• ### UNIT 3: UBUZIMA BW’IMYOROROKERE

UBUSHOBOZI BW’INGENZI BUGAMIJWE

-Gusesengura inkuru ndende agaragaza imiterere, ibarankuru
n’ishushanyabikorwa byayo.

-Kugaragaza uburyo, indango, ijyana n’irebero by’inshinga.

IGIKORWA CY’UMWINJIZO
Ukurikije uko ubona imyitwarire y’ingimbi n’abangavu, sobanura ibintu
nibura bitatu bigaragaza ko umuhungu cyangwa umukobwa wo muri
iki kigero asobanukiwe ibijyanye n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere. Wakora
iki kugira ngo ushishikarize abasore n’inkumi kutishora mu mibonano

mpuzabitsina bakiri bato.

III.1. Umwandiko: Amatsiko y’abato

Kanyana yakomeje kurererwa kwa nyirasenge Mariya. Amaze kugira imyaka
cumi n’ibiri yabonye umubiri we uhindutse. Nibwo yatangiye kujya azana
ibishishi mu maso ndetse n’ibice bimwe by’umubiri bitangira gukura. Mariya
yamusabaga kwiyitaho birushijeho cyanecyane akajya yita ku isuku y’umubiri n’
iy’imyambaro. Amusobanurira ko ageze mu gihe cy’ubwangavu. Nyamukobwa
na we kwiyitaho ntiyabibwirizwaga, yari nyirasuku; yagendanaga indorewamo
mu mufuka agahora yireba arko akababazwa n’ibiheri yari afite mu maso.
Rimwe Muneza, umuhungu w’ingimbi w’imyaka cumi n’itanu, amusanga mu
nzira ahagaze, ashavuye, arimo kwireba, aramusuhuza amubaza impamvu
atishimye. Kanyana amusubiza ko abangamiwe n’ibiheri afite mu maso. Muneza
yarasetse aratembagara.

Hashize akanya aramubwira ati: “Kora aha mwana wakuze! Ubu wamaze kuba

umwangavu kwivuruguta mu ivu wabisezeyeho”. Kanyana yamubajije impamvu
abandi bakobwa bamuruta batagira ibyo biheri. Muneza yamusobanuriye
ko   ubwangavu budatangirira rimwe ku bakobwa bose. Akomeza agira ati:
“Hari abashobora kuzana ibimenyetso byabwo mbere gato y’imyaka cumi
n’ibiri, hakaba n’abashobora gutinda kubizana, bakaba bageza no ku myaka
cumi n’umunani”. Yamubwiye ko umwarimu wabo Twahirwa yabasobanuriye
ko umwana urya neza, akabaho mu buzima bwiza, azana ibimenyetso
by’ubwangavu hakiri kare.

Kanyana yahise yibuka ko na we nyirasenge yabimubwiye. Kanyana yabajije
Muneza uko bigenda ku bahungu. Muneza yamusobanuriye ko n’abahungu
badakurira rimwe; hari abazana ibimenyetso by’ubugimbi hakiri kare hakaba
n’abakura, bagera mu myaka cumi n’itanu bakaba ari ho bazana ibyo bimenyetso.
Muneza yabwiye Kanyana ko yabonye ibimenyetso by’ubugimbi afite imyaka
cumi n’ine. Ati: “ Natangiye kuniga ijwi no kumera ubwanwa nujuje iyo myaka”.
Kanyana yahise amureba ku kananwa asekana udusoni areba hasi.

Abo bana ntibakomeje kuganira ku mihindagurikire y’imibiri yabo.

Basezeranyeho buri wese akomeza inzira ye. Kubera uburyo Kanyana yari
yakunze Muneza, yagendaga akebuka amukurikiza amaso ari na ko kugenda
bimugora. Ku rundi ruhande, Muneza na we byaramugoye gutandukana n’uwo
mwana w’umukobwa.

Kanyana asubiye imuhira asanga nyirasenge yamuguriye agakariso keza cyane.

Akamuhereje arishima cyane maze ajya ku  ishuri  anezerewe. Mu gihe Kanyana
yaganaga ku ishuri  yageze mu nzira yumva mu nda haramuriye yicara hasi,
ahagurutse abona amaraso ku myenda ye. Yagize agahinda kenshi asubira mu
rugo abitekerereza nyirasenge, na we amusobanurira ko ari imihango yazanye,
ko ibyo bitagombye kumutera ipfunwe ahubwo ko bigomba kumutera ishema
ko yakuze kandi ari umukobwa muzima. Ariko ibyo byose Kanyana ntiyari
abyitayeho, kuko yari yibabarijwe n’agakariso ke gashya kari kanduye. Mariya
yamusabye guhita yoga akanamesa neza ako gakariso, akakanika ku zuba. Amaze
kwiyuhagira, Mariya yamuhereje “kotegisi” anamwereka uko bayambara. Ati:
“Iki bakita umugati w’abantu bakuru. Ibikoresho bifitanye isano n’imyanya
y’ibanga kirazira kubivugira mu ruhame. Uwakumva ubivuga yakwita umupfu.”

Ubwo Kanyana yabyibajijeho, ashaka kumenya impamvu abantu bafata ibijyana

n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere nk’ibintu bizira kuvugirwa mu ruhame. Yahise ajya
kubitekerereza Muneza biganiriraga byose ngo amusobanuze aramubura. Ni ko
gutekereza gushakishiriza kuri murandasi, ashyiraho ikibazo agira ati: “Kuki
abantu bafata ibijyana n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere nk’ibintu bizira kuvugirwa
mu ruhame?”. Abakibonye kuri murandasi bamuhaye ibitekerezo bikurikira:
icya mbere igitsina ni ryo tandukaniro ry’ibanze ritandukanya umugore
n’umugabo, ni cyo gituma abantu benshi bagira isoni zo kuba bavuga ibijyana
na cyo byose mu ruhame. Ikindi kandi iyo uvuze igitsina, nk’umugabo ahita
yumva ubushobozi bwe bwo kubyara no gushimisha uwo bashakanye. Hari
abahita bumva rero bakojejwe isoni. “Impamvu yindi ituma ibintu byerekeza
ku gitsina bitavugwa, ni uko ari urugingo rw’umubiri abantu bose banyuramo
kugira ngo bagere ku isi”. Nyamara, ntibirubuza kuba urugingo mu zindi ngingo
nyinshi zigize umubiri. Impamvu ya nyuma ngo ni uko ibintu byose birebana
n’igitsina bidakwiriye kuvugwa kugira ngo nibigirwa ibanga bifashe abantu
kwitwara neza. Ibyo rero ni bimwe mu bindi bisubizo byinshi cyane byatanzwe.

Nyuma y’imyaka itanu, Kanyana ageze mu mwaka wa gatanu w’amashuri

yisumbuye, ari mu kiruhuko yagiye i Kigali gusura mubyara we Kayitesi. Bwari
ubwa mbere akandagiye mu murwa mukuru w’ u Rwanda. Akigera Nyabugogo
yavuye mu modoka, atangazwa n’ibimodoka byinshi kandi binini yabonaga mu
kigo abagenzi bategeramo imodoka, amazu menshi kandi agerekeranye, ndetse
n’uruvunganzoka rw’abantu. Mu gihe yari agitangarira ubwo budasa bwa
Kigali, yagiye kumva, yumva umuntu amukozeho. Akebutse abona ni Muneza.
Amukubise amaso amarira y’ibyishimo amutemba ku matama. Kumuhobera
biramugora. Muneza na we abura uko agenza, ahugira mu kumuhoza. Kanyana
amaze gucururuka ahobera Muneza n’urukumbuzi rwinshi.

