The reproductive system plays an important role in survival of human beings.
Look at the following pictures.
Describe each picture above.
Use the pictures to predict what you are going to learn.
13.1: Human reproductive system
Activity 13.1: Researching the functions of the reproductive system
What to do:
(i) Using your XO laptop, research on the major function of the reproductive system.
(ii) Share your findings with the rest of the class.
Human beings are either male or female. The males (boys and men) have male reproductive organs while
females (girls and women) have female reproductive organs.
Males and females have both external and internal reproductive parts. The male and female reproductive organs are used for reproduction. Through reproduction, human beings
increase in number.
The external male and female reproductive organs also assist in passing out urine.
The male reproductive external organ
These are parts that can be seen on the outside.
The parts that make up the human male external reproductive parts include: scrotum, penis and urethral opening.
The female reproductive external organs
These are parts that can be seen on the outside. All these parts are generally called vulva. The parts of the vulva include the mons pubis, labia minora, labia majora, urethral opening and vaginal
13.2: Hygiene of female and male genital organs
Activity 13.2: discussing hygiene of the genital organs
What to do:
(i) Look at the following pictures.
(ii) Describe the hygiene of genital organs based on the pictures above.
(iii) Write short notes in your notebook.
Hygiene of female genital organs
It is important to keep the reproductive organs clean. Generally, women and girls can maintain the hygiene
of their genitals by doing the following:
(i) Bathing regularly. Clean the vulva with clean water.
(ii) Change into clean underwear after bathing. Wear loose cotton underwear. Avoid sharing underwear.
(iii) After urinating, wipe the genitals from the front to the back using soft tissue paper.
(iv) Visit the hospital in case of abnormal discharge from the vagina or urethra. (v) Do not sit on shared toilet seats as they could spread infections. (vi) When having periods, bathe two or more times a day. Use sanitary towels to avoid soiling your clothes.
(vii) Do not insert objects into the vagina. Avoid touching your genitals with dirty hands.
List other practices for maintaining the hygiene of female genitals.
Hygiene of male genital organs
The males should also maintain proper hygiene.
Men should: (i) Bath regularly with mild soap and plenty of clean water.
(ii) For young uncircumcised boys, clean the area under the foreskin gently.
(iii) Change into clean underwear after bathing.
(iv) Shake the penis gently after urinating to expel the remaining drops of urine.
(v) Seek immediate medical attention in case of abnormal discharge or rashes around the genitals.
List other practices for maintaining the hygiene of male genitals
13.3: Sexual characteristics at puberty
Activity 13.3: identifying parts of female and male anatomy that are similar
What to do:
(i) Look at charts and pictures in books showing external reproductive organs of girls and boys.
(ii) Which parts of the female and male anatomy are the same or similar?
Identify them from pictures and charts. Write them down in your notebook.
Puberty is a period where a boy or a girl reaches sexual maturity. This period is usually marked by maturation
of genitals and development of secondary sexual characteristics.
When girls and boys enter into puberty, they are capable of reproducing sexually.
This stage occurs earlier in girls than in boys.
In girls it starts at about ages 8 years to 13 years (on average, 10 years).
In boys, it occurs at the ages of 9 years to 14 years (on average, 11 ½ years).
Secondary sexual changes in both boys and girls
1. Hair grows under the armpits and in the pubic area.
2. Pimples may appear on the face.
3. There is sudden increase in height and weight (growth spurt).
4. The male and the female genitals enlarge.
Secondary sexual changes in girls
Activity 13.4: identifying secondary sexual changes in girls
Look at the following pictures.
(i) List the differences you can see between Girl A and Girl B.
(ii) How does Girl A develop into Girl B?
Secondary changes in girls develop between ages 8 to 13.
During this period:
1. There is enlargement of the breasts.
2. Menstrual flow begins. This is also called monthly periods.
3. The hips become broader.
Practice Activity 13.1: identifying secondary sexual changes in girls
The following story was written by P5 girl. I am Halima. I am 11 years old. Next month I will be turning 12. My best friend is called Liana.
I share the same room with my 7 year old sister. Lately, I do not feel comfortable undressing or dressing up
when she is around.
My breasts buds started itching and soon the breasts began to grow bigger. I also sweat alot and have to
wash twice a day. My hips are growing bigger. Boys in our class love teasing me.
They say I am beautiful like Miss Rwanda. I wish no one would notice these changes.
I wish I could be like Liana she is slim as a boy, although she is my age.
Many girls in our class are going through the changes that I am experiencing.
Our Science and Elementary Technology teacher told us that we are going through puberty.
