Topic outline

  • INTRODUCTION

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  • UNIT 4: ATHLETICS

    Key unit Competence:

    By the end of this unit, students will be able to demonstrate different types of jumping, running with acceleration and throwing heavy objects.

    Number of lessons: 9
    Learning Objectives:

    Knowledge and understanding
     Identify different types of techniques of athletic and tell their importance.
     State the reasons of playing athletics at individual, community and national level.
     Explain the rules and their importance.

    Skills to develop:
    Learners will be able to;
     Demonstrate techniques to improve his/her performance in athletics.
     Use rules of athletics in the game situation.
     Develop body coordination.

     Evaluate his/her performance level in athletics.
     Describe how athletics can be done in a safe varied, effective and enjoyable way.

    Attitudes and values:
     Show respect of rules and regulations during the game.
     Appreciate the importance of cooperation in term.
     Fair play.
     Self confidence
     Enjoyment in playing basketball using technical tactics gestures

    LESSON 1: EXERCISES OF JUMPING

    Lesson objective
    By the end of the lesson,learners should be able to jump over various objects without getting hurt.
    Teaching methods:

     Explanation
     Demonstration
     Observation
     Practical
     Group/pair work
     Discovery
     Direct instruction

    Teaching and learning materials:

     Playground
     Paper boxes
     Ropes
     Whistle
     Sticks
     Balls

    Lesson development:

    Step 1 :
     Guiding the learners to carry out warm-up activities. Let one of them be the leader as you supervise.
    They should begin with simple jogging to heat up the muscles. Then stretching the muscles systematically. Thus from the neck to the ankle or vice versa. Finally they should strengthen the
    muscles by activities such as jumping over the ball, push up, elbow tug of war and duck fighting.

    Step 2 :
     Setting objects for the learners to jump over as they move forward. These can include balls, paper boxes, sticks rested on a paper boxes about 1 foot high and ropes fixed on stands or held by the learners themselves they start in a squatting position and make two feet forward hops

    Procedure
    From a starting line, the participants carry out a “ fog one after another. The first participant of the
    team start with the toes on the starting line. He/she then squats down and jumps forward as far as
    possible, landing on both feet. The assistant marks the landing point that s nearest to the starting
    line(heels) if a participant fall back, the landing point of his/her hand for example is the one marked.
    The landing point, in turn becomes starting line for the second jumper of the team, who caries out
    his/her “ frog jump’ from there. The third team mate jumps from the landing point of the second one,and so on. The event is completed when the last member of the team has jumped and that landing point is marked. The entire procedure is repeated a second time (second trial).

    Activity 4.1.1
    Set exercises and observe how the learners demonstrate different types of jumping in relations to the lesson. For example” Two feet forward hops from a squat position in groups of five

    Scoring
    Each team member completes. The total distance of all jumps is the team result. The team scoring is based on the best result of two trials. The measurement is recorded in 1 cm intervals.

    Assistants
    One assistant per team is needed for this event . These are his/her duties
     To control and regulate the procedure (starting line landing)
     To measure the total distance of each trial.
     To record the scores on the event card.

    Step 3 :
    In small groups, telling the learners squat and jump moving forward. For the safety of the young muscles of these learners, the distance should not exceed 5 metres. The intensity of the exercise should also be low. Thus it should not be repeated many times in the same lesson.

    Activity 4.1.2
    Dividing the learners in small groups. Set them various exercise involving jumping forward and squat jumping. Let them perform competitively take records and declare the winners at the end award prize if possible

    Assessment criteria
     Set the learners to jump over various objects like paper boxes, sticks (as across bar) on bricks and jumping at the sport.

    Relaxation
     Under what situation can one apply jumping techniques?
    Final discussion
    Let the learners discuss how jumping can help us in our daily life by gaining fitness, servival and earning a living.

    Additional notes
    At this level, athletics is more than games. They promote physical exercise encourage healthy competition and teach the learners to be gracious regardless of the results of the game. Athletics create lasting friendship forged through:
     Achieving a common goal.
     Giving the chance to explore what they are through :
    – Hard work
    – Physical exertion
    – Emotional investment
     Better still athletics provide us with the opportunity to develop:
    – Fairness
    – Respect
    – Responsibility

    LESSON 2: JUMPING SHORT OBSTACLES

    Lesson objective
    By the end of the lesson,learners should be able to jump over various objects successfully.