Muneza we yari yararangije amashuri yisumbuye, afite akazi. Yahise ajya

kumugurira fanta. Baricara baraganira biyibutsa ikiganiro bagiranye ku
buzima bw’imyororokere. Kanyana amutekerereza uburyo imihindagurikire
y’umubiriwe yamubereye ikigeragezo ko hari abamubwiraga ko ibyo bimubaho
byose ari uko adakora imibonano mpuzabitsina. Muneza yamubwiye ko abo ari
abashakaga kumushuka.

Amusobanurira ko ibyo ari ibihe umukobwa wese agomba gucamo, bikaba ari

na cyo kimenyetso cy’uko ubuzima bwe bw’imyororokere ari nta makemwa.
Bamaze gusangira fanta, Kanyana yashimiye Muneza uburyo amwakiriye
n’uburyo atahwemye kumufasha gusobanukirwa n’ibyo yibazaga ku buzima
bw’imyororokere. Muneza na we yafashe umwanya amushimira ubutwari yagize
bwo guhangana no kwitwara neza mu rugamba rw’imihindagurikire y’umubiri
n’uburyo yimye amatwi abashakaga kumushuka bitwaje iyo mihindagurikire
y’umubiri. Bahise bahaguruka, barahoberana nuko basezeranaho, Muneza
asubira mu kazi ke, Kanyana asubira mu kigo abagenzi bategeramo imodoka
gutegereza mubyara we ngo aze amufate.

Mu kanya gato, Kayitesi yahise amusesekaraho ari kumwe n’undi mukobwa

babana. Barahoberanye cyane maze bafata imodoka yerekeza Kimironko. Mu
nzira Kanyana yagendaga abaza utubazo twinshi tw’amatsiko: - -

- Iriya nzu nini yizengurutsa itatse amabara, bayita ngo iki?

-Iriya ni inyubako izwi cyane mu Rwanda no ku isi hose, yitwa inzu
mberabyombi ya Kigali (Kigali Convention Center).

Kanyana byaramutangaje cyane kuko yahise yibuka ko n’iwabo mu cyaro

iryo jambo barikoreshaga bashaka kuvuga ikintu gishya gifite ishusho
yiburungushuye.

Bageze ku Kimironko Kayitesi yamuteguriye amazi aroga, hanyuma bajya

ku meza bafata amafunguro. Iryo joro Kayitesi yararanye na Kanyana
arara amubaza amakuru yo mu cyaro. Yaboneyeho kumuhanura ko i Kigali
hadasanzwe, abakobwa bahaba bagomba kwitonda kandi bakagira amakenga.
-Muri iyi minsi mike tugiye kumarana uzitwararike, Kigali ni amahanga,
haba ibishuko n’ibigusha byinshi.
-Rwose nzitwararirika sinzajya mva mu rugo.

Bwarakeye Kayitesi ajya ku kazi, Kanyana asigarana na Teta umukobwa wabanaga

na Kayitesi. Teta yitegereje Kanyana abona uburyo ari umukobwa mwiza uteye
neza ariko amubwira ko hari akantu gato abura ngo abe umukobwa w’ihoho.
Kanyana yagize amatsiko yo kumenya ako kantu abura. Teta yamubwiye ko
agenda agaruka. Kanyana ayoberwa ibyo avuze. Teta amusobanurira ko ariko
nta matako n’ikibuno kinini afite. Ibyo byateye ipfunwe ryinshi Kanyana, bituma
ahora yireba ageraho abona ko ari byo koko. Nyuma yaje kubaza Teta uko we
yabigenje ngo agire amatako n’ikibuno kinini. Teta yaramusetse  aratembagara
ati: “Nta musore w’inshuti ugira?” Kanyana amubwira ko amufite. Undi ati:
“Ubwo se akumariye iki ko umuti ari we uwufite?”

Kanyana yakomeje kubitekerezaho ntiyumva icyo Teta ashaka kuvuga.

Yaramusobanuje undi ageraho aramwerurira amubwira ko ikibuno kizanwa
no gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina kandi kenshi!  Yahise atekereza kuzajya
kubibwira Muneza kugira ngo azamuhe kuri uwo muti. Ategura uko azagenda
Kayitesi atabimenye. Yinjiye mu modoka, akubitana na Kayitesi asohoka mu
modoka. Kayitesi amubajije aho agiye, amubeshya ko yasomye mu gitabo ahantu
bavuga ko gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina bituma umukobwa agira ikibuno
giteye neza. None akaba agiye kubibaza inshuti ye ikunda kumusobanurira
ibijyanye n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere. Mubyara we yahise yamaganira kure iyo
mitekerereze mibi aboneraho kumwumvisha ko imiterere ye nta ho imwaye.
Ahubwo ko abantu bose babwira Kayitesi ko Kanyana ateye neza. Yakomeje
amusaba kutishinga amabwire n’ibitekerezo byose asoma kandi akihutira kujya

Teta yakomeje kujya amushuka ngo amushore mu busambanyi, Kanyana

aramunanira. Yabonye ko amaherezo yazagwa mu mutego w’umushukanyi
ahitamo gusezerera ngo yisubirire iwabo mu cyaro. Yabwiye mubyara we ko
atashobokana na Teta kuko amutesha umutwe ashaka ku mushora mu ngeso
z’ubusambanyi. Kayitesi yicaza Teta amubwira ko izo ngeso ari mbi. Amwereka
ko zishobora no kumuzanira ingaruka mbi nko kurwara Sida n’izindi ndwara
zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina idakingiye ndetse no gusama inda
zitateganyijwe.

Kayitesi yahise afata umwanzuro wo kubaganiriza abashishikariza kujya
kwipimisha ngo bamenye uko bahagaze ku bijyanye n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere.
Bagezeyo basanze, Teta atwite na ho Kanyana ari mutaraga.

Teta yatangiye kugenda agira ubuzima bukomeye, burimo kurwaragurika no

gucika intege. Muri ubwo buzima bwose bukomeye Teta yari arimo Kayitesi
ntiyigeze amutererana, yakomeje kumwitaho agira ngo arengere umwana
atwite, abagenera indyo yuzuye n’ibindi byangombwa bifasha umubyeyi utwite
kugira ubuzima buzira umuze.

Nyuma y’ukwezi Kanyana yasubiye iwabo, anyura ku kazi kwa Muneza. Yongeye

kumwakirana ubwuzu, anamusaba ko narangiza kwiga azamubera inshuti
bazabana ubuzima bwose. Kanyana yafashe imodoka yerekeza iwabo mu cyaro
agenda atekereza kuri icyo kifuzo cya Muneza.

3.1.1. Gusoma no gusobanura umwandiko

Soma umwandiko “Amatsiko y’abato” ushakemo amagambo udasobanukiwe
hanyuma uyasobanure ukurikije inyito afite mu mwandiko wifashishije
inkoranyamagambo.