That our bodies are changing to those of adults. She brought us sanitary towels and showed us how to use
them when we have periods. I am scared of periods. Some girls in our class said they usually have severe
pain during periods. I wonder how mine will be.
(i) List 5 physical changes that take place in girls during puberty.
Relate the characteristics to Halima and Liana.
(ii) Do all girls enter into puberty at the same age? Support your answer with evidence from the story above. (iii) Where can girls entering puberty find important information concerning this stage?
Justify your answer using evidence from the story above.
(iv) Draw a sketch of a young girl.
(v) Now draw a sketch of the same girl after puberty and when she is a young woman.
Exchange your drawings.Talk about the changes that have taken place from childhood to adulthood.
Secondary sexual changes in boys
Activity 13.5: identifying secondary sexual changes in boys
Look at the following pictures.
(i) List the differences you can see between Boy A and Boy B.
(ii) How does Boy A develop into Boy B?
Secondary sexual changes in boys develop between ages 9 to 14.
1. Broadening of chest and shoulders. 2. Experiencing wet dreams. This is the discharge of semen during sleep. 3. The voice breaks (it becomes deep).
Practice Activity 13.2: identifying secondary sexual changes in boys
The following story was written by P5 boy. My name is Edgar. I am 12 years old. My best friend is called Franc. We attend the same school.
I am the head boy of our school. Most boys in our class are the same age as me, but although a few boys are older by a year or two.
Among my age mates, some boys are taller and stronger than others.
My friend Franc is taller and stronger than me. When I stand next to him my head comes up to his chin.
His chest and shoulders are also broader than mine.
Franc's face is oily and has a few pimples. When we change into our games uniforms I can see hair under his
armpits and on his chest. His voice is deep these days. Girls in our class say he speaks bass.
When my father came from work last Saturday, he greeted me and said “Oh boy your voice has started to
break!” All along, I had thought I had a throat infection. He sat me down and explained to me the changes
that I would expect to go through. I now know that I am going to be like Franc. It feels good to grow up.
(i) List 5 physical changes that take place in boys during puberty.
Relate the characteristics to Edgar and Franc.
(ii) Do all boys enter into puberty at the same age? Support your answer with evidence from the story above. (iii) Is it good for boys entering puberty to find out information about puberty from their peers?
Justify your answer. (iv) Draw a sketch of a young boy.
(v) Now draw a sketch of the same boy after puberty and when he is a young man.
Exchange your drawings. Talk about the changes that have taken place from childhood to adulthood.
Puberty characteristics in girls Apart from the visible physical characteristics in girls, there are other changes that girls also experience.
These changes affect their emotions and social relationships with their peers and elders.
What brings about these changes? These changes include: • Shyness due to enlargement of body parts such as breasts and hips.
• Some may even lose confidence and become self-critical.
• Girls may be embarrassed by their menstrual flow.
Fig. 13.5: Mother talking to her daughter.
• Some girls become conscious about their weight and physical appearance. • Attraction to the opposite sex. Girls get attracted to boys. Name 3 other puberty characteristics in girls.
Puberty characteristics in boys
• Boys may be embarrassed by their rapid development. Some become clumsy. • Boys may also become shy due to deepening of their voices. • Behaviour related to identity begins to show. They begin to identify with adult role models and heroes. • They are easily angered due to sudden mood swings. • Winning becomes important. So they derive satisfaction in playing competitive games.
Name 3 other puberty characteristics in boys.
Activity 13.6: Emotional and social changes during puberty
• Red and blue marker pens
• Sheets of paper
What to do:
(i) Prepare a worksheet like the one shown below.
(ii) Fill in 10 words according to the headings given.
(iii) Use blue pen to record Feeling positive words and a red pen to record Feeling negative words.
(iv) Display the words you have written to your partner. Combine your lists to make one long list.
(v) Talk about situations where you have felt positive emotions and feeling about your appearance.
Talk about situations where you have negative emotions and feelings about your appearance.
(vi) Suggest possible causes of the behaviour change observed in some boys and girls during puberty.
(vii) Share your points with other groups in your class.
13.4: Safe responsible behaviour
Activity 13.7: identifying safe responsible behaviour
Read the following story carefully and answer questions that follow.
In 1994, during the genocide period, Grace Uwamahoro was 11 years.
She joined her grandmother and another group of people to flee Rwanda.
On the way somewhere near Gitarama she heard a baby crying from a nearby bush.
The people she was with urged her to walk faster and ignore the baby's cries she ignored their orders.