    Teaching Methods:

     Explanation
     Demonstration
     Observation
     Practical
     Group/pair work
     Discovery
     Direct instruction

    Teaching and learning Materials:

     Playground
     Whistle
     Paper boxes
     Ropes
     Sticks
     Balls

    Lesson Development:

    Step 1 :
     Guide the learners to perform warm up exercise.
    Step 2 :
     Set objects for the learners to jump over individually.
    Variations:
     Jumping in different directions (forward, backward, sideways).
     Vary the heights of the objects according to the ability.
     Letting the height be progressive according to the better performers.

    Activity 4.2.1
    In small groups, according to the ability, set a variety of objects to be jumped over.
    – Supervise, encourage and correct the errors.

    Assessment
    Setting exercise and observe how the learners demonstrate different types of jumping.
    Relaxation
    Instruct learners to sit down and perform bicycle ride in air.
    Final discussion
    What do you do if you find an obstacle like log in your pathway?
    How would you go over it?

    Additional notes
    Fun and sportsmanship are the guiding principles of our athletics lesson. The learners are ensured to have the opportunity to learn and develop skills in their chosen athletics events. Group activities allow the learners to exercise their bodies as well as their minds and help them develop skills and confidence.

    LESSON 3: LONG JUMPING EXERCISES

    Lesson objective
    By the end of the lesson, learners should be able to perform long jumping exercises following correct phases.

    Teaching Methods:

     Explanation
     Demonstration
     Observation
     Practical
     Group/pair work
     Discovery
     Direct instruction

    Teaching and learning Materials:

     Whistle
     Sandpit
     Takeoff board
     Rake/hoe
     Tape measure

    Lesson Development:

    Step 1 :
     Guiding the learners to brainstorm on all what they know about long jump.
    – Where it is performed.
    – Styles /techniques used.
    – Process from the beginning to the end.
    – Necessary equipment.

    Step 2 :
     Telling the learners perform warm-up exercise following the correct procedures; refer to the previous lesson. However, new stretching and strengthening exercise can be introduced. You can organise a circuit of exercise so that they perform a different one at each station.

    Step 3 :
     Guiding the learners to have trials in the sandpit. Leave them to jump freely in order to discover
    some basics on their own.
    – Introducing the “ sail techniques” to the learners.
    – Demonstrating it to them. Allow at least 5 learners to try it in order to consolidate the
    demonstration.
    – Putting it to the learners that in all jumps there are 3 phases:
    1. Approach                       2. Takeoff                          3. Flight and landing

    Activity 4.3.1
    Telling the learners to perform the long jump activity following the correct phases, runway (approach),takeoff and flight and landing.

     Giving them some simple points to follow:
    – Good speed is needed for nice takeoff.
    – Height from the ground should be moderate.
    – Land and bounce forward.
    – After landing move forward and leave the pit.
    – Measurement is done from the nearest break in the sand to the takeoff board.
    – One with the longest distance is the winner.

    Assessment
    Setting exercise and observe how the learners demonstrate different abilities of jumping. Take records and declare the best performers, award prizes if possible.
    Relaxation
    Instruct learners to perform leg stretch exercises as they relax.
    Final discussion
    How can you use long jump to escape danger?
    What techniques can you use to jump over obstacles?
    How helpful is jumping in our daily life?

    Additional notes
    During competitions, if the competitors are 8 or less take 6 trials. If they are 8 or more take 3 trials for all. Then the best 8 take 3 more trials. In case of a tie, take an extra trial.

    LESSON 4: SPLINTING EXERCISES

    Lesson objective
    By the end of the lesson, learners should be able to perform different sprints.

    Teaching methods:

     Explanation
     Demonstration
     Observation
     Practical
     Group/pair work
     Discovery
     Direct instruction

    Teaching and learning materials:

     Whistle
     Playground
     Batons
     Stopwatch
     Hurdles

    Lesson Development:

    Step 1 :
     Guiding the learners to perform warm up -exercise as in the previous lesson. At least two new exercise should be introduced in each new lesson. These may include sit ups, squats, burpees to mention but a few. You may organise a circuit of 8 exercises and learners attend each and every station.

    Step 2 :
     Telling the learners brainstorm on what they know about sprint and relays.
    – Sprints are short distance races run at a high speed.
    – Sprints include : 100 m, 200 m and 400 m
    – A crouch start is used.
    – It has 3 commands” On your marks” “ set” and “ Go”
    – At “ Go “ a whistle , clapper or gun may be used.
    – Shuttle relays are mainly done by a group of four. They are carried out in defi ned area. It can be between 10 m, 20 m, or 30 m at this level

    Step 3 :
     Letting the learners concentrate on 100 m race. They should begin with shuttle relays of 30 m between.

    (a) Running to and from the marked distance

    FIGURE 4 .10: Shuttle relay from either side.

