PART I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
I.0. About the teacher’s guide
This book is a teacher’s guide for Physical Education and Sports for P4. It is designed to help teachers in the implementation of competence based curriculum.
As the name says, it is a guide that teachers can refer to when preparing their lessons. Teachers may prefer to adopt provided activities/games/exercises and related guidance but they are also expected to be more creative and consider their specific classes’ contexts and prepare accordingly.
I.1. The structure of the guide
This section presents the overall structure of this guide, the unit and lesson structure to help teachers to understand the different sections of this guide and what they will find in each section.
The whole guide has three main parts as follows:
Part I: General Introduction
This part provides general guidance on how to develop the generic competences, how to integrate cross cutting issues, how to cater for learners with special educational needs, active methods and techniques of teaching Physical Education and Sports and guidance on assessment
Part II: Sample lesson plan
This part provides a sample lesson plan, developed and designed to help the teacher developing their own lesson plans.
Part III: Unit development
This is the core part of the guide. Each unit is developed following the structure as prescribed in subtitle structure of a unit This teachers’ guide has some changes considering pre-established number of periods allocated for each unit in the syllabus.
The following changes upon periods allocated to each unit were made:
- Unit 1 (Motor control) changed from 4 to 3 periods.
- Unit 3 (Gymnastics) changed from 2 periods to 3 periods.
- Unit 5 (Football) changed from 5 periods to 4 periods.
- Unit 9 (Transmitted diseases) changed from 1 period to 3 periods.
Structure of a unit
Each unit is made of the following sections:
Unit title: From the syllabus
Key unit competence: From the syllabus
Prerequisites (knowledge, skills, attitudes and values
This section indicates knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the success of the unit. The competence-based approach calls for connections between units/topics within a subject and interconnections between different subjects. The teacher will find an indication of those prerequisites and guidance on how to establish connections.
Cross-cutting issues to be addressed
This section suggests cross cutting issues that can be integrated depending on the unit content. It provides guidance on how to come up with the integration of the issue.
Note that the issue indicated is a suggestion; teachers are free to take another crosscutting issue taking into consideration the learning environment.
List of lessons/sub-heading
This section presents in a table suggestion on the list of lessons, lesson objectives copied or adapted from the syllabus and duration for each lesson. Each lesson /subheading is then developed.
End unit assessment
This part provides guidance on how to conduct the end unit assessment in a practical way. It suggests activities/ games as well as guidance on criteria to be considered such as:
- Cognitive skills (e.g.: level of concentration, memory, capacity of anticipation, problem solving);
- Technical competences (e.g.: to throw the ball, to catch it, to dribble it, to pass it to others etc);
- Strong emotional points such as self-confidence and feeling secure;
- Social competences such as cooperation and solidarity;
- Attitudes and values: e.g.: optimism, confidence, respect and impartiality.
- This section provides additional games/exercises for the teacher to have a wide range of activities/games related to the unit.
- Adapted activities for learners with special educational needs
- Remedial Activities for learners who need more time and exercises to achieve a certain level of performance
- Extended activities: for talented learners.
Structure of each lesson
Each lesson/sub-heading is made of the following sections:
Lesson title 1: ……………………………..
Introduction: This section gives a clear instruction to the teacher on how to start the lesson
This section suggests the teaching aids or other resources needed in line with the activities to achieve the learning objectives. Teachers are encouraged to replace the suggested teaching aids by the available ones in their respective schools and based on learning environment.
This section provides activities/games/exercises and guidance step by step: introduction; lesson development and assessment.
I.2. Importance of PES subject
Physically, PES subject facilitates biological maturation (muscle development, widening of heart cavity, better pulmonary ventilation, coordination and motion speed). It also helps to prevent and correct the morphological and physiological defects;
- Physical Education and Sport enables learner global development:
- Intellectually, the learner acquires knowledge and ability of concentration: he/she observes, recalls, performs experiments, uses strategies, evolves and makes decisions;
- Emotionally, the learner is deeply involved: he/she discovers his/her own potentials; develops self-confidence, gets enthusiasm and happiness;
- Socially, the learner makes friends through playing and develops attitude and competence of communicating, cooperating and building positive relations with others.
- Game and sport provide learners with an excellent context of learning howto develop and protect their health and welfare. Through the game, a learner discovers that he/she has to take care of him/herself and of others;
- PES is a powerful way of building personality because it promotes self-confidence and competition skills. It develops knowledge and self-monitoring, respect of the law, will, attention, courage, and communication with others;
- This subject enables early detection and enhancement of sport talents for young learners;
- When games are carefully planned taking into account learner’s age, they enable learners to acquire practical competences such as respect, honesty,comprehension, communication, empathy, problem solving, comprehension of rules foundation and the way of complying with them.