IMYITOZO

1. Uzurisha izi nteruro amagambo ukuye mu mwandiko.
a) Bimwe mu bimenyetso biranga umukobwa winjiye mu bwangavu
ni ukugira ........... mu maso.
b) Iyo abahungu babaye .................. batangira ................. ijwi.
c) Abantu bagenda buzuye umuhanda baba ari ..........................
d) Musoni giye i Kigali none iwabo babuze ............................. ke bararize
barihanagura.
2. Shaka impuzanyito z’amagambo akurikira yakoreshejwe mu
mwandiko.
a) Ibishishi
b) Ashavuye

3.1.2. Gusoma no kumva umwandiko
IGIKORWA

Ongera usome umwandiko “Amatsiko y’abato” maze usubize ibibazo
byawubajijweho.
1. Abakinankuru bavugwa mu mwandiko ni bande?
2. Abantu ntibakunda kuvugira mu ruhame ubuziama
bw’imyororokere. Tanga impamvu eshatu ziri mu mwandiko
zibihamya.
3. Mu mwandiko baratubwiramo umukobwa wari ufite amatsiko
yo kumenya ubuzima bwe bw’imyorororkere.
a) Ni bande bamufashije kuyashira. Ubibwirwa ni iki?
b) Ni bande bamurohaga aho kumugira inama? Sobanura uko
yamushukaga.
4. Ni izihe mpamvu zavuzwe mu mwandiko zishobora gutuma
abakobwa bagera mugihe cy’ubwangavu imburagihe?
5. Abangavu bafite ibintu by’ingenzi biranga ko bageze mu kindi
kiciro cy’ubukure. Ibyo bintu ni ibihe byavuzwe mu mwandiko?
6. Ingaruka zagera ku ngimbi n’abangavu badasobanukiwe neza
n’ubuzima bw’imyorororkere ni izihe. Sobanura izo ngaruka
wifashishije urugero rw’uwo byabayeho wavuzwe mu mwandiko.

III.1.3. Gusoma no sesengura umwandiko

IGIKORWA

Ongera usome umwandiko “Amatsiko y’abato” maze usubize ibibazo
bikurikira:

1. Tanga ingingo z’ingenzi zibanzweho muri  uyu mwandiko.
2. Ni ngombwa kubwira abantu ibijyane n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere
bakiri bato. Sobanura byimbitse.
3. Ingamba abangavu n’ingimbi bagomba gufata kugira ngo
hakomeze kurinda ubuzima bwabo kwandura indwara zandurira
mu mibonano mpuzabitsina ni izihe?
4. Gereranya imyitwarire ya bamwe mu abakinankuru n’ubuzima
busanzwe bw’aho utuye.

III.2. Inkuru ndende

3.2.1. Inshoza n’uturango  by’inkuru n’uko  basesengura
inkuru ndende
IGIKORWA
Ongera usome umwandiko “Amatsiko y’abato” witegereza imiterere
yawo, uko abakinankuru bateye n’uko ibarankuru riteye maze ukore
ubushakashatsi utahure inshoza n’uturango by’inkuru ndende. Uhereye
ku turango  tw’inkuru  ndende,  tahura  uko  wasesengura inkuru  ndende.

1. Inshoza y’inkuru ndende

Inkuru ndende nk’uko iryo zina ribivuga ni inkuru iba ari ndende, ibarwa
n’umubarankuru uvuga uko yagenze. Bamwe mu basesenguzi b’inkuru
ndende bayivuga berekana ko igomba kuvuga ibyabayeho ndetse umwanditsi
akavuga ubuzima bwe; ibyamubayeho. Abandi bati: “Igomba kuba ari inkuru
y’impimbano n’ubwo ibyo ivuga byashobora kubaho.” Igihurirwaho na benshi ni
uko inkuru ndende igomba kuba ifite inkuru ibara, uruhererekane rw’ibikorwa.
Ibi, babishimangira bagira bati: “Inkuru ndende ni uruhererekane rw’ibikorwa
mpimbano bishobora kubaho cyangwa byabayeho, ikaba ifite imisusire ya
gihanga kandi nyabugeni igaragaza ko umwanditsi ari intyoza mu kubara
inkuru, mu kuyiha imiterere myiza y’ibikorwa no kubikurikiranya.”

2. Uturango tw’inkuru ndende

Inkuru ndende irangwa n’imiterere ndetse n’imyubakire byayo. Inkuru ndende
irangwa kandi no kuba ishobora gukorerwa ishushanyabikorwa.

a) Imiterere y’inkuru ndende

Inkuru ndende  iba ifite ibi bikurikira:  ikivugwa mu nkuru, abanyarubuga,
ibarankuru, akabugankuru, ibikorwa, umugendo  w’inkuru, uburebure n’ahantu. -

Ikivugwa mu nkuru ndende

Ingingo abanditsi b’inkuru ndende bavugaho ni nyinshi kandi ziratandukanye
kimwe n’izo dusanga mu zindi ngeri z’ubuvanganzo. Mu nkuru ndende
dusangamo urukundo rudasibangana, urukundo rwa bugigi, uburere n’umuco
wa kera bitajya imbizi n’uburere n’umuco by’ubu, poritiki n’ubutegetsi, ubwenge
bw’indushyi, uburaya n’ubwomanzi, iyimukacyaro, ubuhemu, ubugome, ishyari,
inzangano, amoko, urupfu rutunamura icumu, ubusabane mu bantu, ubukene
n’ubujiji, inkuru ndende zivuga ku bukoroni…

Abakinankuru (abanyarubuga)
Mu nkuru ndende haba umukinankuru mukuru ushobora kuba umwe
cyangwa babiri. Umukinankuru mukuru ni we uba ari ipfundo ry’inkuru. Ni we
ikigamijwe cyangwa intego y’inkuru iba ishingiyeho.

Hari kandi n
’abakinankuru bungirije. Aba ni bo usanga mu nkuru bamufasha
kugera ku kigamijwe cyangwa bakamubera imbogamizi. Aba bakinankuru
kandi ni na bo usanga insanganyamatsiko nto cyangwa zungirije zishingiyeho.
Mu nkuru ndende kandi dusangamo cyangwa dushobora gusangamo
abakinankuru ntagombwa, aba bakinankuru iyo urebye usanga kuba mu
nkuru kwabo cyangwa kutagaragaramo nta cyo byahindura ku kivugwa mu
nkuru. Nta nsanganyamatsiko iba ibashingiyeho. Mu yandi magambo twabita
indorerezi.

-Ibarankuru

Hari ubwoko bubiri bw’ibarankuru: ibarankuru ribwira n’ibarankuru ryerekana.
Mu nkuru ndende dushobora gusangamo ubwo bwoko bwombi bw’ibarankuru.

Ibarankuru ribwira:  ni igihe umubarankuru agaragara mu nkuru, maze

uyisoma akamenya ko inkuru ifite uyibara. Ibarankuru ribwira ryibanda ku
gukoresha inshamake maze ibyamaze igihe kirekiere bikavugwa mu gihe gito.

Ibarankuru ryerekana
: ryo rikoreshwa mu gihe inkuru yigaragaza ubwayo mu
buryo butaziguye, nta mubarankuru ubyivanzemo. Turisanga mu makinamico,
aho ibikorwa bigaragazwa n’abanyarubuga ubwabo.
Mu ibarankuru dusangamo kandi  indebero. Indebero ni uburyo bugaragaza
uko umubarankuru abona ibyo inkuru imenyekanisha. Hari indebero
mbonabyose, indebero mbonankubone n’indebero mbonabihita.

Indebero mbonabyose
: ni iy’umubarankuru ubona byose, ibyigaragaza
n’ibitigaragaza, ibintu ndengakamere hamwe n’ibibera ahantu umuntu
adashobora kugera. Usanga avuga ibibera henshi icyarimwe nk’aho biba
ahibereye hose ku isaha imwe. Nta na kimwe kimwisoba. Asa n’ufite ububasha
nk’ubw’Imana. Aba azi byose: ari ibyo abanyarubuga batekereza, ari ibyo
bahishe, imbamutima zabo, mbese aba abazi kurusha uko biyizi. Iyi ndebero
ni yo ikunze gukoreshwa. Ikunze kugaragara mu nkuru ibaze muri ngenga ya
gatatu.

