Type number 1 then press Enter key.
    3. Continue typing numbers up to 25.
    4. Practice to scroll so that you can see the first number, and also
    scroll down to see the last number.
    The vertical scrollbar shows where, between the top and bottom of the
    document, the part of the document currently visible is located. It scrolls
    upwards or downwards.

    ii) The horizontal scroll bar

    This allows you to see what part of the width of the document is currently

    visible. It scrolls the document horizontally. That is either towards the left of right.

    (e) The status bar
    Activity 4.23     Using status bar
    1. Open a document done in Activity 4.2.
    2. Click on minimize button.
    3. Go to status bar.
    4. How many pages are there?
    5. What is the name/title of the document on the status bar?
    This displays document information as well as the insertion point
    location. From left to right, this bar contains the total number of pages

    and words in the document, language among others.

    (f) Document area!
    This is the area where you type the text. The flashing vertical bar that
    appears when you click inside this area is called the insertion point and it

    represents the location where text will appear when you type.

    k

    Selecting a Text
    Activity 4.24 Formatting a text
    1. Type the following text:
    “The computer has greatly changed how we do things today. For
    example, with the development in technology, we are able to send mails
    and receive messages without using the postal services. Further, we are
    also able to communicate using other means such as mobile phones. We
    can also send money electronically. Because of all these, it is said we are
    living in the computer age!”

    2. Drag the mouse over the words “Computer age” and click on
    B to make it bold.
    3. Double click on the word technology and change its colour.
    4. Use the shortcut Ctrl+A to select the whole text and make its
    font Italic.
    5. Which part of text did you highlight?

    In order to highlight the text, click and drag the mouse over the desired

    text while pressing onto its left button.
    You can also use the following shortcuts to select text.
    • To select a whole word, double click within the word.
    • To select the whole paragraph, triple click within the paragraph.
    • To select several words or lines, drag the mouse over the words.

    • To select the entire document, press ‘ctrl+A’.

    Remember!
    In order to de-select text, click anywhere outside the selection on

    the page.

    Text formatting
    a) Font Color
    Activity 4.25     Using font color
    1. Open AbiWord document.
    2. Type the following: Kigali is the capital city of Rwanda.
    3. Select the sentence you wrote.
    4. Go to formating tools and click on font colour icon.
    5. Or click on format tab, then click on font, choose text color

    and choose the color you want and click on ok.

    b) Font Style
    Activity 4.26 Using font style

    1. Open AbiWord document.
    2. Write the following sentence “Computer My friend”.
    3. Select the sentence you wrote.
    4. Go to formatting tool and click on font style and choose the
    style of your choice.
    5. Or click on format tab then click on font, then select the font

    you want and click on ok.

    c) Font Size
    Activity 4.27 Using font size

    1. Type the following sentence “Computer My friend”.
    2. Select the sentence you wrote.

    3. Go to formatting tool and change the size to 12.

    d) Underline
    Activity 4.28 Using underline

    1. Select the sentence “Computer My friend”
    2. Go to formatting tools and click on an underline “a”to underline
    your sentence.
    When formatting text, you can change font size, font type and font
    colour. You can also underline, italicize or bold text. Additionally, you
    can align text to the left or to the right.

    m

    Self –Test 4.1
    1. Type text, “Hello Children” in your AbiWord new document.
    Create a folder on the desktop. Rename it as “exercise” Once
    you are done, save your document in that folder to avoid the
    document getting lost.
    2. Open AbiWord and individually create a front page of your school
    newsletter. Use possible AbiWord tools and functions to make a
    good presentation.
    3. Individually do an interview at your local community about
    fighting malaria in your village, type the findings in AbiWord and
    use formatting tools to make your presentation attractive.
    4. Practice copying, cutting, pasting and moving parts of text in the

    document you created in 3 above.

    4.2 Gnumeric Spreadsheet
    Activity 4.29   Introduction to gnumeric spreadsheet
    1. Study the following table carefully. Create a table in AbiWord and
    input the data in the table.

    2. Calculate the total amounts and fill in the last column.

                     Home weekly shopping

    m

    3. Do you think there is a program that can display this table more
    clearly and calculate the total cost for shopping easily? Discuss

    with your friends.

    Definition and role of spreadsheet application
    Gnumeric is a spreadsheet computer program used to manipulate and
    analyze numeric data. It can help you keep track of information in
    lists, organize numeric values in columns and rows, perform and update
    complex calculations.

    Spreadsheet environment

    Spreadsheet is another example of a program used in XO- laptop just like

    AbiWord. How do you open a spreadsheet application in your computer?

    Activity 4.30      Opening spreadsheet environment
    1. Switch from Sugar to Gnome interface in your XO-laptop.
    2. Click the ‘Applications’ icon on the top right corner. Did

    your screen look like this?

    k

    3. Click on “Gnumeric spreadsheet.”

    d

    Features of the spreadsheet window
    Talking Point
    1. Go through the screen in Activity 4.30 with a friend. Try to identify
    the various features on the screen.
    2. What are the features used for?

    3. Label the key features in the screen.

    o

    When you open a spreadsheet, you begin using a workbook that contains
    screens called worksheets. They are identified as sheet 1, sheet 2,
    sheet 3 and so on. The spreadsheet uses rows and columns. The key

    features of a Gnumeric spreadsheet window are shown below.

    Remember!
    Each of the features in the spreadsheet window have special use as

    you shall learn next.

    a) Title Bars
    Activity 4.31 Using title bar

    1. Open a new spreadsheet, window. Check the name on the title
    bar.
    2. Go to File, Save as, and name this workbook as P6A Class list.
    3. Go to title bar and see whether the name has changed.
    The Title Bar is located at the very top of the screen. On the Title bar,
    spreadsheet displays the name of the workbook you are currently using.
    At the top of your screen, you should see “Book1.gnumeric-Gnumeric” as

    shown below or a similar name

    n

    b) Tool bar
    Activity 4.32 Formatting text

    1. Open the workbook named P6A Class lists.
    2. Type “P6A Class lists” in capital letters.
    3. Underline this sentence by clicking on the underlined “a”
    4. Make the sentence bold by clicking on this icon.
    5. Change the size to 14.

    6. Go to standard toolbar and click on save to save your work.

    The Toolbars provide shortcuts to menu commands. Toolbars are generally

    located just below the Menu bar.

    h

    The basic toolbars that is, Standard and Formatting toolbars are available

    as the gnumeric spreadsheet is opened.

    s

    b

    c) Formula bar
    Excel’s Formula bar is located directly above the worksheet document
    window (see Fig. 4.28 below).
    It displays the current content of cells and allows you to add in formulas,

    labels or values into a cell.

    d

    d) Status bar
    The status bar is located across the bottom of the spreadsheet workspace.

    The Status Bar provides information about the current work environment.

    f

    e) Cell
    Activity 4.33 Using cell

    1. Click on Cell A1 and type the word “No”.
    2. Click on cell A2 and type the word “Names”.

    3. Continue typing “Age” and “Sex” in cells A3 and A4.

    A cell is an individual data box, which is intersection of rows and columns.

    For instance, the first cell is A1 (meaning Column A, Row 1).

    n

    f) Name box
    Activity 4.34 Using name box
    1. Click on cell C8 then go to the name box and check whether
    we have the same reference name.
    The Name Box is located next to the formula bar above the worksheet
    area to the left of the formula bar. The name box displays a reference to a

    cell that is currently active.

    d

    g) Column heading
    In Spreadsheets, the column heading or column header is the grey-coloured
    row containing the letters (A, B, C among others) used to identify each
    column in the worksheet. The column header is located above row 1 in

    the worksheet.

    r

    h) Row heading
    The row heading or row header is the grey-coloured column located to
    the left of column 1 in the worksheet containing the numbers (1, 2, 3,

    among others) used to identify each row in the worksheet.

    d

    i) Menu bar
    This is a horizontal menu that appears on top of a window. Usually, each

    option in a menu bar is associated with a pull-down menu.

    s

    j) Scroll bar
    This is the bar that appears on the side or bottom of a window to control
    which part of a list or document is currently in the window’s frame. The

    scrollbar makes it easy to move to any part of a file or document

    s

    k) Creating a workbook

    A workbook is a spreadsheet file that contains one or more worksheets.

    s

    Activity 4.35    Opening new workbook
    1. From the Gnumeric spreadsheet window opened in Activity 4.30,
    Choose File

    2. Click on new from the menu bar. What happens?

    s

    The New Workbook task pane opens as shown below.

    n

    A blank workbook is displayed when Gnumeric spreadsheet is first opened.
    You can also create a new spreadsheet workbook by clicking on File then

    select New.

    Saving a workbook
    Activity 4.36     Saving a workbook

    1. From the Gnumeric spreadsheet window opened in Activity 4.20,
    Choose ‘File’.

    2. Go to ‘save as’ option on the drop down menu.

    s

    The ‘Save As’ dialog box appears as shown below.

    s

    3. Select where to save your file, write the file name and click on save.

    Every workbook created in Excel must be saved and assigned a name to

    distinguish it from other workbooks.
    The first time you save a workbook, spreadsheet will prompt you to assign
    a name through the ‘Save As’ option.
    Once the name is assigned any additional changes made to the text,

    numbers, or formulas must be saved using the ‘Save’ option.

    Opening a workbook
    Activity 4.37      Opening a workbook
    1. Open a new Gnumeric spreadsheet window.
    2. Choose File.

    3. Go to Open option on the drop down menu.

    d

    4. In the Look in list, click the drive, or folder that contains the file
    you want to open.
    5. In the folder list, open the folder that contains the file. Once
    the file is displayed, click the file you want to open.

    6. Click the Open button.

    You can open any workbook that has previously been saved and given a

    name.

    Worksheets
    Activity 4.38 Using worksheets

    1. Open a new spreadsheet window.
    2. Double Click on sheet 1 then type first term, sheet 2 as second
    term and sheet 3 as third term.
    3. Click on insert option and add another sheet.
    4. Double click on it and name it as annual report.
    5. Right click on sheet 4 and select remove to delete that sheet

    (In this example you are going to be deleting Annual report).

    g

    6. Or click on Edit select sheet and then click on remove.

    d

    A worksheet is a collection of cells where data are typed, stored or
    manipulated. By default, each spreadsheet workbook contains three

    worksheets.

    s

    Selecting a worksheet
    When you open a spreadsheet, it automatically selects sheet 1 for you.
    The name of the worksheet appears on its sheet tab at the bottom of the

    document window as shown below.

    d

    To select one of the other two worksheets, simply click on the sheet tab
    of Sheet 2 or Sheet 3.
    Inserting a worksheet
    You can insert as many worksheets as you want. To quickly insert a new

    worksheet, click the ‘Insert’ option at the top of the document window.

    d

    Deleting (or removing) a worksheet

    To delete a worksheet, right-click on the sheet tab and select ‘Remove’

    Renaming a worksheet
    Activity 4.39    Renaming a worksheet
    To give a worksheet a more specific name, do the following:
    1. Right-click on the sheet tab of Sheet 1.
    2. Choose ‘Rename’.
    3. Rename it as you want.

    By default, the worksheets are named Sheet 1, Sheet 2 and Sheet 3.

    g

    Columns, rows and cells
    Entering text or data in a cell
    Activity 4.40     Entering text or data in a cell
    1. Open a new spreadsheet document.
    2. On the worksheet, click a cell.
    3. Type the numbers or text that you want to enter, then press
    ENTER or TAB keys.
    4. Look at the Figure below. The position of the active cell is A1.
    Can you identify cells whose positions are:

    a) A5               b) C3           c) B7

    g

    5. Practise entering data in a created worksheet.

    A cell is the intersection between a row and a column on a spreadsheet.

    They are numbered A, B, C, D and so on horizontally and 1,2,3,4 and
    so on vertically. Therefore, each cell can be given a unique identification
    number such as A1, A2, B1, B2 and so on, depending on its position. To
    select a cell, click on the desired cell, the cell will have a black border,

    which indicates that it is the active cell.

    Remember!
    If a cell is active, any typing will replace what is already in that cell.
    Double-click on the cell to make the cursor appear in the cell for

    smaller edits

    Modifying columns and rows
    It is possible to change column width and row height.

    2. Activity 4.41    Modifying columns and rows

    To change row height or column width:
    1. Open spreadsheet window.
    2. Select a row or column to resize.
    3. ‘Right-click’ the row number or column letter, then select

    Resize row’ or ‘Resize column’.

    You can also click and drag the edge of a row or column to resize it.

    Inserting rows and columns

    Activity 4.42 Adding columns or rows
    1. On your spreadsheet, select a row or column. You can also
    highlight multiple rows or columns.
    2. Click on ‘Insert’ on the menu bar, or right-click on the row or
    column you want to add.

    3. From the menu that appears, select row or column.

    b

    Deleting columns and rows
    2. Activity 4.43     Deleting columns or rows
    1. On your spreadsheet, ‘right-click’ a row or column.
    2. From the menu that appears, select ‘Delete row’ or ‘Delete

    column.

    b

    Talking Point
    1. Open a new spreadsheet document. Practice doing the following:
    2. Increasing the height of a row and the width of a column.
    3. Deleting a column.

    4. Inserting a row.

    Formatting cells
    2. Activity 4.44       Formating Cells

    1. Open a new spreadsheet window.
    2. Type the following titles from cells A1 to E1(Maths, Science,
    English, SST, Kinyarwanda)
    3. Resize all the columns to make all subject titles visible.
    4. Change the font size to 10 and apply ‘sans’ as font style.
    5. Select the cells from A1 to E1 and go down from A20 to E20.
    6. Put borders to the selected area by clicking on the toolbars
    and select ‘all borders’.
    7. Put the Maths and Science titles in blue and the rest in green
    color.
    8. Select all titles and make them center by clicking on the correct
    icon.
    9. From the menu that appears, select row or column.

    We can manipulate cell content in a variety of ways to make our document

    look attractive or more appealing. Some of them include:
    • Changing font type or font size.
    • Inserting or removing cell borders.
    • Applying colour.
    • Aligning text.

    a) Changing font type or font size in a worksheet

    To change font type or font size, follow these steps:
    1. Select the cell, range of cells, text or characters that you want to
    format.
    On the toolbar (Fig 4.30) in the Font group, do the following:
    • To change the font type, click the font type that you want in
    the Font box.

    • To change the font size, click the font size that you want in the Font box.

    b

    b) Inserting or removing cell borders on a worksheet
    Here is how you can add borders by selecting different line styles and
    colours:
    1. Select the cell or range of cells.
    2. On the Tool Bar, click the arrow next to Borders, and then choose

    the border options that you want.

    b

    To remove a border, select the cells with the border and click the arrow
    next to Borders.

    c) Applying a fill colour

    To choose a new fill colour for a cell selection, follow these steps:
    1. On the Tool Bar, in the Font group, click the ‘Fill Colour’ button in the
    drop down menu.

    2. The ‘Fill Colour’ palette appears as shown below.

    s

    3. Select the colour you want to use in the drop-down palette.

    Text alignment and orientation

    Texts and numbers may be aligned using the left-align, center and rightalign

    buttons on the Formatting toolbar.

    Z

    To align text or numbers in a cell:
    1. Select a cell or range of cells.
    2. Click either the Left-Align, Center, or Right-Align buttons on the
    Standard toolbar.
    3. The text or numbers in the cell(s) take on the selected alignment

    treatment.

    Remember!
    You can get more orientation styles in Format Cells dialog box by
    clicking the ‘Format Cells’ alignment item in the list. See the figure

    below.

    3

    You could also ‘right-click’ and choose Format Cells from the shortcut menu.
    • The Format Cells dialog box opens.

    • Click the Alignment tab.

    V

    Basic mathematical operators in spreadsheet
    1. Activity 4.45 Basic Mathematical operations
    1. Beginning in cell D4 (See the screen below), and going down,
    enter the numbers 1, 2, 3, up to 10.
    (Hint: Enter the first 2 numbers, drag over both cells to select,
    then drag the “fill” handle down until the numbers up to 10 are
    entered).
    2. In a cell under the last number put an equal sign (=).
    3. Click on the fist number then type a plus sign (+).
    4. Click on last number you want to add and press enter or a

    blue icon near the formular bar.

    b

    It is possible to manipulate data using Gnumeric spreadsheet. It uses standard
    operators for formulas, such as a plus (+) sign for addition, minus (-) sign

    for subtraction , asterisk (*) for multiplication, forward (/) slash for division.

    b

    Remember!
    All formulas in numeric spreadsheets must begin with an equal sign
    (=). This is because the cell contains, or is equal to the formula and

    the value it calculates.

    • After the equal symbol, you enter either a calculation or function.

    For example, look at the following spreadsheet screen:

    d

    Type the entire equation: =A1+A2+A3+A4+A5
    Add up values in cells B1 through B5, you can use the SUM function:
    = SUM(B1:B5)

    Using the colon (:) in Excel formulas allows you to supply a range of cells

    for the formula. In the above formula example, range B1:B5 includes five
    cells, that is, B1 through B5. Try these out in your XO-laptop and see the

    sum.

    g

    While you can create simple formulas in Excel manually
    (for example, =2+2 or =5*5), most of the time you will use cell addresses
    to create a formula. This is known as making a ‘cell reference’.
    Therefore, by combining a mathematical operator with cell references,
    you can create a variety of simple formulas in spreadsheet.
    Formulae can also include a combination of cell references and numbers,

    as in the examples below:

    a

    Activity 4.46 Total calculation
    1. Enter the following information into a blank worksheet in

    columns A, B and C, and in rows 1 through 6.

    j

    2. Calculate the total cost using a formula in spreadsheet.
    The sum function
    You can use the auto sum icon (Ʃ) on the standard tool bar, which

    automatically adds numbers in a cell. Follow these steps:

    Activity 4.47     Total calculation
    1. Select the cell that the sum will appear in, that is, outside the
    cluster of cells whose value will be added.
    2. Click the auto sum button.
    3. Highlight the group of cells that will be summed.
    4. Press the ‘Enter key’ on the keyboard, or click the green check

    mark on the formula bar.

    f

    Further Activity Calculations
    1. In the costs for the first term and second term in activity
    4.46, calculate the total cost for the second term using
    auto sum.
    2. Create your home weekly shopping list in spreadsheet,
    indicate what have been purchased and how much it

    costs. Work out the total costs.

    Self –Test 4.2
    1. Open a new Gnumeric Spreadsheet document. Enter the following
    information:
    a) Type “January” in Cell A1, press TAB.
    b) Type “February” in Cell B1, press TAB.
    c) Type “March” in Cell C1, press TAB.
    d) Practice using holding your left mouse button to select a
    range (block) of cells. Select A1 through C1.
    2. Open a new Gnumeric spreadsheet document. Do the following:
    a) Format the labels in Cell A1 through C1: Bold
    b) In Cell D1 type: TOTAL
    c) Format the text in Cell D1: Bold, Centered and Blue
    3. Save your practice spreadsheet and name it: “Beginning Excel

    Practice 1”.

    UNIT TEST 4
    1. Do an interview about fighting malaria at your village. Write
    down your findings in your notebook.
    (a) Type the findings in AbiWord.
    (b) Use required formatting tools to make your text look good.
    (c) Create a folder on the desktop and re-name it “Malaria”.
    (d) Save your file as “interview” and save in the folder you
    created.
    2. Write in AbiWord your class timetable and make all necessary
    formatting.
    3. Talk to your friend about your favourite subjects, type them in
    AbiWord.
    4. Save your file as “my favoUrite subject” in ‘My Documents’.
    5. Enter the information below in a spreadsheet. Be sure that the
    information is entered in the same cells as given, or the formulas
    below will not work.

    l

    (a) Click on the Column Header D to highlight the entire
    column.
    (b) Click on the drop down arrow by Insert.
    (c) Click on Insert Sheet Column.
    (d) Click on Cell D2 and type Email Address.
    6. Type the following text in AbiWord document:”Be good friends.
    Do not quarrel any more”.
    (a) Make your text italics.
    (b) Change the font size to 14.
    (c) Use Calibri body as a font style.
    (d) Save in my document.
    7. Open a new workbook and save it with the file name “Months”.
    (a) Activate cell location A2 on the worksheet.
    (b) Type the word “Names”
    (c) Press the right arrow key, this will enter the word into cell
    A2 and activate the cell to the right.
    (d) Type Math and press the right arrow key.