- Success in play and sport activities is a source of self-confidence which contributes to the improvement of performance in other subjects even for students with low academic performance;
- Games contribute to bridge psychological gaps which usually exist between learners and teachers: when teachers regularly play with their learners, the mood becomes much more cordial and learners become more open.
- Recreational and sport activities provide learners with a real relaxation after hours of intensive concentration.
I.3. Methodological guidance
I.3.1. Developing competences
Since 2015 Rwanda shifted from a knowledge based to a competency based curriculum for pre-primary, primary and general secondary education. This called for changing the way of learning by shifting from teacher centered to a learner centered approach.
Teachers are not only responsible for knowledge transfer but also for fostering student’s learning achievement, and creating safe and supportive learning environment. It implies also that a learner has to demonstrate what he/she is able to do using the knowledge, skills, values and attitude acquired in a new or different or given situation.
The competence-based curriculum uses an approach of teaching and learning based on discrete skills rather than dwelling on only knowledge or the cognitive domain of learning.It focuses on what learner can do rather than what learners know. Learners develop basic competences through specific subject unit competences with specific learning objectives broken down into knowledge, skills and attitudes. These competences are developed through learning activities disseminated in learner-centered rather than the traditional didactic approach. The student is evaluated against set standards to achieve before moving on.
In addition to specific subject competences, learners also develop generic competences which are transferable throughout a range of learning areas and situations in life. Below are examples of how generic competences can be developed in Physical Education and Sports:
I.3.2. Addressing cross-cutting issue
Among the changes in the competence based curriculum is the integration of cross cutting issues as an integral part of the teaching learning process-as they relate to and must be considered within all subjects to be appropriately addressed. The eight cross cutting issues identified in the national curriculum framework are: genocide studies, environment and sustainability, gender, Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE), Peace and Values Education, Financial Education, standardization Culture and Inclusive Education.
Some cross cutting issues may seem specific to particular learning areas or subjects but the teacher need to address all of them whenever an opportunity arises. In addition, learners should always be given an opportunity during the learning process to address these cross cutting issues both within and out of the classroom so as to progressively develop related attitudes and values.
Below are examples on how crosscutting issues can be addressed in PES:
I.3.3. Special educational needs
Learners or people with disabilities did not always have equal opportunities in society.
As far as games and sports are concerned, these learners are often relegated to the passive role of spectators rather than players. Currently we are convinced that games and sports are very beneficial to people with physical, mental, emotional and psychological disabilities.
What attitude to adopt?
To promote the integration of learners with disabilities during recreational and sports activities, the following tips may help teachers / educators in the training of these learners:
Be relaxed and natural when you are with people with disabilities. Do not treat them as if they need your pity or your charity. Do not think they necessarily need help. Let them do and say things themselves;
- Adopt an approach of sport and game which is based on skills, and focus on what learners are capable of doing. In this respect, you can introduce small changes in games and activities for learners with disabilities;
- Avoid keeping learners living with disabilities out of the game: in a regular class,let them participate in other’s games. However, avoid being too demanding about the level of their performance.
What can we modify?
Within the framework of integration of learners in games, according to the nature and the gravity of impairment, learners can, in some cases, participate in games designed for all learners. In other cases, the teacher or educator should think about changes he/she can make to meet the special needs of learners he/she has in the group. He/she should also think about adaptation of the game, the playground, equipment andduration of the game.
Below are some examples of adaptation to initiate:
Adapt roles and rules
- Make the game easier or harder by changing some rules;
- Let learners play different roles and in different positions;
- Allow players to play in different ways, for example, sitting instead of standing;
- Simplify expectations of the game;
- Simplify instructions.
Adapt the playground
- Change the size of the playground. Enlarge or reduce the playground;
- Change the distance: for example, put a target closer;
- Change the height of a target;
- Allow more or less space between players;
- Let learners move from different spaces.
Adapt the materials
- Reduce the size or weight of materials;
- Choose balls of various textures, bright colours or balls which make noise.
Adapt the duration of the activity
- Reduce or extend the time allotted to the activity.
Aspects to consider when you want to modify an activity
Ask yourself the following questions:
- Does the modification damage the activity? This should not be the case;
- Does the modification correspond to the ability and duration of learners’ attention?
- Will the learner with disability be able to play with others?
- Is the activity proportional to ages of participants?
- Does the activity respond to the needs of all participants?
Strategies to help learners with physical disabilities or mobility difficulties
- Adapt activities so that students who use wheelchairs or other mobility aids, or other students, who have difficulty moving, can participate.
- Ask for adaptation of sports equipment e.g. the height of the volleyball net may need to be changed to make it easier for a student to reach it or fit their legs or wheelchair under.
- Encourage peer support between students.