Indebero y’imbonankubone
: ni imenyekanisha gusa ibyo umunyarubuga
runaka areba cyangwa yiyumvisha. Iyo ndebero imenyekanisha ibiri aho
umunyarubuga ageza ibyumviro. Umubarankuru aba azi ibingana n’ibyo
abanyarubuga cyangwa abakinankuru bazi, akitwa ko arebera imbere mu
nkuru. Iyi ndebero tuyisanga ahanini mu nkuru zibaze muri ngenga ya mbere,
aho umubarankuru aba ari n’umunyarubuga.

Indebero mbonabihita
: ni imenyekanisha gusa ibigaragara n’ibivugwa nta
guca hirya, isura y’ibintu, y’abanyarubuga, uko bitwara mu mvugo no mu
ngiro. Muri iyi ndebero, bisa n’aho ibyinshi abanyarubuga ari bo babyivugira,
umubarankuru agasa n’ugenda yuzuriza binyuze mu bisa n’intekerezo ku
bivuzwe n’abanyarubuga. Ikunze kuboneka mu nkuru za giporisi.

Mu myandikire y’inkuru, umwanditsi ahuza umwanya w’umubarankuru mu

nkuru n’indebero kugira ngo abibyaze ikintu gifite icyo kivuze ku musomyi.
Ibyo bituma ababarankuru bashyirwa mu byiciro by’ingenzi bikurikira:

Umubarankuru ashobora kubara inkuru na we ubwe akinamo. Ni muri urwo

rwego usanga akoresha ngenga ya mbere, akitwa umubarankuru wo mu mbere.

Umubarankuru ashobora kubara inkuru ari hanze yayo. Aha usanga akoresha

ngenga ya gatatu asa n’uvuga ibintu yareberaga iruhande mu gihe byabaga,
akitwa umubarankuru wo hanze.

Umubarankuru ashobora kubara inkuru ye ubwe akaba n’umunyarubuga

mukuru. Ni muri urwo rwego usanga akoresha ngenga ya mbere kuko ibyo
avuga aba abivuga kuri we.  Uyu mubarankuru yitwa umumenyabanga.

Ikitonderwa:

Umubarankuru atandukanye n’umwanditsi w’inkuru. Umwanditsi w’inkuru ni
umuhanzi wanditse inkuru ibarwa mu gitabo ke. Muri uko kwandika inkuru ye
agena uburyo ibarwa. Muri ubwo buryo ibarwamo haba hari umuntu ugenda
uyibara, uwo akaba ari we mubarankuru. Cyakora hari igihe umwanditsi
ashobora kuba ari na we mubarankuru igihe abara inkuru y’ubuzima bwe.-

Ibikorwa
Ibikorwa mu nkuru ndende bishingira ku bakinankuru cyane cyane ku
mukinankuru mukuru. We n’abakinankuru bungirije bashinzwe kuyobora
imigendekere y’ibikorwa byo mu nkuru kugeza ku ndunduro y’inkuru. Bamwe
barema imbaraga zimufasha kugera ku ntego umwanditsi w’inkuru aba
yamuhaye.

Nk’uko abasesenguzi b’inkuru ndende babyemeza, inkuru ndende iyo ari yo

yose irangwa no kuba ishobora gukorerwa ishushanyabikorwa.

Umugendo w’inkuru

Ushingiye ku migaragarire n’ikurikirana ry’ibikorwa bivugwa mu nkuru,
hashobora kubaho inkuru yubakiye ku bikorwa by’umujyo umwe, ibikorwa
by’urusobe n’ibikorwa bihagitse mu bindi.

Ibikorwa by’umujyo umwe

Iyo inkuru igaragaza ibikorwa by’umukinankuru umwe kuva mu ntangiriro
kugeza ku iherezo. Ikurikiza umurongo mbonera w’ibarankuru. Iyi nsobeko
itsitse ikunze gukoreshwa mu nkuru ngufi.

Ibikorwa by’urusobe

Ni igihe  mu nkuru  harimo ikwikira.  Iri kwikira riba rigizwe n’ibikorwa byinshi
bisobekeranye ariko bifitanye isano. Umusomyi aba ashobora gukurikirana
inkuru z’abakinankuru benshi ariko zifite aho zihurira cyangwa usanga
amaherezo yabo aba amwe. Inkuru ifite abakinankuru benshi ikunze no kugira
umugendo ugizwe n’ibikorwa by’urusobe. Urugero ni nko mu ikinamico
y’urudaca Urunana.

Ibikorwa bihagitse

Ni ukwinjiza ibindi bikorwa bitari iby’ingenzi mu bikorwa by’ibanze, urugero
nk’aho umukinankuru agera aho akabara inkuru y’ibyamubayeho cyangwa
agatanga ubuhamya. Ibyo binatuma uburyo n’urwego rw’ibarankuru bihinduka,
inkuru y’ibanze ikabarwa n’umubarankuru mukuru, naho inkuru zihagitse mu
nkuru y’ibanze zikabarwa n’abandi babarankuru bashobora kuba bamwe mu
bakinankuru.

-
Uburebure
Inkuru ndende nk’uko izina ryayo ribigaragaza, irangwa no kuba ari ndende
koko (akenshi hagati y’impapuro ijana  na magana abiri mirongo itanu). Kuba
hari uburyo ibikorwa bikurikirana kandi bigenda bitera amatsiko usoma
ku buryo atarambirwa n’uburebure bwayo. Uburebure bw’inkuru ndende
kandi bugaragarira mu inyuranamo ry’inkuru nyinshi zitadukanye kandi
ritarambirana.-

Akabugankuru (Ahantu)

Inkuru ndende kandi irangwa no kuba ifite aho ibarirwa; ni ukuvuga akabugankuru.
Mu nkuru ndende akabugankuru gashobora kuba kazwi cyangwa ari agahimbano.
Iyo uwandika inkuru avuga ibyabaye ashobora no kuvuga mu by’ukuri aho
byabereye hazwi. Iyo abara inkuru y’ibitarabayeho, cyakora bishobora kubaho
mu buzima rusange, ashobora gukoresha akabugankuru mpimbano; akavuga
ibintu byabereye ahantu runaka ariko hatazwi ku ikarita y’isi.

b) Imyubakire y’inkuru ndende

Inkuru ndende irangwa no kuba hari ikivugwa, kuba ari ndende no kuba hari uburyo
ibikorwa bikurikirana kandi bigenda bitera amatsiko usoma ku buryo atarambirwa
gusoma inkuru ibarwa. Ibikorwa mu kubara inkuru mu nkuru ndende
biba bishingiye ku bakinankuru, cyanecyane ku mukinankuru mukuru.
Umukinankuru mukuru n’abakinankuru bungirije bashinzwe kuyobora
imigendekere y’ibikorwa byo mu nkuru kugeza ku mpera yayo.

c) Ishushanyabikorwa mu nkuru ndende

Inkuru ndende iyo ari yo yose irangwa no kuba ishobora gukorerwa
ishushanyabikorwa.
Abakinnyi b’imena bafatanyije n’abungirije bayobora imigendekere y’ibikorwa
mu nkuru ndende kugeza ku ndunduro y’inkuru. Bityo mu nkuru ndende
umusesenguzi ashobora gushushanya ibikorwa yifashishije igishushanyo

giteye gitya:

Nyiri ubwite: uyu ni we mukinankuru mukuru inkuru iba ishingiyeho, ni we
uba ufite intego agamije kugeraho muri iyo nkuru. Aba ashobora kuyigeraho
cyangwa ntayigereho.