    (e) Repeat the step 4 for the words Science and Total.

  • UNIT 5:Computer Research

    1. Study the picture below. What is happening in the picture?

    nn

    2. How can you help the learners in the picture?

    5.1 Introduction to Search engine
    Activity 5.1    Introduction to Search engine
    1. Open google search engine using your XO-laptop.
    REMEMBER – The XO-laptop should be connected to the
    internet first.
    2. Type these words ‘ Rwanda Education Board’.
    3. Click on search. What can you see?
    We can use the Internet to search for information. To do this, we use
    a web search engine. A web search engine is a software system that is

    designed to search for information on the World Wide Web (www).

    Talking Point

    1. Look at the images below. Do you know the images?

    s

    2. What are the images used for?

    3. Research about them. Give their uses

    Examples of search engines are:
    • Google           • Bing              • MSN
    • Ask                 • Yahoo          • Wikipedia

    • Netscape

    Role of search engines
    Search engines allows internet users to find specific information from the
    web, based on keyword criteria that is entered by the user.
    5.2 Search engine techniques
    The two main techniques of conducting internet search are:
    Keyword searching

    Phrase searching

    a) Keyword Searching
    Case Study
    1. Search your own mind and come up with the most unique
    keyword you can think of.
    2. Log on to Google web browser.
    3. Type the keyword and search its meaning. Write the meaning
    down.
    4. Use the other web browsers to search the same keyword. Write
    the meaning in your notebook.
    5. Compare the definitions from the different browsers. Are they

    the same?

    A keyword search is a basic search technique that involves searching
    for one or more words within a collection of documents. The documents

    returned by the search engine are called the search results.

    v

    You can also make your search for images, videos, maps, books or
    news by just clicking on the options you want to search for as shown in the image above.

    Remember!

    Keyword searches are usually punctuation-sensitive. Therefore, omit apostrophes, parentheses, hyphens, among others when typing the keywords. For example, type ‘dont’ instead of don’t, CD ROM instead of ‘CD-ROM’ and so on.
    b) Phrase Searching
    Phrase search is a type of search that allows users to search for documents
    containing an exact sentence or phrase, rather than single keywords.
    Note: Anytime you have more than one key word, you have a phrase.
    Although each search engine is different, know when you should use this
    method.
    Examples of Phrase searches include:
    • “Rwandan President”          • “Spirit of St. Louis”

    • “Ozone layer depletion”      • “Gulf of Mexico”

    Work to do
    Repeat the case study under Keyword search to search for the phrases

    above. Compare your search from the different browsers.

    Activity 5.2    Assessing the search results
    1. After you complete a search, glance over the first page of
    search results.
    2. Did it return what you are looking for, or is it just a lot of
    unnecessary information?
    3. If your search results do not seem to be very good, you may

    need to try different search keyword or phrase.

    Remember!
    The search engine cannot read your mind, it just looks for matching
    words. For example, if you just search for the word ‘polish’, the search engine does not know whether you are looking for ‘shoe polish’ or ‘history of the Polish language’!
    You could improve your search results by searching for ‘shoe polish’.
    However, this still may return a variety of websites, including:
    • Stores that sell shoe polish
    • Guides on how to polish shoes
    • The history of shoe polish
    To get the best results, ask yourself, “What exactly am I looking for?”

    Specific terms usually return better results.

    Activity 5.3     Conducting a basic search
    1. Go to www.google.com
    2. On the Basic Search screen, type in the following keywords
    exactly as they are written below and take note of the results.
                Chocolate health food or health risk
    NOTE: You do not need to link keywords with AND. Google does this automatically.
    3. Click on Search. How many results are retrieved?
    4. Go back to the Basic Search box and type the following:
    (chocolate OR cocoa OR “dark chocolate”) AND (diet OR
    nutrition).

    5. Click on ‘Search’. How many results are retrieved?

    Successful Search Skills
    Case Study
    1. Search for the phrase “river boats” using google search.
    2. Now, search for ‘river’ AND ‘boats’ then ‘river + boats’ separately.
    3. Compare your results in the cases above. Which results are more relevant?
    Searching for ‘river boats’ will give you more relevant results than searching for, ‘river and boats’ or ‘river + boats’.

    Activity 5.4    Use of keyword and phrase search

    Think about the appropriate keywords or phrase to use, to search for
    the various cultural practices in Rwanda. Using google or any other
    search engine, type the keywords or phrase then search. List down the
    cultural practices in your notebook. Compare your work with those of
    your other class members.

    Before you even open your Internet browser, prepare a list of keywords.

    This will help to eliminate being overwhelmed with millions of irrelevant
    results. Follow these guidelines to create your list of keywords:
    • Identify the main concepts of your topic.
    List keywords for each concept.
    • Include synonyms and alternate spellings.

    • Determine the logical relationships between your keywords.

    Self –Test 5.1
    1. What does www stand for?
    2. In pairs discuss the benefits and risks of using Internet.
    3. Explain the role of search engines in our lives.
    4. Name and compare different search engines using keyword and phrase search techniques.
    5.3 Types of search engines
    Most search engines give general information. They are examples of
    general search engines. The general search engines can be put into
    three categories namely:
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Targeted
    Other examples of search engines include:
    • Meta search engines
    • Science-specific search engines
    • Social sciences-specific search engines
    • Art and humanities-specific search engines
    • Format-specific search engines

    a) Primary Search Engines

    Activity 5.5     Using primary search engine
    1. Go to www.google.com
    2. Search for the phrase ‘ One laptop per child Rwanda’.
    3. Repeat the search above using “Yahoo” and “Bing”.
    4. Compare your search results.
    The most popular search engines used nowadays are known as primary

    search engines. Examples include Google, Yahoo! and Bing.

    n

    Google – This is the most widely used search engine.
    Yahoo - This search engine has been around for many years and is
    one of the most widely used as well.
    Bing – This is relatively new. It is Microsoft’s latest attempt at

    developing a search engine

    b) Secondary Search Engines
    Activity 5.6    Secondary search engine

    1. Go to www.ask.com
    2. Search for the question: ‘Who is the president of Rwanda?’
    3. Write down the results of your search.

    Secondary Search Engines are targeted at smaller, more specific audiences

    although the content itself is still general. Examples of secondary search
    engines include Lycos, LookSmart, Miva, Ask.com and Espotting.

    Of the search engines in this category, Ask.com is the most common:

    ASK.com is based on a question and answer format where most questions

    are answered by other users or are in the form of polls.

    c) Targeted Search Engines
    Activity 5.7 Using targeted Search Engine
    1. Go to city search and search for ‘the first astronaut to visit the
    moon’.
    2. Go to Yahoo Travel and search for ‘the most amazing park in
    Rwanda’.
    3. Go to Music Search and search for ‘ Rwanda Musicians’.

    4. Write down the search results in your notebook.

    Targeted Search Engines are sometimes called topical search engines.
    These search engines are narrowly focused usually to a general topic like medicine or branches of science, travel, sports or some other topic.
    Examples of targeted search engines include City Search, Yahoo Travel and Music Search
    d) Meta search engines
    Case Study
    1. Go to www.metacrawler.com and search for the process of
    digestion.
    2. Go to www.dogpile.com and search for ‘ the process of digestion.
    3. Compare your results in the two cases. Which site gives more
    accurate information?

    Meta search engines take the results from all the other search engines
    and combines them into one large listing. Examples of Meta search
    engines include:
    • Metacrawler (www.metacrawler.com)
    • Dogpile (www.dogpile.com)


    e) Science-Specific search engines
    Case Study
    1. Go to http://scholar.google.com and search for “cause of
    climate change” and “how we can slow it down”.
    2. Repeat the search above using:
    a) http://www.sciencedirect.com
    b) http://www.getcited.org/.
    3. Compare your search results above. Which is more accurate?
    These are academic search engines used for finding and accessing
    articles in academic journals, repositories, archives or other collections
    of scientific information and other articles. Examples include:
    • Google Scholar - http://scholar.google.com
    • Science Direct - http://www.sciencedirect.com

    • GetCITED - http://www.getcited.org

    f) Social science specific search engines
    Case Study
    1. Go to behavioral brain science archive and search for
    ‘populations of sub-saharan African countries’.
    2. Repeat the search above using:
    a) Social Science Research Network:
    b) SocioSite
    c) SocioWeb
    3. Compare your search results above. Which is more accurate?

    Several Internet search engines are available to assist in locating abstracts

    and other information about the social sciences. Examples include:
    • Behavioral Brain Science Archive.
    • Social Science Research Network.
    • SocioSite.
    • The SocioWeb.

    g)  Art and humanities specific search engines

    Activity 5.8   Using art and humanities specific
    search engines
    1. Use the search engines:
    a) http://www.vads.ac.uk/search.php
    b) http://wwar.com/
    To find out about the origin of Kinyarwanda language. Write
    short notes on your research findings in both cases. Compare the two search two results.
    2. Back at home, ask your parent or guardian about the origin of
    Kinyarwanda language.
    3. Compare your findings in (2) above with your search results.

    Humanities are academic disciplines that study human culture. These 
    include ancient and modern languages, literature, philosophy, religion,and musicology. Examples of search engines used to extract information

    in these areas are:

    • VADS visual art images
    http://www.vads.ac.uk/search.php
    • Arts Search (World Wide Arts Resources)

    http://wwar.com/

    h) Format-specific search engines
    Activity 5.9   Format-specific search engines
    1. Use the internet to search for information on:
    a) the game parks in Rwanda
    b) Rwanda athletes
    2. Use different search engines i.e Google, Bing, Yahoo, Ask.com,
    MSN, Wikipedia and Netscape and compare the results of the
    search.

    A format-specific web search engine focuses on searching for web pages 
    in a certain area. This area could be format, subject area, geographic region or domain. There may be overlaps between one or more of these areas.
    5.4 How to search for information using different
    search engines

    In this section, you will learn how to search for information using different

    search engines.

    a) Google
    Google search engine is the most popular search engine and the most
    popular product from Google.
    To do a search in Google, type the key word or the phrase in the space

    in a window similar to Fig. 5.4 below.

    s

    b) Bing
    Bing is an equivalent to Google but from Microsoft company. It is the
    default search engine in Microsoft’s web browser. It provides different
    services including image, web and video search along with maps.
    To search using bing, type the keywood or phrase in the space shown in

    a window similar to Fig. 5.5 below.

    b

    c) Yahoo
    Yahoo apart from being the most popular free email provider, it is also
    a search engine. However, it is not much popular in search engine area.
    To search using yahoo, type the keyword or phrase in the space shown

    in Fig. 5.6.

    k

    d) Ask
    Ask.com is a question and answer search engine. Using ask.com, you
    can get the answers to your questions. It integrates a large amount of
    archive data to answer your questions.
    To search using ask.com, type the question in the space shown in Fig. 5.7

    below.

    j

    e) MSN
    MSN is a web portal and related collection of Internet services and apps
    for Windows and mobile devices provided by Microsoft.
    It is the best in news, sports, entertainment, money, weather, travel, health,
    and lifestyle searches.
    To search using MSN, type the keyword or phrase in the space shown in

    a window similar to Fig. 5.8 below.

    h

    f) Wikipedia
    Wikipedia is an online encyclopaedia that allows anyone to search and
    edit articles. It is the largest and most popular general reference work
    search engine on the Internet and is ranked among the ten most popular
    websites.

    To search using Wikipedia, type the keyword or phrase in the space

    shown in a window similar to Fig. 5.9 below.

    b

    g) Netscape
    Netscape is an Internet browser first introduced as Mosaic Netscape 0.9
    in 1994. Netscape is no longer supported or used, but old versions can

    still be downloaded

    a

    Self –Test 5.2
    1. Name and classify the different types of search engines.
    2. Click on the ‘MAPS’ link:
    a) Type in the search box: ‘Rwanda Population’.
    b) Write down the search results.
    c) Compare the results from different search engines.
    3. Using different search engines, find out the population of East
    African countries. Compare the results from different search
    engines.
    4. Make a research on how we should keep our environment clean.
    Compare your results using different search engines.
    5. Find out the cause of climate change. How can we slow down

    the process? Compare the results from different search engines.

    UNIT TEST 5
    1. Find a website that sells books. What is the website address?
    2. Find a website with news in your first language. What is the
    website address?
    3. On google.com, find a Weather Website.
    a) Find out what the weather is going to be like on Friday,
    Saturday and Sunday in Rwanda.
    b) Write it down in your notebook. How will you dress on
    these days?
    4. On google, find information on the cause of climate change.
    a) What is the name of the website you found the information
    from?
    b) Find out how we can slow down this process.
    c) Write down the information you get.
    5. In the address bar of google.com, type the following:
    www.reb.rw
    a) Find the school calendar.
    b) What information did you get?
    c) Write down the calendar for the second and third term.
    6. Open google, search for the ‘Population of Sub Saharan Africa”.

    Write your findings in AbiWord.

  • UNIT 6:Programming for children

    The picture below shows a family watching a cartoon programme in a
    Television at their home.

    1. Study the chat among the family members carefully.

    b

    2. How would you help Nganji reach his dream as advised by her brother?

    6.1 Turtle Art for displaying things

    Activity 6.1            Displaying text

    1. Open turtle art.

    b

    2. Click on pallete of media objects.

    n

    3. Click on show command.

    n

    4. Replace the word text by typing “This is a green apple”.

    g

    5. Click on show to display this word.

    b

    To display text and numbers use the command block show then type the
    intended text. When you run the command, turtle prints values in the

    status block and displays it in the window.

    Activity 6.2 Displaying numbers
    1. Open turtle art.

    2. Go to palette of media objects drag & drop show command.

    g

    3. Replace the word “text” with a number, example here type “8”.

    b

    4. Click on show to display the number.

    b

    Activity 6.3      Displaying images

    1. Click on palette of media objects.

    d

    2. Drag and drop the show command.

    n

    3. Drag and drop the journal icon over the word “text”.

    b

    4. Click on the image icon to choose the image in the journal.

    h

    5. Select the image by clicking on it.

    6. Click on show block to display the image

    b

    Activity 6.4 Displaying audio
    1. Go to palette of media objects, click on media icon (sugar journal
    audio object).
    2. Drag and drop the command “show”
    3. Drag and drop the audio icon over the word text.
    4. Click on audio icon to choose the audio from journal, select and
    click on the audio you want.

    5. Click on show to listen to the audio.

    We can also use show block to play sound from our music or sound files.

    Drawing regular polygons
    1. Open turtle art

    2. Put the following blocks together (screenshot)

    g

    3. Test your programs by clicking on the commands

    b

    Activity 6.6 Drawing cuboid

    1. What is the name of this shape? What are its characteristics?

    g

    2. Discuss in pairs and draw it using turtle art. Which set of
    instructions did you follow? Write them down in your notebook.

    3. What shape will this set of commands make? Try and see.

    Activity 6.7 Drawing a cube
    1. Open turtle art.

    2. Put the following blocks together.

    n

    3. Test your program by clicking on the commands.

    f

    Activity 6.8: Drawing a circle
    1. Open turtle art.

    2. Put the following blocks together (screenshot).

    f

    3. Test your programs by clicking on the commands.

    Self –Test 6.1
    1. We can use show blocks to display four things. Name them.
    2. Distinguish between a regular and an irregular polygon.
    3. Which of these shapes are regular polygons?
    Cube, cuboid, circle, oval, triangle, rectangle, square,
    parallelogram, rhombus

    4. Draw vertical, horizontal and oblique lines using turtle art
    commands.
    5. Display some sound from your XO – laptop.
    6. Construct and produce different geometric shapes (rectangle,

    triangle, cube, circle) using turtle instructions.

    6.2 Programming animations and computing in

    scratch

    h

    Activity 6.9 Animation
    Take time and familiarise yourself with the main features of the
    scratch screen or the scratch Home Page. Recall what you learnt
    in Primary 4 and 5 under Scratch. Do the following individually in your
    XO-laptop:
    1. Open scratch activity, click on the cat in the Sprite List.
    2. Drag out “move 10 steps” block.
    3. Double click on the block to see the cat move.
    4. Add a control block, for example “When space key pressed
    In Scratch, Sprites can move around, can be activated or they can be

    objects that stay still.

    Scratch project
    In this project, you will create a dancing Sprite. What steps

    will you follow? To have an idea, try out the activity 6.10.

    Activity 6.10      A dancing sprite
    1. Open scratch program in your XO-laptop.
    2. Select ‘New’ from the Menu to start a new project.
    3. Delete the cat sprite.
    4. Select the suitable background by clicking on the “stage icon” located
    under the display window in the third column of the scratch screen.
    5. Click on background in the second column and click on import.
    6. Choose an appropriate background for the dancing sequence you

    are about to make by clicking on indoors and select spotlight stage.

    Remember!
    A Sprite cannot do anything by itself. You have to give instructions

    for it to follow.

    Activity 6.11 Choosing a sprite
    1. Click on “choose new sprite from file”.
    2. Click on people folder then click ok.
    3. Click on the 1st sprite of cassy-dancing then click ok.
    4. Click on costume tab in the second column then click on
    import.

    5. Click on the second sprite of cassy dancing, then click ok.
    6. Go back to costume tab click on import and choose the
    third sprite called cassy dancing.
    7. Repeat step 6 until you finish all sprites of cassy dancing as

    shown.

    n

    Activity 6.12       Animating
    1. Go to script box and select ‘when clicked’ drag and drop it to the

    script area.

    f

    2. Again from the control folder drag the command ‘forever’.
    This command will let the dance program run continuously until
    the user selects the red circle (Stop icon) located at the top right

    side of the Stage screen.

    g

    3. Next, select the ‘Wait command’, which the user should reduce
    in duration from 1 second to 0.5 seconds - otherwise the Sprite
    will be dancing slowly.
    4. Go to Looks folder, select ‘Next Costume’ and place it within

    the Forever command block as shown below.

    u

    5. In order to add sound, go to Sound tab and click on “Sounds
    box” and click on import.
    6. Click on music loops then click ok.
    7. Select hip hop music then click ok.
    8. Go to script box, click on sound and drag the command play

    sound hip hop until done to the script area and drop.

    i

    y

    9. Run the program by clicking on the commands.
    10. Finally, add the following command to introduce a disco light

    effect to the stage.

    n

    Your screen after inputting all the instructions should look like

    this

    n

    Activity 6.13 Scratch projects
    In this activity, you will follow the steps in activity. 6.12 to come up
    with your own animation.
    1. Start a new program with a different background, different music
    and three dancing sprites.
    2. Draw a few Rwandan traditional dancers in different poses using
    paint editor, stagger their appearances on stage.
    3. Locate some appropriate music and make your very own River

    dance scene using the above

    Activity 6.14     Understanding X and Y co-ordinates
    Familiarise yourself with xy co-ordinates as follows:
    1. Switch on your XO laptop. Open scratch Activity.
    2. Go to the stage, followed by background then select ‘Import’
    icon.
    3. Choose the xy-grid - the last of the screen options in the
    background library.
    4. Move the sprite around in order to come to an appreciation of
    coordinates.
    5. Put the cursor on the sprite, then check the horizontal bar at the
    bottom right corner. Write down the ‘x’ and ‘y’ coordinates.
    6. Repeat step 5 several times. Which ‘x’ and ‘y’ coordinates did you

    come up with?

    f

    X and y coordinates
    ‘X’ and ‘Y’ coordinates are respectively the horizontal (x) and vertical
    (y) addresses of any pixel or addressable point on a computer display
    screen.
    With motion commands, inserting co-ordinate values can control the
    magnitude and direction of the sprite’s movement. For example,
    • A negative ‘x’ value will move the sprite horizontally left.
    • A positive‘x’ value will move the sprite horizontally right.
    • A negative ‘y’ value will move the sprite vertically down.