- Get advice from parents or a health professional about assistive devices
Strategies to help learners with hearing disabilities or communication difficulties
- Always get the student’s attention before you begin to speak.
- Encourage the student to look at your face.
- Use gestures, body language and facial expressions.
- Use pictures and objects as much as possible.
- Ask the parents/caregivers to show you the signs they use at home for
communication using the same signs yourself and encourage other students to also use them.
- Keep background noise to a minimum.
Strategies to help learners with visual disabilities
- Help students to use their other senses (hearing, touch, smell and taste) to play and carry out activities that will promote their learning and development.
- Use simple, clear and consistent language.
- Use tactile objects to help explain a concept.
- If the student has some sight, ask them what they can see. Get information from parents/caregivers on how the student manages their remaining sight at home.
- Make sure the student has a group of friends who are helpful and who allow the student to be as independent as possible.
- Plan activities so that students work in pairs or groups whenever possible.
Physical Education and Sports is taught in the class rooms (e.g. using a projector and videos to teach steps of performing a technique, a system of game play, using a chalk board to teach rules of the game…), in the play fields/courts, in the gymnasiums, in the tracks and fields and in the swimming pools.
Teaching methods include:
- Demonstration method: A teacher makes him/herself a demonstration or asks a learner to do a demonstration. It is advised not to do a demonstration if you are not sure to do it better than every individual learner.
- Verbal Explanation: It involves giving a verbal or gestural clarification of activity,how it is done or what is to be done. When explaining:
- The voice should be loud, clear, and precise.
- Teacher should not explain when he/she has gained the full attention of the class.
- Practice session: Learners are given time to practice exercises intended to develop the desired skills.
- Supervision: During a PE lesson the teacher plays a role of supervision where he/she must move around in field and make corrections for individual learner during exercises.
Correction: Corrections are done starting by group correction to individual correction. Corrections for inaccuracy in performing given techniques are done immediately.
Evaluation: Let learners do their own evaluation each other, then help them by giving some advice using encouraging words. Evaluation is a continued activity throughout the exercises.
- Discussion: Discussions are used before and after teaching learning activities in open talks
- Application: Use of learnt skills in different situations to solve a given problem.
b. Steps of a PE lesson
A PE lesson using play-based approach follows these steps: Opening discussions; warmup activities; main activity or game itself; cool down and R-C-A discussions. (Right To Play, 2017)
Step 1: Opening discussions
The opening discussions prepare learners for the learning experience. Discussions encourage them to think about the learning objective of the play. Opening discussions include 1 to 2 quick questions to stimulate learners’ curiosity and engagement.
Strategies for good discussions:
- Set appropriate arrangement for good discussions: e.g. semi-circle, circle, U-shape
- Set ground rules which create a safe atmosphere for learners
- Prepare learners for discussions
- Ensure interactive and inclusive discussions
- Acknowledge each learner’s contribution
- Ensure classroom management and control
Step 2: Warm-up activities
A warm-up is performed before a game/play. It helps the body prepare itself for exercise and reduces the chance of injury. The warm-up should be a combination of rhythmic exercise which begins to raise the heart rate and raise muscle temperature,and static stretching through a full range of motion.
Step 3: Main activity or game itself
A game/play is chosen according to the age of learners and skills you want to develop. Adapt the games to the differences among learners.
Step 4: Cool down
A cool down activity is an easy exercise that allows the body to gradually transit to a resting or near-resting state.
Assessment in PE lesson is done when learners are performing exercises/activities/games. At this level, through the RCA discussions the teacher allows learners to do their self-evaluation and provide the feed-back.
Step 5: RCA discussions
Reflect-Connect-Apply is a teaching and learning strategy that leads learners through a 3-step discussion about their experience:
- Reflect on the game/play. The teacher asks questions about their experience and feelings during the game. Examples: What was interesting? What was easy? What was challenging? What strategies have you used to win? How did you feel in case of success or failure?
- Connect to life experiences and lesson content. The teacher asks questions like:
How does this game connect to what you already know, believe or feel? Does it reinforce or expand your view? The teacher also asks questions that connect the game to lesson content
- Apply acquired experience to another situation. The teacher asks questions like,“How could you use what you have learned from this experience? How could you use your new learning to benefit yourself, others, your community?” Learning is transferred and applied.
RCA is based on the work of educationalists such as Freire, Brown, Piaget, Brant-ford and others who support the concept of an educational process that is active, relevant,reflective, collaborative and applied, and has its roots in experiential learning theory (Kolb, 1984). Play-based learning technique is closely linked to the Experiential Learning Cycle. It starts with a game or play-based activity and ends with a closing Reflect, Connect and Apply (RCA) discussion linked to the subject matter.
PART II. SAMPLE LESSON PLAN
School Name: .............................. Teacher’s name: .................................