Ikigamijwe
: ni icyo umukinankuru mukuru aba agamije kugeraho mu nkuru.
Ni intego aba yahawe n’umwanditsi w’inkuru.

Ugenera:
ni igituma umukinankuru mukuru agira intego afite muri iyo nkuru.
Ashobora kuba undi mukinankuru cyangwa ikindi kintu gishobora gutuma
agera ku ntego runaka.

Ugenerwa
: mu yandi magambo ni nyiri inyungu; ni uwo ari we wese mu nkuru
wagira icyo yunguka mu gihe umukinankuru mukuru ageze ku cyo yari agamije
mu nkuru.

Abafasha:
ni abakinankuru cyangwa ikindi kintu gishobora, mu nkuru, gutuma
umukinankuru mukuru agera ku cyo yari agamije, cyangwa ikigerageza
kumushyigikira mu rugendo rwe rwose kimufasha, kabone n’iyo atakigeraho
mu irangira ry’inkuru.

Imbogamizi:
ni abakinankuru cyangwa ikindi kintu gishobora, mu nkuru,
gutuma umukinankuru mukuru atagera ku cyo yari agamije, cyangwa
ikigerageza kumubangamira mu rugendo rwe rwose kimubuza amahirwe
kabone n’iyo yagera ku cyo yari agamije mu irangira ry’inkuru, ariko kikaba
cyamubangamiraga.

3. Imisesengurire y’inkuru ndende

Muri rusange abasesengura inkuru ndende bibanda kuri ibi bikurikira:
ikivugwa mu nkuru, abanyarubuga, ibarankuru, akabugankuru, ibikorwa,
umugendo w’inkuru, uburebure n’ahantu. Ibi bigakorwa hakurikijwe amahange
n’amahame y’ingenzi akoreshwa mu gusesengura umwandiko w’ubuvanganzo
muri rusange.

Usesenngura inkuru agomba kugaragaza ishushanyabikorwa ry’inkuru.

Usesengura inkuru agomba kandi:

- gutahura inyigisho irimo n’indangagaciro zigaragara mu nkuru kuko
buri nkuru cyangwa buri gihangano cy’ubuvanganzo kiba gikubiyemo
inyigisho n’indangagaciro runaka, ni ngombwa ko usesengura inkuru
abigaragaza;
- gukora inshamake yayo, igaragazamo iby’ingenzi bivugwamo;
kugaragaza ubuzima bw’umwanditsi w’inkuru ndetse n’ibindi bihangano bye.

IMYITOZO

1. Tandukanya inkuru ndende n’inkuru ngufi ushingiye ku turango
twazo.
2. Jya mu isomero, ushakemo igitabo kirimo inkuru ndende,
uyisome kandi uyisesengure ukurikije uko inkuru isesengurwa.

III.3. Umwandiko: Twite ku buzima

Tugomba kubungabunga ubuzima bwacu kuko ari yo mpano iruta izindi dufite.
Umuntu udafite ubuzima buzira umuze ntashobora gukorera igihugu ngo gitere
imbere. Hari indwara nyinshi zishobora kwangiza ubuzima bwacu zaba iziterwa
n’udukoko, izinjirira mu myanya y’ubuhumekero, mu myanya ndangagitsina,
mu maraso, ku ruhu, n’izindi. Aha turibanda ku ndwara zandurira mu myanya
ndangagitsina ari zo : uburagaza, imitezi,na mburugu.

Uburagaza ni indwara yandurira mu myanya ndangagitsina, ikarangwa

n’udusebe tuza kuri iyo myanya, mu mayasha cyangwa mu kabuno.

Bitangira ari agaheri buhorobuhoro bikaza kuvamo ibisebe bifite impande

zishwanyaguye kandi binuka. Uburagaza bugira ingaruka nyinshi nko gucika
k’umuyoboro w’inkari, kwihagarika bigoranye cyangwa kwihagarika nta
gitangira.

Imitezi  na yo ni indwara ikomeye irangwa no kubabara igihe umuntu anyara,

kugira umuriro n’isesemi, kubabara igihe ukora imibonano mpuzabitsina
no kuzana ururenda rumeze nk’amashyira mu gitsina. Iyo umugore utwite
atayivuje ayanduza umwana akaba yavuka ahumye, kimwe n’uko ishobora
gutera izindi ndwara nk’umutima n’umwijima.

Indi ndwara ikunze kugaragara ni mburugu, ikaba irangwa n’uduheri tuza

ku gitsina, mu ntoki, mu kanwa cyangwa mu kabuno. Utu dusebe dushobora
kwikiza ariko ntibe ivuye mu mubiri. Nyuma y’igihe umuntu atangira kokera,
kubabara umutwe, kubabara anyara, kuryaryatwa mu kirenge, kubabara
ingingo, n’ibindi. Iyo itavuwe neza itera umutima, kugagara ibice by’umubiri,
no guta ubwenge.

Uretse izi ndwara, tuzi ko mu mibonano mpuzabitsina na SIDA yanduriramo ku

kigereranyo cyo hejuru. Uko byagenda kose, ubusambanyi bwaba bukozwe ku
ngufu cyangwa ku bushake bushobora gutera kwandura izi ndwara z’ibikatu
twavuze. Niba dushaka kugira ubuzima bwiza, tugomba kugendera kure
imyifatire idushora mu ngeso mbi z’ubusambanyi.

Kumenya izina ry’indwara rero si byo by’ingenzi, ik’ingenzi ni ukumenya

ibimenyetso byerekana indwara no kwihutira kwivuza. Kutivuza neza kandi
hakiri kare izo ndwara bigira ingaruka nyinshi kandi mbi zirimo ubugumba
kuko zonona kandi zikaziba imiyoborantanga y’umugabo cyangwa umugore
bityo intanga zikaba zabura aho zinyura, gukuramo inda kenshi, kubyara abana
banduye izo ndwara, gutwitira inyuma y’umura, gukubita igihwereye, gupfa
amaso ku bana bavukanye izo ndwara igihe batavujwe hakiri kare, kanseri
y’inkondo y’umura, gucika igitsina, urupfu mu gihe utivuje neza. Izo ndwara
kandi zitera umwiryane n’ubukene bukabije mu rugo.

Niba uburyo bwo kwandura izo ndwara na Sida ari bumwe n’uburyo bwo

kuzirinda ni bumwe. Nta bundi rero dukomere ku mugenzo mbonera w’ubusugi,

ubumanzi.

Bifatiye kuri: MINISANTE: Indwara z’ibyorezo ,2015

3.3.1. Gusoma no gusobanura umwandiko
Soma umwandiko “Twite ku buzima”, ushakemo amagambo udasobanukiwe
hanyuma uyasobanure ukurikije inyito afite mu mwandiko wifashije
inkoranyamagambo.
Koresha amagambo akurikira mu nteruro wihimbiye:
a) Amayasha
b) Imiyoborantanga
c) Ubusugi
d) Kwirinda

d) Imyanya ndangagitsina.

UMWITOZO
3.3.2. Gusoma no Kumva umwandiko
IGIKORWA

Ongera usome umwandiko “Twite ku buzima”, hanyuma usubize ibibazo
bikurikira.

