Topic outline

  • General

    •  Be relaxed and natural when you are with people with disabilities. Do not treat them as if they need your pity or your charity. Do not think they necessarily need help. Let them do and say things themselves;
      •  Avoid keeping learners living with disabilities out of the game: in a regular class,let them participate in other’s games. However, avoid being too demanding about the level of their performance.

      What can we modify?

      Within the framework of integration of learners in games, according to the nature and the gravity of impairment, learners can, in some cases, participate in games designed for all learners. In other cases, the teacher or educator should think about changes he/she can make to meet the special needs of learners he/she has in the group. He/she should also think about adaptation of the game, the playground, equipment andduration of the game.

      Below are some examples of adaptation to initiate:

      Adapt roles and rules

      •  Make the game easier or harder by changing some rules;
      •  Let learners play different roles and in different positions;
      •  Allow players to play in different ways, for example, sitting instead of standing;
      • Simplify expectations of the game;
      • Simplify instructions.

      Adapt the playground

      •  Change the size of the playground. Enlarge or reduce the playground;
      •  Change the distance: for example, put a target closer;
      •  Change the height of a target;
      •  Allow more or less space between players;
      • Let learners move from different spaces.

      Adapt the materials

      •  Reduce the size or weight of materials;
      •  Choose balls of various textures, bright colours or balls which make noise.

      Adapt the duration of the activity

      • Reduce or extend the time allotted to the activity.

      Aspects to consider when you want to modify an activity

      Ask yourself the following questions:

      •  Does the modification damage the activity? This should not be the case;
      •  Does the modification correspond to the ability and duration of learners’ attention?
      •  Will the learner with disability be able to play with others?
      •  Is the activity proportional to ages of participants?
      •  Does the activity respond to the needs of all participants?

      Strategies to help learners with physical disabilities or mobility difficulties

      •  Adapt activities so that students who use wheelchairs or other mobility aids, or other students, who have difficulty moving, can participate.
      •  Ask for adaptation of sports equipment e.g. the height of the volleyball net may need to be changed to make it easier for a student to reach it or fit their legs or wheelchair under.
      •  Encourage peer support between students.
      •  Get advice from parents or a health professional about assistive devices

      Strategies to help learners with hearing disabilities or communication  difficulties

      •  Always get the student’s attention before you begin to speak.
      •  Encourage the student to look at your face.
      •  Use gestures, body language and facial expressions.
      •  Use pictures and objects as much as possible.
      • Ask the parents/caregivers to show you the signs they use at home for

      communication using the same signs yourself and encourage other students to also use them.

      •  Keep background noise to a minimum.

      Strategies to help learners with visual disabilities

      •  Help students to use their other senses (hearing, touch, smell and taste) to play and carry out activities that will promote their learning and development.
      •  Use simple, clear and consistent language.
      •  Use tactile objects to help explain a concept.
      •  If the student has some sight, ask them what they can see. Get information from parents/caregivers on how the student manages their remaining sight at home.
      • Make sure the student has a group of friends who are helpful and who allow the student to be as independent as possible.
      •  Plan activities so that students work in pairs or groups whenever possible.

      Physical Education and Sports is taught in the class rooms (e.g. using a projector and videos to teach steps of performing a technique, a system of game play, using a chalk board to teach rules of the game…), in the play fields/courts, in the gymnasiums, in the tracks and fields and in the swimming pools.

      Teaching methods include:

      •  Demonstration method: A teacher makes him/herself a demonstration or asks a learner to do a demonstration. It is advised not to do a demonstration if you are not sure to do it better than every individual learner.
      •  Verbal Explanation: It involves giving a verbal or gestural clarification of activity,how it is done or what is to be done. When explaining:
      •  The voice should be loud, clear, and precise.
      • Teacher should not explain when he/she has gained the full attention of the class.
      •  Practice session: Learners are given time to practice exercises intended to develop the desired skills.
      • Supervision: During a PE lesson the teacher plays a role of supervision where he/she must move around in field and make corrections for individual learner during exercises.

      Correction: Corrections are done starting by group correction to individual correction. Corrections for inaccuracy in performing given techniques are done immediately.


      Evaluation: Let learners do their own evaluation each other, then help them by giving some advice using encouraging words. Evaluation is a continued activity throughout the exercises.

      •  Discussion: Discussions are used before and after teaching learning activities in open talks
      •  Application: Use of learnt skills in different situations to solve a given problem.

      b. Steps of a PE lesson

      A PE lesson using play-based approach follows these steps: Opening discussions; warmup activities; main activity or game itself; cool down and R-C-A discussions. (Right To Play, 2017)

      Introduction

      Step 1: Opening discussions

      The opening discussions prepare learners for the learning experience. Discussions encourage them to think about the learning objective of the play. Opening discussions include 1 to 2 quick questions to stimulate learners’ curiosity and engagement.

      Strategies for good discussions:

      •  Set appropriate arrangement for good discussions: e.g. semi-circle, circle, U-shape
      • Set ground rules which create a safe atmosphere for learners
      •  Prepare learners for discussions
      •  Ensure interactive and inclusive discussions
      •  Acknowledge each learner’s contribution
      •  Ensure classroom management and control

      Step 2: Warm-up activities

      A warm-up is performed before a game/play. It helps the body prepare itself for exercise and reduces the chance of injury. The warm-up should be a combination of rhythmic exercise which begins to raise the heart rate and raise muscle temperature,and static stretching through a full range of motion.

      Lesson Development

      Step 3: Main activity or game itself

      A game/play is chosen according to the age of learners and skills you want to develop. Adapt the games to the differences among learners.

      Step 4: Cool down

      A cool down activity is an easy exercise that allows the body to gradually transit to a resting or near-resting state.

      Assessment

      Assessment in PE lesson is done when learners are performing exercises/activities/games. At this level, through the RCA discussions the teacher allows learners to do their self-evaluation and provide the feed-back.

      Step 5: RCA discussions

      Reflect-Connect-Apply is a teaching and learning strategy that leads learners through a 3-step discussion about their experience:

      •  Reflect on the game/play. The teacher asks questions about their experience and feelings during the game. Examples: What was interesting? What was easy? What was challenging? What strategies have you used to win? How did you feel in case of success or failure?
      •  Connect to life experiences and lesson content. The teacher asks questions like:

      How does this game connect to what you already know, believe or feel? Does it reinforce or expand your view? The teacher also asks questions that connect the game to lesson content

      •  Apply acquired experience to another situation. The teacher asks questions like,“How could you use what you have learned from this experience? How could you use your new learning to benefit yourself, others, your community?” Learning is transferred and applied.

      RCA is based on the work of educationalists such as Freire, Brown, Piaget, Brant-ford and others who support the concept of an educational process that is active, relevant,reflective, collaborative and applied, and has its roots in experiential learning theory (Kolb, 1984). Play-based learning technique is closely linked to the Experiential Learning Cycle. It starts with a game or play-based activity and ends with a closing Reflect, Connect and Apply (RCA) discussion linked to the subject matter.

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      PART II. SAMPLE LESSON PLAN

      School Name: .............................. Teacher’s name: .................................

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