    (d) During acceleration there should be a body lean, elbows at 90 degree and a high knee lift. Run on the balls of the foot for better speed.

    (e) Finish with the torso.

    Activity 4.4.1
    Dividing the class in four teams and let them compete in 100 m race. Take records and at the end declare the winners. Award prizes if available in order to motivate them for further exercise.

    Assessment
    Setting exercises involving sprinting and observe how the learners demonstrate the proper biomechanics of running.
    Relaxation
    Instruct and direct learners how to perform leg stretch as relaxation.
    Final discussion
    In which sports activity can one apply 100 metres sprint?
    How is sprinting important in our daily life?

    Additional notes
    The athletics programme
    Athletics is an integral and required part of the educational experience. It includes individual sports at inter school, intramural and recreational levels. Allow the learners to have tryouts at all events before they specialise in one or some few of their interest. Coaches, teachers and administrators should find out how best they can help support them.

    LESSON 5: FORMULA ONE

    Lesson objective
    By the end of the lesson the learners should be able to run tactically through obstacles.
    Teaching methods:

     Explanation
     Demonstration
     Observation
     Practical
     Group/pair work
     Discovery
     Direct instruction

    Teaching and learning materials:

     Tumble mat
     Poles
     Whistle
     Soft ring/baton
     Hurdles

    Lesson development:

    Step 1 :
    Guiding the learners to carry out warm up activities. One of them should be the leader. They should
    begin with simple jogging to heat up the muscles. Then stretching the muscles should be systematic
    from the neck to the ankle. Finally, let them perform strengthening exercises. These may include; push ups, plyometrics and duck fi ghting.

    Step 2 :
     Asking the learners to mention what they know about “Formula one” as a sports activity.
     Giving a brief explanation or description.
    Brief description: It is a relay with a combination of fl at race, hurdles and sprinting around slalom poles. One runs in and out of obstacles on a winding course. It is designed to test tactical skills.

    Step 3 :
     Explaining the procedure of the relay
    – The distance is about 60 m or 80 m or 100 m long and is divided into one area each for lat race sprinting, for sprinting over hurdles and for sprinting around slalom poles.
    – A soft ring or baton is used. Each participant has to start with a forward roll on the tumble mat.
    – The “ Formula one” is a team event in which each team member has to complete the full course. Four to six teams can complete at the same time on one course.

    Step 4 :
    Activity
     Dividing the class in groups of four.
     Each group is a team
     Determining the number of teams to go at a time
     Take them to the starting point of your designed formula one course.
     Telling them start competing as records are taken.

    Scoring
    The ranking is evaluated according to the time: the winning team being the one with the best time.
    The next teams are ranked according to their fi nishing time.
    Assistants
     For each of the area (hurdles, slalom) at least two assistant are needed to set up the equipment properly.
     A part from the team attendants , two additional assistants are needed to serve as exchange zone judges.
     One person also needs to be the starter.
     Finally, there is need to have as many timekeepers as the number of teams. Timekeepers are also responsible for recording the scores on the event cards.

    Relaxation
    Stand with arms spread sideways and breath in deeply and out.
    Final Discussion
    How do you feel after performing the exercise?
    How do you overcome obstacles in life?
    Why is problem solving skill important in our life?
    Assessment
    Set obstacles to observe how fast learners run through obstacles.

    LESSON 6: LADDER RUNNING (SPEED LADDER)

    Lesson objective
    By the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to improve their running speed.

    Lesson competence:

    By the end of the lesson the learners should be able to sprint.

    Teaching methods:

     Explanation
     Demonstration
     Observation
     Practical
     Group/pair work
     Discovery

    Teaching and learning Materials:

     Whistle
     Cones
     Ladder
     Stopwatch

    Lesson development:

    Step 1 :
     Guiding the learners to perform their warm-up exercise. This will include jogging around the demarcated area. Then stretching the muscles from the neck to ankle or ankle to neck. Finally, strengthening their muscles by jumping over short objects.

    Step 2 :
     Letting the learners brainstorm on what they know about ladder running. After that guide them to identify and tell them what is involved in ladder running. These include:
    – Quick reaction on signals.
    – Stepping in all the gaps of the ladder to and from the cone.
    – Applying high speed to use the least time possible.
    – Ladder running is about speed training especially for sprinters.

    Step 3 :
     Leting the ladder and cones as required.
     You may have various stations if you have enough equipment. This will allow maximum participation.