    • A positive‘y’ value will move the sprite vertically up.

    Working with a stage
    Activity 6.15 Selecting a background

    1. Open scratch activity.

    2. Click on Stage.

    t

    3. Go to the “background” option and select “import” option

    d

    4. Go to the folder labelled ‘Indoors’ and select ‘bedroom1’. Does

    your screen look like this?

    f

    You will notice that we have a problem - the cat looks as if it is walking on
    air! Next is to come up with a solution of how to code the Script in order to
    make the cat move across the floor of the room.

    We therefore have to put in some extra command code that will ensure that

    the cat walks along the floor.

    5. First step is to make the Sprite (cat) become the active element
    instead of the Background, so ‘double Click’ on the sprite (cat) to
    move back to the Script of the Sprite.
    6. Move the Sprite to the bottom left-hand corner of the stage screen

    as shown below.

    h

    7. Return to the “bedroom 1” background by clicking on the stage
    icon.
    8. Move the cat to the top right hand corner of the stage.
    The ‘x’ and ‘y’ coordinates for the cat will appear under the faded sprite

    icon located at the top right hand side of the script area.

    f

    9. Go to the ‘Motion’ folder of the ‘Command’ panel.

    Find the ‘Go to X: Y: block’

    d

    10. Move this block into the Script area block. Fill in the ‘x’ and ‘y’

    coordinates shown when you point the arrow head on the cat.

    h

    11. Go to command panel, click on control, pick the ‘when flag is clicked           n

    block . Drag it into the script area and

    place it on top of the block in step 10.

    n

    12. Return the sprite to the bottom left of the stage panel and double

    click on it.

    j

    13. Click the Green Flagficon to start the program. What happens?

    How to make the cat jump up and down
    Activity 6.16     Moving a sprite
    1. Move the cat onto the bed. Place the cursor on the cat then note

    the ‘x’ and ‘y’ co-ordinates of this position.

    t

    2. Now, move the cat to the highest position of jumping. Place the
    cursor onto the cat and record the ‘x’ and ‘y’ co-ordinates of this

    position.

    y

    3. Go to the Motion folder of the Command panel and find the ‘Glide
    1 secs to X: Y block’.
    4. Move this block into the Script area and input the ‘x’ and ‘y’

    co-ordinates of the position of the cat at the bed level.

    n

    5. Repeat steps 4 for the top position of the cat when it jumps.
    6. Now, go to control panel and drag ‘when clicked’, ‘wait for 1 sec’
    and ‘repeat 10 times’ blocks to the script area.
    7. Go to sound panel choose ‘meow’ sound from import option and
    bring the block to the script area.
    8. Click the Green Flagnicon to start the program. Does your
    screen look like this?
    n
    9. Save your program file with the name ‘Cat Jumps’ by selecting
    Save As’ in the File pull-down menu located at the top of the
    Scratch screen, that is:
    m

    Your file will be saved in the scratch default folder located in your

    XO-laptop.

    Further Activity
    1. Place some further blocks of code in the program that will allow
    the cat to jump off the bed and walk a few steps.
    2. Make the cat change colour for each step of the remainder of his
    walk in question 1 above.
    3. Replace the background with a new image from the Background

    Library.

    Activity 6.17 Creating an animation from a story
    Step 1: Create a story line
    The first step to create an animation is to have an idea. It could be
    from a joke you’ve heard or a story you recently read. Or better yet, it
    could be entirely your own. An example of a simple story line has been
    created for you as shown below:

    “Mr. Meow was hungry and needed to find the Donut Man, who is known

    to carry numerous donuts. Fortunately, Mr. Meow found the Donut Man
    immediately and got what he wanted. He ate and ate and ate! When Mr.

    Meow was full, he let out a happy sigh and returned home.

    Step 2: Create Sprites
    In the story above, we can see that there are “three sprites” we need
    to have. Can you name them? They are:
    • Mr. Meow
    • The Donut Man
    • The Donut
    The SPRITES are things or characters shown in the animation. It is very
    easy and fun to create your own sprite. Let’s start by making them.

    First, let’s create the Donut Man.

    Click thek(“Create new sprite”) button to open the Paint Editor.

    The paint editor allows you to create the default costume of the new Sprite.

    k

    Create the Donut Man who proudly wears three donuts round his waist
    as a belt. Do this using lines, circles, rectangles, colours and other tools

    found in the paint editor.

    k

    k

    In the same way, create a Donut Sprite. Clickjto open the Paint
    Editor again. Use the circle drawing toolhand make sure that you
    select the hallow circle instead of solid circle to create the donut shape.Then use paint
    jbucket to fill the inside of the donut.
    k
    When you have created both new Sprites, that is, Donut Man and Donut,

    your Scratch Screen should look something like this:

    When you have created bothee
    new Sprites, that is, Donut Man
    and a Donut, your Scratch
    Screen should look something
    like this:


    You will then do the following

    with the sprites:


                                                                                     Scratch screen after creating Donut and

                                                                                     Donut man


    Table 6.1 The various sprites and their roles

    x

    Step 3: Creating Scripts from the Story Line Sprites
    Now that we have all sprites we need, the next step is to get them to
    work. To make them do anything meaningful, we need to give them their
    scripts. To design scripts for each sprite, we need to review our simple
    story line:
    Mr. Meow was hungry and needed to find the Donut Man, who is known to
    carry many donuts. Fortunately, Mr. Meow found the Donut Man immediately
    and got what he wanted. Mr. Meow ate, ate and ate. When Mr. Meow was full,

    he let out a happy sign and returned home.”

    NOTE: Do not worry if the Scriptsg
    in Scratch Language do not make
    sense to you; we will explain them
    very shortly while we build Mr.
    Meow’s scripts. Let’s do it!
    Now we need to use the Scratch
    “Tool Box”. There are eight
    categories of tools but we will only
    look at five categories that is, Motion, Looks, Sound, Control, and 

    Sensing.

    Remember!
    Most of the tools are very self-explanatory and you can RIGHT CLICK
    a tool and click on help to see a brief description about that

    tool as shown below

    s

    Step 4: Create a Simple Scene
    To create a scene, we change the costume of “Stage”. We will add two
    houses and a plate to the “Stage”. To do so, double-click the Stage
    icon to select. This will take you to “background 1”, hit “Edit” button.

    The paint editor window appears as shown below.

    m

    Change the costume by adding the two houses and a plate. When done,

    hit “OK” button. Does your screen look like this?

    n

    Step 5: Adding Simple Movement Scripts to Sprites
    We are going to show you how these tools work by first building Mr.
    Meow’s scripts. “Double Click” Mr. Meow from the Sprites area, then

    click “Scripts” tab. Do you see a screen like this?

    m

    From the Tool Box, click the “Control” button. From the Control Script
    Snippets, click and drag ‘when clicked’ to the “Scripts tab area”. Your

    screen should look like this.

    n

    Then, build a really simple script so that Mr. Meow follow go to his

    house when the green flag is clicked. Here are the steps to build this;

    Activity 6.18     Moving the sprite around the stage
    1. Move the three sprites as shown below. The x-axis and y-axis
    values will be updated accordingly. Note them down for each

    sprite.

    k

    2. Click “Motion” button in Tool Box Selection
    mm
    3. From Motion Script Snippets, you would notice that the ‘x’-axis
    and ‘y’-axis values are already filled in. See the figure below.
    m
    4. Click “Looks” button in Tool Box Selection, then ‘switch to

    costume’ as shown below.

    n

    5. You are now ready to test this simple scripts. Drag Mr. Meow to
    anywhere in the Stage and then click the Green Start Flag. You
    would see Mr. Meow gliding back to his house.
    6. In the same way, create the following scripts for the Donut Man

    and the Donut itself.

    l

    7. Click the greennflag and see what happens.

    Step 6:  Saving the Project

    To save your completed work: Click on ‘File’, and then ‘Save as’. Give the
    project a title. In the “About this Project” section, fill in details about
    the project such as what it does, what buttons activate the controls and
    any other information you wish to include.

    Step 7: Testing the project

    Now you can test this very simple animation by first moving the sprites
    around in the Stage and clicking the Green StartmFlag button.
    Describe what happens.

    Further Activity

    1. Make a Playground scene complete with see-saw and swing.
    2. Draw in two children (boy and girl) and position them at the end
    of the see-saw.

    3. Give the impression of the see-saw moving.

    Scratch with Mathematics (Simple Computing using scratch)
    As mentioned earlier, it is possible to use scratch to do some mathematical
    computations. In this section, you will learn how to use scratch in:
    • Determining angles and shapes
    • Determining areas.
    • Working out averages.

    a) Shapes and angles

    What shapes do you know? Draw some of these shapes in your notebook.
    What angles do the corners make? For each shape you drew, write down
    the value of the angles at its corners.

    Activity 6.19 Drawing shapes using sprites

    1. Try these out with a friend:
    (a) Walk forward 2 steps, let your friend draw a line of your
    path using a stick.
    (b) Turn 90 degrees to the right. Walk forward 2 steps. Again,
    let your friend draw a line of your path.
    (c) Turn 90 degrees to the right. Walk forward 2 steps. Let
    your friend draw a line of your path .
    (d) Turn 90 degrees to the right, walk forward 2 steps. Let
    your friend draw a line of your path.
    • What shape did your friend come out with?
    It is possible to draw shapes like this using sprites. It is as if your sprite
    is holding a pencil. Whenever the sprite moves, it leaves a line behind it.
    To draw a shape we must “walk” that shape.

    2. Now, open a scratch activity and input the commands.In the
    following picture.
    x
    3. Run the program by clicking on the greengflag. What shape
    did you come up with?
    Did you notice that the code in step 3 above is repetitive? (Because the
    movements and turns are all equal?)
    In Scratch, we can use a repeat loop to create a shorter piece of
    code. For example, the code above can be summarised as follows:
    m
    Try this out in your computer and run it. What shape did you end up
    with? Compare it with the Fig. 6.4. Use the same basic commands to
    draw a rectangle, triangle, pentagon and other shapes of your choice.
    m
    b) Using scratch in calculations
    We can add, subtract, multiply or divide numbers in Scratch. Look at the
    figure below and do different calculations by entering the numbers and
    check for the answers.
    k
    You can also use scratch to calculate areas and perimeters. Further,
    you can use scratch to determine perimeters of figures and to compute
    averages.
    Example: Using Scratch to calculate the area of a rectangle
    To do this, create two (2) variables, one called Length (L), and the other
    called Width (W). By clicking on “ Variable”then“ Make Variable” You
    can enter the length and width values and the program will calculate the

    area using the formula:

    b

    Activity 6.20    Calculating the area of a rectangle
    1. Follow the steps shown in the screens below to calculate the area

    of a rectangle in scratch.

    m
    2. Set ‘Length’ and ‘Width’ in variables as shown below.
    k
    3. Calculate the area of a rectangle with length and width of your
    choice in Scratch by running the program. What value did you get?
    4. Use the dimensions above to draw the rectangle in your notebook.
    Calculate its area using the formula: Area = Length x Width.
    Compare your value in step 4 above to what you obtained using
    scratch. Are they the same?
    5. Try to calculate the perimeter of the rectangle:
    • Ask the user for length (L)
    • Ask the user for width (W)
    • Compute (P) = (L + W) × 2
    • Report P to the user.


    Program to compute average in scratch
    You may begin by an exercise first:
    • Average 5 numbers for example { 12, 14, 15, 10, 10 }
    Variable ‘sum’ will be used to add them. After you add all the
    numbers, divide by 5.
    • In the example sum = 12 + 14 + 15 + 10 + 10 = 61
    • The average = 61/5= 12.2

    Doing it using a Scratch program

    In order to make a script in Scratch program, you need:
    • To set variables, that is N-SUM and NEXT.
    • A repeat loop (N-times).
    • To ask the user for a number ‘NEXT’ inside the repeat loop
    • To add NEXT to SUM each time in the loop.
    • To say the answer eventually.

    a) Creating the variables

    The variables include:
    N - which refers to how many numbers to average.
    NEXT - the next number.
    SUM - the sum of the numbers.
    AVERAGE - the average of the numbers.

    Remember!

    A variable is a changeable value recorded in Scratch’s memory.

    Variables can only hold one value at a time.

    To create the variables, click on variables tab on the commands panel

    followed by ‘make a variable’. A window like this appears.

    f

    Type in the variable name and create the next variable until you finish
    the four. Your screen should eventually look like the one shown on figure

    below.

    d
    b) Creating the program
    The program has three parts:
    Part 1: Allows you to insert the value of ‘N’.
    Part 2: Prompts you to insert the ‘N’ numbers to be averaged and
    adds them up.

    Part 3: Computes and says the average.

    Can you identify these parts in the screen below?
    g


    Open a scratch activity, input the above instructions to determine the
    average of this set of data 14,15 and 16. Click on each part of the program

    and see it run! Did your screen finally look like this?

    d

    Save your average program in your scratch projects folder. You can

    always use it again in the future.

    Further Activity
    Follow the steps above to determine the average of this range of data:

    23, 5, 8, 13, 17 and 11.

    Self –Test 6.2
    1. What is a sprite?
    2. A sprite cannot do anything on its own. Why is this the case?
    3. Practice changing the following:
    a) Background.
    b) Costumes of a sprite in your XO-laptop.
    4. a) What is the importance of ‘x’ and ‘y’ co-ordinates in a
    scratch project?
    b) What does;
    i. negative x-coordinate values mean in sprite movement?
    ii. positive y – coordinate values mean in sprite movement?
    5. When creating animation stories, which steps will you follow?

    6. We can use scratch in calculating _________, _________ and

    6.3 Etoys
    Identification of elements of Etoys environment
    Activity 6.21 Identifying elements in Etoys environment
    1. Look at the screen below. Is the screen familiar?

    Try to identify the things in the screen.

    n

    2. Draw and label the window in your notebook.

    Etoys is a software environment that allows you to learn real

    programming.

    We use Etoys to make our own games, multimedia presentations,
    computer art, animated storybooks, computer simulations and many
    other things.
    The screen in Activity 6.21 is an Etoys screen. It is called ‘the World’.
    Everything you do from etoys will happen in this World!
    To start Etoys, simply double-click on the Etoys icon which is
    located on the desktop of sugar. The Etoys opening screen displays:
    Navigator bar
    • Three coloured clouds
    • An automobile that travels around the window, bouncing
    off the clouds and the edges of the screen.
    The script - that controls the car’s movement.
    Can you identify these in the screen above?
    In the next section you will learn about some important features in
    Etoy environment which you will use more oftenly. They include:
    • Navigator bar
    • Supplies

    • Etoys book

    a) Navigator Bar
    The Navigator Bar has many buttons:
    n
    All these buttons will allow you to navigate across different Etoys
    projects. For now, note the ‘Publish It’,nthe ‘Find’dand the
    ‘Quit’ebuttons.
    To save a project you will use the ‘Publish it’ button. To find a project that
    you have saved, you will use the ‘Find’ button. To leave Etoys, you will use
    ‘Quit’ button.
    b) Supplies
    When you click on the ‘Supplies box’ga drop down screen like this
    appears:
    v
    It contains various tools used to manipulate etoys program. The book in
    the drop-down menu is very important.

    c) Etoys book

    The BOOK is one of the most useful objects in Etoys. You can use it to
    do Slideshows, class diaries and albums; register observations and
    even create your own animated book.
    The most interesting part is that you can insert any kind of element
    (OBJECT) inside a BOOK. For example, you can add text, drawings
    and even animations in order to bring your book to live. So, let’s see

    some tips before you create your first BOOK.

    Activity 6.22    Creating a new book

    1. Once Etoys is open, you can find the BOOK in the SUPPLIES box.

    m

    2. When the SUPPLIES box opens, you will see the BOOK icon.

    n

    3. Now, just drag the BOOK icon over the WORLD to create a

    new book. Did your screen look like this?

    n

         Etoys book screen

    With this, a new book is now ready to be created!

    Adding Text to the Book

    To add text to the book, you need to open the SUPPLIES box again and

    look for the TEXT object.

    g

    Just drag the TEXT over the book again and drop it. To start writing, just
    select the text and start typing.
    Now, you might have noticed that the size of the text is not right, or you
    want to change the font or the size of your text. So, what you need to do

    is to call the halo, by clicking the TEXT with the circles buttons.

    n

    Activity 6.23 Adding text to an Etoy book
    1. Follow the steps above to open an etoys book. Add text to the
    book stating your name, your class and your school.

    Adding drawings to the Book

    There are two ways of adding a drawing to the BOOK. If you already
    have a drawing outside the book, just drag it and drop over the book.
    The drawing will be automatically added to the current page. The 
    second way is to create a new drawing, by clicking the PAINTnicon
    located at the top menu. Clicking the paint palette in the toolbar brings
    up the painting tool. It has two components: a translucent rectangle called

    a SketchEditor where the user can paint an image and a PaintBox toolbar.

    g

    The SketchEditor is smaller than the screen. Therefore, everything drawn
    on one page will be one object. To draw several objects, exit the painting
    tool by clicking “keep” when one object is done and open it again to
    get a new sheet to draw on. To draw the background of the world, click
    the world’s grey pencil ‘halo’ icon.

    You can then use the toolbar to make a drawing of your choice.

    Activity 6.24     Drawing in an Etoy book
    1. Open a new Etoys book and draw a house in a valley. Do not
    paint the diagram at this stage.

    Painting a background

    The BOOK is often used to create stories with animated characters. But,
    in order to do animations in Etoys, it is necessary to draw the scenario
    (BACKGROUND) separated from the characters (OBJECTS). What

    should you do?

    Activity 6.25     Painting a background
    1. Right-click the circle button one time over the book. You will see

    the halo, with the word “book” under it.

    n

    2. Now, click again over the book, You will see that the word ‘book’

    changes to ‘page’. See Fig 6.40 above.

    (If you look closer at the image, you might also notice some other
    details. The PEN ICON , should have showed up. Well, it is exactly in this
    icon that you should click in order to paint your scenario. Clicking on it

    gives you the paintbox toolbar below).

    t

    3. Use the various tools in the paintbox toolbar to paint your
    drawing in Activity 6.22 above. After painting, you will have a

    drawing such as this.

    f

    4. Finally, you can add the title of your storyline to come up with
    the cover of your book as shown below. The first page of your

    storybook should then look like this.

    m

    Etoys projects and Animations
    In this section, you will learn how to create Etoys projects, how to save
    new projects and how to open, rename and delete existing projects. You
    will begin by making an Etoys animated car. To do this, go through the

    following steps:

    Step 1:   Drawing and painting the car
    Activity 6.26   Drawing and painting the car
    1. Switch on your XO-laptop then click on the ‘Etoys’ icon in sugar
    interface to open a new Etoys activity.
    2. Click on ‘Make a Project’, or the ‘page icon’ to open up a new
    project.
    3. Choose the paintbrush to open up Etoys’ paint palette.
    4. Draw a blob – which looks like the shape of a car as seen from

    above. See the diagram below.

    m

    NOTE: If you do not like what you drew, click on ‘Undo’ on the paint palette.
    5. Choose different colours for the wheels, windows and so on.
    6. When you are happy with what you have drawn, click on keep to

    save your drawing. Did your screen look like this?

    s

    Congratulations! You have just finished the first step in your Etoys
    project.

    Right now, your car object is just a drawing. But every object in Etoys

    has characteristics (properties) and behaviour, just like real world
    things. You can manipulate the properties and behaviour of the objects
    to make them do different things.
    If you ‘right-click’ your mouse over the car object, you will see little
    ovals surrounding the car. These are called ‘Handles’. Through these
    handles, you can access the properties of your object and also modify

    its behaviour.