1. Indwara z’ibikatu zavuzwe mu mwandiko ni izihe?
2.      Indwara twabonye mu mwandiko zihuriye kuki?
3. Umuntu ufite ubuzima buzira umuze ashobora gukorera igihugu
ke? Sobanura.
4. Ese kumenya amazina y’indwara ni byo by’ingenzi? Sobanura.
5. Ni izihe ngaruka umuntu ahura na zo iyo yishoye mu busambanyi
akandura indwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina?
6.   Ni ubuhe buryo bwo kwirinda indwara zandurira mu myanya

ndangagitsina bwavuzwe mu mwandiko

3.3.3. Gusoma no gusesengura umwandiko
IGIKORWA

Ongera usome umwandiko “Twite ku buzima”, hanyuma usubize ibibazo
bikurikira.

1. Uyu mwandiko ugusigiye iki?
2. Ni izihe ngingo z’ingenzi zigaragara muri uyu mwandiko?
3. Huza umwandiko “Twite ku buzima” n’ubuzima busanzwe.
4. Ni iyihe nama wagira abantu batinya kwivuza indwara zandurira

mu mibonano mpuzabitsina?

III.4. Inzira z’itondagura nshinga
3.4.1.  Indango,  ijyana n’irebero
IGIKORWA
Soma interuro zikurikira witegereza imiterere y’inshinga zitsindagiye
hanyuma ukore ubushakashatsi utahure inshoza y’itondaguranshinga,
indango, ijyana n’irebero by’inshinga.

a) Kanyana
yakomeje kurererwa kwa nyirasenge.
b) Kanyana ntiyabwirizwaga kwiyitaho.
c) Rubyiruko, mwirinde gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina.

Mutegereze kugeza igihe muzashingira ingo zanyu.

Inshoza y’itondanguranshinga
Itondaguranshinga ni imihindagurikire y’inshinga mu buryo n’ibihe byayo muri
ngenga zose. Inshinga itondaguye ni igaragaza ukora igikorwa, igihe agikorera
n’uburyo agikora. Muri rusange itondaguranshinga ni ukuntu inshinga ihindura

intego (uturemajambo) yihwanya n’indango, ijyana, irebero n’uburyo.

1. Indango z’inshinga
Indango ni ubwumvane buba hagati ya nyakuvuga na nyakubwirwa ku buryo
nyakuvuga aba yemeza cyangwa ahakana ingingo ikubiye mu muzi w’inshinga.

Bityo rero habaho indango yemeza n’indango ihakana.

a) Indango yemeza
Ingero:
– Imitezi, mburugu n’uburagaza ni indwara zandurira mu myanya

ndagagitsina
– Kanyana aragenda.
– Teta ashuka kanyana.

b) Indango ihakana

Ingero:

– Kanyana na muneza ntibakomeje kuganira
– Kayitesi ati: “Sinshobora gukora imibonano mpuzabitsina imburagihe”.
Ntimuzashukwe n’ababashora mu ngeso mbi.

– Amubaza impamvu atishimye

2. Ijyana
Ijyana ni ukuntu inshinga itondaguye ikenera icyuzuzo cyangwa se inshinga
ntikenere icyuzuzo kugira ngo insobanuro yayo yuzure. Habaho amoko abiri

y’ijyana ari yo: Ijyana nyacyuzuzo n’ijyana ndekacyuzuzo.

a) Ijyana nyacyuzuzo
Ingero:

– Kanyana yagiye ku ishuri
– Atetse inyama.

– Abana barya imineke.

b) Ijyana ndekacyuzuzo

Ingero:

– Kanyana na Muneza basezeranyeho.
– Arasuzuzugura.

– Aba banyeshuri bariyubaha.

3. Irebero
Irebero ni ukuntu inshinga itondaguye mu buryo ubu n’ubu cyangwa mu gihe iki
n’iki yumvisha ko igikorwa cyarangiye cyangwa kitararangira. Mu Kinyarwanda
habaho amoko menshi y’irebero, muri yo twavuga irebero nkomeza n’irebero

nshize.

a) Irebero nkomeza
Irebero nkomeza rigaragaza ibitararangira mu gihe mvugiro. Rirangwa

n’imisozo -a, -aga, -ye.

Ingero:
Abanyeshuri basoma ibitabo.
basoma: ba-Ø-som-a, nta tegeko
Wasomaga ibitabo;
wasomaga: u-a-som-aga, u→w/-J

Uriya mugore ureba ahetse umwana; ahetse: a-Ø-hek-ye, k+y→ts

b) Irebero nshize
Irebero nshize rivuga ibyarangiye gukorwa cyangwa ibiri kuba mu gihe

cy’imvugiro. Iri rebero rirangwa cyanecyane n’umusozo -ye.

Ingero:
Mu gitondo natemye ibiti; natemye: n-a-tem-ye, nta tegeko.
Mu mwaka ushize abanyeshuri baratsinze; baratsinze: ba-a-ra-tsind

ye,a→Ø/-J, d+y→z

IMYITOZO
1. Hindura indango y’inshinga.
a) Nimwandike mutihuta
b) Umwana wararutse wamushukisha uduhendabana twonyine.
2. Tanga interuro irimo inshinga itondaguye:
a) Ijyana ndekacyuzuzo
b) Ijyana nyacyuzuzo
c) Irebero nshize

d) Irebero nkomeza

3.4.2. Uburyo bw’inshinga
IGIKORWA

Soma interuro zikurikira witegereza imiterere y’inshinga zitsindagiye
hanyuma ukore ubushakashatsi utahure uburyo  butandukanye  inshinga
itondagurwamo.

a) Kanyana  yakomeje kurererwa kwa nyirasenge.
b) Kanyana ntiyabwirizwaga kwiyitaho.
c) Umwana urya neza akabaho neza azana ibimenyetso
by’ubwangavu cyangwa by’ubugimbi hakiri kare.
d) Kanyana na Muneza basezeranyeho.

Inshoza y’uburyo  bw’inshinga
Uburyo ni ukuntu inshinga iba imeze. Uburyo ni ukuntu kandi inshinga igaragaza
mu ntego yayo imiterere y’ubwumvane iri hagati y’uvuga n’ubwirwa kimwe
n’uko uvuga yitwara mu magambo ye.  Uburyo bw’inshinga ni ubu bukurikira:
ikirango, imbundo, integeko, inyugo, ikigombero, inyifurizo, inziganyo  n’

insano.

1. Ikirango
Ikirango ni uburyo budashidikanya, buvuga igikorwa (cyangwa imimerere)
k’ihame, kemeza cyangwa gihakana. Indango yemeza y’ikirango nta
karemajambo kayiranga. Indango ihakana irangwa na nti- na si- . Imisozo

y’ikirango ni –a, -aga naye.

Ingero :
– Turiga isomo ry’ubuzima bw’imyororokere.
Ntidutema ibiti bikiri bito.
– Ejo nasomaga inkuru isekeje.
Sinkora ibyo bambujije.

– Kanyana yagiye i Kigali gusura mubyara we Kayitesi.

2. Integeko
Integeko ni uburyo bw’inshinga butanga itegeko. Mu buryo butanga itegeko
rero habamo integeko ubwayo hakaba n’intarengwa.

Integeko
: iboneka muri ngenga ya kabiri y’ubumwe ikarangwa n’uko nta

ndanganshinga iba igaragaza.

Iyo nta mpagike (inyibutsacyuzuzo) irimo, integeko igira umusozo –a.