    Procedure
    Between two marker cones at a distance of 19 m apart, a coordination ladder is placed on the floor/ ground at equal distance between the cones. At the start, the learner stands in a standing position (standing start) He/she stands with the tips of his/her toe at the starting line level with the first cone.
    After a starting signal/command, the learner runs to the ladder. He/she steps /runs through the ladder as quickly as possible and runs to the second cone. After having touched the cone with his/ her hand, the learner turns quickly and runs back through the ladder to the first cone. The distance between the wedges of the ladder is 100 cm (1m).

    If the learner leaves out an area of the ladder or jumps over it, the distance is extended by 2 m. This
    is done by the assistant at the appropriate next cone. One assistant is positioned at each cone. In
    this way the learner is penalised by having to run a longer distance if the task is not done properly.
    If two mistakes are made, the distance is extended by 4m and so on.

    Scoring
    The best trial is scored out of four.
    Assistant
    For the efficient organisation of this event, two assistants are required. They have the following duties:
     To start the event
     To control and regulate the event
     To keep time.
     To record the scores on the event card.

    Step 4 :
     Telling the learner perform ladder running as explained in the procedure.
     If the class is big, try to get enough equipment.
     This will help the learner to perform in small groups allowing maximum participation.

    Activity 4.6.1
    Setting up a speed ladder and observe how the learners demonstrate a relatively increased speed in sprinting than before.

    Relaxation
    Instruct learners to raise up their knees slowly and lower down.
    Final discussion
     What challenges do you face while running through speed ladder?
     State any other challenge in your life that requires you to solve with a lot of concentration, planning and speed.
    Assessment
    Observe how fast the learners run to from through the ladder to the first cone.

    LESSON 7 “8” ENDURANCE RACE EXERCISE

    Lesson objective
    By the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to run middle and long distance without getting exhausted.

    Teaching methods:

     Explanation
     Demonstration
     Observation
     Practical
     Group/pair work
     Discovery
     Direct instruction

    Teaching and learning materials:

     Whistle

     Flag poles/cones

    Lesson Development:

    Step 1 :
     Guiding the learners to perform warm up exercises. Let them to and from the marked distance.
    Then stretching the muscles systematically and finally perform the strengthening exercise such as push ups squats and sit ups.

    Step 2 :
     Leting the learners to brainstorm on what they know about “8” endurance race: secondly, guide
    them to have the brief description of “8” endurance.

    Brief description
     “8” Endurance race is an eight minute race using a demarcated-course. The course at this level can be 300 m.
    Step 3 :
     Set the course with flag poles /cones as required.

    Step 4 :
     Taking the learners to the course you have already marked prior to the lesson.

    Procedure
    Each team has to run a round a course 300 m from a given starting point. Each team member tries to run around the course as often as possible in 8 minutes. The start signal is set for all teams at the same time(by blowing a whistle) each member of the team starts with one card ball, piece of paper, cork or similar). He/she has to take it back to his/her team after each completion of a round on the course. Before starting again , he/she takes a new card or similar and so on. After 7 minutes , the last minute is announced by the completion of the run is indicated by a final signal.

    Scoring
    After having finished the course, all participants hand in the collected cards to the assistant. The assistant counts them for scoring. Only completed rounds are counted. Those which are not completed are ignored.

    Assistant
    For efficient organisation of the event at least two assistants per team are required. They are responsible for:
     Designating the starting line.
     Collecting and counting the cards.
     Recording the scores on the event card.

    In addition, a starter is required for timekeeping and giving other signal 9 last minute and final signal).

    Step 4 :
     Letting the learners perform the “8” Endurance” race as explained in the procedure.

    Activity 4.7.1
    Using the demarcated area of 300 m, set the learners to perform the “8” endurance” Race. Observe how the learners demonstrate a relatively increased endurance in the middle and long distance

    Relaxation
     Instruct learners to perform leg and abdominal stretch.

    Assessment
     Observe how long it would take a learners while perfoming an endurance race.

    Final discussion
     What difficulty do you experience while performing “8” endurance race?
     How do you manage your time in your everyday life?
     Why is time management important in our daily life?

    LESSON 8: EXERCISES OF THROWING

    Lesson objective
    By the end of the lesson the learners should be able to throw heavy objects in a short distance using one arm

    Teaching Methods:

     Explanation
     Demonstration
     Observation
     Practical
     Group/pair work
     Discovery
     Direct instruction

    Teaching and learning Materials:

     Medicine balls
     Physio balls
     Whistle
     First aid box
     Fibre ball
     Stopwatch
    Resource person
     Tennis balls

    Lesson Development: Step 1 :
     Guiding the learners to perform warm up exercise. Let one of them be the leader. They should
    stretch systematically. Thus from neck to ankle or vice versa. They should end up with strengthening
    exercises such as press-ups.