    Activity 6.27     Accessing the properties of a viewer handle
    1. Click on the viewer handle to reveal the viewer. Did you see

    images like these?

    x

    The viewer contains property tiles (Fig.B) that shows what your car is
    and what it can do.
    2. You can “collapse” the viewer against the right edge by clicking
    on the small tab with the picture of your car on it. To make the
    viewer re-appear, simply click on the tab again.

    Step 2: Changing the name property of the car

    First, you will change the name of the object from ‘Sketch’ to ‘Car’.
    Find the word ‘Sketch’ at the top of the viewer. Click on it to highlight it
    and type in the word ‘Car’. Press enter to save the new name. Confirm
    that your object is now known as ‘car’ and not ‘sketch’.

    Step 3:  Getting into more action!

    Look at the tiles in the basic category pane. You will see two types of
    tiles: some are preceded by a yellow exclamationmpoint and others
    are not. The tiles following the exclamation pointmare action
    tiles. Clicking on them will fire the action once. Holding down on them
    will run the action repeatedly. Try driving the car around the world 

    using the exclamation points.

    Step 4: Changing the behaviour of the car manually
    Numeric values of the tiles can be changed by either clicking on the up
    or down arrow on the left of the value or by selecting the value and

    typing in a new number and hitting enter once.

    z

    After changing the value, click on thezagain. What happens?

    Activity 6.28    Changing the value of the car

    1. Practice changing the value as explained above.
    2. Try different numbers, what do you think will happen if you type

    in negative numbers? Try this out as well!

    Step 5: Changing the properties of the car
    Tiles which are not followed by an exclamation point are value tiles.
    (See Fig 6.17 below). Each of these is followed by a green and white
    arrow that assigns or sets that value as the current value for a particular

    attribute or property of the car.

    v

    In the real world, objects have properties such as size, colour, location,
    direction and so on. Every object that you draw or pull out of the
    supplies bin in Etoys automatically has many standard properties that
    tell us about the object, where it is and what it looks like and so on. Type
    different numbers in the tiles then press enter, what happens?

    Step 6: Changing the behaviour of the car – automatically

    Manually pressing down on the yellow exclamations point as you did
    in above activity to make the car move seems very inefficient and not
    interesting! However, to make the car move on its own, until some
    condition is reached (i.e. for one minute, until the car reaches an obstacle
    and so on) we can use scripts just like in scratch.


    a) Creating a script
    Scripts are created for objects by assembling tiles in a scriptor. There are
    two ways to get a scriptor:
    i) Drag out the tile “car forward by 5” from the viewer and drop it
    on the world. A scriptor will sprout around it. You can do this with
    any action tile.

    ii) If you would like to start with an empty scriptor, go to the scripts
    pane of the viewer and drag out “car emptyscript”. (You can
    scroll between panes by clicking on “basic” and “additional
    panes” choices will appear).

    Remember!
    For now, use the first option only.
    b) Naming the script

    You now probably have something like this:

    n

    Click on “script1” to highlight it, and then change it by typing “drive”.
    NOTE: When we program, we want our scripts and objects to be named

    things that tell us what their purpose is.

    c) Running the scripts
    Clicking on the yellow exclamation markafires the action once.
    This means that from the program above, the car will go forward 5
    pixels. However, to make the car keep moving, click on the clock symbol
    n(or ticker) on the scriptor. Notice that in the title of the script,
    the word has changed to say “ticking”. If you click it again, the script

    will stop and it will show “paused”.

    Activity 6.29 Running the scripts
    1. Open a new Etoys project. Experiment with different values and
    different scripts.
    2. How can you make your car go faster? Go Slower? Go backwards?
    Go round in a circle? What tiles do you need to add for these?

    d) Changing the “ticking” rate

    Another way to change a script is to modify its “ticking rate”. Every
    script is born with the default rate of 8 ticks per second. You can speed
    things up, or slow them down by holding down the mouse button over
    the clock icon until the following menu appears, after which, you can
    make your selection.
    b

    Step 7: Creating the steering wheel object Activity 6.32

    Activity 6.30 Creating a steering wheel object

    1. Open a paint activity, paint a steering wheel.
    2. Bring up the handles of the steering wheel by pressing ‘alt-’.
    3. Open the viewer for the steering wheel by clicking on the ‘eyeball’
    handle. Did your screen look like this?
    s
    4. Change the name of the object to ‘Wheel’.
    5. Bring up the handles of ‘Wheel’ again. Click on the blue ‘Rotate’

    handle. What happens?

    s

    By clicking and dragging the blue rotation handle, you can rotate the steering
    wheel.
    6. If you look at the wheel’s heading in the viewer, you will see how
    the values change as you rotate the wheel. Try this out. Which

    values did you see?

    d

    Step 8: Controlling the car through the steering wheel
    In the car’s scriptor, make sure you have the following tiles: To control
    the car through the steering wheel, the car and the steering wheel have
    to be connected. Specifically, the turn of the car has to be connected
    to the heading of the steering wheel. Heading indicates at what angle
    the object is rotating. As the car moves forward, if the heading of the
    steering wheel is negative, it will turn left. If the heading is positive, it will

    turn right and if the heading is 0, then the car will move straight ahead.

    Activity 6.31 Connecting the head of a steering
    wheel to the car
    To connect the heading of the steering wheel to the turn of the car,”
    drag the heading tile of the steering wheel from the viewer and
    position it over the “5” in the “turn by tile” of the car on its scriptor.

    You should end up with this:

    n
    Step 9: Driving the car using the steering wheel
    You are now ready to drive the car using the steering wheel. In wheel’s
    basic pane, set the value of heading to 0. Then start the car’s script by
    clicking on the ticker in the car scriptor. Quickly bring up the handles of
    the wheel. Scroll the mouse down on the blue rotation angle and start
    driving the car! Is it fun?

    Step 10: Using maths to scale the effect of the wheel on the car

    You may have realised that the car in step 9 above is too sensitive to
    the wheel. With every “tick”, the car turns by the wheel’s heading. So, if
    the wheel is heading slightly to the right, say 5 degrees, then, assuming 8
    ticks per second, the car is spinning 40 degrees every second. Dizzying!


    Activity 6.32 Using maths to scale the effects of
    the wheel on the car

    1. Click on the small green arrow just next to the word “heading”,
    and it will change to say “car turn by heading + 1”. You can
    change the “+” to a variety of other math operations and you
    can change the “1” to any number. Try these out and see what
    happens.

    2. Try the following and determine what they do, and which effect

    you want in order to get the car to be less sensitive to the wheel”
    a) “car turn by wheel’s heading –5”
    b) “car turn by wheel’s heading * 5”

    c) “car turn by wheel’s heading * -5”

    Step 11: Publish the car (save the car project)
    We do not “save” Etoys projects, we “publish” them. In the Navigator
    tab, click on the “Publish”nicon A form like the one shown below will
    appear.
    r
    Using the form, name the project. Follow the guidelines given by your
    teacher. Include descriptive information in the name. Do not use any
    special symbols in the name other than dashes. You need not to fill out
    the other information. You can come back to that later.
    After you click “ok” on the form, a new window like the one shown
    below will appear.
    b
    Click once on “Etoys” (or wherever else your teacher tells you to publish
    to) which is a special folder on your computer, and then click “Save” at
    the bottom of the window. Wait for Etoys to finish publishing.

    Congratulations!

    You have just completed your very first Etoys project. Now go ahead
    and play with the different options that we explored!! When you are
    done, go back to the Navigator tab and click on “Quit”. At the end of this

    tutorial, you should have this:

    n

    Recovering your work (Open)
    Open Etoys, and find your project by clicking on the “Find” button on
    the Navigator Bar. Click on “Etoys” in the left pane, select your project
    in the right pane and click “OK”. Follow this procedure to recover your

    saved work

    Remember!
    When you are drawing multiple sketches, it is very important to draw
    them in layers. To do this, you must open the sketching tool every time
    you want to draw a new sketch. For example, what we have done in the
    project above is one sketch. If I want to draw a hat that moves, I have to

    open the paint tool again and draw a separate hat sketch.

    Self –Test 6.3
    1. How do we call the window that appears when we open an
    Etoys activity?_____________
    2. Name the main features in an Etoys window.
    3. What is a “halo” of an object?
    4. How do you open a “viewer” for objects in Etoys?
    5. Give five properties of any object in Etoys.
    6. What is a “scriptor”?
    7. What is the “heading” of an object? What does it mean if a
    ticking program changes the heading so that it increases by 90?
    If you were riding on the object, what would you say happened?


    UNIT TEST 6
    1. Using record activity, record a song of your choice and save
    it in Journal. Open turtle art and use correctly the blocks of
    commands to display your song.
    2. Take different photos of yourself. Use turtle art to display them
    by arranging appropriate blocks.
    3. How can you make an object move backwards in Etoys?
    4. a) Habineza wants to program a “hot air balloon” to go up
    and down as she drags a picture of a sandbag up and
    down. Can you describe how she can do this in Etoys? Be
    real and specific, because she hasn’t seen Etoys before.
    b) How would you make the balloon go up and down much
    further than the sandbag?
    5. a) Create scratch programs to do the following: (save each
    project in your computer).
    i) Calculate the area of a rectangle.
    ii) Calculate the perimeter of a rectangle.
    iii) Calculate the sum of three numbers.
    iv) Calculate the average of three numbers.
    b) Practice the following: Create three sprites. First sprite 1
    starts at the upper left corner of the screen and glides to
    the middle. Then sprite 2 starts in the upper right and
    glides to the middle of the screen. They are followed by
    sprite from bottom left and finally sprite 4 from bottom
    right to the middle.
    6. Practice and create a shark attack game in scratch. Change to a
    suitable background and animate a shark to make it interactive.
    7. Calculate the answer to the following problems; write the
    answers in your exercise book. Enter the calculations into
    scratch and confirm your answers.
    a) 5 + 4              b) 5 × 4               c) 5 + 4 – 3
    d) 34 + 3 × 6      e) (34 + 3) × 6     f)40/5+ 4
    g) 4 +40/5

  • UNIT 7:Air pollution

    1. Look at the following pictures.

    s

    2. Think about the responsibilities of human beings in the situations
    above and predict what you are going to learn in this unit.

    7.1 Definition of pollution

    Find out
    1. What pollution is.
    2. How polluted air affects us.
    3. Causes of air pollution.

    4. How to advocate against air pollution.

    Activity 7.1 Field visit
    1. Describe the harmful effects of motor vehicles to the environment.
    2. Visit an industry near your school.
    3. Ask questions on several activities going on in the industry
    including how the environment is managed.
    4. Write short notes in your notebook.

    Pollution is the presence or introduction into the environment of a

    substance which has harmful poisonous effects.

    7.2 Sources of common air pollutants
    Activity 7.2 Identifying the sources of air pollution

    1. Look at these pictures.

    n

    2. What is going on in the pictures? Is it good or bad to the
    environment?
    3. Visit a polluted environment and observe it carefully. Write down
    short notes that include:
    a) Causes of air pollution

    b) Effects of air pollution

    Air pollutants are substances that cause air pollution. e.g smoke, dust
    particles, fumes, gases such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and
    nitrogen dioxide.They come from burning of garbage and tyres, vehicle
    exhaust systems, industries, smoking, deforestation, woodfires. Dust
    created by wind and other activities like quarrying also pollute the air.

    Air pollutants contaminate the air making it unsafe for use.

    7.3 Consequences of air pollution
    Activity 7.3    Identifying effects of air pollution
    Carry out the following experiments:
    1. Burn some fresh leaves in a closed room. How do you feel after
    some time? Why is this the case?
    2. Burn some plastics such as tyres then place a shiny lid or pan on
    top of the burning fire. Observe the lid or pan after sometime.

    What do you see?

    m

    3. What do these experiments tell you about how air pollution affects us?

    Activity 7.4 Research Activity
    1. Go to the library and read articles, textbooks, magazines and
    pamphlets on consequences of air pollution.
    2. Visit a local environment management authority office. While
    there, ask the officers about the causes and effects of air
    pollution and how to control it.
    3. Write short notes on your findings on consequences of air

    pollution.

    Consequences of air pollution can be grouped into two:
    • Health effects
    • Environmental effects

    a) Health effects

    These include:
    • Irritation of the eyes, nose and throat.
    • Respiratory diseases such as asthma, pneumonia and cancer of
    the lungs.
    • Damage to other living organisms.

    b) Environmental effects

    These include:
    • Air pollutant gases such as carbon monoxide which can cause
    death when inhaled. This happens especially when in limited supply
    of air. This explains why we should not stay in a closed room with
    burning charcoal.
    • Acid rain which contaminates water, putting the lives of human
    beings and other animals at risk.
    • Destruction of the ozone layer leading the green house effect

    which causes global warming.

    7.4 Advocating against air pollution
    Find out
    Ways of avoiding air pollution.

    Activity 7.5       Ways of Preventing air pollution 

    1. Look at the following picture.

    s

    2. How are the activities above important regarding environment

    protection?

    Ways of controlling air pollution include:
    • Planting plenty of trees to create forest covers in order to absorb
    carbon dioxide. Forests act as both water catchment areas and
    recycling points of gases.
    • Fitting vehicle exhausts with catalytic converters to help convert
    poisonous gases into less poisonous ones before being released to
    the atmosphere.
    • Setting up industries far away from residential areas and fitting
    factories with chimneys that filter air.

    • Avoiding/reducing cooking using firewood and charcoal.

    UNIT TEST 7

    1. What is pollution?
    2. Apart from carbon dioxide, give other pollutants that are gaseous
    in nature.
    3. Give any three reasons why air pollution is a threat to animal lives
    and the environment.
    4. Why is it not advisable to stay in a room with burning charcoal?
    5. Explain the term “go green” as a solution to air pollution in our
    environment.
    6. Explain why the government of Rwanda stopped people from
    smoking cigarettes in public places.
    7. Look at the pictures below. Say whether what is going on is right

    or wrong. Give reasons for your answer.

    s

    a) __________________

    a

    

    b) __________________

    z

    c) __________________
    8. a) What is global warming?
    b) What environmental activities can we practice to avoid global
    warming?
    9. How does air pollution affect drivers?
    10. What advice would you give to people who use fuel as a source of
    energy?
    11. Air pollution is severe in ____________. (cities, rural areas) Why?
    12. Which of these gases is responsible for global warming?
    A. Hydrogen peroxide
    B. Carbon dioxide
    C. Sulfur dioxide

    D. Nitrogen dioxide

  • UNIT 8:Animals

    1. Study the picture below.

    n

    2. What is happening in the picture?

    3. Is it good to graze many cows in a small piece of land?

    8.1 Characteristics of a good cowshed or goat shelter
    Find out

    1. How a cowshed or goat shelter should look like.

    Activity 8.1 Investigating the characteristics of a
    good cowshed
    1. Observe and write the characteristics of good cowshed/

    goat shelter to a farmer during school trip.

    n

    a) Where is the location of the shelter or cowshed?
    b) What is it made of?
    c) Do young ones share the same shelter as the older ones?
    Why?

    d) How does the floor of the shelter look like? Why?

    A good cowshed should have the following characteristics:
    • It should be fenced to avoid predators.
    • The floor should be made in an inclined manner for easy
    flowing of water during runoff in order to drain easily.
    • It should be roofed.
    • It should have proper ventilation.
    • It should have concrete rough floors that are easy to clean
    and to prevent the cows from slipping.
    • It should have both clean feeding and watering troughs at
    designated points.
    • There should be another part reserved for calves.
    • It should have an isolation box to accommodate animals that
    are on treatment.
    • There should also be a crush to be used for spraying the cows

    and a milking shed.

    8.2 Types of cattle and goat breeds
    Find out
    The different types of cattle and goat breeds.
    Activity 8.2 Identifying breeds of cattle/goats to rear
    1. Make a trip to a cattle farm to observe the various types of

    cattle kept. Write down their characteristics.

    Types of cattle/goat breeds
    The term ‘breed’ means a group of animals with similar characteristics.
    There are two main types of cattle breeds namely.
    • Local (indigenous) breeds
    • Foreign (exotic) breeds

    a) Local (indigenous) cattle breeds

    These are cattle breeds that are found locally in Rwanda. They are
    native cattle that can withstand hostile climatic conditions and are also
    resistant to tropical diseases. They have long legs and they can walk
    over long distances looking for food and pasture. Their productivity is
    generally low and they are small in size. Examples of indigenous cattle
    breeds include:
    i. Zebu cattle – They are small in size and have short humps. Dairy

    cattle of this breed have the ability to resist tick-borne diseases.

    f

    ii. The long – horned cattle (Inyambo) -These are fairly large in size

    and have well developed horns

    n

    iii. The boran cattle – They are large in size than the zebu, have short

    horns and big humps. They produce good quality beef.

    g

    b) Foreign (exotic) cattle breeds
    They were introduced in Rwanda from foreign countries and can be
    beef or dairy cattle.

    Dairy cattle breeds

    These are mainly kept for production
    of milk. They include: Friesian, Jersey,
    Guernsey and Ayrshire.

    i) Friesian
    • Originated from Holland.
    • Produces the largest amount of milk.

    g

    ii) Ayrshire
    • Originated from Scotland.

    • Produces 20 litres of milk per day.

    f

    iii) Guernsey
    • Its origin is Guernsey island
    (coast of France).
    • Produces about 17 litres of milk
    per day.
    h
    iv) Jersey
    • Originated from England.
    • Produces about 14 litres of milk per

    day.

    d

    Beef cattle breeds
    These are purposely kept for meat production.
    They include:

    Aberdeen angus, Hereford, Charolais, Shorthorns and Galloway.

    i) Aberdeen Angus
    • Originated from the counties
    of Aberdeenshire and Angus
    in North-Eastern Scotland.

    • Best in quality beef.

    n

    ii) Hereford
    • Originated from England.
    • Bulls weigh 1000 kg and are

    excellent grazers.

    b

    iii) Charolais
    • Its origin is France.
    • Bulls weigh 1200 kg with

    high quality meat.

    b

    iv) Short horns
    • Originated from England.

    • Bulls weigh 800 kg.

    n

    v) Galloway
    • Originated from Scotland.
    • Are black with brownish tinge.
    • Bulls weigh 1000 kg.
    • They have long earlaps which
    droop.
    • They weigh between 60-75 kg.

    • They lack horns (are hornless).

    h

    Remember!
    Some cattle are kept for both milk and meat. They are called dual purpose

    cattle. Examples are Sahiwal, Red poll and Simmental.

    Breeds of goats
    Goats can be kept either for milk or meat.
    Main types of goat breeds.

    a) Local (indigenous) breeds of goats

    • They are the native goats of Rwanda.
    They are kept mainly for meat and
    are more resistant to diseases. e.g:
    East African small goats and Nubian

    goat.

    h

    b) Foreign (exotic) breeds of goats
    They can be dual propose e.g Boer goat and Galla goat.

    Goat breeds for mutton/ meat production

    i) Boer
    • Originated from South Africa.
    • They are fast maturing.
    • Are ideal for cross-breeding with

    local breeds.

    j

    ii) Galla

    • Its origin is Northern Kenya.

    hh

    iii) Nubian goat
    • Its origin is Sudan.
    • It is white in colour with brown patches

    or vice verse.

    h

    Dairy goat breeds
    Examples toggenburg, saanen and
    alpine goat.

    i) Toggenburg

    • Originated from Switzerland.

    • Produce 3-4 litres of milk per day.

    w

    ii) Saanen goat
    • Originated from Switzerland.

    • It Produces 2-3 litres of milk per day.

    j

    iii) Alpine goat
    • Its origin is France.
    • It produces between 3-4 litres of milk

    per day.

    j

    Remember!

    Goats can also be kept for fibre /mohair production. e.g Angora goat.