Ingero:
- Vuga inshamake y’inkuru wasomye
- Andika inkuru ndende ku nsanganyamatsiko wihitiyemo.

Iyo harimo impagike integeko igira umusozo –e

Ingero:
- Bivuge neza uko byagenze.
- Mwandikire ibaruwa.

Intarengwa:
ni integeko ihakana ivuga ibibujijwe. Iboneka muri ngenga ya
kabiri y’ubumwe n’iy’ubwinshi. Irangwa n’akaremajambo k’impakanyi –i-
kaboneka imbere y’umuzi utangiwe n’ingombajwi n’impakanyi -i-ku- iboneka

imbere y’umuzi utangiwe n’inyajwi. Umusozo w’intarengwa uhora ari –a.

Ingero:
Wivuga inkuru utahagazeho.  u-i-Ø-vug-a,
Mwishuka abangavu ku birebana n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere.   mu-i
Ø-beshy-a   u→w/-J)
Wikwandika nabi ibyo wasabwe. u-i-ku- Ø-andik-a,
Mwikwambuka ngo muge mu Mujyi wa Kigali: mu-i-ku- Ø-amb-uk-a

u→w/-J).

3. Inyungo
Uburyo bw’inyungo ni ubuvuga igikorwa gikurika ikindi gikorwa. Mu
ndango yemeza nta karemajambo kihariye kaburanga, ariko mu ndango
ihakana burangwa n’akaremajambo –ta-. Mu ndango zombi kandi hashobora

gukoreshwamo imisozo –a, -aga, -ye.

Ingero:
- Amusanga mu nzira ahagaze.

- Yagiye atamuhaye ibyo guteka.

4. Imbundo
Imbundo ni uburyo bw’inshinga bukoresha indanganteko imwe ikunze kwitwa
iy’izina ryo mu nteko ya 15 (-ku-) ikagira n’umusozo -a. Uburyo bw’imbundo
buvuga igikorwa cyangwa imimerere hatagaragazwa uwo bivugwaho. Ubu
buryo buboneka mu ndango yemeza n’ihakana bushobora no kuboneka mu

nzagihe.

Ingero: kuvuga: ku- Ø-vug-a kutavuga: ku-ta- Ø-vug-a kuzavuga: ku-za-vug-a..

5. Ikigombero
Ikigombero ni uburyo bw’inshinga buvuga igikorwa gishingiye ku kifuzo.

Ikigombero kivuga igikorwa ngombwa kuko kifujwe.

Ingero:
- Namubwiye ngo avuge amakuru yakuye mu itorero.
- Nagende yihane kujya ashuka abana bato.
- Ndagira ngo utahe

Ikigombero gitandukanye n’integeko irimo impagike kuko integeko yo nta

ndanganshinga iba ifite.

Ingero:
bivuge: Ø-Ø- bi-vug-e (integeko)

Ubivuge: u- Ø-bi-vug-e (ikigombero)

6.  Inziganyo
Inziganyo ni uburyo buvuga igikorwa kibaho habaye ikindi. Ni ukuvuga
igikorwa cyashoboka haramutse habaye ikindi gikorwa. Inziganyo itondagurwa
mu ndagihe no mu nzagihe. Inziganyo irangwa n’akaremajambo –a- imbere

y’umuzi utangiwe n’ingombajwi na –a-ku- imbere y’umuzi utangiwe n’inyajwi.

Ingero:
Mukoranye umwete mwakira vuba. mu-a-kir-a
Mbonye ubushobozi nakwiga.   n-a-ku-ig-a     u→w/-J
Ubonye umwanya wazadusura.  u-a-zaa-tu-sur-a u→w/-J;   t →d/-GR
Mukurikije inama z’ababyeyi ntimwahura n’ingorane. nti-mu-a-hur-a

Nûutaahâ ndaaza.

7. Inyifurizo
Inyifurizo ni uburyo buvuga icyo umuntu yiyifuriza cyangwa yifuriza undi
(nyakubwirwa cyangwa nyakuvugwa).

Hashobora kwifuzwa ibyiza cyangwa ibibi. Kwifuza ibibi ni ugutukana.

Inyifurizo irangwa n’uturemajambo dukurikira:
-ka-, -ra-ka-, -ra-, -oo-ka/-aa
ka. Umusozo ushobora kuba  -a cyangwa -e.

Ingero

- ka-: kabyare: Ø- ka-byar-e, gaheke: Ø- ka-hek-e    k →g/-GR
-
ra-ka: muragakira: mu-ra-ka-kir-a   k →g/-GR; murakarama: mu-ra-ka-ram-a
-ra
-: muragwire: mu-ra-gwir-e
-oo-ka/-aa-ka: mwokabyara mwe: mu-oo-ka-byar-a u→w/-J;

8. Inkurikizo

Inkurikizo ni uburyo bwumvisha igikorwa cyose gikurikira ikimaze kuvugwa.

Ingero:
- Umwana urya neza, akabaho neza azana ibimenyetso bw’ubwangavu
hakiri kare. -
- Arahinga, akavoma, agatashya.

9. Insano

Insano ari na yo nsobanuzi ni uburyo bw’inshinga burangwa no gusobanura
ikivugwa. Inshinga itondaguye muri ubu buryo ikurikira izina ry’ikintu

isobanura.

Ingero:
- Umurimo dushinzwe tuwukorane umwete.

- Imirima bahinga ni iyabo.

IMYITOZO
Ubaka interuro ukoresha  uburyo bw’inshinga  bukurikira: ikirango,
imbundo, inziganyo n’integeko.

III.5.Umwitozo w’ubushobozi ngiro bw’umunyeshuri
Ugendeye ku nshoza no ku turango tw’inkuru ndende, himba agace k’inkuru
ndende ku nsanganyamatsiko y’ubuzima bw’imyororokere n’ubwoko
bw’inkuru wihitiyemo ku buryo uzayisomera bagenzi bawe mu ruhame. Inkuru
yawe ntirenze impapuro makumyabiri kandi ntige no munsi y’ipapuro icumi.
Kubera ko uraba uhimbye agace  k’inkuru, kora ku buryo  inkuru yawe undi
muntu cyangwa wowe ubwawe ushobora kuyikomeza.

Ubu nshobora:

- Gusesengura inkuru ndende ntahura isomo n’indangagaciro zirimo,
uturango twayo, ubwoko bwayo, imyubakire yayo ndetse nkagaragaza
n’ishushanyabikorwa ryayo.
- Gutahura ubuzima bw’umwanditsi w’inkuru, guhina no kwandika
inkuru ndende.
- Kubarira abandi inkuru ndende nasomye.
Kugaragaza uburyo, indango, ijyana n’irebero by’inshinga.

Ubu ndangwa:

- No kuba nakora ubushakashatsi nkaba nafata umwanya wo gusobanurira
abandi ibijyanye n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere ndetse nkayibabwira
abandi.

- Gusoma inkuru ndende nkayisesengura kandi nkabarira abandi

ibiyirimo.
Gushishikariza abandi gusoma inkuru ndende zinyuranye, kuzisesengura

no kuzibara.

