Physical Education is distinguished from other curricular areas by its primary focus on the body and
on Physical experience. It is an integral part of the education process, without which the education
of the learner is incomplete. Through a diverse range of experiences providing regular, challenging
physical activities, the balance and harmonious development and general well-being of the learner
Through Physical education, the learner can experience the joy of physical exertion and the
satisfaction of achievement while developing skills and positive attitudes that enhance self-esteem.
Physical education provides opportunities to develop desirable personal and social attributes.
– the concept of fair play.
– the acceptance of success and failure, and
– promotion of a healthy life-style.
Physical education, as an integral part of the total competency based curriculum, provides vital
opportunities for the physical, social, emotional and intellectual development of the learner.
This book is written in a way that it encourages learners to be dynamic and aligned to the future
employment needs of the nation and the global economy and to have the highest standards in
terms of competencies, knowledge and skills.
They learn how to plan, perform and evaluate actions, ideas and performances to improve their
quality and effectiveness. Through this process, learners discover their aptitudes, abilities and
preference, and make choices about how to engage in life long physical activity and to live a
Activity in physical education programmes may emphasise self improvement, participation and
cooperation rather than winning and losing. Learners learn how to think in different ways to suit a
variety of creative, competitive and challenging activities. However, competition can be an element
in the learner’s intrinsic motivation to do his or her best.
Physical education and sports
Physical education and sports, although closely linked, are not synonymous. Sports is formalised
physical activity involving competition or challenges against oneself, others or the environment,
with an emphasis on winning. It begins with playing and develops through games and challenges.
The focus in the physical education curriculum is on the learner’s holistic development, stressing
personal and social development, physical growth and motor focus on individual improvement and
not on winning or being the best.
Physical Education and other areas of the curriculum.
Physical education has many objectives that are developed as the learners engage in other subjects,
such as English, Geography, Biology, Music and Mathematics. Learners learning these subjects
can also be enriched through a programme of physical education that is broad and balanced. The
learners who engage in discussions about the rules of games or the development of gymnastics
sequences are presented with many opportunities for language development.
It is in talking about experience in Physical education, like through instructional language that the
learner clarifi es ideas. Use the language in physical education lessons to question, direct, explain,
suggest, prompt and stimulate the learner to think. In turn, the learner is encouraged to respond by
describing, discussing, speculating, explaining and expressing ideas and reactions. Language is
important too in helping learners to gain access to and retrieve information about physical activities.
The extent, therefore, to which language is an integral part of the teaching and learning process,
should be a consistent concern in the planning and implementation of the physical education
Physical Education and Learners with special needs
The Learners with special needs should experience the enjoyment of participation. This helps
them to feel comfortable and not discriminated in physical activities. It is important that the teacher
encourages their maximum participation.
Handling learners with specifi c disabilities (All inclusive education). This action handles learners with
disabilities. It is referred to as “Specifi c education”. It involves designing instruction for handicapped
learners. These include:
• Mentally retarded
• Those with diffi culty in hearing
• Speech impaired
• Visually handicapped among others
• Lame(physically handicapped)
If the learner is mildly retarded, he or she is slow to understand directions, follow directions,
complete tasks and make progress.
How to help the learner
You should fi rst understand these learners. They can also learn if supported. However, their learning
is at a slow rate and is not at the level of normal mentally functioning learners. Concentrate on fundamental skills and fi tness qualities. You should always motivate them and introduce to them
the personalised fi tness programme. The pace of learning depends on the gross motor movement
that is progressive in nature. Teach them activities through demonstration rather than verbalisation.
However, the practise period should be short. This is because they get offtrack easily.
Give them a chance to exbhit skills they can perform. This makes them enjoy the feeling of
accomplishment. Trying out any physical activity should be rewarded. This will encourage them to
These can be categorised into two, that is; the partially blind and completely blind. They face a big
problem in movement. Try to move in a very dark room to realise the problem faced by a visually
impaired learner. This disability poses movement problems to the learners, it also limits them from
participating in certain types of physical activities.
How to help the learner
Bring the learner into contact with others. The learner can take part in group fi tness activities with
the assistance of the teacher or other learners. Monitor the movements and help the learner.
Teacher should also encourage other learners to help this learner. This learner should carry out
specialised physical fi tness and movement program in which the lack of sight does not prove a
diffi cult task or problem. Rope jumping is a good activity for them. Also use low balance beams, and
bench activities. You can touch a part of the learners body to establish his or her correct sequence
in movement pattern. Since visually handicapped learners cannot copy or see from other learners
or from you what to do, teacher’s explanation must be clear and precise. Use a whistle to signal to
the class or give instruction.
These are learners who have hearing problems. Since most of the instructions are verbal, a deaf learner is isolated if not catered for. Teaching the deaf is challenging and requires different communication techniques. Many deaf learners have poor speech.