    Characteristics of cattle and goat breeds to rear
    Goats and cattle to rear should have the following characteristics.
    • Growth rate – they should grow fast.
    • Resistance – they should resist against common diseases found in

    the area such as anthrax and foot and mouth disease.

    f

    • They should be good producers of milk and meat.
    • They should be able to survive a range of climatic conditions

    available.

    8.3 Feeding of cows and goats
    Find out

    How farm animals especially cows and goats are fed.

    Activity 8.3 Visit to a goat and cattle farm
    1. Make a trip to a goat and/or cattle farm and describe:
    • Observe and describe what goats and cattle are feeding on.
    • Identify nutrients of good animal diet and their sources.

    Cattle / Goat should be fed on a balanced diet. A balanced diet contain

    animal feeds with appropriate nutrients in their right amounts.
    A balanced diet contains:
    • carbohydrates e.g pastures, fodder crops, vegetables e.t.c
    • proteins
    • fat and oils
    • minerals and vitamins
    • roughages
    Below is a summary of elements of good cattle/goat diet and their
    sources.
    Carbohydrates e.g potato vines, maize grains, sorghum stalks,
    cereals and molasses.
    Poteins e.g legumes, commercial seeds (concentrated).
    Minerals and vitamins e.g saltlicks and bone meal.
    Fats and oils e.g plant leaves and cotton seeds.

    Roughages e.g green fodder, green pasture and vegetables.

    f

    j

    Remember!
    In addition to feed stuffs, farm animals should be provided with plenty

    of clean drinking water.

    8.4 Cattle or goats health sanitation conditions
    Find out

    Which sanitation conditions are necessary in cattle or goat farms.

    Activity 8.4 Field visit
    • Visit a nearest farm of cattle / goat.
    • Observe and discuss sanitation conditions on the farm.
    • Compare sanitation of farm animals and have one at home.
    Things that should be done to maintain proper sanitation in a goat or
    cattle farm include:
    • Keeping animals houses clean.
    • Keeping feeding and drinking troughs clean.
    Clearing the bushes around the animals’ sheds.
    • Keeping water sources clean.
    Cutting over growths from the feet of animals such as the goats.

    Disposing off dead animals by burying them deep into the soil.

    8.5 Common diseases of cattle and goats
    Find out

    What to do when animals become affected
    Activity 8.5 Identifying common diseases of cattle
    and goats and their prevention measures
    1. Visit a cattle or goat farm/ google engine/ library.
    2. Describe diseases, signs and symptoms that are observable
    through the sick animals.
    3. Make a summary of your findings (Diseases, animals affected
    with signs and symptoms.

    a) Identification of common disease of cattle and goat

    Diseases that affect cattle and goats are grouped into two:
    Parasitic diseases - these are diseases that are caused by
    parasites. Examples are East Coast Fever (ECF), anaplasmosis and
    trypanosomiasis, pneumonia, Nagana.
    Infections - these are diseases that are caused by micro-organisms
    such as viruses and bacteria. Examples are pneumonia, mastitis and
    anthrax.

    b) Prevention and control measures of cattle and goat diseases

    General ways of controlling or preventing livestock diseases include:
    • Vaccination
    • Quarantine
    • Isolation
    • Use of drugs such as antibiotics to treat the disease
    • Dipping or spraying to control external parasites that may cause
    diseases among others
    h
    g
    h
    8.7 Importance of cattle or goat farming
    Find out
    1. How animals are helping families in Rwanda.

    2. The animal product we sell to get income.

    Activity 8.6 Identifying various cow/ goat products
    and their importance
    Discuss the following questions:
    1. Which are some of the products we get from goats or cows and
    their importance? Fill the table below.
    s
    2. Think about other ways in which we benefit from cattle and goats.

    List them down in your notebook.

    The following are some reasons why we keep cattle and goats:
    a) Nutritional benefits
    • Meat and milk that enriches our diet with proteins and fats.

    b) Economic benefits

    Milk from cows and goats enriches man’s diet with vitamins, proteins,
    carbohydrates and fats.
    • Hides or skins provide leather which is used to make bags, wallets,
    belts, shoes, jackets and sofa sets.
    • Provides employment to various groups of people example include:
    farmers, veterinary doctors, slaughterhouse workers, butcher men
    and women, workers in dairies among others.

    • Source of income (selling milk and meat).

    h

    c) Social benefits

    • Cattle and goats are used in social functions such as dowry.

    h

    d) Agricultural benefits

    Manure to be used in farms to grow crops.

    Remember!
    Animals are our heritage. We should avoid mistreating them. Instead,

    ensure that they are well taken care of.

                 UNIT TEST 8

    1. Assume you want to start a project of keeping goats or cows
    at home. Describe how you would construct the cowshed or the
    goat shelter.
    2. a) What is a breed?
    b) Distinguish between indigenous breeds and the exotic breeds
    of animals.
    3. Give two reasons why an animal house should be fenced.
    4. Akaliza is a primary 6 pupil. Everytime they go for field visit to
    observe animals, she complains of bad smell. One day, she said
    that she cannot become a farmer. In fact, she added that farming
    is meant for boys alone. What advice can you give to Akaliza?
    5. Which characteristics will you look for when selecting a cow for
    a) Beef production?           b) Milk production?
    6. Fill the gaps in the table below.
    g
    7. What is the importance of keeping proper sanitation in animal
    farms?
    8. Which breed of cattle are those in the next page? Which are

    dairy cattle and which are beef cattle?

    h

    9. Why do you think it is an advantage to grow crops when you are
    a cattle or goat farmer?
    10. Why is the government of Rwanda emphasizing that there should
    be at least a cow per family in Rwanda?
    11. Why do you think people are advised NOT to drink milk that is
    not boiled?
    12. Write TRUE or FALSE for each statement.
    a) Ayrshire, Holstein and brown Swiss are all dairy cattle breeds.
    _________
    b) The most important products of cattle are draft power and
    milk and not meat. __________
    c) Taking goat milk by human beings is NOT healthy.
    ___________
    d) When animals die of diseases, they are supposed to be
    slaughtered immediately and eaten. __________
    13. Give a reason why the government of Rwanda is encouraging
    Rwandans to practice ‘Gira inka munyarwanda’!

  • UNIT 9:Plant reproduction

    1. Look at the pictures below. What is going on in the pictures?
    h
    2. How can you help the family in picture B?
    9.1 Definition and types of plant reproduction
    Find out
    1. What is plant reproduction ?
    2. Two types of plant reproduction.

    Activity 9.1  Investigating definition and types of

    plant reproduction
    1. Research in a library textbook or search engine what plant
    reproduction is.
    2. Obtain some healthy sugarcane cuttings.
    3. Bury the sugarcane cuttings into the soil then observe for two
    weeks.
    Reproduction is the production of new plants from the parent plants
    e.g cassava cuttings.
    Reproduction occurs in two ways:
    Asexual reproduction e.g sugar cane
    Sexual production e.g beans

    9.2 Identification of parts of a complete flower

    Find out
    1. Go out of the classroom and collect as many flowers as you can.
    2. Observe the external parts carefully. What parts do you see?
    3. Dissect the flowers and identify the internal parts.
    s
    4. Did all types of plants have the same type of flowers?
    A Complete flower is made up of three main parts:
    • The external flower parts
    • The male reproductive parts
    • The female reproductive parts
    d
    a) External parts of the flower
    These include the stalk, calyx and corolla.
    The flower stalk
    The stalk joins the flower to the plant.
    The calyx
    This consists of small parts that look like leaves. They are called sepals.
    Sepals protect the develping flower.
    The corolla
    Corolla consists of brightly coloured parts called petals. They attract
    insects and birds thereby assisting during the pollination process.
    b) Male reproductive parts
    The male reproductive parts put together are know as stamen.
    j
    The stamen is made up of:
    Anthers - which contain pollen grains. Pollen grains are the
    male reproductive cells.
    Filament - a long stalk that holds the anther.
    c) Female reproductive parts
    The female reproductive parts put together form the pistil
    g
    The pistil is made up of:
    Stigma - which receives pollen grains from the anthers during
    pollination.
    Style - is a long and narrow tube that joins the stigma to the
    ovary.
    Ovary - is the swollen part at the bottom of the style. It
    contains ovules. Ovules are the female reproductive cells.
    9.3 Process of sexual reproduction in flowering plants
    Find out
    1. Various agents of pollination.
    2. How the agents cause pollination to occur.
    Activity 9.3 I Investigating ways in which plant
    reproduce
    1. Research in search engine or library textbook on ways of plant
    reproduction
    2. Write down notes on various ways on which plants reproduces
    Sexual Reproduction in flowering plants involves the following
    processes : pollination, fertilisation, seed dispersal and seed germination.
    a) Pollination
    Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers to stigma of
    a flower.
    There are two types of pollination:
    Self pollination - involves transfer of pollen grains from the
    anthers to the stigma within the same flower or to the stigma of
    another flower on the same plant.
    s
    Cross pollination - This is the transfer of pollen grains from
    the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower on a
    different plant but of the same type.
    g
    Agents of pollination
    These refer to things that help to transfer pollen grains from the anther
    to the stigma of another flower. They include:
    Insects: example bees and butterflies
    Birds: example: sunbird; wind, water.
    Birds and insects are attracted by bright colours and the sweet
    scent of flowers. They help in the transfer of pollen grains. The
    wind blows the pollen grains from flowers of one plant to the stigma
    of flowers on another plant or within the same plant.
    Water flows downstream carrying pollen grains with it.
    b)Fertilisation
    • After pollination, fertilisation follows.
    f
    • When pollen grains reach the stigma, it germinates and grows
    down through the style to the ovary and meets the ovules. This
    process of joining together of the nuclei of pollen grains with that
    of ovules is called fertilisation.
    After fertilisation, the ovules become seeds and the ovary develops into

    a fruit.

    c) Seed dispersal
    Seed dispersal is the scattering away of seeds in order to germinate and
    grow into new plants.
    Agents of seed dispersal

    a) Self-dispersal

    This is whereby fruits split open with a lot of force (explode) and
    throw out the seeds.
    h
    b) Wind –Wind flows and spread the plant seeds at long distance
    c) Animals
    • Animals eat juicy and fleshy parts of fruits and scatter away
    the seeds. Examples of such fruits are mangoes and oranges.
    • Some fruits and seeds have hooks or spikes which stick to the
    hair, fur or clothing of passing animals and human beings. They
    later drop at distant places from where they grow into new
    plants. An example is the black jack seed.
    f
    d) Water

    Fruits and seeds are dispersed by water.

    f

    d)Germination
    Activity 9.4 Investigating germination of seeds

    1. Plant some bean or maize seeds in a tin or box.
    2. Water the planted seeds for one week as you observe what
    happens
    d
    3. Discuss your findings.

    Germination is the process by which a seed develops into a young plant

    known as seedling. During germination, the following take place:
    • The seed absorbs water through a tiny hole on the seed.
    • The seed coat (testa) bursts and splits open.
    • The radical comes out to form a tiny root.
    • The plumule forms a shoot with tiny leaves and grows upwards.

    • The seedling grows to become a mature plant.

    Self –Test 9.1
    1. What is the function of a flower in a plant?
    2. Draw and label the different parts of a flower.
    3. _________ and __________ make up the stamen of a flower.
    4. Name two seeds dispersed through wind and through water.
    5. Many petals together form______while sepals form_______
    6. What is pollination?

    7. Name two types of pollination

    9.4 Asexual reproduction methods
    Find out
    Different types of asexual reproduction.
    Activity 9.5 Investigating of types of plant asexual

     reproduction

    1. Put the potato tuber into the soil and leave them for one week.
    2. Observe the potato tubers such as the one alongside.
    What can you see?
    h
    In asexual reproduction, there is no need of male or female sex cells
    to come together. Here, a certain plant part may separate from the
    parent plant and grow into a new plant. Asexual reproduction methods
    include the following:
    • Use of cuttings
    • Grafting
    • Layering

    • Use of suckers

    a) Use of cuttings
    Activity 9.6 Vegetative reproduction using

    stem cuttings
    1. Cut stems of sugarcane or cassava plant.
    2. Plant the stems in the kitchen garden at home.

    3. Water them for five days then make your observations

    n

    We can use leaves, stem or root cuttings to come up with new plants.

    e.g sweet potatoes, cassava, yams and sugarcane.

    b) Grafting
    Activity 9.7 Grafting

    1. Look at the picture below.

    l

    2. What is going on in the picture above?

    The picture above shows the process of grafting.

    In grafting, scion is added to the stem of another plant of same type
    called the root. The two unite and come to grow together as one plant.
    Examples of plants that can be grafted: oranges, lemons, mangoes,
    avocados.

    Note: Grafting helps to improve the quality of a produce of certain plant.

    Project work
    1. Practise grafting using an orange plant (scion) with a lemon plant
    (root stock) at home.
    2. Take care of the plant until it produces fruits.
    3. Taste the fruits produced. Are they different from the original

    orange fruits?

    c) Layering or marcotting
    Activity 9.8           Layering

    1. Bend one of the branches of a passion tree down as shown
    below. Peg the branch into the soil and pile a heap of soil on the
    branch.

    2. Leave it for one week and check if the roots have developed.

    f

    3. Cut off the branch from the main plant then plant it in a different
    garden. Monitor the growth of the plant until fruiting.
    4. Monitor the growth of the plant until fruiting.

    Layering also known as marcotting. It is a form of asexual reproduction

    whereby rooting is induced in part of a tree branch as shown above.

    d) Suckers
    Activity 9.9        Vegetative reproduction using suckers
    1. Visit a banana or a sisal plantation.
    2. Separate the plant lets from the main plant carefully. Plant it in

    a different place.

    g

    3. Water the plant let for a few days. Do they grow into mature
    plants?
    The small plants (plant lets) growing besides the mature banana or sisal
    plants are called suckers. The suckers can be separated from their
    parents and be planted at another location. The new plant continues to

    grow to become a healthy mature plant. eg: Pineapple, Ginger, Aloe Vera.

    9.5. Reasons for plant reproduction
    Find out

    The reasons for plant reproduction.

    Activity 9.10 Investigating the importance of plant
    reproduction

    1. Search in library textbook or search engine on plant reproduction.
    2. Write down the reason for plant reproduction.
    Reproduction in plants is important because it:
    • Improves the quality of produce of crop plants.
    • Prevent the plant species from becoming extinct.
    • Helps to control plant diseases through mixing of genes.

    • Increases food production through research.

    UNIT TEST 9
    1. What is the difference between pollination and fertilisation?
    2. The three agents of pollination are ___________, __________
    and __________.
    3. The ovules in a flower are produced in the _______________
    while the pollen grains are produced in the ____________.
    4. Distinguish between male and female parts of a flower using
    diagrams.
    5. Potato tuber is an underground __________. (stem, root)
    6. After fertilisation __________ becomes seeds while __________
    develops into a fruit.
    7. Which method of reproduction would you recommend for the
    following plants?
    a) Banana ___________
    b) Sugarcane ___________
    8. Hagimana came across the following seeds during a field trip.

    The seeds are likely to be dispersed by ______________.

    f

    9. Distinguish between grafting and layering. Use diagrams.
    10. Which conditions must be present for germination to occur?
    11. Explain why bee-keeping is important near a sunflower farm.
    12. Draw and label the parts of a flower.
    13. Match each part of the flower in the table that follows with its

    function using a line.

    h

    14. Give a reason why some plants have brightly coloured petals.

    15. Why do most flowers have scent?

  • UNIT 10: Sustainable waste management

    1. Look at the picture below.

    g

                                                           Fig 10.1

    2. Is there a better way in which we can manage the wastes in the
    picture?

    10.1 Classification of wastes

    Find out
    1. How wastes are classified.

    2. What should happen to the wastes.

    Activity 10.1 Classifying wastes
    1. Take a walk around the school compound.
    2. Look out for any types of wastes.

    3. Group the wastes as shown in the table below.

    s

    4. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each category of
    wastes.
    5. How should we dispose of each type of waste?
    The two main categories of wastes are biodegradable and non-biodegradable
    wastes.
    a) Biodegradable wastes – these are wastes that can be
    decomposed by microorganisms to form organic manure.
    They include kitchen garbage, animal dung, vegetable remains
    among others.
    b) Non-biodegradable wastes – wastes that cannot be decomposed
    by microorgarnism. They are recycleable. They remain in the

    environment forever.

    Examples: plastics, polythene bags and
    glass.
    Waste can also be grouped as follows:
    a) Hazardous wastes – wastes that can
    harm or cause diseases, fire etc. Examples

    are biomedical wastes.

    l

    s

    b) Toxic wastes – wastes that can cause death. Examples: chemicals
    and gases such as carbon monoxide.
    c) Flammable wastes – wastes that can easily catch fire and react

    explosively with air. Examples : waste fuels and gas cylinders.

    c

    Remember!
    We should form a habit of separating wastes into their various categories.
    For example, hazardous, biodegradable and non-biogradable recyclable

    wastes.

    10.2 Sources of wastes
    Find out

    Different sources of wastes.

    Activity 10.2 Discussion
    1. Think about the activities that take place in the following places:
    • Farms
    • During general cleaning at home
    • Industries
    • Medical centres
    (i) Which ones create wastes?
    2. For each category, discuss some wastes that come about as a

    result of the activities.

    Sources of wastes in our environment include:
    • Urban or municipal wastes
    - these are wastes collected
    from residential areas, markets,
    streets and other places mostly
    in town. Examples: plastics, old
    clothes, pieces of glass, organic
    matter and food remains from
    households and wastes from
    business premises establishments.
    k
    • Industrial wastes - these
    originates from cement factories,
    power stations, textile factories,
    food processing industries and

    many others.

    h

    Remember!
    Some of these wastes especially those from chemical industries can

    be hazardous, so we need to be careful when handling them.

    • Agricultural wastes - Bio-degradable wastes, are associated
    with agricultural activities.

    Examples: crops remains, animal remains,e.t.c

    f

    • Construction wastes - these are wastes from construction sites.
    Examples: unwanted materials produced at the construction sites,

    empty cement bags, broken bricks, soil and packaging boxes .

    f

    Biomedical wastes - generated from hospitals, clinics and other
    medical institutions. Examples: expired drugs, surgical dressings,

    plastic syringes and used gloves.

    h

    Electronic sources of wastes - e-waste or e-scrap are old
    electronic and electrical devices. Examples : old DVD, television

    sets, telephones, computers, vacuum cleaners and their parts.

    g

    • Wastes from automobiles - are wastes that come from cars or

    old vehicles. Also, oil and grease.

    f

    10.3 Waste management techniques
    Find out
    1. How garbage is collected.
    2. How garbage is safely transported to a landfill.
    3. How recycling, up cycling and re-using of waste is done.

    Activity 10.3 Applying waste management techniques

    1. Collect the garbage around the school surroundings.
    2. Apply waste sorting techniques
    3. Search in library, text book or search engine on waste
    management.
    4. Write a report on compositing of waste,up cycling and
    recycling of waste and waste processing .
    Wastes should be handled depending on their types:
    Hazardous wastes - These can cause harm. They should either be
    buried or burnt in an incinerator. For example, hospital waste.
    h
    Note :The golden rule of environmental stewardship
    Always remember the 3Rs - Recycle, Reuse and Reduce!

    Waste management refers to the process of handling wastes after its

    production. Some ways of handling wastes include:

    • Collection of the wastes.
    • Safe transportation of wastes.
    • Waste processing to identify what wastes are to be re-used, recycled
    or decomposed.

    a) Professional garbage collection

    Garbage or wastes can be collected in
    two ways:
    • The garbage is thrown into dust
    bin.
    • By depositing the wastes in a

    compost pit.

    h

    b) Safe waste transportation

    Collect and safe transport the garbage to dumpsites or landfills.

    j

    c) Proper waste processing
    Biological , chemical and mechanical methods used are:
    1. Changing chemical composition of waste.
    2. Removing environmental pollutant from industries and municipal
    wastes.
    3. Treating sewage before discharging.