III.6. Isuzuma risoza umutwe wa gatatu
Umwandiko: Rubyiruko twirinde

Umugabo Terimbere yabyirutse avuga ko azabyara akuzuza isi. Ugira ngo se
Terimbere yari muntu ki ko atagiraga n’urwara rwo kwishima! Yari umutindi
urya aciye inshuro, yayibura agasonza. Yabaye imbata y’akabari kuva
akigimbuka, ijisho rye ntiritane no kwifuza abagore n’abakobwa b’imuhana.
Yabyariraga abakobwa, abagore bubatse ingo, ibintu bigacika ku buryo rubanda
rwari rwaramugize urw’amenyo. Aho ashakiye imvugo ayigira ingiro, arabyara
karahava. Abana be barakura baragimbuka, bakoma inkanda ya se; ngo nta
nyana yima nyina akabara! Imvugo ya se ibamera ku munwa, uvutse wese
akaba azi ko mu mishinga ibaho uwa mbere ari ukororoka akuzuza isi.

Umukobwa we Nagahire ariko yumvaga imvugo ya se n’abavandimwe be

idakwiye kuko isi dutuye itabitwemerera; amasambu yabaye ntayo, ubutaka
bwaragundutse; mbese muri make nta bushobozi buhagije ababyeyi bafite
bwo gutunga abo babyaye ku buryo buhagije. Ababyeyi be, bene nyina, basaza
be ndetse n’abaturanyi yahoraga iteka abashishikariza kumenya ubuzima
bw’imyororokere, kuringaniza urubyaro no kubyara abo bashoboye kurera
nyamara ugasanga aracurangira abahetsi.
Nagahire yari afite ubumenyi ku buzima bw’imyororokere, akamenya
kwitwararika. Yari yifitemo kandi impano yo gukangurira abantu b’ingeri zose
abana, ingimbi, abangavu, abasore n’inkumi, abagore b’amajigija, abagabo
b’ibikwerere, abasaza n’abakecuru, uko bagomba kwitwara ngo birinde indwara
zandurira mu myanya ndangagitsina nka Sida, imitezi, mburugu, uburagaza
n’izindi.

Abavandimwe ba Nagahire ntibumviraga inama ze na mba. Bavugaga ko Sida

ari indwara nk’izindi. Ibyo byatumye bamwe muri bo bayandura, irabakenesha,
irabahemuza, ibatesha agaciro, bafumbira umunaba bakiri bato. Abari basigaye
na bo utaretse na se Terimbere, bari ba nyakwigendera. Ntibari bakibona
n’imirondorondo y’ibijumba ngo babeshye mu nda. Abari baraboroje inka na
bo bari barazisubije kubera ko batari bafite imbaraga zo kuzahirira ubwatsi.
Nagahire yarebaga ibyo byose bikamushavuza. Yigaga bimugoye ariko agashyiraho
umwete. Yaharaniraga kunguka ubumenyi buhagije mu bijyanye n’ubuzima
bw’imyororokere no kuzahugura abantu benshi bashoboka haba mu gihugu ke
ndetse no hanze yacyo.

Inzozi ze yarazikabije kuko bidatinze yabonye impamyabumenyi mu bijyanye

n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere. Nyuma y’igihe gito yatangiye kujya atanga ibiganiro
mu mahugurwa yo ku  byerekeye ubuzima. Ikiganiro cya mbere yagitanze mu
mahugurwa y’urubyiruko rwiga mu mashuri yisumbuye. Dore ibyo yabaganirije:
“Tubanze twimenye, tumenye ibice bigize umubiri wacu n’imikorere yabyo,
uko umubiri ushobora kwivumbura mu kigero runaka umuhungu akaniga
ijwi, akaba yatangira kwiroteraho ari cyo kimenyetso kigaragaza ko yaterera
inda imburagihe, akaba yamera ubwanwa, impwempwe, inshakwaha, agasesa
ibishishi, n’ibindi. Imihindagurikire y’umubiri w’umukobwa na yo igaragazwa no
kumera amabere, kubyibuha amatako n’ikibuno, kugira ibishishi mu maso, kujya
mu mihango ari na cyo kimenyetso kigaragaza ko ashobora gusama igihe akoze
imibonano mpuzabitsina idakingiye. Mu gihe rero abakobwa n’abahungu babonye
ibimenyetso nk’ibi by’imihindagurikire y’ubuzima bwabo, bagomba kumenya ko
ari ibimenyetso by’ubukure, bakirinda ibyateza ingaruka ku buzima bwabo. Uzi
gutangira kuzuza inshingano z’abakuru uri umwana! Uzi guhaha, gutanga indezo ku
mwana wabyaye kandi nta rwara rwo kwishima wigirira? Iyo noneho wishoye mu
mibonano mpuzabitsina nta gakingirizo, dore ngo Sida iragukacanga. Iyi ndwara
ntikangwa ngo uri iki, ngo usengera aha, ngo wize ibi, ngo ukora aha; abantu
batitwararika ngo bamenye kwirinda, irabakukumba ikababika iyo ngiyo, igihe
cyagera bakazima.”

Mu gusoza, Nagahire yaragize ati: “Mucyo rubyiruko twirinde kwiyandarika

turangwe no kwifata.  Kurya utw’ubusa, kwifuza ibyo tudafitiye ubushobozi,
kurarikira iby’abandi tukonona imibiri yacu tubizinukwe. Bana b’i Rwanda
twitegure kuba inkumburwa n’inyamibwa, tugendere ku ndangagaciro z’umuco

nyarwanda.

I. Ibibazo byo kumva no gusesengura umwandiko
1. Abana be barakura baragimbuka, bakoma inkanda ya se. Sobanura
ugendeye ku bivugwa mu mwandiko?
2. Rondora indwara zivugwa mu mwandiko zandurira mu mibonano
mpuzabitsina idakingiye.
3. Ni iki kigaragaza ko abavandimwe ba Nagahire batigeze bakurikiza inama
yabagiraga?
4. Garagaza ibimenyetso biranga ubwangavu n’ubugimbi.
5. Ni iyihe nsanganyamatsiko yavuzweho muri iyi nkuru?
6. Vuga ingingo z’ingenzi ziboneka muri uyu mwandiko.
7. Uretse kwandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsinda ni hehe handi uzi indwara

ya Sida ishobora kwandurira?

II. Ibibazo by’inyunguramagambo
1. Sobanura amagambo cyangwa itsinda ry’amagambo akurikira ukurIkije uko
yakoreshejwe mu mwandiko:
a) Bakoma inkanda
b) Gucurangira abahetsi
c) Imirondorondo y’ibijumba
d) Koroza.

2. Koresha  amagambo  akurikira mu  nteruro yumvikanisha  inyito afite mu

mwandiko:
a) Kugimbuka
b) Imbata
c) Guca inshuro
d) Kugunduka
e) Gukukumba

3. Simbuza ijambo cyangwa itsinda ry’amagambo atsindagiye yakoreshejwe

mu mwandiko impuzanyito zayo.
a) Abantu bapfuye bafumbiye umunaba bishwe na Sida ni benshi.
b) Uzi kurera umwana nta rwara rwo kwishima wigirira?
c) Kamana ntakibona umusaruro uhagije kubera ko ubutaka bwe

bwagundutse.

2. Sobanura mu magambo make inkuru ndende icyo ari cyo.
3. Rondora ibiranga inkuru ndende.
4. Ni irihe tandukaniro riri hagati y’inkuru ngufi n’inkuru ndende?

IV. Ibibizo by’ikibonezamvugo
1. Uburyo bushidikanya bugizwe n’iki? Burondore ugenda unatanga
urugero mu nteruro iboneye.
2. Kora interuro ebyiri ziboneye, imwe ifite inshinga iri mu ijyana
nyacyuzuzo irebero nkomeza, indi ifite ijyana ndekacyuzuzo irebero nshize.
UNIT 2: UMUCO NYARWANDA UMUTWE 4: KUBAKA UMUCO W’AMAHORO