    Step 2 :
     Letting the learners define the term throwing.
     Secondly, they brainstorm on what they know about throwing.
     Telling the part of the body used for throwing.
     Suggesting the aims of throwing.
     Giving the advantages and disadvantages of throwing.

    Step 3 :
     Guiding the learners to perform rotational throw. Brief description; The learners throw at various targets with a rotational motion.

    Procedure:
     Dividing the whole area between two stands ( or between soccer goal posts) into 3 equal zones.
     The left zone, centre zone and right zone.
     Being in a lateral standing position 5 m in front of the centre zone.
     Throwing a ball (or similar object) side arm, with arm fully extended.
     Throwing at the net or soccer goal.
     Throwing in a way resembling a discus throw or the side way swing of a tennis racket.
     Each participant gets two trials.
     Try to throw the object through the zone that best matches with your throwing arm.
     For example left handed thrower tries to get the object through the left zone.

    Scoring
     If a right handed participant throws the object through the right zone, 3 points are scored.
     Throwing through the centre zone, 2 points are scored.
     Throwing through the left zone, 1 point is scored.
     If the edge of an area is hit, the higher score is gained.
     For the left handed throwers, points are scored in the reverse sequence.
     If a thrower misses the target area (besides above, below) or has overstepped the foul lie he/ she has one extra throw to try to score points.
     The better of the two trials of each team member contributes to the team total.

    Assistants
    Two assistants per team are required for this event. They have the following duties :
     To control and regulate the procedure.
     To carry back the throwing equipment to the final line.
     To score and to record the sources on the event card.

    Step 4 :
     Dividing the class into various teams
     Letting the learners perform the throwing activity as explained in the procedure
     Letting the assistants do their work and finally declare the winners

    Relaxation
     Swing arms up and down, left and right as away of relaxing.
    Assessment
     Setting individual learners to perform the rotational throw.
     Observe how the learner demonstrates his/her throwing ability.

    Final Discussion
     Guiding the learners to hold a discussion about throwing to serve as a feedback for the lesson.
     What techniques can you use to throw heavy objects using one arm?

    LESSON 9 EXERCISES OF USING BASIC ATHLETIC EQUIPMENT

    Lesson objective:

    By the end of the lesson the learners should be able to use various basic athletics equipment while
    running, jumping and throwing.

    Teaching methods:

     Explanation
     Demonstration
     Observation
     Practical
     Group/pair work
     Discovery
     Direct instruction

    Teaching and learning materials:

     Whistle
     Javelin
     Sandpit
     mats
     Stop watches
     Huddle
     Discus
     High jump
     Crossbar
     Measuring tape

    Lesson development:

    In this lesson, learners are going to carry out various athletics exercises using simple athletics equipments .
    Step 1 :
     Guiding the learners to perform warm up exercise. One learner should lead them. Let them start by jogging around the demarcated area. Followed by stretching muscles systematically thus from neck to ankle or the other way round. Finally, strengthening the muscles with exercises such as push ups, jumping over the ball, squats and so on.
    Step 2 :
     Guiding the learners to mention the basic equipment used in athletics they know. These may
    include Batons, Hurdles, shot put, Discus, javelin, crossbar , high jump stands and so on.

    Step 3 :
     Guiding the learners to identify and name some of the exercise they can perform with basic athletics equipment.
    – Hurdles race
    – Sprint relay “ Bend Formula”
    – Short Run Up Triple Jump
    – Short run up long jump
    – Beginner high jump
    – Junior Javelin throw
    – Junior Discus throw

    (a) “Bend formula” sprint relay
    Brief description: This is a relay sprinting event with curved corners.

    Procedure
     Two lanes are necessary for each team, one with change over zone and the other without.
     All the team members are gathered before the 10 m change over area.
     The first participant starts running the distance towards the first pole.
     Then turns around it before running in a straight line.
     Then turns around the second flag pole to run back towards the team.
     When he/she enters the change over area, he/she hands over the relay baton to the team mate.
     He/she runs the same distance until he/she hands over the baton to the third team member and so on.
     The receiving runner starts running the distance in the change over area.
     The stop watch for each team is active when the first participant parts the starting line.
     It is stopped when the last member crosses the finishing line (entry of change area over) once he/she complete the distance.

    Scoring
     The ranking is evaluated according to the finishing time of the winning team. The next teams are ranked according to their time order.

    Assistants
    For efficient organisation, one assistant per team is required. This person has the following duties:
     To control the regular course of the event.
     To keep the time.
     To score and to record the scores on the event card.

    (b) Hurdles Race
    Brief Description: This is the sprinting over hurdles at regular intervals