    (d) Recycling and re-using

    Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into same new
    materials. Old plastic bottles can used to make new ones.
    Re-using is making use of the waste product for another purpose from
    the original one.
    For example: old plastic tins can be used as flower pots.
    e) Up cycling
    Up cycling is changing the wastes into different utility items. For
    example, plastic bottles can be used to make chairs, toys among

    others things.

    f

    f) Compositing
    This is making use of natural processes to decompose. These
    wastes materials ( biodegradable)are dumped in a compost pit and
    left to rot or decay. The manure formed is used in agriculture to

    improve crop production.

    UNIT TEST 10
    1. What is waste management?
    2. With examples, give the difference between biodegradable and
    non-biodegradable wastes.
    3. a) What are hazardous wastes?
    b) Write down different types of hazardous wastes and their
    potential danger.
    4. Distinguish between recycling and re-using wastes?
    5. Recently, Kigali was ranked as the cleanest city in Africa. How do
    you think the government of Rwanda has managed to do this?
    6. The golden rule of waste management is 3Rs. What does it stand
    for?

    7. Give the missing information in the table below.

    g

    8. What do you understand by the term ‘professional garbage
    collection’?
    9. Mungwana’s computer got spoil. He took it and dumped it in a
    compost pit nearby his home. Comment on this.
    10. What can you advise Gamka who doesn’t like collecting garbage
    in her home compound?
    11. Explain what landfill is and its importance in the society.
    12. What should be done to hazardous wastes?

    13. Wastes are a must! Discuss this statement.

  • UNIT 11:Circulatory System

    h

    2.What is happening in picture A? How about picture B?

    3. Discuss the consequences of poor health care shown on picture A and B

    11.1 Main function of human circulatory system
    Find out
    1. The main function of circulatory system.
    Activity 11.1 Investigating the function of human
    circulatory system
    1. Research in library text book or search engine on human
    circulatory system
    2. Write down your findings

    The main functions of the human circulatory system include

    • Transport oxygen to blood cells.
    • Transport digested food nutrients to the cells of the body.
    • Transport carbon dioxide from cells to excretory organs.
    • Transport hormones to the glands.
    11.2 Organs of the human circulatory system
    Find out

    1. The main organs of the human circulatory system.
    Identifying organs of the human
    circulatory system
    1. Use a chart of blood circulation and name main organs of
    circulatory system.
    2. Watch the video on human blood circulation using the link:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_qmNCJxpsr0

    The circulatory system in human beings is made up of three main organs:
    The heart - This is a muscular organ that pumps blood to all
    parts of the body.
    Blood vessels -These are tubes that carry blood around the
    body. They are of different types depending on what they do.

    Blood - This is the transport fluid in the body.

    Structure of the human heart
    Activity 11.3    Drawing the structure of the human
    heart

    1. Research from library text book about the heart structure.
    2. Draw the diagram of the human heart in your notebook.
    3. Label the various parts of the human heart.

    The human heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of

    the body. It is divided into four chambers:
    • Two chambers are on the upper side of the human heart. They are
    called Auricles or atria (singular-atrium).
    • Two other chambers are located on the lower side of the human
    heart. They are called ventricles.
    • The heart also has blood vessels. Example, vena cava, pulmonary
    artery,aorta and pulmonary vein.
    t
    Note : Further, the human heart chambers are separated by valves
    on both the left and right sides. Valves prevent the blood from flowing
    backwards.
    Separating the left side of the heart from the right side is a muscular wall
    called septum.

    Remember!

    The division of the heart into four chambers is important as it
    ensures that oxygenated and deoxygenated blood do not mix.

    11.3 The process of human blood circulation

    a ) Blood vessels
    Activity 11.4    Identifying different types of blood
                             vessels in human beings

    1. Observe the picture below of human blood circulation. Name the

    parts labelled a, b and c.

    h

    2. Trace the path of blood from the heart to the lungs and to all
    parts of the body and back using the picture above.
    3. Watch the video on human blood circulation using the link:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_qmNCJxpsr0

    4. Try to trace the path of blood from the heart or other body parts.

    • How does blood flow from the heart to other body parts?
    Which vessels are involved in the process?
    • How does blood flow from the other body parts back to the
    heart? Which vessels are involved in the process?

    5. Draw a diagram to represent the path of blood from the heart

    to the lungs and to all parts of the body and back. Compare your
    diagram to the one in the picture in (1) above. Are they similar?

    The blood vessels are interconnected to allow transportation of blood

    to all parts of the body. There are three major blood vessels:
    Arteries - carry blood from the heart to all parts of the body.
    The main artery is the aorta.They lack valves , have thick
    elastic wall and narrow lumen and carry blood at high

    pressure.

    g

    Veins - carry blood from all parts of the body to the heart.
    The main vein is the vena cava. They have thinner walls
    than the arteries but with wider lumen. They have valves
    which prevent blood from flowing backwards. Blood in the

    vein flow at much low pressure than in arteries.

    f

    Capillaries - act as a link between arteries and veins. They
    form a network within tissues. They are very thin -They have
    tiny holes called pores which allow movement of materials in

    and out. Further, they connect arteries and veins.

    g

    b) Blood circulation

    The heart pumps blood to all parts of the body.
    • The blood leaves the heart and flows to the body parts through
    arteries. The blood returns to the heart from the body parts through
    veins.

    • The steps involved in blood circulation are as follows:

    h

    • Deoxygenated blood from all parts of the body flows through
    the vena cava into the right auricle (RA) and finally into the right
    ventricle.
    • The walls of the right ventricle then pumps the blood into the lungs
    through the pulmonary artery for oxygenation.
    • In the lungs, oxygen is added to the blood and carbon dioxide is
    removed. The blood is now said to be oxygenated.
    • The oxygenated blood then flows to the left auricle through
    pulmonary vein and finally into the left ventricle.
    • The walls of the left ventricle (which are thicker and more muscular)
    then pump the blood to all parts of the body through the aorta.
    • Once the blood circulates to all parts of the body, it flows back to

    the heart through vena cava and the cycle repeats itself.

    11.4 Components of human blood
    Find out

    1. The various components of human blood.

    2. The importance of the various components of human blood.

    Activity 11.5  Investigating the components of human

    blood.

    1. Research in library text book or search engine on
    components of human blood.
    2. Write your findings in exercise note book.

    Blood is the red fluid found in our bodies. It has four main components:

    h

    a) Plasma - This is the main component of blood. This part is mainly liquid.
    b) Red blood cells - Red blood cells help to carry oxygen from the lungs to all body organs. They contain a red colouring matter called

    haemoglobin.

    h

    Remember!
    Blood that contains oxygen is called oxygenated blood. It is scarlet
    or bright red in colour. Blood that has lost oxygen and has more

    carbon dioxide is called deoxygenated blood. It is dark-red in colour.

    c) White blood cells
    White blood cells help to fight and kill disease - causing germs. They are therefore responsible for body immunity.

    s

    d) Platelets
    Blood platelets are responsible for clotting of blood, they therefore
    help to stop bleeding in case of injury. They also help during healing

    of wounds.

    Self –Test 11.1
    1. What makes up the circulatory system?
    2. Describe the process of blood circulation using a flow diagram.
    3. What is the significance of the organisation of the heart into
    four chambers and further left and right sides?

    4. Complete the table below.

    v

    5. Differentiate between arteries and veins.

    6. What is blood made of? What are their functions?

    11.5 Caring for and health of circulation system
    Find out

    1. What to do in order to keep our blood circulatory system healthy.
    2. How to take care of the human heart.

    Activity 11.6 Researching how to keep the blood

    circulation system healthy

    1. Visit the library. Find out from textbooks about practices that help
    to keep the human heart healthy. You can also use the Internet.
    2. Write your findings in a exercise book.
    3. Do the same with the rest of the parts that make up the human

    circulatory system (blood vessels and blood).

    Table 11.1 below shows some ways of observing hygiene of the human

    heart, blood and blood vessels:

    Table 11.1: Hygiene of the human heart, blood and blood vessels

    h

    Remember!
    We should avoid all activities that may lead us into getting infected

    with HIV and AIDS.

    11.6 Diseases or conditions of the circulatory system
    Find out

    1. The diseases that affect the circulatory system.
    2. The causes, signs and symptoms of diseases that affect the
    circulatory system.

    3. How to avoid diseases of circulatory system.

    Activity 11.7 Investigating common diseases of
    circulatory system

    1. Research in library textbook or search engine on disease that
    affect circulatory system.
    2. Write your findings in a exercise book.
    The diseases that affect the circulatory system include: high blood
    pressure, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and deep-vein

    thrombosis (DVT)

    Table 11.2 Diseases of the circulatory system, their signs and symptoms

    and prevention and control measures

    h

    s

    11.7 Blood pressure measurement
    Find out

    Normal measurement of blood pressure

    Activity 11.8   A visit to health centre
    1. Go to a nearby health centre .

    2. Observe how the nurse measures your blood pressure.

    d

    3. Ask the nurse what normal blood pressure is.
    4. Discuss and interpret your blood pressure.
    • Blood pressure is the amount of force exerted against the walls of
    arteries as blood flows through them.
    • It is measured using an instrument called sphygmomanometer/
    blood pressure meter.

    • The normal blood pressure is 120/80mmHg.
    Note: Any value lower than 120/80mmHg is considered low blood

    pressure. Any value higher than 120/80mmHg is high blood pressure.

    UNIT TEST 11
    1. Name the organs that make up the human circulatory system.
    2. Blood leaves the heart to the rest of the body through ______
    and returns to the heart through the _____________.
    3. The __________ prevents blood from flowing backwards in
    veins.
    4. The main artery is the _________ while the main vein is the
    ________.
    5. Draw and label the parts of the circulatory system. Using arrows,
    show how blood circulates in the body.
    6. Name the three types of blood vessels in human circulatory
    system.
    7. Arteries do not have valves. Why?
    8. Compare and contrast heart rate during rest and during
    exercise.
    9. How would you ensure that your blood is functioning properly?
    10. Why is it important to check our blood pressure regularly?
    11. Blood carried by the arteries are under____________ pressure
    while that carried by veins is under _________________ pressure.
    (high, low)
    12. The main function of white blood cells is__________________
    while platelets help during ________________ process.
    13. Oxygen is carried in blood in form of________________


    Use the diagram below to answer questions 14-17

    x

    14. Which of the following statements is correct? The blood vessel
    mark W carries:
    A. Blood from the lungs
    B. Blood to the lungs
    C. Blood to the body organs
    D. De-oxygenated blood
    15. The blood vessel marked X is the __________
    16. Which one of the following statements is not correct about the
    blood vessel marked Y?
    A. Carries deoxygenated blood
    B. Is the major artery in the circulatory system
    C. Carries blood from the heart to the body organs
    D. Is the aorta
    17. The blood vessel marked Z is _____________. It is the largest

    vein in the body.

  • UNIT 12 :Respiratory System

    1. Look at the picture below.

    x

    2. Is it right or wrong to smoke inside the house where people are?
    3. How does smoke affect the health of people?
    4. What would you advise people who smoke in public places?

    5. Predict what you are going to learn in this unit.

    12.1 The human respiratory system and its function
    Find out
    1. The main function of human respiratory system .

    2. The various organs of the human respiratory system.

    Activity 12.1 Investigating the main function of the
    respiratory system

    1. Take a deep breathe and note the time on the clock or wrist
    watch.
    2. Close your mouth and nose tightly and hold onto your breathe.
    How long can you stay without breathing? What does this tell
    you about breathing?

    The main function of respiratory system is to transport fresh air(

    oxygen) into the lungs and remove waste air (carbondioxide) out of the lungs.

    I
    dentification of organs of the respiratory system
    Activity 12.2 Identifying organs of the respiratory system
    1. Look at the picture below.

    n

    2. Draw and label the human respiratory system in your notebook.

    The main parts of the human respiratory system are the nose,

    trachea lungs (windpipe), bronchi and the diaphragm.

    k

    Table 12.1: Parts of respiratory system and their functions

    j

    e

    12.2 Mechanism of respiration (Breathing in and out)
    Find out
    1. How the human respiratory system operates.

    2. The process of breathing in and breathing out in human beings.

    Activity 12.3    Investigating the mechanism of the
                             respiratory system 
    1. Place your hands on both sides of your chest. Take a deep breath.
    What happens to your chest?
    2. Repeat this several times and note what happens.

    3. Interpret your findings about breathing process.

    Activity 12.4    Experiment to demonstrate how
                             respiratory system works

    What you will need
    Bell jar, two balloons, rubber stopper, Y-shaped glass tube, rubber sheet,
    string.

    1. Set up the things above as shown in the picture below.

    s

    2. What do you think the following parts represent in the respiratory
    system?
    a) Bell jar
    b) Balloons
    c) Rubber sheet
    d) Y-shaped tube
    3. Pull down the string tied on the rubber sheet. What happens to
    the balloons?
    4. Release the string. What happens to the balloons?
    5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 several times as you note what happens.
    6. How do you think the findings in this experiment relate to the

    working of the breathing system?

    Mechanisms of breathing
    Respiration refers to the act of breathing in / inhalation / inspiration

    and breathing out/ exhalation / expression.

    • The bell jar represents chest cavity, Y-shaped tube represents the
    trachea and bronchi, the balloons represents the lungs and the rubber
    sheet represents the diaphragm.

    Breathing in ( inhalation/ inspiration)

    • When the rubber sheet is pulled downwards, the volume inside the
    bell jar increases.
    • The balloons become inflated( air rushes into the ballons). This is

    similar to what happens during breathing in.

    h

    • When the sheet is released, the volume inside the bell jar reduces.
    Air is pushed out of the balloons and they become deflated. This is similar to what happens during breathing out.

    h

    Table 12.2: What happens during (inhalation) and breathing out

    (exhalation)

    j

    12.3 Good health practices and behaviours for a
    healthy respiratory system
    Find out

    1. Care of the respiratory system.

    Activity 12.5 Experiment to demonstrate the
    danger of smoking cigarette
    What you will need
    • Transparent plastic bottle with cap
    • Tissue paper              • Rubber band
    • Cigarette                    • Match box
    • Nail                            • Biro-pen casing with cap
    • Water
    1. Make a hole at the bottom of the plastic bottle. Insert the biro

    pen casing as shown below. Ensure that the bottle top is on.

    k

    2. Fill the bottle almost three-quarter way with water.
    3. Take the cap off the bottle, make a hole then insert the piece of

    cigarette.

    h

    4. Screw the bottle cap into the bottle with the cigarette filter inside
    the bottle.
    5. Light the cigarette using the match stick and match box.
    6. Remove the cap of the biro pen casing to let the water out as

    shown below and observe what happens.

    h

    7. Once all the water is drained out of the bottle, remove the bottle
    cap and wrap the tissue paper round the mouth of the bottle. Tie
    it using the rubber band.
    8. Blow air through the biro pen using the bottom of the bottle as

    shown below.

    f

    Why do you think this is important?
    9. Unwrap the tissue paper and observe it carefully. What can you
    see?
    10. Discuss the results of this experiment with your friends. Relate
    your findings here to what happens to the lungs when you smoke.
    11. Based on the results of this experiment, do you think smoking is good or bad for our health?

    Ways of taking care of the respiratory system include:

    • Avoiding smoking or excessive driving of alcohol to
    ensure healthy lungs.
    • Eating a vitamin- rich diet
    • Seeking immediate medical care in case of a respiratory problem.
    • Exercising regularly to strengthen respiratory muscles.
    • Drinking plenty of water.
    • Avoid refined sugar, pasta or dairy products.
    • Avoiding inhaling unknown or dangerous substances or
    chemicals.
    • When spraying chemicals in the house or any other place,
    always wear protective clothing, for example, a gas mask.

    • Developing good eating habits

    12.4 Diseases of the respiratory system
    Find out

    1. The various diseases that affect the respiratory system.

    2. What are their signs and symptoms?

    Activity 12.6 Investigating the diseases of the
                         respiratory system 
    1. Using search engine, find out about diseases of the respiratory
    system.
    2. Write down your findings in your exercise book.
    Common diseases of the respiratory system include:
    • Tuberculosis (TB)
    • Whooping cough
    • Asthma
    • Bronchitis

    • Pneumonia

    Table 12.3 Signs and symptoms of the respiratory diseases and their

    control measures

    n

    x

    12.5 Suffocation
    Find out
    1. What suffocation is.
    2. The cause of suffocation.

    3. First aid for suffocation.

    Activity 12.7 Investigating the causes and
    first aid suffocation

    1. Look at the picture below.

    k

    2. Discuss what happened to the people in the picture above.
    If a person does not get enough air into the lungs, he/she suffocates.
    Note: Suffocation may lead to death.

    a) Causes of suffocation

    Choking - this is the blocking of the windpipe by food or other
    materials. It prevents smooth flow of air into the lungs.
    Drowning – when we drown, the water prevents air from
    reaching our lungs. We therefore suffocate.
    • Carbondioxide inhalation.
    • When a place is so hot that you cannot breathe easily you may

    suffocate.

    h

    b) First aid for suffocation
    In case of suffocation, you should do the following:
    • For all the victims, loosen the clothing surrounding the neck, move
    the victim to an open place with plenty of fresh air.
    • Gently slap between the shoulder blades in case of chocking.

    • Perform abdominal thrusts.

    s

    • If the person is unconscious, lie them on a flat floor, clear the airways
    and perform chest compressions.
    • In case of drowning, tilt the victim towards one side with the head
    down.
    • If breathing has stopped, mouth to mouth resuscitation should be

    given.

    Self –Test 12.1
    1. Which four practices would help to prevent respiratory problems
    in human beings?
    2. Name four respiratory diseases.
    3. What causes suffocation?

    4. Describe the procedure you will use to help a suffocated person.

    UNIT TEST 12
    1. A human being without a respiratory system is as good as a car
    without fuel. Explain this statement.
    2. Explain the following observations:
    a) Your heart rate increases when you do exercise such as running.
    b) You cannot hold your breathe for more than five minutes.
    3. Describe what happens to the chest and lungs during:
    a) breathing in.
    b) breathing out.
    4. Dust particles and germs are trapped by the _______ and
    ___________ in the nostrils. Why is this important?
    5. The _______________ is a sheet of muscles that separates the
    chest cavity from the abdomen.
    6. What do the parts shown in the breathing model below represent

    in human respiratory system?

    g

    7. During breathing out, the waste gas called _____________
    moves from the blood into the air sacs, after which it is breathed
    out. On the other hand ______________ gas moves from the air
    inside the air sacs into the blood.
    8. Inspiration is to _________ as expiration is to __________
    9. Which one of the following organs is not involved in breathing?
    A. Diaphragm                           B. Bronchioles
    C. Oesophagus                        D. Wind pipe
    10. Describe an experiment you would use to show dangers of
    smoking to members of your class.
    11. How would you ensure that your respiratory system remains

    healthy.

  • Unit 13 Reproduction system

    1. Study the chat among family members in the picture below.

    v

    2. Do you think all is well in this family?
    3. Predict what you are going to learn in this unit.
    13.1. Main function of the reproductive system in
    human being
    Find out

    The function of the reproductive system?

    Activity 13.1 Investigating main function of the
    reproductive system

    1. Using search engines, find out about main function of the human reproductive system.
    2. Write down your findings in your exercise note book.

    The main function of reproductive system in human being is to

    produce male and female sex cells and to insure the growth and
    development of off springs. Reproduction is the process of giving

    rise to new ones of own kind.

    13.2 Male reproductive organs
    Find out

    What makes the male reproductive systems

    Activity 13.2 Identifying external parts of male genitalia

    g

    1. Observe the picture chart
    2. Draw and label diagrams of male
    external reproductive organs.
    3. What are the functions of each part?