How to help the learner
Written instructions can be used. Visual clues featuring a “do as i do” approach are appropriate.
Position the deaf learners near the teacher to increase their opportunities to read the signs and
lips and receive facial clues. Avoid long delays for explanation or questions. Hand signals should
be used for controlling movement patterns, for example; start, stop, move to an area, sit down and
These are learners with a physical impairment. These learners normally move with the help of
wheelchairs or crutches. They can participate successfully in some activities such as; basketball,
volleyball, athletics among others.
How to help the learner
Design specialised fields for these learners. For example; smaller sizes of the playing area for easy
mobility factor. In volleyball. For instance, the net should be about 6 ft in height. Serving by the
normal learner is done from behind the back line and by the handicapped learner with the heels on
the back line. Rules should be adjusted as necessary.
The above categories of learners are ones with special needs. These learners are more challenged
than others. This does not mean that physical activities are inappropriate for them. Be willing to
adopt or modify skills or alternate your teaching style to accommodate the needs of each learner.
Physical Education and developing competencies
Competencies are the skills, knowledge and attitudes gained through every work like educational,
volunteer and life experiences. Learners in the physical education programme develop the following
specifi c competencies:
• Deeper understanding in a broad range of knowledge.
• High-level thinking skills, such as problem solving, creativity and critical thinking.
• Effective social and cooperative skills.
• Competitive skills.
• A strong sense of cultural identity, belonging, contribution and well-being.
• Recognised qualifi cations and skills for employment.
Physical education contributes to all of the generic competencies. Success in team sports depends
upon effective communication and cooperation to ensure that the team is greater than the sum of its
parts. Learners need to think critically about their own and other people’s work and performances
They also need to be creative in developing solutions to challenges. The problem of how to improve
health, fi tness and skills and hence to perform better requires considerable strength in problem-
General objectives of learning Physical Education
By the end of this physical education programme, learners should be able to;
• Develop the physical, social, emotional and intellectual aspects.
• Develop personal competencies in a variety of individual and collective sports.
• Perform an appropriate range of movement skills in a variety of contexts.
• Develop an understanding of fair play and team spirit through participation and competition.
• Develop personal competences in a range of gymnastics movements.
• Develop personal competences in the athletic skills of running, jumping and throwing.
• Develop an appropriation of movement and the use of the body as an instrument of expression
• Interact and cooperate sensitively with others, regardless of cultural or social background or
• Demonstrate positive attitudes and values towards physical activity and its contribution to
life long health-related fi tness, thus preparing the learner for the active and purposeful use
of leisure time.
• Develop personal competences in the game skills of sending, receiving and passing using a
variety of equipment and to apply these skills in game situations.
• Encourage fair play and a competitive spirit.
Teaching and learning Physical Education
Appropriate instruction in physical education incorporates best practices derived from both research
and experience in teaching learners. This physical education curriculum sets developmentally and
instructionally appropriate practises in designing, implementing and evaluating physical education
program. The following approaches are used:
The direct-teaching approach involves the teacher giving instructions or showing learners what
to do and observing their progress. It entails the teacher making all, or most of the decisions
concerning the content of the lesson and the learner responding to instructions. It allows learners to
practise skills within a game situation where the teacher decides on the nature of the practice and
the time allocated to it or the number of repetitions.
The guided-discovery strategy involves the teacher designing a series of physical exercises that
will eventually lead to one or more appropriate competencies and ultimately the discovery of a
particular concept or solution. It is one of the approaches that offer learners the opportunity to make
decisions, solve problems or take initiative. The use of this approach promotes discussion among
learners and enhances their learner’s capacity to evaluate.
The role of the teacher in teaching Physical education
When teaching physical education, the teacher plays a big role of a facilitator by helping the learners
to develop a positive self image, cooperation with others and a sense of fair play.
The teacher identifi es the needs of the learners, the nature of physical exercises to be done according to their level and abilities.
The teacher organises the learners in the teaching area, provides the appropriate materials and demonstrates the handling of the apparatus and the way the experiments should be carried out.
The teacher must ensure that the learners experience a variety of vigorous and challenging activities
and he/she should foster a stimulating and secure environment in which the learner can be creative
The teacher must have due regard for safety by ensuring that the learner adopts safe practices and
take into consideration the particular needs of each learner.
He/She has to evaluate and assess the progress of the learners.
Role of learners
Learners should be involved in a wide and increasing range of physical activities including
gymnastics, athletics, sports and games. They should have the opportunity to refi ne the standards
of their performance and to develop and evaluate their own movements,strategies and tactics. They
should be introduced to a range of games and sports such as individual sports like athletics and
gymnastics and collective sports like football, netball, basketball, handball, goal ball and volleyball.