She sneaked into the bush and picked the baby. The mother to the baby was dying and she could not save her.
She took the baby with her to congo and took care of her. She named the baby Vanessa Uwase.
It was a very hard time for her and the baby since they lived in a refugee camp.
In 1996, they returned to Rwanda. Uwamahoro never went to school. However, she enrolled Vanessa into
a nearby school. She also opened a small grocery shop in Nyabugogo to support them financially.
Vanessa is now a young woman with a great character. In 2015, she was in Senior Six.
She wants to study Political Science in the University and provide a better life to Uwamahoro.
(i) Outline 4 responsible behaviour shown by Uwamahoro from the story on page 175.
(ii) Outline any 2 responsible behaviour shown by Vanessa in the story. (iii) Explain briefly your answers in (i) and (ii) above using appropriate examples.
(iv) How can you develop positive behaviour like the ones you have identified above.
(v) Identify any 5 irresponsible behaviour in the society.
Safe responsible behaviour refers to knowledge and skills that you need to develop so as to make
right decisions concerning your life. Why do young people need to make responsible choices in their lives?
Safe responsible behaviour in boys and girls include:
1. Abstinence. This means not having sex before marriage.
2. Making informed choices. Learn to say no to situations that may leave you with lifetime consequences.
For example, avoiding premarital sex because it can lead to unwanted pregnancy or contracting of sexually
Fig. 13.6 (a) and (b: Making informed choices.
3. Choose good friends. Choose friends who encourage you to do what is right.
Also ensure that your friends make you feel good about yourself.
4. Develop positive values and behaviour based on informal awareness and knowledge.
You can do this by reading motivational books, participating in communal work, sports and other recreational
activities that help you learn.
5. Avoid risky behaviour such as drug abuse, fighting and participating in crimes such as robbery or theft
Fig. 13.7: Risky behaviour.
Risky behaviour can result in:
• Death by mob justice.
• Being jailed (imprisonment).
• Rejection by family members or the community.
• Drug addiction, which can lead to death.
Practice Activity 13.3
1. Who are doing the correct thing? Explain.
2. Name 4 other risky behaviour that pupils should avoid.
3. Name any 5 behaviour of a pupil who makes informed choices.
13.5: Love and infatuation
Activity 13.8: love or infatuation game
Read through the following statements.
(i) I feel instant desire to sit close to him/her.
(ii) He/she is my friend. We quarrel and say sorry. our friendship keeps growing day by day
(iii) He/she is patient with me. sometimes I panic when I make mistakes,
but he/she encourages me to try until I succeed.
(iv) He/she says I am pretty. sometimes he/she looks at other girls/boys in class and say they
are more beautiful.
(v) He/she says we must get married right away because he/she cannot risk losing me.
(vi) He talks about his/her future plans. He/she wants us to study hard and be successful adults.
(vii) He brags about his/her parent’s wealth and how we can have a future without working hard.
(a) Choose from the sentences above that you think indicate love and those that indicate infatuation.
(b) Check your list of statements. Are you at risk?
Revision Activity 13
1. Define the term reproduction.
2. Identify the parts marked a, b, c and d, in the following diagrams
3. (a) List 3 ways of maintaining hygiene of the female genitals. (b) List 3 ways of maintaining hygiene of the male genitals. 4. Name 3 risky behaviour that you should avoid while in school. 5. Outline 4 possible effects of irresponsible sexual behaviour. 6. What brings about social and emotional changes in girls and boys?
7. Diane and Josh are hungry. They see their neighbours mango tree with ripe fruits.
Diane asks Josh to help her climb up the tree, but Josh refuses.
(a) What safe responsible behaviour is Josh practising? (b) What can happen to the two friends if they steal?
(c) What kind of friend is Josh?
8. (a) Write down 3 sexual changes that take place in boys and in girls during puberty.
(b) Identify any two sexual changes that take place in both boys and girls.
9. (a) What is puberty?
(b) What is the importance of puberty?
10. Your friend is showing the following puberty changes:
• Has hair under the armpits.
• Sweats a lot and has body odour.
(a) Advise your friend on what to do about these changes.
(b) How can we choose good friends?
11. (a) What will you do if your classmate writes you a love letter? Explain your answer.
(b) Write a short story explaining how you made a responsible choice in your life
Word list 1. Read the following words in pairs.
• Genital organ
2. Spell 3 words while your friend writes them in his or her notebook. Let your friend also spell 3 other words
as you write them in your notebook.
3. Discuss with your friend the meaning of any 3 words in the word list. Refer to notes in your textbook.