    Major external male genitalia
    From the outside, the male reproductive system is made up of:
    The scrotum -This is a bag-like skin that contains the testis
    and protects them.
    Penis - This is a tube- likef muscular organ that deposits sperms
    to female vagina

    during sexual intercourse.








    The testicles (or testis

    plural testes) - Two oval
    organs that contain sex
    glands which produce sperms

    Major internal male genitala sperms.
    g
    The male reproductive system is made up of:
    • The sperm duct also known as vas deferens is a tube that allows passage of sperms from the testis to the urethra.
    Prostate gland and seminal vesicles: Gland that produce fluid
    in which sperms swim. A mixture of sperms and these fluids is called semen.
    Urethra - This is the tube inside the penis that lets out sperms and urine.

    13.3 Female reproductive organs

    The female reproductive system is made up of external and internal 
    parts.
    Activity 13.3  Identifying external parts of a female

    genitalia

    1. Observe the chart below.
    h
    2. Can you identify parts of the female reproductive system above?
    3. Draw the diagrams in your notebook and label the various parts
    shown in the chart above.

    Major external female genitalia

    The major external organs of the female genitalia are shown below.
    d
    The vulva consists of the following external female organs:
    The labia major and labia minor - protect female sexual organ.
    The Bartholin’s gland - secretes mucus which lubricates the vagina.
    Clitoris –A small electile female organ.
    • Mon pubis
    • Urinary meatus

    • Vaginary opening

    Major internal female reproductive organs

    h

    Table 13.1 The functions of female internal gentialia

    f

    Remember!
    Both boys and girls should clean their genitals regularly to avoid
    infections. Girls should particularly do this thoroughly during
    menstruations this helps to remove the blood stains and germs
    which may cause genital diseases.

    Self –Test 13.1
    1. Draw and label the male reproductive organs. Name both
    internal and external parts.
    2. State the functions of every part that you labelled in question (1)
    above.
    3. Name the parts of external genital organs in females.
    4. Draw and label the female internal genital organs.
    5. Come up with a table on the functions of internal parts of female
    genitalia.

    13.4 Prevention of unplanned pregnancy
    Find out

    1. Consequences of early or teenage pregnancy.

    2. How teenage pregnancy can be avoided.

    Activity 13.4   Preventing unplanned pregnancy

    1. Study the pictures below carefully.

    j
    2. Discuss what is going on in the pictures.
    3. Discuss how the pregnancy will affect the future life of the girl and
    the boy.
    4. Identify ways through which one can avoid unplanned pregnancy.

    Pregnancy occurs when a male and a female engage in sexual
    intercourse.


    A teenage pregnancy/ early pregnancy is pregnancy in the females 
    under age.

    a) How to prevent unwanted pregnancy

    Unwanted pregnancy/unplanned pregnancy it is involuntary or un
    expected pregnancy. When a woman gets pregnant against her wish, the pregnancy is not planned.
    Unwanted pregnancy/unplanned pregnancy can be prevented by
    • Abstinence ( Not engaging in sexual intercourse).
    • Avoid sexual exploitation.
    • Using contraceptives diaphragms, pills, condoms, coils / IUD, Norplant,
    Depo - provera, spermicides)
    n

    Activity 13.5 Demonstrating of safe use of male condom
    What you need

    • A packet of condom
    • A penis model or a ripe banana
    What to do
    1. Wash the penis model or the banana (without peeling) to ensure
    that it is clean.
    2. Check on the expiry date on the condom. If expired, do NOT use.
    3. Remove the condom from its packet carefully.
    n
    4. Determine which way the condom is rolled.
    5. Ensure that the reservoir at the tip of the condom is facing away
    from you.
    6. Roll the condom down the length of the penis model or the

    banana.

    j

    7. As for penis, make sure that it is erect and roll the condom down
    the shaft as shown below then use. Continue rolling until it reaches
    the end of the banana or model.
    h
    A condom is a thin rubber tube, closed at one end used to prevent the
    sperms from reaching the uterus. It is used during sexual intercourse.
    Condoms are about 98% effective. This means that in every 100 users
    only two get pregnant.

    b) Consequences of early pregnancy

    The consequences of early or teenage pregnancy include:
    • Dropping out of school or college.
    • Emotional stress especially for the girls.
    • Girls may die during pregnancy or at birth because their bodies are not yet prepared to handle giving birth.
    • Teenage pregnancy is associated with a stigmatization and rejection by families.
    • Illegal abortion.
    d) Dangers of abortion
    When a pregnant woman attempts to do away with the pregnancy. This is known as abortion. Abortion is very dangerous and is illegal in many countries including Rwanda.
    Dangers of abortion include:
    • Abortion leads to loss of life of the foetus.
    • Abortion may cause injury or damage to reproductive organs and
    other internal organs.e.g cervix, uterus, bladder, rectum.
    • Abortion may cause infection due to incomplete abortion or use of contaminated equipment.
    • Abortion may cause complete infertility.
    • Abortion may cause spontaneous abortion in the future.

    • It can lead to death of the mother.

    Remember!

    AVOID abortion always! It can lead to death!

    13.5 Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
    Find out

    1. Sexually transmitted infections.
    2. Signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections.

    Activity 13.6 Research about STIS

    1. Use search engine or library to research on examples of sexually
    transmitted diseases. What causes them? How can they be
    prevented?
    2. Watch the video using the link: http://www.youtube.com/
    Sexually transmitted infections are diseases that can be transmitted from
    one person to another through sexual contact. Examples: syphilis,
    herpes, gonorrhea, chancroid, genital candidiasis and HIV and
    AIDS.


    Table 13.2: The cause, transmission for the various Sexually Transmitted
    Diseases.
    h

    nh

    13.6 Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections
    (STIs)
    Activity 13.7 Investigating ways of preventing
    sexually transmitted infection

    1. Discuss how STIs can be prevented or controlled. Write short
    notes and share with the rest of the class.
    Ways of preventing sexually transmitted infections include:
    1. Abstaining from sexual intercourse.
    2. Married people should be faithful to their spouses.
    3. Seeking medical help immediately on suspicious of infection.
    4. Use of condom during sexual intercourse.
    5. An expectant mother who feels she has STI should seek medical
    assistance to ensure the baby is protected from contracting the

    infection.

    13.7 HIV and AIDS
    Find out

    1. Mode of transmission of HIV and AIDS.
    2. How to prevent HIV and AIDS.

    3. How to live positively with HIV and AIDS.

    Activity 13.8 Research about HIV/AIDS

    1. Write down what each letter in the table below stands for.

    d

    2. Discuss what causes , HIV and AIDS. How is it transmitted?

    3. Write short notes on these.

    HIV stands for human immuno defieciency virus is the virus that lead a
    acquired immune deficiency syndrome or AIDS for not treated.

    Transmission of HIV and AIDS

    AIDS is transmitted when we come into contact with various body
    fluids. Examples: blood, breast milk, semen, vagina fluids and others.
    The fluids get into our body during sexual intercourse, blood transfusion,
    sharing body, piercing and cutting objects, and mother to child during
    pregnancy or during breast feeding.

    Prevention and treatment of HIV and AIDS

    Ways of preventing the spread of HIV and AIDS include:
    1. Abstinence from sexual intercourse.
    2. Not sharing body piercing and cutting tools such as razor blades,
    nail cutters, scissors, syringes and ear piercing, circumcision and

    tattooing tools.

    h
                         Fig 13.16 These tools can spread HIV when shared
    3. Seeking medical help from trained doctors or officers. They use
    sterilised instruments and have equipment for screening donated
    blood for presence of HIV.
    4. Using protective clothing such as gloves when handling bleeding
    patients.
    5. Avoiding abuse of drugs. Drug addicts make poor decisions.
    They may engage in sexual activities This can lead to HIV infection.
    NOTE : Like many viral diseases, HIV and AIDS has no cure. However,
    the severity of the disease may be reduced using drugs called ARVs
    (Anti-Retro-Viral).
    s

             Fig 13.17 Sample of ARVs

    Remember!
    Stop HIV and AIDS spread! Insist on abstinence until you get married

    Living positively with HIV and AIDS
    Activity13.9 Chatting,reading and searching

    about living positively with HIV

    1. Talk to a person living positively with HIV and AIDS. Write down
    main points.
    2. Read textbooks, brochures, handouts and pamphlets on HIV and AIDS.
    Look out for:
    a) The ways of living positively with HIV and AIDS patients.
    b) Challenges that HIV and AIDS patients come across and
    how to manage them.
    c) How to live positively with other family members and the
    community.

    Ways of living positively with HIV and AIDS patients include:

    • The patients should be given love and affection.
    • They should not be isolated, but should be given good care.
    • They should be given a balanced diet at all times.
    • The infected persons should be counselled so that they may accept their conditions and not live in denial.
    UNIT TEST 13
    1. What is the role of reproductive system in human beings?
    2. Draw and label
    a) Internal parts of male genitalia.
    b) Internal parts of female genitalia.
    3. In males, sperms are produced in the ___________ while in females
    ova are produced in _____________.
    4. __________ as well as _________ pass through the urethra in males.
    5. Give other names for
    a) Uterus b) Oviduct c) Vagina
    6. You have been invited to your local church to talk to your
    friends about:
    a) How HIV and AIDS is spread.
    b) How the spread of HIV and AIDS can be prevented.
    c) How HIV and AIDS can be controlled.
    List down the points you will talk about.

    7. Label the external parts of male genitalia shown below.

    s

    8. The most effective way of preventing HIV and AIDS, especially for
    adolescents is by:
    A. Abstinence                      B. Using condoms
    C. Having one partner         D. Being faithful.
    9. Which one of the following statements about STIs is incorrect?
    A. STIs are spread through sexual contact.
    B. STIs can be passed from mother to the unborn baby.
    C. STIs cannot be transmitted through kissing.
    D. The most effective way to avoid contracting STIs is
    abstinence.
    10. Assume that your close relative is suffering from HIV and AIDS.
    How would you take care of him or her?
    11. Which signs will you look out for to know if your sister is pregnant?
    What should you do there after?
    12. What are the consequences of early or teenage pregnancy?
    13. Abortion is illegal in Rwanda. Why is this the case?
    14. What causes and how can these diseases be prevented?
    a) Candidiasis
    b) Syphilis
    c) Chancroid

    15. Match the contraceptive with its use using a line.

    h

    16. Which one of the following cultural practices cannot lead to
    spread of HIV and AIDS?
    A. Wife inheritance
    B. Circumcision
    C. Teeth removal
    D. Sharing meat from a common pot.
    17. Which one of the following is not a mass communication medium
    through which HIV and AIDS education can be carried out?
    A. Television                                   B. News papers
    C. Radio                                         D. Mobile phone

    18. Role-play how to avoid early pregnancy with a friend.

  • Unit 14 Energy management

    1. Study the picture below.

    h
    2. What is going on in the picture?
    3. What would you advise the parents of the children to do to help them out of their problem?
    14.1. Definition of energy and forms of energy
    Find out

    What is energy

    Activity 14.1 Investigating the means of energy.
    1. Look at the picture below.
    g
    2. What are the people doing in the picture above?

    3. Discuss which ability is needed for work in the picture above

    When you do work of any kind, you apply effort to do it.
    Also, when you dig, you apply effort. The source of this effort is the energy
    stored in your body muscles. So, what is energy?
    Energy is defined as ‘the ability to do work’.
    The various forms of energy include:
    • Mechanical energy
    • Chemical energy
    • Thermal (heat) energy
    • Electrical energy
    • Electromagnetic energy

    • Elastic energy

    a) Chemical energy
    Activity 14.2 Investigating chemical energy
    Materials needed
    • Fuel (charcoal, firewood or kerosene)
    • A gas lighter or matches and matchbox
    • A kerosene stove or charcoal burner
    • Irish potatoes
    What to do
    1. Peel the potatoes before cooking. Are they soft or hard?
    2. Put the kerosene in the stove or charcoal in the charcoal burner.
    3. Light the stove or charcoal burner using a lighter or matchbox.
    4. Use the stove or charcoal burner to cook the Irish potatoes.
    Observe the potatoes after cooking.
    5. Which is softer? Before or after cooking? Why?
    • We cook potatoes (food) by using energy. The energy stored in
    charcoal, kerosene or fire wood is called Chemical energy.
    Car batteries and dry cells also have stored chemical energy

    which is used to run vehicles and produce electricity respectively.

    h

    b) Heat (thermal) energy
    Activity 14.3 Investigating heat energyh
    Carry out these activities:
    1. Rub your hands against one
    another for some time. How do
    you feel?
    2. Rub two rough surfaces against one
    another and then feel the surfaces.
    What can you conclude from the results

    of the activities above

    • When we rub our hands against each other, heat is produced. We
    feel warm as a result.
    • When we rub rough surfaces together, heat is produced.
    Note: Common sources of heat energy are the sun, electricity and

    fuels such as charcoal, gas, biogas and firewood.

    c) Electrical energy
    Activity 14.4 Investigating of electrical energy
    1. Look at the pictures below.
    s
    2. Can you identify the things in the pictures?

    3. What do they require in order to work?

    Electrical energy is also known as electricity. It is produced when
    electrical currents flow in a conductor.
    Uses of electricity
    Electricity can be used to do the following things:
    • Lighting bulbs.
    • Driving machines in factories and industries.
    • Operating electrical appliances such as radios, televisions and
    computers.
    • Drying things for example, harvested crops.

    • For cooking.

    d) Electromagnetic energy
    Activity 14.5 Investigating electromagnetic energy

    1. Look at the picture below

    e

    2. Try to identify the pictures shown.
    Electromagnetic energy is a form of energy that is in form of magnetic
    and electrical waves (also known as magnetism).

    Example: Radio waves.

    e) Mechanical energy
    Activity 14.6 Investigating mechanical energy
    1. Rub top of a table with sand paper.

    g

    2. Use a file to rub an iron bar.

    h

    3. Rub a matchstick on the side of a match box.

    j

    4. Discuss the results of your experiments above.
    Energy can be stored or can be in motion. Energy of objects due to their

    current position and ability to move is called mechancial energy.

    f) Elastic energy
    Activity 14.7 Investigating elastic energy
    1. Look at the diagram below.

    2. What is the person using?

    d

    3. Make your own catapult using pieces of old Tyre tubes and a Y shaped
    stick. Ask your parent or your guardian to help you.
    4. Play with the catapult by throwing stones.
    5. How effective was the catapult at throwing stones? Compare it

    to when you use your bare hands to throw stones.

    Elastic energy is a type of energy that is found in elastic materials.

    Self –Test 14.1
    1. What is energy?
    2. Give any five forms of energy that you know.
    3. Give three examples of devices that use electric current.

    4. Explain briefly how you can generate static electricity.

    14.2 Energy transformation (Energy conversions)
    Find out
    How energy is transformed from one form to another ?
    Activity 14.8 Investigating energy transformation
    1. Put some dry cells in a torch.
    2. Put on the switch. What happens?

    3. Strike a matchbox using a matchstick. What happens?

    f

    4. Blow a whistle or flute. What happens?
    5. What does the experiments above tell you about energy?
    Energy can be changed from one form to another. We say that the energy

    has been transformed.

    Remember!
    Energy is transformed from one form into another but it is never
    destroyed.
    a) Conversion from mechanical energy to heat (thermal)
    energy
    Activity 14.9 Converting mechanical energy to
    heat energy
    1. Rub top of a table with sand paper. What happens?
    2. Use a file to rub an iron bar. What do you see or feel?
    3. Rub a matchstick on the side of a match box. What happens?
    4. Explain the results of your experiments above.
    • When person is using sand paper to rub a wooden table, the heat
    is produced due to mechanical energy which in converted into heat
    energy.
    • The file produces heat energy. Mechanical energy is converted to
    produce heat when using a file.
    • The matchstick bursts into flames because of heat produced during

    rubbing. Mechanical energy stored in the matchstick is converted into heat energy,

    Mechanical energy------------------------- Heat (thermal) energy

    b) Conversion from mechanical energy to electrical energy
    Activity 14.10 Converting mechanical energy to
    electrical energy
    Rub a comb against your hair. Try to attract pieces of paper using the

    comb. What happens?

    When a comb is rubbed on hair, electrical energy is produced. This

    electrical energy is called static electricity.

    Mechanical energy------------------------ ` Electrical energy

    (Comb rubbed on hair)                  (Static electricity produced)

    Other common examples
    m

    Fig 14.3 Windwill converts mechanical energy to electrical energy

    • In windmills – electricity is generated by using wind energy.
    • In hydroelectric power stations – water flowing under the
    influence of force of gravity is used to turn huge turbines to produce

    electricity.

    c) Conversion from chemical energy to heat (thermal)
    energy
    Activity 14.11 Converting chemical energy to
    heat ( thermal ) energy
    1. Use the stove or charcoal burner to cook Irish potatoes.
    2. Observe the potatoes after cooking.
    3. Where did the heat that was used to cook the potatoes come from?

    4. What does this tell you about energy conversions?

    Charcoal store chemical energy. During burning, this chemical energy
    is transformed into heat (thermal) energy that is used to cook the food.
    Chemical energy `-------------------- Heat (thermal) energy

    (In fuel/ charcoal )                         (Cooks food)

    d) Conversion from chemical energy to electrical energy
    Activity 14.12 Converting chemical energy to

    electrical energy

    What you need
    • Dry cell      • Switch      •Connecting wire      • Bulb
    What to do

    1. Set up an experiment as shown below.

    f

    2. Put on the switch. What happens to the bulb?
    3. Now, put off the switch. What happens?
    4. Write a report about your findings and present to the rest of the

    class.

    When the switch is put on, the bulb lights. This is because chemical
    energy stored in the dry cell is converted into electrical energy
    Chemical energy------------------- Electrical energy
    (In dry cell)                                 (In bulb)
    Note: When switched off, the chemical energy is not converted hence

    the bulb does not light.

    e) Conversion from solar energy to electrical energy
    Activity 14.13           Converting Solar energy to

                                      electrical energy

    1. Look at the picture
    n

    alongside. Have
    you ever seen such
    an installation in
    the community
    where you stay?
    2. What are the
    benefits of what
    is going on in the
    picture?


    In the figure above, solar energy is used to produce electrical energy

    that is used to light the house.


    Solar energy --------------------Chemical energy------------------- electrical

    (In solar panel)                     (In battery)                               (In bulb)

    Remember!
    Solar energy can also be transformed into heat energy that can be

    used to heat water for domestic use, that is:

    Solar energy ----------------------Heat energy

    (In solar panel)                      (In water heater)

    f) Conversion from electrical energy to thermal (heat)
    energy
    Activity 14.14 Converting electrical energy to

    thermal energy

    1. Assemble the apparatus as shown below.

    n

    2. Switch on the electric kettle.
    3. Summarize the energy transformations that are involved in this

    experiment.

    When the switch is turned on, the electrical energy is converted to
    heat energy in the kettle. The heat energy is used to boil the water

    inside the kettle.

    Electrical energy-------------------------------- Heat(thermal) energy

    An electric iron also works in a similarh
    way.
    Electricity possessed in electric iron
    produces thermal (heat) energy which is

    used to straighten the piece of cloth.


    Electrical---------------------------------- thermal energy

    (Electric iron)                                  (Heat in iron)

    g) Conversion from electrical energy to mechanical energy
    Activity 14.15 Converting electrical energy to
    mechanical energy

    1. Assemble the apparatus as shown below.

    h

    2. Switch on the electric fan.
    3. What energy transformation occurs when an electrical fan is

    turned on ?

    Some electrical appliances transform electrical into mechanical

    energy e.g electrical blender, electric fan and motors among others.

    Electrical energy----------------------------- Mechanical energy
    14.3 Importance of energy
    Find out
    1. Why do we eat food?
    2. What would happen if a vehicle ran out of fuel?