Assessment approach in Physical education
Assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning in physical education, as in other areas
of the curriculum. (The section education is assessed and to allow for individual and collective
learning styles). The forms identifi ed below are compatible with teaching and learning in physical
education, as they can be undertaken as teaching and learning takes place.
– Teacher observation
This is the most useful and most consistently used form of assessment in physical education. It
involves the informal monitoring of learner’s progress as the actual learning takes place and most
information is gathered in this way.
Teacher observation might focus on the responses which the learner make when doing a task
for instance; the responses they make towards the teacher’s questions and suggestions, the
participation of the learner individually,in a group or as part of the class, the interaction of the
learner with others when involved in group work and the understanding displayed by the learners
when engaged in activities.
Teacher observation as a form of assessment is particularly appropriate for physical education, as
assessment is best undertaken as the learners are engaged in activities.
Some of the learning behaviour of a learner can be observed to help plan for follow-up activities: for
example, how a learner uses a piece of apparatus may guide the teacher in helping him/her to use
it or other apparatus more effectively in subsequent lessons.
It is useful to record these observations.
– Teacher-designed tasks:
Throughout the physical education programme, teachers continuously design a variety of tasks for
the learners to engage in. Some tasks will be designed to provide opportunities to practise skills,
some will be designed to encourage creativity, some to gather knowledge of activities and others
to promote questioning and group discussion before carrying out the task and as the task is being
While engaged in the tasks, the learners are learning and simultaneously, their responses indicate
their progress in physical education.
– Recording learner’s progress
Teachers should assess and ecoed learner’s progress using indicators. These indicators are related to elements of physical education, and the teachers match their observation on learners to the indicators as the learners undertake work.
Any report of a learner’s progress might contain information gathered by the use of the assessment
techniques outlined above, related to;
• The attitude of the learner to participation, which is indicated by factors such as;
– acceptance of winning or losing.
– understanding of fair play.
– the appropriateness of dress code for the physical education lesson.
– the effort displayed by the learner.
– the application of safe practises.
• The learner’s achievements related to the elements of physical education which he/she
engages in, which are indicated by factors such as:
– physical competence.
– knowledge and understanding of activities.
– creative and aesthetic development.
– development of health-related fitness.
Available resources for Physical education
When teaching Physical education in small schools or schools with limited facilities where schools
have specific problems related to a lack of indoor and outdoor space, consideration might be given to:
• The use of the classrooms, corridors and school grounds for orienteering exercises.
• The provision of markings on the playground for athletic activities and small-sided games.
• The use of local facilities, like community centres, parish halls, youth clubs and so on.
• Cooperation with other primary or secondary level schools in sharing facilities.
• Allocating more time to physical education in good weather.
• Visiting an outdoor education centre providing facilities for many worthwhile activities.
Suggested list of equipment for physical education
The ratio of equipment to each learner is an important consideration. Where possible, for game
lessons each learner should have access to his/her material being used, for example; a ball per
learner or per pair of learners. Similarly, for throwing and catching practices, each learner or pair of
learners should have a ball or throwing objects like javelin, discus and shot put.
Some aspects of the athletics programme require little or no equipment, but to provide a
comprehensive programme, certain basic equipment is necessary:
• plastic hoops, canes, skipping ropes, beanbags, wire skittles, foam hurdles plastic cones,
multi markers or space markers, braids (fibres or ribbon), plastic racquets, plastic or alloy
relay batons, plastic, ball-carrying nets, chalk, tape, stop-watch.
Gymnastic mats are a basic requirement and an adequate supply of these and necessary to ensure
maximum participation. A mat should be available for every two to four learners where possible.
The list below may be helpful:
• Selection of music, tape recorder.
• Hoops, plastic cones, multi markers or space markers.
• Gymnastics mats
• Portable or fixed climbing frames with attachments.
• Balance benches.
• Bar box or movement table.
Suggested equipment for outdoor (individual and collective activities)
The school may provide a variety of equipment for use by class groups. For example; wall-climbing
courses and rope walls . Within the school, it may be possible to construct adventure trails using
benches, mats, climbing-frames etc. The teacher also has to initiate learners to fabricate their own
traditional materials like karere (locally made balls)etc.
The teacher must be qualified in Physical Education subjects and should have considerable
knowledge in other linked subjects like psychology and biology especially in Human anatomy
where a strong point of observation and movement analysis is required.
The teacher must be capable of interpreting the correct and wrong movements done by learners
and should know how to make corrections.
For learners with disabilities, the teacher has the responsibilities of identifying the degree of
disability, providing appropriate materials and preparing exercises accordingly. At this level, follow
up, appreciation and encouragement are the tools of success.
SAMPLE LESSON PLAN FOR P.5 PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASS
Competence – based Lesson Plan
School Name: Kigali Primary School Teacher’s name: Gitego Peter