    3. Suppose the Sun did not exist, what will happen to plants?

    Activity 14.16 Investigating the importance of energy

    1. Look at the picture below.

    j

    2. Observe the pictures above and discuss the importance of
    using energy
    We can not live without energy, for example, energy helps in movement,
    in growth, as a source of light, heat, and electricity among other
    uses.
    • We get heat from different sources example, the Sun, from burning
    fuels, electricity among others.
    • Energy helps to grow .
    • Many objects around us work using electrical energy and heat energy.
    • Energy helps to improve the quality of lives.
    • Energy support economic competitiveness.

    Self –Test 14.2

    1. Name any three forms of energy that you know.
    2. Which form of energy is produced when we:
    a) burn charcoal?

    b) connect a bulb across a lemon using wires as shown below?

    n

    c) rub a file on an iron metal?
    3. Describe the energy transformations that occur in a
    a) Radio
    b) Hydro-electric power generation station
    c) When throwing a stone using catapult.
    4. Distinguish between elastic and thermal energies.
    5. Which energy transformations are involved in the diagram in
    question (2) above?

    14.4. Sources of energy

    Find out

    How energy is transformed from one form to another ?
    Activity 14.17 Investigating sources of energy.

    1. Look the pictures below.

    m

    2. Analyse the pictures above and discuss the main sources of

    energy.

    The common sources of energy are:
    • The Sun - which is the main source of energy.
    Fuels – we burn fuel (solids, liquids and gases) to produce heat.
    Examples
    - Gas (or LPG)
    - Diesel                                         - Petrol
    - Kerosene                                    - Biogas
    Hydro-electric power – this is power produced from generators
    driven by water. An example is Rusizi hydroelectric power

    generation station.

    v

    Wind – wind power is produced from windmills. Windmills are wind driven

    turbines which rotate the machines that produce electricity.

    14.5. Renewable energy
    Find out

    1. Different sources of renewable energy.
    2. The most common source of renewable energy.

    3. The advantages and uses of renewable energy

    k

    Energy sources can be renewable or non-renewable. Renewable
    energy sources are those that cannot get finished. They can actually be
    recycled or reused. Examples include:
    • Sunlight
    • Wind
    • Water or hydroelectric power
    • Energy from ocean waves
    • Geothermal power
    • Solar power

    • Bio-fuels (trees which can be planted to replace cut ones)

    a) Solar energy
    Activity 14.18 Visit to a solar power generation plant
    Make a visit to a nearby solar energy installation.

    1. Find out how solar power works.
    2. Find out about the components of a solar power installation.
    3. Enquirer about the importance of solar power.
    4. Draw a sketch of what you observe in your notebook.
    The Sun is the main source of energy. This is what is called solar energy.

    It is a renewable source of energy. Look at the diagram below.

    v

    The various components of a solar power installation are:
    • Solar panels – These trap solar energy from the Sun.
    • Solar battery – stores charge in form of chemical energy following
    conversion of light energy from the Sun.
    • Inverter – converts direct current (D.C) - which is the form in

    which chemical energy is stored in the battery to alternating current

    (A.C) - which is the form that can be utilised by the bulbs and other
    electrical equipments.
    Bulb – the load. It converts electrical energy into light energy which
    enables us to see.

    Uses of solar energy

    1. All crops and plants depend on energy from the Sun to make their
    food.
    2. Solar energy is a source of warmth and light.
    3. Heat energy from the sun is used to dry clothes and grains.

    4 Solar panels are used to heat water in solar heaters.

    j

    5. Heat energy from the Sun is used to dry harvested food crops using
    solar drier. They can also be dried by placing them directly under
    sunlight.
    6. Heat energy from the Sun causes evaporation in the water cycle.
    This eventually provides us with rain.

    Maintenance of solar installation

    • Solar panel is held every time firmly in a safe position.
    • Solar panel is exposed to maximum sunlight by removing all litter
    that may fall it.

    • Solar repair and replace the faulty parts of solar plant.

    b) Biogas
    Activity 14.19 Visit to a biogas plant
    Visit to a nearby biogas generation facility.

    1. What are the components of a biogas digester.
    2. Explain the process of producing biogas and the challenges faced
    in operating digester.

    Biogas is produced in a special unit called biogas digester. Water and

    cow dung or other materials used to produced biogas are mixed in the
    digester. From the digester, a pipe is connected to the bulb or the cooker

    where the biogas is intended for use.

    m

    Activity 14.20 Making a biogas plant
    You will build your own biogas digester in this activity.
    Materials
    • 3 containers.
    • Enough cow dung and water mixed in the ratio of 4:5:1.
    • A long wire and a pipe .
    • A delivery tube (rubber) of about 60 m long.

    • Candle wax, plasticine or clay.

    What to do
    1. Set the biggest drum of the three with open end facing up.
    2. Add the cow dung-water mixture.
    3. Cut open end of the second drum to make three stands. These
    stands should be about 7 cm long.
    4. Make a hole on the extreme right of the closed end (bottom).
    5. Make another hole (pipe-size) on the extreme left.
    6. Place the small drum upside down into the large drum. Tie it with

    wires to keep it in central position.

    f

    7. Insert the pipe with bigger diameter through the bigger hole.
    8. Insert the delivery tube through the hole on the small drum.
    9. Make a hole the size of delivery tube at the top right side of the
    third tin. Seal round it with wax to close all the spaces. Connect
    the delivery tube from the first tin to this tin.
    10. Connect this tube to a tap (regulation of gas).
    11 After one week, connect the tube to the gas cooker open the tap

    and light the matchbox.

    The gas produced from animal dung mixed with water is called methane
    The bacteria present in the mixture breaks down the organic materials
    to produce the gas. The gas is burnt to produce flame. The gas burns with

    a blue flame.

    Domestic uses of biogash
    1. Biogas can be collected and
    stored in gas cylinders for
    domestic use. The remaining
    waste is used as manure.
    2. At home the biogas is used
    in cooking and as a source
    of light. It can also be used
    to warm the room when it is

    cold.

    Advantages of installing a biogas plant
    1. Biogas unlike petroleum products such as kerosene, firewood
    and charcoal is a cleaner source of energy hence good for our
    environment.
    2. It is less cheaper unlike other sources of energy such as fuels. It
    will only cost more money during installation but once you have
    installed, no costs are incurred,
    3. It is more convenient to use than other energy sources.
    4. Biogas can be produced by anybody with minimum training.

    Advantages of using renewable energy

    1. They are cheap hence can be afforded by many families.
    2. They do not pollute the environment that is, they are environmental
    friendly.
    3. They help us to conserve non-renewable sources of energy.
    4. They are readily available and in abundance.
    5. They, help to conserve trees, thereby conserving the environment.

    6. Renewable energy sources are convenient to use.

    Remember!

    • Conserving energy by using renewable sources

    Self –Test 14.3
    1. Name five sources of energy.
    2. Distinguish between renewable and non-renewable sources of
    energy.
    3. Many solar types of equipment are painted black. Give a reason
    for this.
    4. Name four components of a solar power installation and give
    their uses.
    5. Suggest three ways in which cow dung can be used as a source
    of fuel.
    6. What name is given to the gas that burns in biogas as a source
    of fuel?
    7. Give some advantages of using renewable sources of energy as

    opposed to non-renewable sources.

    UNIT TEST 14
    1. What is energy?
    2. When we eat, we get energy to work and to do other things.
    What form of energy is contained in food?
    3. Why would a vehicle without fuel stop moving?
    4. Describe the energy transformations involved in the following

    diagram.

    f

    5. You have been employed in an organisation dealing with
    environmental conservation in your home area. Assume you have
    been asked to explain to the people the importance of planting
    trees, what are some of the points you would give?
    6. Solar panels change Sunlight into ________ form of energy.
    A. Heat       B. Sound      C. Chemical         D. Electrical
    7. Which of the following is not a use of animal dung?
    A. Production of biogas           B. Making charcoal balls
    C. Fuelling improved jikos       D. Making of solar panels
    8. Energy stored in fuels is ________________ energy.
    9. Describe a simple experiment you would use to demonstrate the
    existence of thermal energy.
    10. a) What is the difference between static and current electricity?
    b) Describe how you would produce static electricity using a
    comb.
    11. When a bulb is lit using dry cells, the energy changes that take
    place are:
    A. Chemical----------- electric--------- light ------------heat
    B. Chemical----------- electric--------- kinetic--------- heat
    C. Chemical----------- heat -------------light -----------electric
    D. Chemical----------- electric--------- heat----------- light

    12. Find out and circle eight forms of energy in the puzzle below.

    v

    13. When food is digested, chemical energy is changed to _______.
    A. Light and heat B. Heat and motion
    C. Electric and motion D. Electric and heat
    14. Which one of the following correctly describes the energy
    transformations in a simple electromagnet?
    A. Electromagnetic electric chemical attraction
    B. Chemical electric electromagnetic attraction
    C. Chemical electrical electromagnet
    D. Electrical chemical attraction electromagnetic
    15. Write true or false.
    a) A magnet gives electromagnetic energy. _______________
    b) Ocean waves is an example of a renewable source of energy.
    __________
    c) An inverter stores charge in solar panel installations.
    ___________
    d) A biogas digester does not require a slurry pit. __________
    16. Plan and execute a project on biogas digester at home. Use the
    biogas to cook a variety of foods?

    17. Mention ways you can use to conserve energy in your community.

  • Unit 15 Magnetism

    1. Study the pictures below

    hn

    2. What is going on in the pictures?
    3. What can you advise the mother of the child to do to help her

    separate the iron fillings with ease? Why is this possible?

    15.1 Types of Magnets
    Find out

    1. The definition of a magnet.
    2. The various types of magnet.
    Activity 15.1 Investigating the meaning of the term
    “ Magnet
    1. Research from library books or search engine on meaning of
    the term “ magnet”.
    2. Discuss on different types of magnet
    3. Write down a short note and do a presentation to other class

    members.

    • A magnet is an object that attracts materials usually made of iron
    or steel.
    There are two main type of magnets:
    • Natural magnets
    • Artificial magnets

    a) Natural magnets

    These are magnets that are found naturally in the earth’s crust. Example

    magnetite/Lodestone.

    88

    b) Artificial magnets

    These are magnets made by human beings from magnetic materials.

    f

    Remember!
    Magnets are used in various electrical appliances e.g Radio, Television

    freezer e.t.c

    15.2 Composition of magnets
    Activity 15.2 Making a temporary magnet

    What you need
    • Nail, piece of copper wire, a dry cell, pins or paper clips, masking
    tape and switch.
    What to do
    1. Wrap the copper wire to the nail several times as shown below.
    2. Connect the wire ends to the two terminals of the dry cell using

    masking tape.

    n

    3. Bring the paper clips or pins close to the nail. What happens?
    4. Now, remove the wire ends from the dry cell terminals and
    connect through the switch. Connect to the dry cell as explained
    in procedure 2 above.
    5. Switch on the switch and bring the pins close to set up. What

    happens?

    n

    6. Now, switch off the switch and bring the set up close to the pins
    or paper clip close to the set up again. What happens?
    7. What does the findings in this experiment tell you about the
    nature of the magnet that you have just made? How is it different

    from the normal bar or horse-shoe magnet?

    Activity 15.3 Making a temporary magnet
    What you need
    • Permanent magnet, nail or paper clip, needle or pin.
    What to do
    1. Rub a paper clip or a nail along the length of a permanent magnet
    as shown below.
    Note: Move the paper clip or nail in only one direction. Do not rub back
    and forth!
    2. Continue rubbing the paper clip and the magnet about 50 times or
    more.
    3. Use the nail or paper clip to touch the needle or pins. What do you
    observe? What do you think happened? The nail on paper clip picks
    up the needle or pins. This is because it became magnetized.
    Rubbing a magnet a few times over an unmagnetized piece such as an iron
    nail as in the activity above, you can convert the nail into a temporary
    magnet. This is because the nail becomes magnetized.
    The magnet made in Activity 15.3 above is temporary magnet called an
    electromagnet.
    Temporary magnets loose their magnetic properties after
    sometime. Iron which is magnetically soft is used to make temporary
    magnet.
    • A permanent magnet on the other hand retain their magnetism
    over a long period of time. Steel/ferromagnetic material is used to
    make permanent magnet. Example: Horse-shoe magnet.
    Natural magnet is composed of substances created by nature, which
    have the property of attraction.They have properties of iron fillings e.g

    iron ore, magnetite e.t.c

    15.3 Characteristic of magnets
    Activity 15.4 Investigating the characteristics of
    magnets

    What you will need
    • Two bar magnets
    • Items such as pins, paper clips, nails, rubber, pencil, pieces of wood,
    coin.
    • String
    What to do
    1. Put the items above on a table.Move a magnet over them as

    shown below. What happens?

    n

    2. Suspend one bar magnet using a string as shown below

    n

    3. Bring the north pole of the second magnet near the south pole

    of the suspended magnet. What happens?

    h

    4. Bring the north pole of the second magnet close to the north

    pole of the first magnet. What happens?

    n

    Give reasons for your observations in this activity. 
    5. Write short notes about what you think magnets are, what they
    are made of and their characteristics.

    Magnets have the following characteristics:

    1. They have two poles - North pole and South pole.
    2. Unlike poles of magnet attract while like poles repel.
    3. When a bar magnet is suspended, it rests with its South pole pointing
    North of the earth’s magnetic pole.
    4. Magnets attract magnetic materials but do not attract nonmagnetic

    materials.
    5. Magnetic force can pass through non-magnetic materials.

    Magnetic forces and magnetic materials
    Find out

    The difference between magnetic and non-magnetic materials.

    Activity 15.5 Investigating magnetic force
    What you need
    • Magnets of various sizes,
    • White sheet of paper,
    • Sewing needle or safety pins,
    • Pieces of glass, a coin-sized cross section of cork,
    • Iron fillings,
    • Paper clips or small nails of different metallic objects,
    • Biro-pen casing
    • Staples.
    What to do
    1. Explore what happens if you place the materials listed above close
    to a magnet. Come up with a table like this.
    f
    • A magnet attracts certain things but not others:
    • A magnet attracts iron fillings, iron nails, office pins, staples, sewing
    needles, safety pins. These are magnetic materials.A magnet
    attract objects made up of iron, steel,nickel e.t.c
    • On the other hand, a magnet does not attract things like plastic,
    wood, paper, glass, copper and aluminum foil. They are non-magnetic
    materials.

    Table 15.1: Magnetic and non-magnetic materials
    n

    Self –Test 15.1

    1. Name some magnetic materials found in your home.
    2. Suppose you have dropped iron fillings in some salt or sugar,
    explain how you can separate the two.
    3. Give any four uses of magnets.
    4. Explain how you can create magnetism using biropen case or

    comb using your hair.

    15.4 Magnetic field
    Find out
    The definition of a magnetic field.
    Patterns or field lines at a magnet.

    Activity 15.6 Investigating force of attraction of a magnet

    What you need

    • Permanent magnets of different types (horse-shoe and bar
    magnets)
    • White sheet of paper
    • Iron fillings
    What to do
    1. Place the bar magnet and the horse-shoe magnet one at a time
    below a white sheet of paper.
    2. Sprinkle the iron fillings on the white paper. What do you
    observe? Draw the pattern formed by the iron- fillings.
    3. Now, bring two bar magnets with their north poles close to one
    another below the piece of paper. Sprinkle the iron fillings. What
    happens to the iron fillings?
    4. Repeat step 4 above but this time with the north and south poles
    of the two magnets facing one another.
    Draw the pattern made by the iron fillings in each case above. Is there
    any difference between the patterns? Why is this the case?

    Magnetic
    field is the area around a magnet or materials that are

    magnetic where magnetic force is experienced.

    s

    s

    When two North poles of two bar magnets are brought together; their
    magnetic fields interact with one another to form a pattern like the one

    shown below.

    s

    However, when the North Pole and the South pole of two bar magnets

    are brought together, the field lines formed are shown below.

    a

    15.5 Magnetic compass
    Find out
    The function of a magnetic compass and its uses.

    Activity 15.7 Making a simple magnetic compass

    What you need

    A magnet, clear jar with some water, three needles, thread, pencil,
    piece of Manila paper, tape clay or Plasticine.
    What to do
    1. Magnetize the needles by rubbing them against the magnet as
    explained in Activity 15.5.
    2. Tape the needles onto a piece of paper. Mark the paper with the

    end with needle eye ‘N’ and the pointed part ‘S’.

    s

    3. Insert the third needle into clay or Plasticine. Balance the paper

    with needles on top of the third needle as shown below.

    z

    4. Tap one end of the paper. Does the paper turn to its original
    position? Why is this the case?
    5. Remove the needle and fasten the magnet using a string onto the
    pencil.
    6. Put the pencil across the mouth of the clear jar with water as

    shown below.

    d

    Watch as the magnet spin inside the clear bottle. Where does it
    settle?
    7. Disturb the jar by turning it. Note what happens to the magnet.
    8. Look at the picture below. What is shown in the picture? How is

    it useful in our lives?

    h

    9. Discuss the results of this experiment. Write short notes and do
    a presentation to the rest of the class.
    • The picture in Activity 15.6 above shows a magnetic compass.
    Magnetic compass is an instrument that uses magnetised steel bar
    to indicate direction relative to the Earth’s magnetic poles.
    • You earlier learnt that the Earth’s core is made up of magnetic
    materials. This makes the Earth a huge magnet.
    • Therefore, being a magnet, it has poles.h
    • When the magnetic compass is
    placed at any point on the surface
    of the earth, the steel bar rests with
    its head pointing in the magnetic
    north direction of the earth. Thus
    the compass can be used to find or
    locate direction of a place while on

    the surface of the Earth.

    15.6 Uses of magnets
    Find out

    The devices that we use in our daily life that use magnets.

    Activity 15.8 Use of magnet

    1. Look at the pictures below. What can you see in the pictures?

    b

    2. Discuss how magnets are used above objects.
    Magnets are used almost everywhere in our lives. The things in the
    pictures above show where magnets are used. Other uses include:
    Electric trains and roller coasters use electromagnets.
    • Electromagnets are also useful in carrying heavy loads at the
    port.
    • Used in refrigerators to keep doors closed.
    • They are used in TV screens, computers, telephones, tape recorders
    and as magnetic strips in electronic cards.
    • Used in speakers of radios to help in sound production.
    • Used in constructing electric motors and generators.
    • Used in making of electric bells.
    • Used in separating mixtures involving magnetic and nonmagnetic
    substances, for example iron fillings and flour.
    • Used in making telegraph machines.

    Magnetic compass is used in showing or finding directions.

    Self –Test 15.2
    1. What is magnetic field?
    2. State one important use of a magnetic compass.
    3. Draw a diagram to show how iron fillings will be distributed
    when placed on a paper covering a horse-shoe magnet.

    4. Name four areas where magnets are used at home.

    UNIT TEST 15
    1. What is magnetism and how is it important in our lives?
    2. Many materials found where we live are either magnetic or nonmagnetic.

    Based on that information, fill the table below.

    n

    3. Draw a diagram to show magnetic field when unlike poles of two
    bar magnets are brought close together.
    4. Magnets can be temporary or permanent. What is the difference
    between the temporary and permanent magnet?
    5. What are magnets made of?______________________
    6. In which of the following mixtures can the solids be separated by
    use of a magnet?
    A. Rice and husk.
    B. Iron fillings and flour.
    C. Flour and copper turnings.
    D. Zinc and copper turnings.
    7. Which of the following pairs of materials consists only of nonmagnetic
    materials?
    A. Steel spoon, iron nail.
    B. Aluminum foil, a glass rod.
    C. Nickel, cobalt.
    D. Chromium, cobalt.
    8. Make a simple temporary magnet at home and use it to separate
    a mixture of iron fillings and flour.
    9. What are some of the characteristics of magnets?
    10. Give an example of a natural material that is magnetic.
    11. Suggest ways in which you can make use of magnets in your

    local environment.